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Sample records for lunar impact monitoring

  1. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  2. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  3. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  4. The Flux of Kilogram-Sized Meteoroids from Lunar Impact Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Suggs, Robert; Cooke, William; Suggs, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    The flashes from meteoroid impacts on the Moon are useful in determining the flux of impactors with masses as low as a few tens of grams. A routine monitoring program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has recorded over 300 impacts since 2006. A selection of 126 flashes recorded during periods of photometric skies was analyzed, creating the largest and most homogeneous dataset of lunar impact flashes to date. Standard CCD photometric techniques were applied to the video and the luminous energy, kinetic energy, and mass are estimated for each impactor. Shower associations were determined for most of the impactors and a range of luminous efficiencies was considered. The flux to a limiting energy of 2.5E-6 kT TNT or 1.05E7 J is 1.03E-7 km-2 hr-1 and the flux to a limiting mass of 30 g is 6.14E-10 m-2 yr-1 at the Moon. Comparisons made with measurements and models of the meteoroid population indicate that the flux of objects in this size range is slightly lower (but within error bars) than flux at this size f...

  5. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Liakos, Alexios; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panayotis; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Marousis, Athanassios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Noutsopoulos, Andreas; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Els, Sebastian; Koschny, Detlef; Lock, Tim; Navarro, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects via lunar monitoring. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years, starting in the Summer 2016, in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The project involves: (i) a complete refurbishment of the 40 year old 1.2m Kryoneri telescope of the National Observatory of Athens, (ii) development of a Lunar imager for the prime focus with two fast-frame sCMOS cameras, and (iii) procurement of servers for data processing and storage. Furthermore, we have developed a software system that controls the telescope and the cameras, processes the images and automatically detects lunar flashes. NELIOTA provides a web-based user interface, where the impact events, after their verification and characterization, will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The novelty of this project is the dedication of a large, 1.2m telescope for lunar monitoring, which is expected to characterize the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  6. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Research has successfully demonstrated a dry electrode (no electrolyte or gel required) for heart rate and ECG monitoring. Preliminary data has indicated...

  7. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanos, A Z; Boumis, P; Bellas-Velidis, I; Maroussis, A; Dapergolas, A; Fytsilis, A; Charmandaris, V; Tsiganis, K; Tsinganos, K

    2015-01-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar m...

  8. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A.S.; Wallace, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 m in diameter) was found to produce several problems with astronaut s suits and helmets, mechanical seals and equipment, and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent of the lunar module from the lunar surface to rendezvous with the command module, much of the major portions of the contaminating soil and dust began to float, irritating the astronaut s eyes and being inhaled into their lungs. Our goal has been to understand some of the properties of lunar dust that could lead to possible hazards for humans. Due to the lack of an atmosphere, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. In order to understand the possible toxic effects of the reactive dust, it is necessary to reactivate the dust, as samples returned during the Apollo missions were exposed to the atmosphere of the Earth. We have used grinding and UV exposure to mimic some of the processes occurring on the Moon. The level of activation has been monitored using two methods: fluorescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). These techniques allow the monitoring of hydroxyl radical production in solution. We have found that grinding of lunar dust produces 2-3 times the concentration of hydroxyl radicals as lunar simulant and 10 times that of quartz. Exposure

  9. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  10. Lunar origin from impact on the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    All theories of lunar origin involve events or processes which seemingly have low efficiencies or low probabilities or both. An impact-triggered fission lunar origin is presented. If the impact ejecta (a mixture of target and projectile) leave the impact site ballistically and are subsequently acted upon only by the gravity field of a spherical Earth, then the ejecta either reimpacts the Earth or escapes on a hyperbolic trajectory. Hence the need for a second burn. Three possible resolutions are considered: pressure gradient acceleration, non-central gravity, and viscous spreading.

  11. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  12. Impact Melt in Small Lunar Highlands Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Barnouin, O.; Hawke, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Impact-melt deposits are a typical characteristic of complex impact craters, occurring as thick pools on the crater floor, ponds on wall terraces, veneers on the walls, and flows outside and inside the rim. Studies of the distribution of impact melt suggested that such deposits are rare to absent in and around small (km to sub-km), simple impact craters. noted that the smallest lunar crater observed with impact melt was approximately 750 m in diameter. Similarly, theoretical models suggest that the amount of melt formed is a tiny fraction (crater volume and thus significant deposits would not be expected for small lunar craters. LRO LROC images show that impact-melt deposits can be recognized associated with many simple craters to diameters down to approximately 200 m. The melt forms pools on the crater floor, veneer on the crater walls or ejecta outside the crater. Such melt deposits are relatively rare, and can be recognized only in some fresh craters. These observations indicate that identifiable quantities of impact melt can be produced in small impacts and the presence of such deposits shows that the material can be aggregated into recognizable deposits. Further, the present of such melt indicates that small craters could be reliably radiometrically dated helping to constrain the recent impact flux.

  13. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  14. Chronology and Sources of Lunar Impact Bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Ćuk, Matija

    2011-01-01

    The Moon has suffered intense impact bombardment ending at 3.9 Gyr ago, and this bombardment probably affected all of the inner Solar System. Basin magnetization signatures and lunar crater size-distributions indicate that the last episode of bombardment at about 3.85 Gyr ago was less extensive than previously thought. We explore the contribution of the primordial Mars-crosser population to early lunar bombardment. We find that Mars-crosser population initially decays with a 80-Myr half-life, with the long tail of survivors clustering on temporarily non-Mars-crossing orbits between 1.8 and 2 AU. These survivors decay with half-life of about 600 Myr and are progenitors of the extant Hungaria asteroid group in the same region. We estimate the primordial Mars-crosser population contained about 0.01-0.02 Earth masses. Such initial population is consistent with no lunar basins forming after 3.8 Gya and the amount of mass in the Hungaria group. As they survive longer and in greater numbers than other primordial pop...

  15. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment.

  16. Impact of Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnès; Manche, Hervé; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clément; Torre, Jean-Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques; LLR Observers : Astrogeo-OCA, Apache Point, McDonald Laser Ranging Station, Haleakala Observatory, Matera Laser Ranging Observatory

    2016-10-01

    Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [ C.Courde et al 2016 ]. In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [ Fienga et al 2015 ]. IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [ V.Viswanathan et al 2015 ]. Constraints provided by GRAIL, on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented.

  17. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  18. The role of impact bombardment history in lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, T.; Zhu, M.-H.; Wünnemann, K.; Werner, S. C.

    2017-04-01

    The lunar surface features diverse impact structures originating from its early bombardment; the largest among them are the lunar basins. Basin-forming impacts delivered large amounts of energy to the target and expelled lots of material that deposited as an insulating blanket in the vicinity of the impact. Here, we investigate how such processes may have altered the lunar evolution. We combine lunar basin chronologies with numerical models of basin formation and 3D thermochemical mantle convection and analyse the role of single generic impacts resulting in basins with varying diameter, formation time, location and ejecta properties. The direct effects of a single impact are enhanced melt generation as well as thermal and heat flux anomalies, but these are limited to ∼ 100 Myr following the impact. We use these insights in multi-impact scenarios more relevant for the Moon, which lead to a widespread ejecta blanket and make impact-induced effects more substantial. Lunar contraction history may be altered by the impact bombardment in favour of an early expansion phase as suggested by recent observations. Moreover, imprints of the early bombardment may be kept in the thermal and compositional state of the Moon's interior until modern times. These can be as large as those induced by uncertainties in bulk lunar heat content, if surface insulation due to ejecta is efficient. In this case, model-predicted present-day thermal profiles match independent constraints better if the bulk Moon is not significantly enriched in refractory elements compared to Earth.

  19. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and...

  20. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Crawford, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    The results of a set of laboratory impact experiments (speeds in the range 1-5 km s-1) are reviewed. They are discussed in the context of terrestrial impact ejecta impacting the Moon and hence lunar astrobiology through using the Moon to learn about the history of life on Earth. A review of recent results indicates that survival of quite complex organic molecules can be expected in terrestrial meteorites impacting the lunar surface, but they may have undergone selective thermal processing both during ejection from the Earth and during lunar impact. Depending on the conditions of the lunar impact (speed, angle of impact etc.) the shock pressures generated can cause significant but not complete sterilisation of any microbial load on a meteorite (e.g. at a few GPa 1-0.1% of the microbial load can survive, but at 20 GPa this falls to typically 0.01-0.001%). For more sophisticated biological products such as seeds (trapped in rocks) the lunar impact speeds generate shock pressures that disrupt the seeds (experiments show this occurs at approximately 1 GPa or semi-equivalently 1 km s-1). Overall, the delivery of terrestrial material of astrobiological interest to the Moon is supported by these experiments, although its long term survival on the Moon is a separate issue not discussed here.

  1. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  2. Projectile remnants in central peaks of lunar impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z.; Johnson, B. C.; Minton, D. A.; Melosh, H. J.; di, K.; Hu, W.; Liu, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The projectiles responsible for the formation of large impact craters are often assumed to melt or vaporize during the impact, so that only geochemical traces or small fragments remain in the final crater. In high-speed oblique impacts, some projectile material may survive, but this material is scattered far down-range from the impact site. Unusual minerals, such as magnesium-rich spinel and olivine, observed in the central peaks of many lunar craters are therefore attributed to the excavation of layers below the lunar surface. Yet these minerals are abundant in many asteroids, meteorites and chondrules. Here we use a numerical model to simulate the formation of impact craters and to trace the fate of the projectile material. We find that for vertical impact velocities below about 12kms-1, the projectile may both survive the impact and be swept back into the central peak of the final crater as it collapses, although it would be fragmented and strongly deformed. We conclude that some unusual minerals observed in the central peaks of many lunar impact craters could be exogenic in origin and may not be indigenous to the Moon.

  3. Lunar Crustal Properties: Insights from the GRAIL Gravity Signatures of Lunar Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, J. M.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Evans, A. J.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, J., IV; Milbury, C.; Miljkovic, K.; Nimmo, F.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Impact cratering is a violent process, shattering and melting rock and excavating deep-seated material. The resulting scars are apparent on every planetary surface across our Solar System. Subsurface density variations associated with the resulting impact structures contain clues to aid in unlocking the details of this process. High-resolution gravity fields, such as those derived from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, are ideal for investigating these density variations. With gravity measurements from GRAIL and topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), we derived high-resolution Bouguer gravity fields (i.e., the gravity field after the contribution from topography is removed) that we correlated with craters mapped from LOLA data. We found that the mass deficit beneath lunar impact craters relates directly to crater size, up to diameter ~130 km, whereas craters larger than this diameter display no further systematic change. This observation, coupled with the greater depth of impact damage expected beneath larger craters, indicates that some process is affecting the production and/or preservation of porosity at depth or otherwise altering the mean density beneath the larger craters (note, measurable mantle uplift is observed for craters larger than ~184-km diameter). The observed crater gravity anomalies, however, exhibit considerable variation about these mean trends, suggesting that other factors are also important in determining the bulk density of impact crater structures. Milbury et al. (this conference) have demonstrated that pre-impact crustal porosity strongly influences the resulting density contrast between the impact damage zone beneath a crater and its surroundings. Herein, we extend these studies using the same GRAIL- and LOLA-derived maps to further investigate the effects that crustal properties have on the bulk density of the rock beneath lunar impact features. We focus, in particular, on the processes that

  4. Lightweight, Wearable Metal Rubber-Textile Sensor for In Situ Lunar Autonomous Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to develop a low-weight, non-invasive in situ autonomous health-monitoring system for crewmembers' lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). This novel...

  5. Impact melt of the lunar Crisium multiring basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, P. D.; Sliz, M. U.

    2017-02-01

    New geological mapping of the Crisium basin on the Moon has revealed exposures of the basin impact melt sheet. The melt sheet has a feldspathic highland composition, somewhat more mafic than the melt sheet of the Orientale basin, but less mafic than comparable deposits around the Imbrium basin. These newly recognized deposits would be ideal locations to directly sample Crisium basin impact melt, material whose study would yield insight into the composition of the lunar crust, the time of formation of the basin, and the large impact process.

  6. Distal ejecta from lunar impacts: Extensive regions of rocky deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A ∼18,000 km2 area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5°E, 42.5°N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and imaging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering ∼730,000 km2, centered near 310°E, 35°S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (∼10-30°) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history.

  7. Asteroid Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, A.

    2006-06-01

    Some asteroids and comets with Earth-crossing orbit may impact our planet, thus we need to be able to identify the cases which could have a dangerous close approach within a century. This must be done as soon as such an asteroid is discovered, allowing for follow up observations which might contradict the impact possibility, and in the worst case to organize mitigation, possibly including deflection. The mathematical problem of predicting possible impacts, even with very low probabilities, has been solved by our group in the last few years. This paper presents the basic theory of these impact prediction, and discusses how they are practically used in the impact monitoring systems now operational, in particular the CLOMON2 robot of the Universities of Pisa and Valladolid.

  8. Asteroid impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some asteroids and comets with Earth-crossing orbit may impact our planet, thus we need to be able to identify the cases which could have a dangerous close approach within a century. This must be done as soon as such an asteroid is discovered, allowing for follow up observations which might contradict the impact possibility, and in the worst case to organize mitigation, possibly including deflection. The mathematical problem of predicting possible impacts, even with very low probabilities, has been solved by our group in the last few years. This paper presents the basic theory of these impact prediction, and discusses how they are practically used in the impact monitoring systems now operational, in particular the CLOMON2 robot of the Universities of Pisa and Valladolid.

  9. A Search for Meteoroid Lunar Impact Generated Electromagnetic Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaraju, Saiveena; Mathews, John D.; Vierinen, Juha; Perillat, Phil; Meisel, David D.

    2016-11-01

    Lunar white light flashes associated with meteoroid impacts are now regularly observed using modest optical instrumentation. In this paper, we hypothesize that the developing, optically-dense hot ejecta cloud associated with these hypervelocity impacts also produce an associated complex plasma component that rapidly evolves resulting in a highly-transient electro magnetic pulse (EMP) in the VHF/UHF spectral region. Discovery of the characteristics and event frequency of impact EMPs would prove interesting to meteoroid flux and complex plasma physics studies especially if EMPs from the same event are detected from at least two locations on the Earth with relative delays appropriate to the propagation paths. We describe a prototype observational search, conducted in May 2014, for meteoroid lunar-impact EMPs that was conducted using simultaneous, overlapping-band, UHF radio observations at the Arecibo (AO; Puerto Rico) and Haystack (HO, Massachusetts, USA) Observatories. Monostatic/bistatic lunar radar imaging observations were also performed with HO transmitting and HO/AO receiving to confirm tracking, the net delay, and the pointing/timing ephemeris at both observatories. Signal analysis was performed using time-frequency signal processing techniques. Although, we did not conclusively identify EMP returns, this search detected possible EMPs and we have confirmed the search paradigm and established the sensitivity of the AO-HO system in detecting the hypothesized events. We have also characterized the difficult radio-frequency interference environment surrounding these UHF observations. We discuss the wide range of terrestrial-origin, Moon-bounce signals that were observed which additionally validate the observational technique. Further observations are contemplated.

  10. Lunar Meteoroid Impacts and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Cudnik, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We all know that the pock marked face of the Moon looks the way it does because it was hit by meteors. But not many people know that this is still happening today. While the era of major impacts is over, lunar meteorites still cause flashes and puffs of gas, vaporized rock, and dust that we can observe. The Moon itself has a fascinating history. It is now thought to have been formed after a Mars-sized object collided with Earth and stripped off a portion of its mass. This debris took shape within a few hundred years and was originally much closer to our planet. The craters on its surface were largely formed by intense meteorite and asteroid bombardment between 4.6 billion and 3.8 billion years ago. In this comprehensive book, Brian Cudnik, one of the first people to observe a meteorite impact on the Moon in real time, shows how both amateur and practical astronomers can look for these ‘lunar transient phenomena,’ or LTPs. He explains in detail the processes that formed the craters and impact marks we see ...

  11. The Transformation of the Lunar Exosphere by a Comet Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, P.; Artemieva, N. A.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Several observations suggest that water and other volatiles delivered by past comet impacts may have migrated to permanently shadowed regions near the poles of the Moon and Mercury, where they may still remain cold-trapped. Here, we compare the nature of gas transport and loss processes in a collisionless exosphere to the situation after a lunar comet impact. The sheer quantity of volatiles delivered by a comet can transform the way in which gas transport and deposition occur; we model this using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. It is observed that post-impact gas transport occurs primarily through low-altitude winds that sweep over the lunar day-side, as opposed to migration of molecules through ballistic hops. The resultant deposition patterns are markedly non-uniform, with preferential redistribution of water antipodal to the point of impact, and short-term variations in simulated volatile abundance between different cold traps, suggesting that a non-uniform delivery mechanism could contribute towards the non-uniform distribution of lunar polar volatiles observed in remote sensing datasets. Due to the amount of vapor that remains gravitationally bound to the Moon, the transient, impact-generated atmosphere is initially sufficiently dense that lower layers are shielded from photodestruction, prolonging the lifetime of water molecules and allowing greater amounts of water to reach cold traps. Other physical processes, such as radiative heat transfer and photochemical reactions, also operate differently when the exosphere becomes collisionally and optically thick. The longevity of the transient atmosphere and the significance of the phenomena mentioned above depend on specific impact parameters, as well as the gravitational and solar environment of the body in question - for instance, Mercury could retain a thicker atmosphere, but sees much more intense ultraviolet radiation than the Moon. However, the characteristic structure of the atmosphere and the

  12. Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Monitoring Activation of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2012-01-01

    This sensor unit is designed to determine the level of activation of lunar dust or simulant particles using a fluorescent technique. Activation of the surface of a lunar soil sample (for instance, through grinding) should produce a freshly fractured surface. When these reactive surfaces interact with oxygen and water, they produce hydroxyl radicals. These radicals will react with a terephthalate diluted in the aqueous medium to form 2-hydroxyterephthalate. The fluorescence produced by 2-hydroxyterephthalate provides qualitative proof of the activation of the sample. Using a calibration curve produced by synthesized 2-hydroxyterephthalate, the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced as a function of sample concentration can also be determined.

  13. The solar and lunar divide and the impact on Taiwan’s stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Yuan Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of the western world, the solar New Year celebration seems to have fascinated everyone in Taiwan with the lunar New Year festivity showing much less vigor. This paper examines the impact of the solar and lunar New Years on the stock market of Taiwan, showing that the lunar effect outshines the solar one, but the magnitude is decreasing for both as the years go by. In addition, this effect is more significant in the year of horse.

  14. Crystallization Age and Impact Resetting of Ancient Lunar Crust from the Descartes Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) are relics of an ancient, primary feldspathic crust that is widely believed to have crystallized from a global magma ocean. Compositions and ages of FANs provide fundamental information about the origin and magmatic evolution of the Moon, while the petrology and thermal history of lunar FANs illustrate the structure and impact history of the lunar crust. Here we report petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic (Nd-Sr-Ar) studies of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 to improve our understanding of the composition, age, and thermal history of the Moon.

  15. A comparison of radiometric calibration techniques for lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, R. M.; Ehlert, S. R.; Moser, D. E.

    2017-09-01

    Video observations of lunar impact flashes have been made by a number of researchers since the late 1990's and the problem of determination of the impact energies has been approached in different ways Bellot Rubio et al. (2000a, b), Yanagisawa et al. (2008), Bouley et al. (2012), Suggs et al. (2014), Rembold and Ryan (2015), Ortiz et al. (2015), Madiedo et al. (2015). The wide spectral response of the unfiltered video cameras in use for all published measurements necessitates color correction for the standard filter magnitudes available for the comparison stars but this is not typically considered. In our approach, the published color of the comparison star and an estimate of the color of the impact flash is used to correct it to the chosen filter bandpass. Magnitudes corrected to standard filters are then used to determine the luminous energy in the filter bandpass according to the stellar atmosphere calibrations of Bessell et al. (1998). In this paper we compare the various photometric calibration techniques and calculation of luminous energy (radiometry) of impact flashes. This issue has significant implications for determination of luminous efficiency, predictions of impact crater sizes for observed flashes, and the determination of the flux of meteoroids in the 10 s of grams to kilograms mass range.

  16. Interpretation of Lunar Topography: Impact Cratering and Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Margaret A.

    This work seeks to understand past and present surface conditions on the Moon using two different but complementary approaches: topographic analysis using high-resolution elevation data from recent spacecraft missions and forward modeling of the dominant agent of lunar surface modification, impact cratering. The first investigation focuses on global surface roughness of the Moon, using a variety of statistical parameters to explore slopes at different scales and their relation to competing geological processes. We find that highlands topography behaves as a nearly self-similar fractal system on scales of order 100 meters, and there is a distinct change in this behavior above and below approximately 1 km. Chapter 2 focuses this analysis on two localized regions: the lunar south pole, including Shackleton crater, and the large mare-filled basins on the nearside of the Moon. In particular, we find that differential slope, a statistical measure of roughness related to the curvature of a topographic profile, is extremely useful in distinguishing between geologic units. Chapter 3 introduces a numerical model that simulates a cratered terrain by emplacing features of characteristic shape geometrically, allowing for tracking of both the topography and surviving rim fragments over time. The power spectral density of cratered terrains is estimated numerically from model results and benchmarked against a 1-dimensional analytic model. The power spectral slope is observed to vary predictably with the size-frequency distribution of craters, as well as the crater shape. The final chapter employs the rim-tracking feature of the cratered terrain model to analyze the evolving size-frequency distribution of craters under different criteria for identifying "visible" craters from surviving rim fragments. A geometric bias exists that systematically over counts large or small craters, depending on the rim fraction required to count a given feature as either visible or erased.

  17. Equilibration in the Aftermath of the Lunar-Forming Giant Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.055

    2010-01-01

    Simulations of the moon-forming impact suggest that most of the lunar material derives from the impactor rather than the Earth. Measurements of lunar samples, however, reveal an oxygen isotope composition that is indistinguishable from terrestrial samples, and clearly distinct from meteorites coming from Mars and Vesta. Here we explore the possibility that the silicate Earth and impactor were compositionally distinct with respect to oxygen isotopes, and that the terrestrial magma ocean and lunar-forming material underwent turbulent mixing and equilibration in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact. This mixing may arise in the molten disk epoch between the impact and lunar accretion, lasting perhaps 10^2-10^3 yr. The implications of this idea for the geochemistry of the Moon, the origin of water on Earth, and constraints on the giant impact are discussed.

  18. The Impact of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Canipe, M.; Wenger, M.; Hsu, B.; Jones, A.; Hessen, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Program includes Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) held at several sites throughout the U.S. and a large public engagement program, International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). Program evaluation has revealed that LWEs result in growth in participants' knowledge related to current lunar discoveries and exploration of the Moon. Teachers learn about misconceptions about the Moon and ways to teach about lunar science and exploration to address students' misconceptions. The LWEs also impact the teaching practices of some participants more broadly to incorporate inquiry and other teaching techniques modeled in the workshops. InOMN events are social experiences in which visitors reported the value of seeing their children learning new things, being moved by seeing beautiful and valuable objects, and gaining information and knowledge. Each program has met the goal of engaging participants in the excitement of lunar exploration.

  19. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, Doug; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Alexander, David

    2009-01-01

    There are currently several physiological monitoring requirements for EVA in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document. There are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations. Similarly, there are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm during a cabin depressurization scenario in the launch/landing space suit is necessary. This presentation seeks to inform space medicine personnel of recommendations made by an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine specialists regarding in-suit ECG heart rhythm monitoring requirements during lunar surface operations. After a review of demographic information and clinical cases and panel discussion, the panel recommended that ECG monitoring capability as a clinical tool was not essential in the lunar space suit; ECG monitoring was not essential in the launch/landing space suit for contingency scenarios; the current hear rate monitoring capability requirement for both launch/landing and lunar space suits should be maintained; lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG for IVA medical assessments; and, exercise stress testing for astronaut selection and retention should be changed from the current 85% maximum heart rate limit to maximal, exhaustive 'symptom-limited' testing to maximize diagnostic utility as a screening tool for evaluating the functional capacity of astronauts and their cardiovascular health.

  20. The fractured Moon: Production and saturation of porosity in the lunar highlands from impact cratering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, Jason M.; Evans, Alexander J.; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Miljković, Katarina; Phillips, Roger J.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Bierson, Carver J.; Head, James W.; Milbury, Colleen; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Sori, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-09-01

    We have analyzed the Bouguer anomaly (BA) of ~1200 complex craters in the lunar highlands from Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory observations. The BA of these craters is generally negative, though positive BA values are observed, particularly for smaller craters. Crater BA values scale inversely with crater diameter, quantifying how larger impacts produce more extensive fracturing and dilatant bulking. The Bouguer anomaly of craters larger than 93-19+47 km in diameter is independent of crater size, indicating that there is a limiting depth to impact-generated porosity, presumably from pore collapse associated with either overburden pressure or viscous flow. Impact-generated porosity of the bulk lunar crust is likely in a state of equilibrium for craters smaller than ~30 km in diameter, consistent with an ~8 km thick lunar megaregolith, whereas the gravity signature of larger craters is still preserved and provides new insight into the cratering record of even the oldest lunar surfaces.

  1. The Impact of Craters on Neutron Fluxes and Lunar Polar Hydrogen Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, V.; Bower, K.; Diserens, S.; Ryder, M.; Yeomans, P.; Teodoro, L.; Elphic, R.; Feldman, W.; Hermalyn, B.; Lavelle, C.; Lawrence, D.; Maurice, S.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen abundances in lunar polar cold traps are investigated using remotely-sensed neutron count rates. The effect of neutron beaming from craters is measured using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and understood in the context of a simple model. This enables a reanalysis of data near the lunar poles, accounting for the topographical impact on the neutron count rates, leading to improved estimates of the hydrogen abundance in the various cold traps. For the case of Cabeus, taking into account the topographical effect increases the inferred water- equivalent hydrogen weight percentage from˜1%to˜4%, consistent with that measured using the LCROSS impactor.

  2. An Impact Model of the Imbrium Basin for Distribution of Thorium on Lunar Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Meng-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; XU Ao-Ao

    2008-01-01

    @@ We consider the thorium distributions that are coincident with the distribution of ejecta after the Mare Imbrium impact occurs on the lunar surface and derive a simple model on the sphericaJ target to predict the thickness of Imbrium ejecta deposits as a function of distance from the centre of the Imbrium basin.Then we use the result of Lunar Prospector's gamma ray experiment to test the hypothesis that the distribution of thorium on the lunar surface has an origin from the Mare Imbrium.

  3. Lunar impact basins and crustal heterogeneity - New western limb and far side data from Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Head, James W., III; Pieters, Carle M.; Greeley, Ronald; Mcewen, Alfred S.; Neukum, Gerhard; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Anger, Clifford D.; Carr, Michael H.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral images of the lunar western limb and far side obtained from Galileo reveal the compositional nature of several prominent lunar features and provide new information on lunar evolution. The data reveal that the ejecta from the Orientale impact basin (900 kilometers in diameter) lying outside the Cordillera Mountains was excavated from the crust, not the mantle, and covers pre-Orientale terrain that consisted of both highland materials and relatively large expanses of ancient mare basalts. The inside of the far side South Pole-Aitken basin (greater than 2000 kilometers in diameter) has low albedo, red color, and a relatively high abundance of iron- and magnesium-rich materials. These features suggest that the impact may have penetrated into the deep crust or lunar mantle or that the basin contains ancient mare basalts that were later covered by highlands ejecta.

  4. Comparison of Ejecta Distributions from Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact on Lunar Regolith Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Scruggs, Rob; Moser, Danielle E.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is progressing toward long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment; of specific importance is the primary meteoroid and subsequent ejecta environment. The document, NASA SP-8013, was developed for the Apollo program and is the latest definition of the ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into powered pumice and unconsolidated JSC-1A Lunar Mare Regolith stimulant (JSC-1A) targets. The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) was used to accelerate projectiles to velocities in excess of 5 km/s and impact the targets at normal incidence. The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets placed around the impact site and angular distributions were determined for ejecta. Comparison of ejecta angular distribution with previous works will be presented. A simplistic technique to characterize the ejected particles was formulated and improvements to this technique will be discussed for implementation in future tests.

  5. Stratigraphy, Sequence, and Crater Populations of Lunar Impact Basins from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Implications for the Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    New measurements of the topography of the Moon from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)[1] provide an excellent base-map for analyzing the large crater population (D.20 km)of the lunar surface [2, 3]. We have recently used this data to calculate crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) for 30 lunar impact basins, which have implications for their stratigraphy and sequence. These data provide an avenue for assessing the timing of the transitions between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains, which has been linked to the late heavy bombardment (LHB). We also use LOLA data to re-examine relative stratigraphic relationships between key lunar basins.

  6. Early degassing of lunar urKREEP by crust-breaching impact(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Neal, Clive R.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2016-08-01

    Current models for the Moon's formation have yet to fully account for the thermal evolution of the Moon in the presence of H2O and other volatiles. Of particular importance is chlorine, since most lunar samples are characterised by unique heavy δ37Cl values, significantly deviating from those of other planetary materials, including Earth, for which δ37Cl values cluster around ∼0‰. In order to unravel the cause(s) of the Moon's unique chlorine isotope signature, we performed a comprehensive study of high-precision in situ Cl isotope measurements of apatite from a suite of Apollo samples with a range of geochemical characteristics and petrologic types. The Cl-isotopic compositions measured in lunar apatite in the studied samples display a wide range of δ37Cl values (reaching a maximum value of +36‰), which are positively correlated with the amount of potassium (K), Rare Earth Element (REE) and phosphorous (P) (KREEP) component in each sample. Using these new data, integrated with existing H-isotope data obtained for the same samples, we are able to place these findings in the context of the canonical lunar magma ocean (LMO) model. The results are consistent with the urKREEP reservoir being characterised by a δ37Cl ∼+30‰. Such a heavy Cl isotope signature requires metal-chloride degassing from a Cl-enriched urKREEP LMO residue, a process likely to have been triggered by at least one large crust-breaching impact event that facilitated the transport and exposure of urKREEP liquid to the lunar surface.

  7. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, D.; Jones, J. A.; Alexander, D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently there are several physiological monitoring requirements for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document, including continuous heart rhythm monitoring. However, it is not known whether heart rhythm monitoring in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations or in launch/landing suit the event of a cabin depressurization enroute to or from the moon. Methods: Current US astronaut corps demographic information was provided to an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine experts, including specialists in electrophysiology, exercise physiology, interventional cardiology and arrhythmia. This information included averages for male/female age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammatory markers, echocardiogram, ranges for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores for long duration astronauts, and ranges for heart rate (HR) and metabolic (MET) rates obtained during microgravity and lunar EVA. Results: The panel determined that no uncontrolled hazard was likely to occur in the suit during lunar surface or contingency microgravity ops that would require ECG monitoring in the highly screened US astronaut population. However having the capability for rhythm monitoring inside the vehicle (IVA) was considered critical to manage an astronaut in distress. Discussion: Heart rate (HR) monitoring alone allows effective monitoring of astronaut health and function. Consequently, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring capability as a clinical tool is not essential in the lunar or launch/landing space suit. However, the panel considered that rhythm monitoring could be useful in certain clinical situations, it was not considered required for safe operations. Also, lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG (derived 12- lead) for IVA medical assessments.

  8. RAPID: Collaboration Results from Three NASA Centers in Commanding/Monitoring Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. Jay; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert; Wallick, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Three NASA centers are working together to address the challenge of operating robotic assets in support of human exploration of the Moon. This paper describes the combined work to date of the Ames Research Center (ARC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) on a common support framework to control and monitor lunar robotic assets. We discuss how we have addressed specific challenges including time-delayed operations, and geographically distributed collaborative monitoring and control, to build an effective architecture for integrating a heterogeneous collection of robotic assets into a common work. We describe the design of the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) architecture that effectively addresses the problem of interfacing a family of robots including the JSC Chariot, ARC K-10 and JPL ATHLETE rovers. We report on lessons learned from the June 2008 field test in which RAPID was used to monitor and control all of these assets. We conclude by discussing some future directions to extend the RAPID architecture to add further support for NASA's lunar exploration program.

  9. Supplemental Information For: Asymmetric Distribution of Lunar Impact Basins Caused by Variations in Target Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Katarina; Wieczorek, Mark; Collins, Gareth S.; Laneuville, Matthieu; Neumann, Gregory A.; Melosh, H. Jay; Solomon, Sean C.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Maps of crustal thickness derived from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission revealed more large impact basins on the nearside hemisphere of the Moon than on its farside. The enrichment in heat-producing elements and prolonged volcanic activity on the lunar nearside hemisphere indicate that the temperature of the nearside crust and uppermantle was hotter than that of the farside at the time of basin formation. Using the iSALE-2D hydrocode to model impact basin formation, we found that impacts on the hotter nearside would have formed basins up to two times larger than similar impacts on the cooler farside hemisphere. The size distribution of lunar impact basins is thus not representative of the earliest inner Solar system impact bombardment

  10. Asymmetric Distribution of Lunar Impact Basins Caused by Variations in Target Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Katarina; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Collins, Gareth S.; Laneuville, Matthieu; Neumann, Gregory A.; Melosh, H. Jay; Solomon, Sean C.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Maps of crustal thickness derived from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission revealed more large impact basins on the nearside hemisphere of the Moon than on its farside. The enrichment in heat-producing elements and prolonged volcanic activity on the lunar nearside hemisphere indicate that the temperature of the nearside crust and upper mantle was hotter than that of the farside at the time of basin formation. Using the iSALE-2D hydrocode to model impact basin formation, we found that impacts on the hotter nearside would have formed basins up to two times larger than similar impacts on the cooler farside hemisphere. The size distribution of lunar impact basins is thus not representative of the earliest inner Solar system impact bombardment.

  11. A Bright Lunar Impact Flash Linked to the Virginid Meteor Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Suggs, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since early 2006, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has observed over 330 impact flashes on the Moon, produced by meteoroids striking the lunar surface. On 17 March 2013 at 03:50:54.312 UTC, the brightest flash of a 9-year routine observing campaign was observed by two 0.35 m telescopes at MSFC. The camera onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a NASA spacecraft mapping the Moon from lunar orbit, discovered the fresh crater associated with this impact [1] approximately 3 km from the location predicted by a newly developed geolocation technique [2]. The meteoroid impactor responsible for this event may have been part of a stream of large particles encountered by the Earth/Moon associated with the Virginid Meteor Complex, as evidenced by a cluster of five fireballs seen in Earth's atmosphere on the same night by the NASA All Sky Fireball Network [3] and the Southern Ontario Meteor Network [4]. Crater size calculations based on assumptions derived from fireball measurements yielded an estimated crater diameter of 10-23 m rim-to-rim using the Holsapple [5] and Gault [6] models, a result consistent with the observed crater measured to be 18 m across. This is the first time a lunar impact flash has been associated with fireballs in Earth's atmosphere and an observed crater.

  12. Lunar CubeSat Impact Trajectory Characteristics as a Function of Its Release Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of early system design activities, trajectory characteristics for a lunar CubeSat impactor mission as a function of its release conditions are analyzed. The goal of this mission is to take measurements of surface magnetic fields to study lunar magnetic anomalies. To deploy the CubeSat impactor, a mother-ship is assumed to have a circular polar orbit with inclination of 90 degrees at a 100 km altitude at the Moon. Both the in- and out-of-plane direction deploy angles as well as delta-V magnitudes are considered for the CubeSat release conditions. All necessary parameters required at the early design phase are analyzed, including CubeSat flight time to reach the lunar surface, impact velocity, cross ranges distance, and associated impact angles, which are all directly affected by the CubeSat release conditions. Also, relative motions between these two satellites are analyzed for communication and navigation purposes. Although the current analysis is only focused on a lunar impactor mission, the methods described in this work can easily be modified and applied to any future planetary impactor missions with CubeSat-based payloads.

  13. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Volatiles in Frozen Lunar Simulants While Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Forgione, Joshua; White, Bruce; McMurray, Robert; Cook, Amanda M.; Bielawski, Richard; Fritzler, Erin L.; Thompson, Sarah J.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Benton, Joshua; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, James

    2016-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) focuses on using local resources for mission consumables. The approach can reduce mission cost and risk. Lunar polar volatiles, e.g. water ice, have been detected via remote sensing measurements and represent a potential resource for both humans and propellant. The exact nature of the horizontal and depth distribution of the ice remains to be documented in situ. NASA's Resource Prospector mission (RP) is intended to investigate the polar volatiles using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. RP component level hardware is undergoing testing in relevant lunar conditions (cryovacuum). In March 2015 a series of drilling tests were undertaken using the Honeybee Robotics RP Drill, Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS), and sample capture mechanisms (SCM) inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The goal of these tests was to investigate the ability of NIRVSS to monitor volatiles during drilling activities and assess delivery of soil sample transfer to the SCMs in order to elucidate the concept of operations associated with this regolith sampling method.

  14. A Review of Lunar Meteorite Impact-Melt Clast Compositions and Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important outstanding goals of lunar science is understanding the bombardment history of the Moon and calibrating the impact flux curve for extrapolation to the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Obtaining a sample from a carefully-characterized interior melt sheet or ring massif is a reliable way to tell a single crater's age. A different but complementary approach is to use extensive laboratory characterization (microscopic, geochemical, isotopic) of float samples to understand the integrated impact history of a region. Both approaches have their merits and limitations. In essence, the latter is the approach we have used to understand the impact history of the Feldspathic Highland Terrain (FHT) as told by lunar feldspathic meteorites.

  15. Transport of water in a transient impact-generated lunar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, P.; Artemieva, N. A.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, several missions have detected signs of water and other volatiles in cold, permanently shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Observations suggest that some of these volatiles could have been delivered by comet impacts and therefore, understanding the impact delivery mechanism becomes key to explaining the origin and distribution of lunar water. During impact, the constituent ices of a comet nucleus vaporize; a significant part of this vapor remains gravitationally bound to the Moon, transforming the tenuous, collisionless lunar exosphere into a collisionally thick, transient atmosphere. Here, we use numerical simulations to investigate the physical processes governing volatile transport in the transient atmosphere generated after a comet impact, with a focus on how these processes influence the accumulation of water in polar cold traps. It is observed that the transient atmosphere maintains a certain characteristic structure for at least several Earth days after impact, during which time volatile transport occurs primarily through low-altitude winds that sweep over the lunar day-side. Meanwhile, reconvergence of vapor antipodal to the point of impact results in preferential redistribution of water in the vicinity of the antipode. Due to the quantity of vapor that remains gravitationally bound, the atmosphere is sufficiently dense that lower layers are shielded from photodestruction, prolonging the lifetime of water molecules and allowing greater amounts of water to reach cold traps. Short-term ice deposition patterns are markedly non-uniform and the variations that arise in simulated volatile abundance between different cold traps could potentially explain variations that have been observed through remote sensing.

  16. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  17. Birth of the International Lunar Impact Astronomical Detection (ILIAD) network : first detections in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, E.; Bouley, S.; Dassou, A.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Baratoux, D.; Lazrek, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present the research environment of our network. We highlight some results of the analysis of the first Lunar Meteorides impacts detected in Morocco. We present an exemple of ground-based instrumentation to carry out a successful search for lunar flashes phenomena. We also discuss the interest to monotoring these phenomena by focusing on the interest of determining the positions of the craters on the moon. The precise determination of impact flashes is very advantageous, especially in the near future there will be several new craters identified by LROC or other robotic spacecraft cameras. The two flashes reported in this study are optimally situated on central region of the lunar disk, which reduce the mismatch between the barycenter of radiation and the actual position of the impact. Smaller-scale lunar features are easily identified after superposition of a large number of images in order to increase the signal to noise ratio and produce an optimal image of the non-illuminated fraction of the moon. The sub-pixel shift of each image relative to the first frame (base frame) was determined by fitting the correlation peak obtained in the Fourier space to a 2- dimensional gaussian following Schaum and McHugh [1996]; Baratoux et al. [2001]. To increase further the positioning, the signal of the flash is is fitted to a 2-dimensional gaussian for each frame (previously shifted to the base image) where the flash is present. The barycenter of the flash is given as the rounded to the nearest integer of the average centers of the 2-dimensional gaussian functions. Two impact flashes are detected from AGM observatory in Marrakech, respectively on the February 6, 2013, at 06:29:56.7 UT and April 14, 2013, 20:00:45.4 UT. The characteristics of each flash are given in the table below. the diameter of the crater formed on the lunar surface can be estimated using Gault's formula for craters of less than 100 m in diameter, the results show that the meteoroids are likely producing

  18. Research on Impact Process of Lander Footpad against Simulant Lunar Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe landing of a Moon lander and the performance of the precise instruments it carries may be affected by too heavy impact on touchdown. Accordingly, landing characteristics have become an important research focus. Described in this paper are model tests carried out using simulated lunar soils of different relative densities (called “simulant” lunar soils below, with a scale reduction factor of 1/6 to consider the relative gravities of the Earth and Moon. In the model tests, the lander was simplified as an impact column with a saucer-shaped footpad with various impact landing masses and velocities. Based on the test results, the relationships between the footpad peak feature responses and impact kinetic energy have been analyzed. Numerical simulation analyses were also conducted to simulate the vertical impact process. A 3D dynamic finite element model was built for which the material parameters were obtained from laboratory test data. When compared with the model tests, the numerical model proved able to effectively simulate the dynamic characteristics of the axial forces, accelerations, and penetration depths of the impact column during landing. This numerical model can be further used as required for simulating oblique landing impacts.

  19. Using Lunar Impact Glasses to Inform the Amount of Organic Material Delivered to the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Pham; Zellner, Nicolle

    2017-01-01

    The delivery of organic material via comets and asteroids during the early history of Earth plays an important role in some theories about the origin of life on Earth. Given the close proximity of the Moon to the Earth, the Moon’s impact history can be used to estimate the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Analysis of lunar impact glasses, derived from energetic impacts on the Moon, provide valuable data that can be used to interpret the Moon’s impact flux. Here we present the results of a study of the non-volatile lithophile element compositions of over 500 impact glass samples from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites, along with associated ages of a subset of them. Our analyses show that many of the impact glasses possess compositions exotic to the local regolith in which they were found. Coupled with their ages, these glasses suggest material transport from distant regions of the Moon and may allow an estimate of the number of lunar (and terrestrial) impactors in a given time period. These results have important implications for constraining the Moon’s impact flux and also the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Results of our preliminary study, which investigates the amounts of organic material delivered by comets and asteroids to the Moon (and Earth), will be presented.

  20. Variation in the number of meteoroid impacts on the moon with lunar phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, A. M.; Stein, S.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1975-01-01

    Data obtained with the Apollo 12 and 14 long-period seismometers in the period between December 1969 and January 1973 are used to determine the direction of approach and mass-distribution statistics of meteoroids in near-earth space. The total number of detected meteoroid impacts in this period is analyzed as a function of lunar phase with allowance for seismometer sensitivity and characteristics of lunar seismic-wave propagation. A logarithmic relation is derived which describes the mass-distribution statistics. It is concluded that most orbits for meteoroids with a mass in excess of 5 kg lie near the plane of the ecliptic with aphelia between 2 and 5 AU.

  1. Possible long-term decline in impact rates. 2. Lunar impact-melt data regarding impact history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Quantin, Cathy; Mangold, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Crater counts at lunar landing sites with measured ages establish a steep decline in cratering rate during the period ˜3.8 to ˜3.1 Gyr ago. Most models of the time dependence suggest a roughly constant impact rate (within factor ˜2) after about 3 Gyr ago, but are based on sparse data. Recent dating of impact melts from lunar meteorites, and Apollo glass spherules, clarifies impact rates from ˜3.2 to ˜2 Gyr ago or less. Taken together, these data suggest a decline with roughly 700 Myr half-life around 3 Gyr ago, and a slower decline after that, dropping by a factor ˜3 from about ˜2.3 Gyr ago until the present. Planetary cratering involved several phases with different time behaviors: (1) rapid sweep-up of most primordial planetesimals into planets in the first hundred Myr, (2) possible later effects of giant planet migration with enhanced cratering, (3) longer term sweep-up of leftover planetesimals, and finally (4) the present long-term "leakage" of asteroids from reservoirs such as the main asteroid belt and Kuiper belt. In addition, at any given point on the Moon, a pattern of "spikes" (sharp maxima of relatively narrow time width) will appear in the production rate of smaller craters (≲500 m?), not only from secondary debris from large primary lunar impacts at various distances from the point in question, but also from asteroid breakups dotted through Solar System history. The pattern of spikes varies according to type of sample being measured (i.e., glass spherules vs impact melts). For example, several data sets show an impact rate spike ˜470 Myr ago associated with the asteroid belt collision that produced the L chondrites (see Section 3.6 below). Such spikes should be less prominent in the production record of craters of D≳ few km. These phenomena affect estimates of planetary surfaces ages from crater counts, as discussed in a companion paper [Quantin, C., Mangold, N., Hartmann, W.K., Allemand, P., 2007. Icarus 186, 1-10]. Fewer impact melts and

  2. Remote visual detection of impacts on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. Jay; Artemjeva, N. A.; Golub, A. P.; Nemchinov, I. V.; Shuvalov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I. A.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a novel method of remotely observing impacts on the airless Moon that may extend the present data base on meteoroids down to 1 m in diameter. Meteorites or comets of radius approximately 1-100 m are burnt away or dispersed in the atmospheres of the Earth and Venus. However, when such objects strike the Moon they deposit their energy in a small initial volume, forming a plasma plume whose visible and infrared radiation may be visible from the Earth. We consider impacts of model SiO2 projectiles on the surface of an SiO2 model Moon.

  3. Inflatable Habitat Health Monitoring: Implementation, Lessons Learned, and Application to Lunar or Martian Habitat Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Hong, Todd; Hafermalz, Scott; Hunkins, Robert; Valle, Gerald; Toups, Larry

    2009-01-01

    NASA's exploration mission is to send humans to the Moon and Mars, in which the purpose is to learn how to live and work safely in those harsh environments. A critical aspect of living in an extreme environment is habitation, and within that habitation element there are key systems which monitor the habitation environment to provide a safe and comfortable living and working space for humans. Expandable habitats are one of the options currently being considered due to their potential mass and volume efficiencies. This paper discusses a joint project between the National Science Foundation (NSF), ILC Dover, and NASA in which an expandable habitat was deployed in the extreme environment of Antarctica to better understand the performance and operations over a one-year period. This project was conducted through the Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) where the NSF provided the location at McMurdo Station in Antarctica and support at the location, ILC Dover provided the inflatable habitat, and NASA provided the instrumentation and data system for monitoring the habitat. The outcome of this project provided lessons learned in the implementation of an inflatable habitat and the systems that support that habitat. These lessons learned will be used to improve current habitation capabilities and systems to meet the objectives of exploration missions to the moon and Mars.

  4. Pre-impact crustal porosity and its effect on the gravity signature of lunar craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Colleen; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Collins, Gareth C.; Blair, David M.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft have globally mapped the lunar gravity field at unprecedented resolution. Soderblom et al. [2015] made a comprehensive analysis of the residual and central uplift Bouguer gravity anomalies associated with more than 5200 lunar craters. There were two main observations that are related to the work presented here: 1) craters less than ~150 km in diameter (D) have a residual Bouguer anomaly (BA) that is near zero on average (although a negative trend is observed), but have both positive and negative anomalies that vary by approximately ±25 mGal about the mean, and, 2) there is a transition at which the central uplift BA becomes positive and increases with D. Craters that are located in the maria and South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin were excluded from the analysis because they tend to have more negative signatures than highlands craters. These gravitational signatures contrast with the invariably negative gravity anomalies associated with terrestrial craters. In this study, we investigate pre-impact porosity by modeling crater formation using the iSALE hydrocode, including a new approach to include dilatancy, to determine their effects on the gravity signature of craters. We calculated the BA for the simulations, but due to mantle uplift alone. We find that the magnitude of the BA increases with increasing porosity, and that variable initial porosity of the lunar crust can explain why craters on the Moon exhibit both positive and negative Bouguer anomalies. This can also explain the observed negative residual BA associated with craters formed in the lunar maria and SPA (and associated melt sheet) because they are typically less porous than the highlands crust. Gravity anomalies due to mantle uplift reproduce the observed transition from zero to a positive central uplift BA, which coincides with the morphological transition from complex craters to peak-ring basins.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    CERN Document Server

    Zellner, N E B

    2015-01-01

    Lunar impact glasses, quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. Based on the relationships presented in this paper, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained 90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integra...

  6. Logistics impacts on lunar and Mars lander design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    The results of trade studies and evaluations done to determine the impact of accommodation and unloading of cargo on spacecraft design are reviewed. It is concluded that the effectiveness of the surface mission to moon or Mars is best accomplished by providing for undivided cargo delivery and for cargo unloading indirectly to earth surface without the aid of a surface system unloader, for immediate cargo drop during descent abort to orbit, for immediate cargo drop in case of need for an emergency ascent from the surface, and for contiguous placement of cab and surface habitat modules. For exploration architectures that include multiple site visits within as much as several hundred km of each other, use of excursion vehicles capable of short suborbital hops to secondary sites is much less expensive in terms of IMLEO than a strategy of using multiple landers or multiple missions.

  7. Feasibility study of a lunar landing area navigation network deployed by impacting micro-probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Yung, K. L.

    2010-05-01

    Exploration activities on the lunar surface will require precise knowledge of the position of a robotic or manned vehicle. This paper discusses the use of radio beacons as method to determine the position of a mobile unit on the surface. Previous concepts consider the installation of such equipment by the robot itself. A novel idea is discussed here, namely to use miniaturized radio beacons which are deployed (released) during the descent of the lander on the surface. This idea has three major advantages compared to previous proposals: (i) it avoids the time costly and energy consuming installation of the equipment by a rover. (ii) The impact velocities of the probes are in reasonable range since the probes are deployed at low altitude from the main lander that approaches its final landing site. (iii) The probes can take reconnaissance pictures during their free-fall to the surface. This method will therefore deliver charts of the proximity of the landing area with higher resolution than those done by orbital means. Such information will enable scientists and mission operators to precisely plan robotic excursions (and later Extra Vehicular Activity) through the identification of hazardous areas and spots of interest. The paper will study the feasibility of this system from different aspects. The first section will outline the application scenario and the potential outcome of such a system for the coming phase of lunar exploration. A technological readiness review was done to evaluate if the payload instrumentation for these high velocity impacting probes is available. The second section presents the simulation of the impact process of a preliminary probe model in nonlinear transient dynamic finite element analysis using the Lagrangian hydrocode LS-DYNA. The purpose of this simulation was to evaluate if the beacon is able to communicate with the mobile unit even when buried into the soil. The integration of this payload into coming lunar missions will contribute to

  8. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  9. Monitoring Diffuse Impacts: Australian Tourism Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken; Buckley

    2000-04-01

    / The scientific quality of monitoring for diffuse environmental impacts has rarely been quantified. This paper presents an analysis of all formal environmental monitoring programs for Australian tourism developments over a 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The tourism sector provides a good test bed for this study because tourism developments are (1) often adjacent to or even within conservation reserves and other relatively undisturbed natural environments, and (2) often clustered, with resulting cumulative impacts that require detection at an early stage. Here we analyze the precision and reliability with which monitoring programs as actually implemented can detect diffuse environmental impacts against natural variation. Of 175 Australian tourism developments subject to EIA from 1980 to 1993 inclusive, only 13 were subject to formal monitoring. Only 44 individual parameters, in total, were monitored for all these developments together. No baseline monitoring was conducted for nine of the 44 parameters. For the remaining 35, only one was monitored for a full year. Before, after, control, impact, paired sampling (BACIP) monitoring designs were used for 24 of the 44 parameters, and power analysis in 10. The scientific quality of monitoring was significantly better for developments subject to control by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). The key factor appears to be the way in which GBRMPA uses external referees and manages external consultants. The GBRMPA model merits wider adoption.

  10. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  11. Using lunar boulders to distinguish primary from distant secondary impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2007-04-01

    A high-resolution study of 18 lunar craters, including both primary and distant secondary craters, shows that the secondary craters produce larger ejecta fragments at a given crater size than do the primary craters. The maximum boulder diameter (B) increases with crater size (D) according to the power law B = KD 2/3; for primary craters, when B and D are in meters, K is 0.29, whereas for secondary craters, we find that K is 0.46 (60% larger). Next we show that impact fracture theory predicts that secondary craters, because of their lower impact velocity, will produce larger ejecta fragments than primary craters. This result provides an opportunity for distinguishing between primary and secondary craters in high resolution planetary images. The ability to identify distant secondary craters will help constrain primary production rates of small craters and improve surface age determination of small areas based on small crater counts.

  12. The Formation of Lunar Impact Basins: Observational Constraints from LRO Datasets and Comparisons with Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. M. H.; Head, J. W., III

    2016-12-01

    Impact basins provide windows into the subsurface and through time on a planetary body. However, meaningful geologic interpretations rely on a detailed understanding of their formation and the origin of basin materials. Data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) have been critical to advancing our understanding of the formation of impact basins. We present a number of recent observations, including measurements of basin morphometry, mineralogy, and gravity anomalies, which provide a framework for constraining current formation models. Image data from the LRO Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) were used to refine the recognition of both fresh and degraded impact basins, including their ring structures. Analyses of gravity anomalies from the GRAIL mission show that mantle uplifts confined within the inner basin rings are characteristics that basins acquire from the onset. We used LOLA data to also make new measurements of basin morphometry. Small basins possessing two concentric rings ("peak-ring basins") have unique topographic signatures, consisting of inner depressions bounded by a peak ring and a higher annulus that grades to steeper wall material. LRO Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images and Diviner rock abundance maps were used to identify boulder-rich outcrops in basin rings, which focused mineralogical analyses using Moon Mineralogy Mapper hyperspectral data. Crystalline plagioclase and candidate shock plagioclase outcrops were found to be abundant within basins of all sizes. These observations combined with crater scaling laws and lunar crustal thickness constrain the depth of origin of basin peak rings to be near the maximum depth of excavation. Comparisons between iSALE numerical models and observations show important consistencies and inconsistencies that can help to refine current models. In particular, improvements in the match between observed and modeled morphometry of craters transitional

  13. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  14. The granulite suite: Impact melts and metamorphic breccias of the early lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Norman, M. D.; Keil, K.

    1993-01-01

    The granulite suite consists of two major types of rocks. One is coarse-grained and poikilitic with many euhedral crystals of olivine and plagioclase. These characteristics indicate crystallization from a melt; the poikilitic granulites are impact melt breccias. The other group is finer-grained and granoblastic, with numerous triple junctions; the granoblastic granulites are metamorphic rocks. Compositional groups identified by Lindstrom and Lindstrom contain both textural types. Two pyroxene thermometry indicates that both groups equilibrated at 1000 to 1150 C. Calculations suggest that the granoblastic group, which has an average grain size of about 80 microns, was annealed for less than 6 x 10 exp 4 y at 1000 C, and for less than 2500 y at 1150 C. Similar equilibration temperatures suggest that both groups were physically associated after impact events produced the poikilitic melts. Granulitic impactites hold important information about the pre-Nectarian bombardment history of the Moon, and the composition and thermal evolution of the early lunar crust. Granulitic impactites are widely considered to be an important rock type in the lunar crust, but how they formed is poorly understood. Metal compositions and elevated concentrations of meteoritic siderophile elements suggest that most lunar granulites are impact breccias. Their occurrence as clasts in approximately 3.9 Ga breccias, and Ar-(40-39) ages greater than or = 4.2 Ga for some granulites show that they represent a component of the lunar crust which formed prior to the Nectarian cataclysm. Petrographic characteristics of lunar granulites indicate at least two endmember textural variants which apparently formed in fundamentally different ways. One type has granoblastic textures consisting of equant, polygonal to rounded grains, and abundant triple junctions with small dispersions around 120 degrees indicating a close approach to textural equilibrium. As suggested by many authors, granoblastic granulites

  15. Continuous Bombardment: Effect of Small Primary and Secondary Impacts on the Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Wagner, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) began systematically mapping the Moon in the summer of 2009 with the goal of acquiring an image dataset to facilitate future exploration [1]. With the benefit of the extended science missions, we have acquired and systematically examined over 14,000 before and after Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) observations, called NAC temporal pairs. From this growing dataset, we have discovered a dynamic Moon with over a hundred new resolved craters and over 26,000 smaller features we define as splotches. These splotches lack a distinguishable crater rim, but alter the observed reflectance of the surface by a few percent. Some of these splotches contain very small primary or secondary craters, but the diameter is too small (large populations of splotches exist around other new impacts as well, which support the hypothesis that the emplacement of distal ejecta from nearby craters may form them. Using statistics gathered from these NAC temporal pairs and Monte Carlo simulations, we can estimate the timespan in which the entire lunar surface is affected by these small surface changes. This is important, in order to estimate the rate and understand the risk imposed by these small primary and secondary surface changes. References: [1] Robinson et al. (2010) Space Sci. Rev., 150, 1-4, 81-124. [2] Robinson et al. (2015) Icarus, 252, pp. 229-235.

  16. Secondary electron emission from lunar soil by solar wind type ion impact: Laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Catherine; Bu, Caixia; Baragiola, Raul A.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: The lunar surface potential is determined by time-varying fluxes of electrons and ions from the solar wind, photoelectrons ejected by UV photons, cosmic rays, and micrometeorite impacts. Solar wind ions have a dual role in the charging process, adding positive charge to the lunar regolith upon impact and ejecting negative secondary electrons (SE). Electron emission occurs when the energy from the impacting ion is transferred to the solid, ionizing and damaging the material; electrons with kinetic energy greater than the ionization potential (band gap + electron affinity) are ejected from the solid[1].Experiment: We investigate the energy distribution of secondary electrons ejected from Apollo soils of varying maturity and lunar analogs by 4 keV He+. Soils are placed into a shallow Al cup and compressed. In-situ low-energy oxygen plasma is used to clean atmospheric contaminants from the soil before analysis[2]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ascertains that the sample surface is clean. Experiments are conducted in a PHI 560 system (mirror electron energy analyzer (CMA) and μ-metal shield. The spectrometer is used to measure SE distributions, as well as for in situ surface characterization. A small negative bias (~5V) with respect to the grounded entrance grid of the CMA may be placed on the sample holder in order to expose the low energy cutoff.To measure SE energy distributions, primary ions rastered over a ~6 x 6 mm2 area are incident on the sample at ~40° relative to the surface normal, while SE emitted with an angle of 42.3°± 3.5° in a cone are analyzed.Results: The energy distribution of SE ejected from 4 keV He ion irradiation of albite with no bias applied shows positive charging of the surface. The general shape and distribution peak (~4 eV) are consistent with spectra for low energy ions on insulating material[1].Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA LASER program for support.References: [1]P. Riccardi, R. Baragiola et al. (2004); Surf

  17. The mass index and mass of the Geminid meteoroid stream as determined with radar, optical and lunar impact data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.

    2017-09-01

    The Geminid meteor shower was observed in 2015 using the Western Meteor Physics Group's Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) eight wide-field optical cameras, and telescopes of MSFC's lunar impact monitoring program. These observations allowed Geminid fluxes to be calculated in three unique mass-ranges, from 1.8×10-4 g to 30 g. From these fluxes, a mass index of 1.68±0.04 was measured. The quantities derived here, along with a profile of the Geminid meteor shower activity in 2015 from CMOR, were used to find a total Geminid mass of 3.5×107 g the Earth encountered in 2015, along with a minimum total mass for the Geminid meteoroid stream of 1.6×1016 g. Attempts have been made in the past to measure the mass of meteoroid streams using ZHR profiles, but this new and improved treatment uses empirically derived fluxes and measured mass indices for the 2015 encounter with the meteoroid stream. These results are compared to meteoroid stream mass estimate measured for the Perseids of 3.3×1017 g. Instead of three flux values, a single flux value and an assumed mass index of 1.78 was used in Perseid analysis.

  18. Electrical Evolution of a Dust Plume from a Low Energy Lunar Impact: A Model Analog to LCROSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Jackson, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Schultz, P. H.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Marshall, J. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo test particle model was developed that simulates the charge evolution of micron and sub-micron sized dust grains ejected upon low-energy impact of a moderate-size object onto a lunar polar crater floor. Our analog is the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater. Our primary objective is to model grain discharging as the plume propagates upwards from shadowed crater into sunlight.

  19. The Impact of Information Technology on the Design, Development, and Implementation of a Lunar Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Sims, Michael H.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    From the beginning to the present expeditions to the Moon have involved a large investment of human labor. This has been true for all aspects of the process, from the initial design of the mission, whether scientific or technological, through the development of the instruments and the spacecraft, to the flight and operational phases. In addition to the time constraints that this situation imposes, there is also a significant cost associated with the large labor costs. As a result lunar expeditions have been limited to a few robotic missions and the manned Apollo program missions of the 1970s. With the rapid rise of the new information technologies, new paradigms are emerging that promise to greatly reduce both the time and cost of such missions. With the rapidly increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software systems, as well as networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between the human and the machine system. This new balance holds the promise of greatly increased exploration capability, along with dramatically reduced design, development, and operating costs. These new information technologies, utilizing knowledge-based software and very highspeed computer systems, will provide new design and development tools, scheduling mechanisms, and vehicle and system health monitoring capabilities that have hitherto been unavailable to the mission and spacecraft designer and the system operator. This paper will utilize typical lunar missions, both robotic and crewed, as a basis to describe and illustrate how these new information system technologies could be applied to all aspects such missions. In particular, new system design tradeoff tools will be described along with technologies that will allow a very much greater degree of autonomy of exploration vehicles than has heretofore been possible. In addition, new information technologies that will significantly reduce the human operational requirements will be discussed.

  20. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  1. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  2. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element constraints on ages and nature of meteoritic components in ancient lunar impact rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Becker, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, Au) and 187Os/188Os isotope compositions have been determined for 67 subsamples of six lunar impact rocks from the Apollo 14, 16 and 17 landing sites, and the lunar meteorite Dar al Gani (DaG) 400 using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). We report the first Re-Os isochron age on a lunar impact melt rock. 187Re-187Os isotope systematics for Apollo 16 sample 67935 define an isochron age of 4.21 ± 0.13 Ga (MSWD = 1.5), which is interpreted to reflect localized partitioning processes between solid metal-liquid metal as this rock melted. The new age adds further constraints on the significance of pre-4.0 Ga basin forming impacts on the Moon and possible mixing of ancient impactor compositions in lunar impact rocks. Linear correlations displayed by subsamples of a given impact rock in plots of HSE versus Ir concentrations are explained by dilution processes through essentially HSE-free anorthositic lunar crustal target rocks or binary mixing between a high HSE meteoritic end-member and a low HSE end-member composition. Slope-derived HSE ratios and 187Os/188Os of the meteoritic component in granulitic impactites 67915, 67955 and 79215 are similar to slightly volatile element depleted carbonaceous chondrites. Suprachondritic ratios of Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir, Rh/Ir, and Pd/Ir for Apollo 14 impact melt rock 14310 are similar to ratios observed for other Apollo 14 samples and Apollo 17 poikilitic impact melt rocks. Apollo 16 poikilitic and subophitic impact melt rocks 60315 and 67935 show slightly subchondritic Os/Ir and suprachondritic ratios of 187Os/188Os, Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir, Rh/Ir, Pd/Ir and Au/Ir. Their strongly fractionated HSE compositions are similar to some members of the IVA iron meteorite group and provide further evidence for an iron meteorite impactor component in Apollo 16 impact melt rocks. The range of chondritic

  3. Lunar prospector epithermal neutrons from impact craters and landing sites: Implications for surface maturity and hydrogen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Maurice, S.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Initial studies of neutron spectrometer data returned by Lunar Prospector concentrated on the discovery of enhanced hydrogen abundances near both lunar poles. However, the nonpolar data exhibit intriguing patterns that appear spatially correlated with surface features such as young impact craters (e.g., Tycho). Such immature crater materials may have low hydrogen contents because of their relative lack of exposure to solar wind-implanted volatiles. We tested this hypothesis by comparing epithermal* neutron counts (i.e., epithermal -0.057 ?? thermal neutrons) for Copernican-age craters classified as relatively young, intermediate, and old (as determined by previous studies of Clementine optical maturity variations). The epithermal* counts of the crater and continuous ejecta regions suggest that the youngest impact materials are relatively devoid of hydrogen in the upper 1 m of regolith. We also show that the mean hydrogen contents measured in Apollo and Luna landing site samples are only moderately well correlated to the epithermal* neutron counts at the landing sites, likely owing to the effects of rare earth elements. These results suggest that further work is required to define better how hydrogen distribution can be revealed by epithermal neutrons in order to understand more fully the nature and sources (e.g., solar wind, meteorite impacts) of volatiles in the lunar regolith.

  4. The Mass Index and Total Mass of the Geminid Meteoroid Stream as Found with Radar, Optical, and Lunar Impact Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Geminid meteor shower was observed in 2015 using the Western Meteor Physics Group’s Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), Marshall Space Flight Center’s (MSFC) eight wide-field optical cameras, and MSFC’s lunar impact monitoring. These observations allowed Geminid fluxes to be calculated in three unique mass-ranges, from 1.8 (exponent -4) grams to 30 grams. From these fluxes, a mass index of 1.68 plus or minus 0.04 is found, which is in excellent agreement with past Geminid mass indices such as 1.69 found by Blaauw et al using only radar data and 1.7 found by Arlt and Rendtel using visual data. This mass index, however, is found over five orders of magnitude of mass, which allows a higher level of confidence that this mass index holds over a large portion of the stream. Mass indices are an important quantity to be accurately measured for a shower, indicating the distribution of mass in a well-studied stream in which we know the parent body (3200 Phaethon), improving forecasts of the shower activity, and allow fluxes to be scaled to high and low masses. The quantities derived here, along with a profile of the Geminid meteor shower activity in 2015 from CMOR, permit the total Geminid mass the Earth encountered in 2015 to be found, along with a minimum total mass of the Geminid meteoroid stream. Attempts have been made in the past to measure the mass of meteoroid streams using Zenithal Hourly Rate (ZHR) profiles, but here this new and improved treatment uses empirically derived fluxes and measured mass indices for the 2015 encounter with the meteoroid stream. This is to be compared with other meteoroid stream mass estimates including that of the Perseids, caused by comet Swift Tuttle.

  5. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: Implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of ≤ 0.3 ppb for α-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is ≤ 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  6. A Reexamination of Amino Acids in Lunar Soils: Implications for the Survival of Exogenous Organic Material During Impact Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  7. Petrology and geochemistry of feldspathic impact-melt breccia Abar al' Uj 012, the first lunar meteorite from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Marianna; Hofmann, Beda A.; Lanari, Pierre; Korotev, Randy L.; Gnos, Edwin; Greber, Nicolas D.; Leya, Ingo; Greenwood, Richard C.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.

    2016-10-01

    Abar al' Uj (AaU) 012 is a clast-rich, vesicular impact-melt (IM) breccia, composed of lithic and mineral clasts set in a very fine-grained and well-crystallized matrix. It is a typical feldspathic lunar meteorite, most likely originating from the lunar farside. Bulk composition (31.0 wt% Al2O3, 3.85 wt% FeO) is close to the mean of feldspathic lunar meteorites and Apollo FAN-suite rocks. The low concentration of incompatible trace elements (0.39 ppm Th, 0.13 ppm U) reflects the absence of a significant KREEP component. Plagioclase is highly anorthitic with a mean of An96.9Ab3.0Or0.1. Bulk rock Mg# is 63 and molar FeO/MnO is 76. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 33.4 ± 5.2 kyr. AaU 012 contains a 1.4 × 1.5 mm2 exotic clast different from the lithic clast population which is dominated by clasts of anorthosite breccias. Bulk composition and presence of relatively large vesicles indicate that the clast was most probably formed by an impact into a precursor having nonmare igneous origin most likely related to the rare alkali-suite rocks. The IM clast is mainly composed of clinopyroxenes, contains a significant amount of cristobalite (9.0 vol%), and has a microcrystalline mesostasis. Although the clast shows similarities in texture and modal mineral abundances with some Apollo pigeonite basalts, it has lower FeO and higher SiO2 than any mare basalt. It also has higher FeO and lower Al2O3 than rocks from the FAN- or Mg-suite. Its lower Mg# (59) compared to Mg-suite rocks also excludes a relationship with these types of lunar material.

  8. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  9. Lunar Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  10. Lightweight, Wearable Metal Rubber-Textile Sensor for In-Situ Lunar Autonomous Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would develop comfortable garments with multiple integrated sensor functions for the monitoring of astronauts during long duration...

  11. Observations of the moon by the global ozone monitoring experiment: radiometric calibration and lunar albedo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, M.R.; Goede, A.P.H.; Burrows, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument, which was launched aboard the second European Remoting Sensing satellite ESA-ERS2 in 1995. For its long-term radiometric and spectral calibration the GOME observes the sun and less frequently the moon on a regular basis. These measur

  12. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites and their lunar analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.

    1985-01-01

    The minerology and textural properties of three lunar meteorites (Yamato 791197, ALH81005, and Yamato 82192) were analyzed and compared with lunar surface rock samples. The chemical composition and textures of pyroxene and the occurrance of glass matrices were specifically addressed. The study of glass in the lunar meteorites suggests that the glass was not produced by a meteorite impact which excavated the mass into orbit towards the Earth. The glass had been devitrified on the lunar surface before the excavation, and new glass was not produced by the last impact.

  13. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is, to a large extent, covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it has been produced by meteorite impacts since the...

  14. The impact of the Kasatochi eruption on the Moon's illumination during the August 2008 lunar eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, A García; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Martín, E L

    2011-01-01

    The Moon's changeable aspect during a lunar eclipse is largely attributable to variations in the refracted unscattered sunlight absorbed by the terrestrial atmosphere that occur as the satellite crosses the Earth's shadow. The contribution to the Moon's aspect from sunlight scattered at the Earth's terminator is generally deemed minor. However, our analysis of a published spectrum of the 16 August 2008 lunar eclipse shows that diffuse sunlight is a major component of the measured spectrum at wavelengths shorter than 600 nm. The conclusion is supported by two distinct features, namely the spectrum's tail at short wavelengths and the unequal absorption by an oxygen collisional complex at two nearby bands. Our findings are consistent with the presence of the volcanic cloud reported at high northern latitudes following the 7-8 August 2008 eruption in Alaska of the Kasatochi volcano. The cloud both attenuates the unscattered sunlight and enhances moderately the scattered component, thus modifying the contrast betw...

  15. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  16. Impact of Drilling Operations on Lunar Volatiles Capture: Thermal Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) enables future planetary exploration by using local resources to supply mission consumables. This idea of 'living off the land' has the potential to reduce mission cost and risk. On the moon, water has been identified as a potential resource (for life support or propellant) at the lunar poles, where it exists as ice in the subsurface. However, the depth and content of this resource has yet to be confirmed on the ground; only remote detection data exists. The upcoming Resource Prospector mission (RP) will 'ground-truth' the water using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. As the 2020 planned mission date nears, component level hardware is being tested in relevant lunar conditions (thermal vacuum). In August 2014 a series of drilling tests were performed using the Honeybee Robotics Lunar Prospecting Drill inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The drill used a unique auger design to capture and retain the lunar regolith simulant. The goal of these tests was to investigate volatiles (water) loss during drilling and sample transfer to a sample crucible in order to validate this regolith sampling method. Twelve soil samples were captured over the course of two tests at pressures of 10(exp-5) Torr and ambient temperatures between -80C to -20C. Each sample was obtained from a depth of 40 cm to 50 cm within a cryogenically frozen bed of NU-LHT-3M lunar regolith simulant doped with 5 wt% water. Upon acquisition, each sample was transferred and hermetically sealed inside a crucible. The samples were later baked out to determine water wt% and in turn volatile loss by following ASTM standard practices. Of the twelve tests, four sealed properly and lost an average of 30% of their available water during drilling and transfer. The variability in the results correlated well with ambient temperature (lower the temperature lower volatiles loss) and the trend agreed with the sublimation rates for the

  17. The Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  18. MAPPING LANDSLIDES IN LUNAR IMPACT CRATERS USING CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS AND DEM’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yordanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological slope failure processes have been observed on the Moon surface for decades, nevertheless a detailed and exhaustive lunar landslide inventory has not been produced yet. For a preliminary survey, WAC images and DEM maps from LROC at 100 m/pixels have been exploited in combination with the criteria applied by Brunetti et al. (2015 to detect the landslides. These criteria are based on the visual analysis of optical images to recognize mass wasting features. In the literature, Chebyshev polynomials have been applied to interpolate crater cross-sections in order to obtain a parametric characterization useful for classification into different morphological shapes. Here a new implementation of Chebyshev polynomial approximation is proposed, taking into account some statistical testing of the results obtained during Least-squares estimation. The presence of landslides in lunar craters is then investigated by analyzing the absolute values off odd coefficients of estimated Chebyshev polynomials. A case study on the Cassini A crater has demonstrated the key-points of the proposed methodology and outlined the required future development to carry out.

  19. Mapping Landslides in Lunar Impact Craters Using Chebyshev Polynomials and Dem's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, V.; Scaioni, M.; Brunetti, M. T.; Melis, M. T.; Zinzi, A.; Giommi, P.

    2016-06-01

    Geological slope failure processes have been observed on the Moon surface for decades, nevertheless a detailed and exhaustive lunar landslide inventory has not been produced yet. For a preliminary survey, WAC images and DEM maps from LROC at 100 m/pixels have been exploited in combination with the criteria applied by Brunetti et al. (2015) to detect the landslides. These criteria are based on the visual analysis of optical images to recognize mass wasting features. In the literature, Chebyshev polynomials have been applied to interpolate crater cross-sections in order to obtain a parametric characterization useful for classification into different morphological shapes. Here a new implementation of Chebyshev polynomial approximation is proposed, taking into account some statistical testing of the results obtained during Least-squares estimation. The presence of landslides in lunar craters is then investigated by analyzing the absolute values off odd coefficients of estimated Chebyshev polynomials. A case study on the Cassini A crater has demonstrated the key-points of the proposed methodology and outlined the required future development to carry out.

  20. Bipolar-pulses observed by the LRS/WFC-L onboard KAGUYA - Plausible evidence of lunar dust impact -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Horie, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Kozo; Omura, Yoshiharu; Goto, Yoshitaka; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Lrs/Wfc Team; Map/Lmag Team

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: The waveform capture (WFC) [1] is one of the subsystems of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) [2] on board the KAGUYA spacecraft. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC measures plasma waves and radio emis-sions around the moon. The WFC measures two components of electric wave signals detected by the two orthogonal 30 m tip-to-tip antennas from 100Hz to 1MHz. The WFC consists of the WFC-L which meas-ures electric waveform from 100Hz to 100kHz, and the WFC-H which is a fast sweep frequency analyz-er covering from 1kHz up to 1MHz. The WFC-L has two operation modes: DIFF and MONO. In DIFF mode, signals from two pairs of 30m tip-to-tip dipole antennas are obtained. MONO mode is namely an interferometry mode and we separately measure the signals from a pair of monopole antennas. This mode is dedicated to measure the phase velocities and wave numbers of plasma waves. Bipolar-pulses with their time scales of a few ms upto several tens ms were often observed by the WFC-L. Some of them are classified into elec-trostatic solitary waves (ESW) [3], while another type of bipolar pulses which are supposed to be caused by lunar dust impacts are also observed. In the present paper, we introduce the latter type of bipolar-pulses. Observation: In general, ESWs are caused by electron-holes in the nonlinear evolution of electron beam instability. Therefore waveform of ESW is basically symmetric and its propagation direction is parallel to the am-bient magnetic field. On the other hand, another type of bipolar pulses are characterized by their asymmetric waveforms, that is, the latter half of pulse is longer than the first half. It is also noted that detection probability of such asymmetric bipolar pulses in MONO mode is much higher than that in DIFF mode. This is because bipolar pulses detected by a pair of monopole antennas in MONO mode are almost identical (pulses are simultaneously detected with both monopole anten-nas and the polarities of these pulses are also

  1. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  2. No Consensus About the Early History of the Lunar Impact Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurette, Michel

    A French word, “errance” (the straightforward approximate English translation is wandering) well describes the functioning of the mind when you do not know where you are going. You feel dumb just knowing that you will probably end up somewhere else. Then, you bury this shameful weakness of your neuronal system in the deepest secrecy and start again hunting for good data. However, this is an essential step of scientific inquiry, which is illustrated here below just wandering about the meaning of lunar cratering rates and the origin of comets, which are intimately interwoven with the early history of the solar system and in particular with the phenomenon of debris disk around stars.

  3. Lunar and Mars Exploration: The Autonomy Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Cynthia M.; Schuh, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Long duration space flight crews have relied heavily on almost constant communication with ground control mission support. Ground control teams provide vehicle status and system monitoring, while offering near real time support for specific tasks, emergencies, and ensuring crew health and well being. With extended exploration goals to lunar and Mars outposts, real time communication with ground control teams and the ground s ability to conduct mission monitoring will be very limited compared to the resources provided to current International Space Station (ISS) crews. An operational shift toward more autonomy and a heavier reliance on the crew to monitor their vehicle and operations will be required for these future missions. NASA s future exploration endeavors and the subsequent increased autonomy will require a shift in crew skill composition, i.e. engineer, doctor, mission specialist etc. and lead to new training challenges and mission scenarios. Specifically, operational and design changes will be necessary in many areas including: Habitat Infrastructure and Support Systems, Crew Composition, Training, Procedures and Mission Planning. This paper will specifically address how to apply ISS lessons learned to further use ISS as a test bed to address decreased amounts of ground support to achieve full autonomous operations for lunar and Mars missions. Understanding these lessons learned and applying them to current operations will help to address the future impacts of increased crew autonomy for the lunar and Mars outposts and pave the way for success in increasingly longer mission durations.

  4. Lunar impact flashes from Geminids, analysis of luminous efficiencies and the flux of large meteoroids on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Jose L; Morales, Nicolas; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Aceituno, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    We analyze lunar impact flashes recorded by our team during runs in December 2007, 2011, 2013 and 2014. In total, 12 impact flashes with magnitudes ranging between 7.1 and 9.3 in V band were identified. From these, 9 events could be linked to the Geminid stream. Using these observations the ratio of luminous energy emitted in the flashes with respect to the kinetic energy of the impactors for meteoroids of the Geminid stream is estimated. By making use of the known Geminids meteoroid flux on Earth we found this ratio to be 2.1x10$^{-3}$ on average. We compare this luminous efficiency with other estimations derived in the past for other meteoroid streams and also compare it with other estimations that we present here for the first time by making use of crater diameter measurements. We think that the luminous efficiency has to be revised downward, not upward, at least for sporadic impacts. This implies an increase in the influx of kilogram-sized and larger bodies on Earth that has been derived thus far through ...

  5. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  6. The Effect of Pre-Impact Porosity and Vertical Density Gradients on the Gravity Signature of Lunar Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Colleen; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Collins, Gareth S.; Blair, David M.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Nimmo, Francis; Phillips, Roger J.; Bierson, Carver J.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-11-01

    As a result of NASA’s dual spacecraft Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission [Zuber et al., 2013; doi:10.1126/science.1231507], we now know that the lunar crust is highly porous and that the porosity varies laterally [Wieczorek et al., 2013; doi:10.1126/science.1231530] and vertically [Besserer et al., 2014; doi:10.1002/2014GL060240]. Analysis of complex craters located within the lunar highlands reveals that: 1) craters larger than diameter D~210 have positive Bouguer Anomalies (BAs), 2) craters with D ≲ 100 km have both positive and negative BAs that vary about the (near 0) mean by approximately ± 25 mGal, and, 3) D and BA are anticorrelated for craters with D ≲ 100 km [Soderblom et al., 2015; doi:10.1002/2015GL065022]. Numerical modeling by Milbury et al. [2015, LPSC] shows that pre-impact porosity is the dominant influence on the gravity signature of complex craters with D ≲ 100 km, and mantle uplift dominates the gravity for those with D > 140 km. Phillips et al. [2015, LPSC] showed that complex craters located in the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin tend to have more-negative BAs than similar craters in the highlands. We use the iSALE hydrocode including pore space compaction [Wünnemann et al., 2006; doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.10.013] and dilatant bulking [Collins, 2014; doi:10.1002/2014JE004708] to understand how the gravity signature of impact craters develop. In this study we vary crustal porosity with depth. We find that simulations that have constant porosity with depth have a lower BA for a given crater diameter than those with the same mean porosity, but that vary with depth. We used two different mean porosities (7% and 14%) and found that the BA increases with increasing porosity, similar to simulations with constant porosity. We reproduce the observed anticorrelation between BA and D for D ≲ 100 km only for simulations where the pre-impact porosity is zero or low. Our results support the observation that SPA has lower

  7. Origin of strong lunar magnetic anomalies: Further mapping and examinations of LROC imagery in regions antipodal to young large impact basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lon L.; Richmond, Nicola C.; Spudis, Paul D.

    2013-06-01

    The existence of magnetization signatures and landform modification antipodal to young lunar impact basins is investigated further by (a) producing more detailed regional crustal magnetic field maps at low altitudes using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data; and (b) examining Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera imagery. Of the eight youngest lunar basins, five are found to have concentrations of relatively strong magnetic anomalies centered within 10° of their antipodes. This includes the polar Schrödinger basin, which is one of the three youngest basins and has not previously been investigated in this context. Unusual terrain is also extensively present near the antipodes of the two largest basins (Orientale and Imbrium) while less pronounced manifestations of this terrain may be present near the antipodes of Serenitatis and Schrödinger. The area near the Imbrium antipode is characterized by enhanced surface thorium abundances, which may be a consequence of antipodal deposition of ejecta from Imbrium. The remaining three basins either have antipodal regions that have been heavily modified by later events (Hertzsprung and Bailly) or are not clearly recognized to be a true basin (Sikorsky-Rittenhouse). The most probable source of the Descartes anomaly, which is the strongest isolated magnetic anomaly, is the hilly and furrowed Descartes terrain near the Apollo 16 landing site, which has been inferred to consist of basin ejecta, probably from Imbrium according to one recent sample study. A model for the origin of both the modified landforms and the magnetization signatures near lunar basin antipodes involving shock effects of converging ejecta impacts is discussed.

  8. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  9. Improvements of VIIRS and MODIS Solar Diffuser and Lunar Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Lei, Ning; Sun, Junqiang; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng; McIntire, Jeff; Angal, Amit Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Both VIIRS and MODIS instruments use solar diffuser (SD) and lunar observations to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB). A solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is used to track the SD on-orbit degradation. On-orbit observations have shown similar wavelength-dependent SD degradation (larger at shorter VIS wavelengths) and SDSM detector response degradation (larger at longer NIR wavelengths) for both VIIRS and MODIS instruments. In general, the MODIS scan mirror has experienced more degradation in the VIS spectral region whereas the VIIRS rotating telescope assembly (RTA) mirrors have seen more degradation in the NIR and SWIR spectral region. Because of this wavelength dependent mirror degradation, the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) needs to be modulated. Due to differences between the solar and lunar spectral irradiance, the modulated RSR could have different effects on the SD and lunar calibration. In this paper, we identify various factors that should be considered for the improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar and lunar calibration and examine their potential impact. Specifically, we will characterize and assess the calibration impact due to SD and SDSM attenuation screen transmission (uncertainty), SD BRF uncertainty and onorbit degradation, SDSM detector response degradation, and modulated RSR resulting from the sensor's optics degradation. Also illustrated and discussed in this paper are the calibration strategies implemented in the VIIRS and MODIS SD and lunar calibrations and efforts that could be made for future improvements.

  10. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  11. Monitoring impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D

    2011-08-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children IVANHOE study was initiated to determine the real-world impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine following introduction in a limited geographic area. This study found a twofold reduction in rotavirus hospitalizations among children <2 years of age who were age-eligible to receive rotavirus vaccine and a 98% vaccine effectiveness, highlighting the health benefits of a vaccination program.

  12. Climate Change Resulting from Lunar Impact in the Year 1178 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman D. W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In June of the year 1178, an impact was observed on the Moon. Within a few years, Europe experienced a climatic event known as the Little Ice Age. Calculations of the reduction in sunlight due to dust in high earth orbit are consistent with the historical temperature decrease. Other past temperature reductions may have resulted from similar impacts on the Moon.

  13. Damage monitoring and impact detection using optical fiber vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. C.; Han, K. S.

    2002-06-01

    Intensity-based optical fiber vibrations sensors (OFVSs) are used in damage monitoring of fiber-reinforced plastics, in vibration sensing, and location of impacts. OFVSs were constructed by placing two cleaved fiber ends in a capillary tube. This sensor is able to monitor structural vibrations. For vibration sensing, the optical fiber sensor was mounted on the carbon fiber reinforced composite beam, and its response was investigated for free and forced vibration. For locating impact points, four OFVSs were placed at chosen positions and the different arrival times of impact-generated vibration signals were recorded. The impact location can be determined from these time delays. Indentation and tensile tests were performed with the measurement of the optical signal and acoustic emission (AE). The OFVSs accurately detected both free and forced vibration signals. Accurate locations of impact were determined on an acrylate plate. It was found that damage information, comparable in quality to AE data, could be obtained from the OFVS signals.

  14. Impact Cratering Experiment for a Course in Lunar and Planetary Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eugene; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described is an inexpensive and safe laboratory experiment that accurately duplicates the shapes and structures of simple impact craters using fireplace ash, finely ground charcoal, and an air gun. (Author/DS)

  15. Defining a Need for Assessing the Extraterrestrial Environmental Impacts of Lunar Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, W. R.

    2016-11-01

    Protocols guiding an extraterrestrial environmental impact assessment process are warranted. Industry-developed and -managed standards and an environmental code of conduct based, in part, on best management practices are proposed.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Effects of Impacts: Shock and Awe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Koeberl, C.

    2004-01-01

    This document discusses the following topics: Zircon as a Shock Indicator in Impactites of Drill Core Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub Impact Structure, Mexico; Experimental Investigation of Shock Effects in a Metapelitic Granulite; Experimental Reproduction of Shock Veins in Single-Crystal Minerals; Post-Shock Crystal-Plastic Processes in Quartz from Crystalline Target Rocks of the Charlevoix Impact Structure; Shock Reequilibration of Fluid Inclusions; How Does Tektite Glass Lose Its Water?; Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments; A Mineralogical and Geochemical Study of the Nonmarine Permian/Triassic Boundary in the Southern Karoo Basin, South Africa; Extraterrestrial Chromium in the Permian-Triassic Boundary at Graphite Peak, Antarctica; Magnetic Fe,Si,Al-rich Impact Spherules from the P-T Boundary Layer at Graphite Peak, Antarctica; A Newly Recognized Late Archean Impact Spherule Layer in the Reivilo Formation, Griqualand West Basin, South Africa; Initial Cr-Isotopic and Iridium Measurements of Concentrates from Late Eocene Cpx-Spherule Deposits; An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data.

  17. Lunar formation. Dating the Moon-forming impact event with asteroidal meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W F; Vokrouhlický, D; Marchi, S; Swindle, T; Scott, E R D; Weirich, J R; Levison, H

    2015-04-17

    The inner solar system's biggest and most recent known collision was the Moon-forming giant impact between a large protoplanet and proto-Earth. Not only did it create a disk near Earth that formed the Moon, it also ejected several percent of an Earth mass out of the Earth-Moon system. Here, we argue that numerous kilometer-sized ejecta fragments from that event struck main-belt asteroids at velocities exceeding 10 kilometers per second, enough to heat and degas target rock. Such impacts produce ~1000 times more highly heated material by volume than do typical main belt collisions at ~5 kilometers per second. By modeling their temporal evolution, and fitting the results to ancient impact heating signatures in stony meteorites, we infer that the Moon formed ~4.47 billion years ago, which is in agreement with previous estimates. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Constraints on the Impact-Accreted Carapace Hypothesis for the Lunar Farside Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. H.

    2012-03-01

    The recent proposal that the an impact-accreted carapace accounts for the greater thickness of the Moon's farside highlands crust is not plausible. The carapace would not have appropriately low density, nor the appropriate Al_2O_3-rich composition.

  19. Lunar-Forming Giant Impact Model Utilizing Modern Graphics Processing Units

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. C. Eiland; T. C. Salzillo; B. H. Hokr; J. L. Highland; W. D. Mayfield; B. M. Wyatt

    2014-12-01

    Recent giant impact models focus on producing a circumplanetary disk of the proper composition around the Earth and defer to earlier works for the accretion of this disk into the Moon. The discontinuity between creating the circumplanetary disk and accretion of the Moon is unnatural and lacks simplicity. In addition, current giant impact theories are being questioned due to their inability to find conditions that will produce a system with both the proper angular momentum and a resultant Moon that is isotopically similar to the Earth. Here we return to first principles and produce a continuous model that can be used to rapidly search the vast impact parameter space to identify plausible initial conditions. This is accomplished by focusing on the three major components of planetary collisions: constant gravitational attraction, short range repulsion and energy transfer. The structure of this model makes it easily parallelizable and well-suited to harness the power of modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The model makes clear the physically relevant processes, and allows a physical picture to naturally develop. We conclude by demonstrating how the model readily produces stable Earth–Moon systems from a single, continuous simulation. The resultant systems possess many desired characteristics such as an iron-deficient, heterogeneously-mixed Moon and accurate axial tilt of the Earth.

  20. Recommended protocols for monitoring impacts of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The behaviour of birds in relation to turbine locations are routinely monitored to determine risk factors. Baseline information is typically gathered on birds that reside or migrate through an area to be developed. The purpose of this document was to provide proponents of wind turbine projects with information on the types of protocols likely to be used for baseline studies and follow-up monitoring at proposed wind turbine sites in order to evaluate the impacts of wind turbines on birds. It is intended to facilitate the comparison of data among wind power projects. In order to meet federal environmental assessment requirements, proponents may also be required to follow-up on the actual impact of the installation on birds. This document described methods for collecting field data as well as pre-construction baseline sample methods that might be expected as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Follow-up monitoring should be undertaken during the breeding season, non-breeding season, and at offshore locations. This document also discussed the need to monitor prospective wind turbine sites to determine whether any of the sites present an elevated risk for substantial bat mortality. An overview of post-construction follow-up studies was also provided for carcass searches and collision studies. Details on some of the sampling protocols that are likely to be appropriate for bird monitoring in the context of wind turbine environmental assessment were presented with reference to searches, standardized area searches, distance sampling, behavioural studies, point counts, microphone point counts, playback counts, stopover counts, passage migration counts, acoustic monitoring of migrating birds, radar monitoring, carcass searches, and estimating collisions using other methods. This document also included codes for breeding evidence and a sample data sheet for ten minute point counts. 3 appendices.

  1. The challenges of empirical impact prediction with monitored drought indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Kerstin; Bachmair, Sophie; Blauhut, Veit; Kohn, Irene; Tijdeman, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning still relies primarily on drought indicators selected or combined from hydro-meteorological variables, such as precipitation, modeled soil moisture, observed or modeled streamflow, and in some cases remotely sensed vegetation health. To guide the selection and give these indices more meaning for drought management decisions, a number of studies have investigated empirically the linkage between these indices and records of drought impact occurrence. These studies have been inspired by the damage function approach employed in risk assessments of other natural hazards. In this contribution we systematically review and assess the feasibility of finding impact-indicator link functions suitable for prediction. Impact information was derived from large archives of text-based, coded impact reports, such as the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter and link functions were analyzed at various spatial scales for various subsets of impact types and drought events. The identified challenges include the rapid decrease of data when subsetting for specific impact sectors or smaller spatial areas, the choice of the link model, and a variety of potential dynamic changes to the underlying conditions between and even during drought events. Based on the assessment, recommendations for a successful and applicable link model include in particular a careful pre-processing of index and impact data and more systematic impact data collection in the future.

  2. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  3. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  4. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  5. Recommended protocols for monitoring impacts of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-28

    The proponent of a wind-powered generating station may be required to gather baseline information on birds that reside or migrate through the area to be developed. Proponents may also be required follow-up on the actual impact of the installation on the birds in order to fulfil the requirements of a federal environmental assessment. In order to evaluate impacts of wind turbines on birds, information was provided to proponents on the types of protocols likely to be useful for baseline studies and follow-up monitoring at proposed wind turbine sites. Uses of the document, field data collection, and reporting requirements were first discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of pre-construction baseline sample methods that might be expected as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment process. This information was presented according to monitoring during breeding season, non-breeding season, and offshore locations. Monitoring prospective wind turbine sites to determine whether any of the sites present an elevated risk for substantial bat mortality was also discussed. An overview of post-construction follow-up studies was provided for breeding season, non-breeding season, carcass searches and collision studies. The first appendix provided further details on some of the sampling protocols that are likely to be appropriate for bird monitoring in the context of wind turbine environmental assessment. These include area searches, standardized area searches, distance sampling, behavioural studies, point counts, microphone point counts, playback counts, stopover counts, passage migration counts, acoustic monitoring of migrating birds, radar monitoring, carcass searches, and estimating collisions using other methods. Codes for breeding evidence and a sample data sheet for ten minute point counts were also provides in appendices. 3 appendices.

  6. Magnetic anomalies in the Imbrium and Schrödinger impact basins: Orbital evidence for persistence of the lunar core dynamo into the Imbrian epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Spudis, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Approximate maps of the lunar crustal magnetic field at low altitudes in the vicinities of the three Imbrian-aged impact basins, Orientale, Schrödinger, and Imbrium, have been constructed using Lunar Prospector and Kaguya orbital magnetometer data. Detectable anomalies are confirmed to be present well within the rims of Imbrium and Schrödinger. Anomalies in Schrödinger are asymmetrically distributed about the basin center, while a single isolated anomaly is most clearly detected within Imbrium northwest of Timocharis crater. The subsurface within these basins was heated to high temperatures at the time of impact and required long time periods (up to 1 Myr) to cool below the Curie temperature for metallic iron remanence carriers (1043 K). Therefore, consistent with laboratory analyses of returned samples, a steady, long-lived magnetizing field, i.e., a former core dynamo, is inferred to have existed when these basins formed. The asymmetrical distribution within Schrödinger suggests partial demagnetization by later volcanic activity when the dynamo field was much weaker or nonexistent. However, it remains true that anomalies within Imbrian-aged basins are much weaker than those within most Nectarian-aged basins. The virtual absence of anomalies within Orientale where impact melt rocks (the Maunder Formation) are exposed at the surface is difficult to explain unless the dynamo field was much weaker during the Imbrian period.

  7. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  8. Synergism of He-3 acquisition with lunar base evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Thomas M.; Jacobs, Mark K.

    1988-09-01

    It is shown how acquisition of He-3 affects Lunar Base development and operation. A four phase evolutionary Lunar Base scenario is summarized with initial equipment mass and resupply requirements. Requirements for various He-3 mining operations are shown and available by-products are identified. Impacts of mining He-3 on Lunar Base development include increases in equipment masses to be delivered to the lunar surface and a reduction of Lunar Base resupply based on availability of He-3 acquisition by-products. It is concluded that the acquisition of this valuable fusion fuel element greatly enhances the commercial potential of a Lunar Base.

  9. Highly Siderophile and Chalcophile Elements in Lunar Impact Rocks: Constraints on the Composition of Late Accreted Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleißner, P.; Becker, H.

    2016-08-01

    HSE, Te, Se and S composition of ancient lunar impactites reveal the late accretion of chondrite-like material along with differentiated core metal. HSE patterns are consistent with parent body P/S ratios higher than most magmatic iron meteorites.

  10. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  11. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra of Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step-heating and their bearing on the history of lunar basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. B.; Ryder, Graham

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported on 26 high-resolution (16-51 steps) Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra obtained on 12 Apollo-15 melt rocks of different composition using a continuous laser system on submg fragments of recrystallized melt and single-crystal plagioclase clasts from impact melt rocks collected at the Apennine Front where the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins intersect. A table is presented with the summary of the Ar-40/Ar-39 spectrum data, which represent 891 individual temperature step analyses. Also presented are 20 of the 26 age spectra along with their respective K/Ca plots. Melt rock fragments and plagioclase clasts from seven of the 12 samples analyzed yielded reproducible, intermediate-T Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateaus, which were interpreted as crystallization ages that represent the times of impact of bolides onto the lunar surface.

  13. From Muons to the Moon; the Role of Particle Physics and Lunar Tides in Monitoring Geostorage of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, J.; Telfer, S.; Spooner, N.; Paling, S.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Thompson, L.; Mitchell, C.; Coleman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The theoretical feasibility of using muon tomography for continuous monitoring of injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep geological storage for carbon storage as a climate change mitigation technology has been proven already (Kudryavtsev etal., 2012). Although theoretically feasible it is essential to take the next step and prove its practical feasibility. Our new approach is attractive since today most monitoring techniques are expensive, require active acquisition and are applied episodically. This is particularly the case for offshore storage sites where repeat seismic surveys are currently the only common monitoring option and for which costs will run to many tens or possibly hundreds of millions of dollars over the full life cycle of a site. The basis of our approach is that high energy, cosmic ray induced muons are highly penetrative and have been recorded in deep mines. They are attenuated by density thickness and hence can be used to image density changes such as those associated with replacing more dense brine in a deep formation with less dense phase CO2. As a first practical test of feasibility we are using the Palmer Laboratory located in the deep Boulby Potash Mine in northern England provides us with a unique environment in which to measure muon fluxes, develop and deploy instrumentation and test the sensitivity of our method. The shaft for the mine is located onshore but many of the galleries extend up to 7km offshore at depths below surface of between 0.7 and 1.6km. The geology of the overburden is like that chosen for CO2 injection in the southern North Sea and we have already detected muons in the mine. This makes it an ideal test-site to validate the sensitivity of the model before deploying a muon detector for active service in a CO2 injection well. The offshore part of Boulby Mine provides the ideal location for the ultimate sensitivity test as well as being able to test detectors for long periods in harsh environments. The neap

  14. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  15. Lunar science: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stuart Ross Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Before spacecraft exploration,facts about the Moon were restricted to information about the lunar orbit,angular momentum and density.Speculations about composition and origin were unconstrained.Naked eye and telescope observations revealed two major terrains,the old heavily cratered highlands and the younger mostly circular,lightly cratered maria.The lunar highlands were thought to be composed of granite or covered with volcanic ash-flows.The maria were thought to be sediments,or were full of dust,and possibly only a few million years old.A few perceptive observers such as Ralph Baldwin (Baldwin 1949)concluded that the maria were filled with volcanic lavas, but the absence of terrestrial-type central volcanoes like Hawaii was a puzzle. The large circular craters were particularly difficult to interpret.Some thought,even after the Apollo flights,that they were some analogue to terrestrial caldera (e.g.,Green 1971),formed by explosive volcanic activity and that the central peaks were volcanoes.The fact that the craters were mostly circular was difficult to accommodate if they were due to meteorite impact,as meteorites would hit the Moon at all angles.The rilles were taken by many as de finitive evidence that there was or had been,running water on the lunar surface.Others such as Carl Sagan thought that organic compounds were likely present (see Taylor 1975,p.111,note 139).

  16. Lunar Soil Constitutive Model and Finite Element Modeling for Landing Impact Simulation%着陆冲击仿真月壤本构模型及有限元建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁东平; 柴洪友

    2012-01-01

    为建立合理的月壤有限元模型用于着陆器着陆冲击动力学仿真分析,在对已知月壤的相关力学特性参数和试验数据进行分析推理的基础上,推断出月壤屈服面在低围压条件下可能会呈现出剪切膨胀特性,而在高围压条件下则可能会呈现出塑性压缩和应变硬化特性,因此定性地选择帽盖德鲁克-普拉格(Cap Drucker-Prager,CDP)模型作为月壤本构模型。模型的参数通过月壤或模拟月壤的试验数据定量地标定。对着陆器地面着陆冲击试验进行有限元建模和仿真分析,仿真结果表明:模型参数的标定方法是合理可行的;CDP模型可以准确模拟月壤在着陆冲击载荷下的动力学响应,可用于着陆冲击动力学仿真月壤有限元建模。对月壤模型参数进行了参数分析,并评估了月壤模型参数对着陆器着陆冲击性能的影响。%The purpose of this study is to construct finite element model of lunar soil for landing impact simulation of lunar lander.Based on the analysis of the known mechanical properties and tri-axial test data of lunar soil sample,it is found that lunar soil may exhibit shear-induced dilation at low confining pressure and plastic compression and strain hardening at high confining pressure.Cap Drucker-Prager(CDP) model is selected as the constitutive model of lunar soil according to the previous qualitative analysis,and the model parameters are calibrated quantitatively by test data of lunar soil or lunar soil stimulants.Finite element modeling and simulation analysis of lunar lander landing impact tests are conducted,the results indicate that calibration methods of model parameters are practical and reasonable.Dynamic response behaviors of lunar soil under landing impact condition can be accurately simulated by CDP model,and the model can be used for lunar soil finite element modeling.Parameters analysis of lunar soil model is conducted,and effects of parameters of lunar

  17. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of lunar impact melt breccias: Implications for the late accretion history of the Moon and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchtel, Igor S.; Walker, Richard J.; James, Odette B.; Kring, David A.

    2008-06-01

    To characterize the compositions of materials accreted to the Earth-Moon system between about 4.5 and 3.8 Ga, we have determined Os isotopic compositions and some highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd) abundances in 48 subsamples of six lunar breccias. These are: Apollo 17 poikilitic melt breccias 72395 and 76215; Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias 73215 and 73255; Apollo 14 polymict breccia 14321; and lunar meteorite NWA482, a crystallized impact melt. Plots of Ir versus other HSE define excellent linear correlations, indicating that all data sets likely represent dominantly two-component mixtures of a low-HSE target, presumably endogenous component, and a high-HSE, presumably exogenous component. Linear regressions of these trends yield intercepts that are statistically indistinguishable from zero for all HSE, except for Ru and Pd in two samples. The slopes of the linear regressions are insensitive to target rock contributions of Ru and Pd of the magnitude observed; thus, the trendline slopes approximate the elemental ratios present in the impactor components contributed to these rocks. The 187Os/188Os and regression-derived elemental ratios for the Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias and the lunar meteorite indicate that the impactor components in these samples have close affinities to chondritic meteorites. The HSE in the Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias, however, might partially or entirely reflect the HSE characteristics of HSE-rich granulitic breccia clasts that were incorporated in the impact melt at the time of its creation. In this case, the HSE characteristics of these rocks may reflect those of an impactor that predated the impact event that led to the creation of the melt breccias. The impactor components in the Apollo 17 poikilitic melt breccias and in the Apollo 14 breccia have higher 187Os/188Os, Pt/Ir, and Ru/Ir and lower Os/Ir than most chondrites. These compositions suggest that the impactors they represent were chemically

  18. Lunar sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  19. Geological mapping of impact melt deposits at lunar complex craters Jackson and Tycho: Morphologic and topographic diversity and relation to the cratering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2017-02-01

    High resolution geological mapping, aided by imagery and elevation data from the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) and Kaguya missions, has revealed the scientifically rich character of impact melt deposits at two young complex craters: Jackson (71 km) and Tycho (85 km). The morphology and distribution of mapped impact melt units provide several insights into the cratering process. We report elevation differences (>200 m) among large, coherent floor sections within a single crater and interpret them to be caused by crater wall collapse and/or large scale structural failure of the floor region. Clast-poor, smooth melt deposits are correlated with floor sections at lower elevations and likely represent ponded deposits sourced from higher elevation regions (viz. crater walls). In addition, these deposits are also located in the inferred downrange direction of the impact. Melt-coated large blocks spanning several kilometers are common on the crater floors and may represent collapsed wall sections or in some cases, subdued sections of the central peaks. Spatial trends in the mapped impact melt units at the two craters provide clues to decipher the conditions during each impact event and subsequent evolution of the crater floor.

  20. Automatic extraction of lunar impact craters from Chang'E images based on Hough transform and RANSAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongfei; Kang, Zhizhong

    2016-03-01

    This article proposed an algorithm combining Hough transform and RANSAC algorithm for automatic extraction of lunar craters. (1) In order to suppress noise, the images were filtered; (2) The edge of image were extracted, subsequently, eliminate false edge points by qualifying the gradient direction and the area of connected domain; (3) The edge images were segmented through Hough transform, gathering the same crater edge points together; (4) The edge images after segmentation were fitted using RANSAC algorithm, getting the high precision parameter. High precision of the algorithm was verified by the experiments of images acquired by the Chang'E-1 satellites.

  1. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  2. Meteoroids Impact the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Most meteoroids are broken up by Earth's atmosphere before they reach the ground. The Moon, however, has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact they excavate a crater and generate a plume of debris. A flash of light at the moment of impact can also be seen. Meteoroids striking the Moon create an impact flash observable by telescopes here on Earth. NASA observers use telescopes at the Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALaMO) to routinely monitor the Moon for impact flashes each month when the lunar phase is right. Flashes recorded by two telescope simultaneously rule out false signals from cosmic rays and satellites. Over 400 impact flashes have been observed by NASA since 2005. This map shows the location of each flash. No observations are made near the poles or center line. On average, one impact is observed every two hours. The brightest and longest-lasting impact flash was observed in Mare Imbrium on March 17, 2013. The imaging satellite Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, in orbit around the Moon, discovered the fresh crater created by this impact. The crater is 60 across and was caused by a meteoroid 9 inches in diameter likely traveling at a speed of 57,000 mph!

  3. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  4. Can clinical tests help monitor human papillomavirus vaccine impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, Elissa; Lin, Carol; Unger, Elizabeth R; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan

    2013-09-01

    As immunization programs for human papillomavirus (HPV) are implemented more widely around the world, interest is increasing in measuring their impact. One early measurable impact of HPV vaccine is on the prevalence of specific HPV types in a population. In low-resource settings, a potentially attractive strategy would be to monitor HPV prevalence using clinical cervical cancer screening test results to triage specimens for HPV typing. We assessed this approach in a nationally representative population of U.S. females aged 14-59 years. Using self-collected cervico-vaginal swab specimens from 4,150 women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2003-2006, we evaluated type-specific HPV prevalence detected by the Roche linear array (LA) research test on all specimens, compared with type-specific HPV prevalence detected by LA conducted only on specimens positive by the digene hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) clinical test. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and examined relative type-specific HPV prevalence according to the two testing approaches. The population prevalence of oncogenic HPV vaccine types 16/18 was 6.2% (CI:5.4-7.1) by LA if all specimens were tested, and 2.4% (CI:1.9-3.0) if restricted to positive HC-2. Relative prevalence of individual HPV types was similar for both approaches. Compared with typing all specimens, a triage approach would require testing fewer specimens, but a greater reduction in HPV prevalence or a larger group of specimens would be needed to detect vaccine impact. Further investigation is warranted to inform type-specific HPV monitoring approaches around the world.

  5. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  6. International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K. Bruce; Horack, John M.; Nall, Mark; Leahy, Bart. D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration commits the United States to return astronauts to the moon by 2020 using the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. Like the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s, this effort will require preliminary reconnaissance in the form of robotic landers and probes. Unlike Apollo, some of the data NASA will rely upon to select landing sites and conduct science will be based on international missions as well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for international cooperation on the moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 orbiter (Figure 1) is making the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It is also investigating the impact theory of the moon's formation.'

  7. The Effect of Pre-Impact Porosity and Vertical Density Gradients on the Gravity Signature of Lunar Craters as Seen by GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, C.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H., IV; Collins, G. S.; Blair, D. M.; Soderblom, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Bierson, C. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    As a result of NASA's dual spacecraft Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission [Zuber et al., 2013; doi:10.1126/science.1231507], we now know that the lunar crust is highly porous and that the porosity varies laterally [Wieczorek et al., 2013; doi:10.1126/science.1231530] and vertically [Besserer et al., 2014; doi:10.1002/2014GL060240]. Analysis of complex craters located within the lunar highlands reveals that: 1) craters larger than diameter D~210 have positive Bouguer Anomalies (BAs), 2) craters with D ≲ 100 km have both positive and negative BAs that vary about the (near 0) mean by approximately ± 25 mGal, and, 3) D and BA are anticorrelated for craters with D ≲ 100 km [Soderblom et al., 2015; submitted]. Numerical modeling by Milbury et al. [2015, LPSC] shows that pre-impact porosity is the dominant influence on the gravity signature of complex craters with D ≲ 100 km, and mantle uplift dominates the gravity for those with D > 140 km. Phillips et al. [2015, LPSC] showed that complex craters located in the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin tend to have more-negative BAs than similar craters in the highlands. By including (pre-impact) vertical porosity/density gradients in our impact simulations, we reproduce the observed anticorrelation between BA and D for D ≲ 100 km, and the observed difference between the BAs of SPA and highland craters. We use the iSALE hydrocode including pore space compaction [Wünnemann et al., 2006; doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.10.013] and dilatant bulking [Collins, 2014; doi:10.1002/2014JE004708] to understand how the gravity signature of impact craters develop. In this study we vary density/porosity with depth. We find that simulations that have constant porosity with depth have a lower BA for a given crater diameter than those with varying porosity. We used two different mean porosities (7% and 14%) and found that the BA increases with increasing porosity, similar to simulations with constant porosity. Larger

  8. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  9. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test.

  10. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  11. Large Meteoroid Impact on the Moon 17 March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, Danielle; Cooke, William J.; Kingery, Aaron; Kring, David A.; Suggs, Ronnie J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's routine monitoring of lunar impact flashes has recorded nearly 300 impacts since 2006. On 17 March 2013 the brightest event to date was observed in two 0.35m telescopes at the Marshall Space Flight Center. With a peak red magnitude brighter than 4.3 and an impact flash visible for over 1 second, the impact kinetic energy was equivalent to nearly 5 tons of TNT. A possible association with a meteor shower observed in the Earth's atmosphere will be described. Corresponding crater dimensions and observability of the impact crater by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will also be discussed.

  12. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  13. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  14. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  15. Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support extended lunar operations, precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. A...

  16. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  17. Monitoring the impact of urbanisation on the Glinscica stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon; Vidmar, Andrej

    Stream flow regimes are determined by watershed characteristics: climate, geology, topography, soil, vegetation and human activities. In the process of urbanisation, natural land surfaces are replaced by man made artificial coverage, such as paved roads, parking lots and roofs, which usually also implies vegetation clearing and soil compaction. Gutters, drains and storm sewers are built to accelerate the conveyance of runoff to stream channels, thus affecting the drainage system. The impact of urbanisation is complex and affects different elements of the hydrological cycle. The commonly observed hydrological responses of the watershed to urbanization are increased volume and peak of floodwaters. Concerning the ecological status of stream water, the intensified rainfall runoff induces increased pollution risks and diminishes the value of the stream water body as a habitat, especially during dry periods. In order to improve the flood safety, the regulations of the stream channel have further devaluated the ecological role of the urban streams. The magnitude of the impact is usually enlarged with the decrease in the stream size. The present paper aims at presenting the results of a two-year study monitoring the impacts of the urban environment on the watershed of the Glinscica stream situated in the central part of Slovenia. The study area of 19.3 km 2 represents a great complexity in terms of the land use pattern. The watershed was equipped with three rainfall stations, a Doppler velocity meter and a water quality multiprobe. In a short period of time more than 10 thunderstorm events were recorded and analyzed. The hydrological response of the watershed was analyzed and, interestingly, it did not show the “typical” urban impact on the runoff processes. The main water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, TDS, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and especially the concentrations of nitrate and ammonium, were measured to obtain an insight into seasonal and

  18. Impact of Telemedicine Monitoring of Community ICUs on Interhospital Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Jasleen; Sanghavi, Devang; Sheley, Todd; Schroeder, Darrell R; Kashyap, Rahul; Marquez, Alberto; Daniels, Craig E; Brown, Daniel R; Caples, Sean M

    2017-08-01

    To study the effects of tele-ICU monitoring on interhospital transfers from community-based ICUs to the quaternary care hospital at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. This is a retrospective review of data on interhospital transfers comparing trends prior to tele-ICU implementation to those following implementation. Tele-ICU programs are increasingly utilized to fill resource gaps in caring for critically ill patients. How such programs impact population and bed management within a healthcare system are not known. Mayo Clinic serves as quaternary referral care center for hospitals in the region within the Mayo Clinic Health System. In August 2013, we implemented tele-ICU monitoring at six Mayo Clinic Health System hospital ICUs. All adult ICU admissions during the study period (preimplementation phase: January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012; and postimplementation phase: January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014) in any of the six specified community ICUs were included in the study. Interhospital transfers significantly increased post institution of tele-ICU (p = 0.040) and was attributed primarily to transfer from less specialized ICUs (p = 0.037) as compared with more resource-intensive ICUs (p = 0.88). However, for such patient transfers, there were no significant differences before and after severity of illness scores, ICU mortality, or inhospital mortality. In a regional healthcare system, implementation of a tele-ICU program is associated with an increase in interhospital transfers from less resourced ICUs to the referral center, a trend that is not readily explained by increased severity of illness.

  19. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Basu

    2005-06-01

    Back scattered electron and transmission electron imaging of lunar soil grains reveal an abundance of submicrometer-sized pure Fe00 globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the submillimeter sized vesicular glass-cemented grains called agglutinates. Grain rinds are amorphous silicates that were deposited on grains exposed at the lunar surface from transient vapors produced by hypervelocity micrometeorite impacts. Fe0 may have dissociated from Fe-compounds in a high temperature (< 3000°C) vapor phase and then condensed as globules on grain surfaces. The agglutinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils. Reduction by solar wind hydrogen in agglutinitic melts may have produced immiscible droplets that solidified as globules. The exact mechanism of formation of such Fe0 globules in lunar soils remains unresolved.

  20. Lunar electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, D.; Madden, T.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that the lunar magnetometer experiment has made important contributions to studies of the lunar interior. Numerical inversions of the lunar electromagnetic response have been carried out, taking into account a void region behind the moon. The amplitude of the transfer function of an eight-layer model is considered along with a model of the temperature distribution inside the moon and the amplitude of the transfer function of a semiconductor lunar model.

  1. Microcratering within the lunar regolith--a theory and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, E C; Berry, F D; Mitchell, F; Barron, D; Cohen, S H

    2000-01-01

    Since the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, there has been substantial analysis of the lunar rocks and soil grains, utilizing more recent advances in electron probe technologies. It is the objective of this research to revisit the theories concerning the microcratering within the lunar regolith. Recent theories have included the idea that the microcratering phenomenon was caused by meteoric impacting onto the lunar surface during early lunar history. Other theories have suggested that the microcratering was a result of secondary ejector associated with micrometeoric and meteoric impact. This research team suggests that microcratering may have been associated with primordial dust during and before the formation of our solar system.

  2. Science objectives in the lunar base advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1988-01-01

    The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a station on science. He considers the rationale for a lunar base, research on the Moon, and the definition of science objectives.

  3. Lunar Influences On Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario

    Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the Moon has also been hypothesised as a cause, but the associated energy is too small. The anomalistic period of the Moon (i.e., 27.5 days) coincides substantially with that of the sunspots found on the 17-18th parallel of the heliocentric latitude. Climatic modulation which lasts for around 27.5 days should be related to solar activity, which supplies energy with an amount of two orders of magnitude greater than the lunar-reflected energy. Another mechanism responsible for climatic variations is the redistribution of heat on the Earth. The Moon with the tides induces movement of the water masses of the oceans and with this there is a transport of heat. Semidiurnal lunar tides have been identified, although with modest impact, in the atmospheric pressure, the wind field and the precipitation. On a monthly time scale, variation of daily precipitation data shows that gravitational tides do indeed affect heavy rainfalls more than mean precipitation values. On the longer time scale, several authors have identified the 18.6-yr nutation cycle, which is clearly visible in several data analyses, but often it cannot be easily distinguished from the 19.9 Saturn-Jupiter cycle and the quasi-regular 22-yr double sunspot cycle which at times may be dominant. In the time scale of centuries, covering a number of periods with minimum solar activity, an analysis of meteorological data has demonstrated that only the Spörer Minimum (A.D. 1416-1534) was characterised by climatic anomalies., whereas the other periods had no singularities, or else the weak climate forcing was covered or masked by other factors, leaving the question

  4. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  5. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  6. The Lunar Cataclysm and How LRO Can Help Test It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the important outstanding goals of lunar science is understanding the bombardment history of the Moon and calibrating the impact flux curve for extrapolation to the Earth and other terrestrial planets. The "terminal lunar cataclysm," a brief but intense period of bombardment about 3.9 billion years ago, is of particular scientific interest. Radiometric dating of lunar impact-melt rocks forms the backbone of the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. A histogram of precise age determinations of impact-melt rocks shows the characteristics of the classic formulation of the lunar cataclysm hypothesis: a sharp peak at 3.9 Ga, a steep decline after 3.9 Ga perhaps only 20-200 Myr long, and few rocks of impact origin prior to 4.0 Ga.

  7. Evaluation of Monticello Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact Prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-11-01

    This report evaluates quantitatively the nonradiological environmental monitoring programs at Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant. The general objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of monitoring programs in the measurement of environmental impacts. Specific objectives include the following: (1) Assess the validity of environmental impact predictions made in the Environmental Statement by analysis of nonradiological monitoring data; (2) evaluate the general adequacy of environmental monitoring programs for detecting impacts and their responsiveness to Technical Specifications objectives; (3) assess the adequacy of preoperational monitoring programs in providing a sufficient data base for evaluating operational impacts; (4) identify possible impacts that were not predicted in the environmental statement and identify monitoring activities that need to be added, modified or deleted; and (5) assist in identifying environmental impacts, monitoring methods, and measurement problems that need additional research before quantitative predictions can be attempted. Preoperational as well as operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the analytical methods used to measure ecological and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data were available.

  8. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Soyuz in the 2015-2018 timeframe. The mission would be a first step to-wards mastering the automated precision landing with hazard avoidance required for a future cargo lander and essential for landing at the South Pole Aitken basin (SPA), the provisional MoonNEXT landing site. In addition the mission carries a strawman payload with several technology demonstration and testing packages, which will investigate advanced fuel cell and life sup-port technologies. A small MoonNEXT-like lander (Soyuz-launched) constitutes one of several possible mission types for a first landing on the Moon. The coming year will see additional investigations into other possibilities, including a medium-size lander, launched in a shared Ariane 5 configuration, which could provide a better level of validation of the landing technologies with respect to the targeted large lunar lander, as well as a more significant payload mass. Ultimately, the candidate intermediate mission options will be traded off to find the best balance of cost, mission implementation timeframe, development effort and representability. The reference intermediate lunar lander mission will be established so as to proceed with industrial Phase B1 activities in late 2009. It is also planned to study the large lunar lander based on a full Ariane 5 launch, in order to elaborate the design and to enter in more detailed discussion with the international partners. Possible Payload Packages: Multiple domains can be covered, depending also on the available pay-load mass (thus on the lander size): • Environmental characterization and monitoring: radiation, dust, micrometeorite impacts, temperature etc. (medium TRL) • Technology experiments for exploration preparation: e.g. life support and life sciences, small-scale or subsystem for ISRU, fuel cell etc. (low TRL) • Mobility • Payload transportation and manipulation • Logistics: infrastructure, equipment, consumables etc. The primary objective of any European Moon lander will

  9. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    Full Text Available A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis. Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  10. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  11. Science Data Management During Real-Time Geological Lunar Analogue Missions to the Sudbury and Mistastin Lake Impact Structures: Recommendations for Future Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E.; Beauchamp, M.; Clayton, J.; Marion, C. L.; Moores, J.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Ilsr Team

    2012-03-01

    Simulating planetary missions on Earth can help test data management procedures and help identify needs and gaps in current ground data systems. We present lessons learned from three lunar analogue missions funded by the Canadian Space Agency.

  12. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  13. Home energy monitors : Impact over the medium-term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van S.S.; Bakker, C.A.; Hal, van J.D.M. (Anke)

    2010-01-01

    Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), e.g. energy monitors, are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS increasingly receive attention for their role in energy conservation in households. A literature review and a c

  14. Home energy monitors : Impact over the medium-term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van S.S.; Bakker, C.A.; Hal, van J.D.M. (Anke)

    2010-01-01

    Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), e.g. energy monitors, are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS increasingly receive attention for their role in energy conservation in households. A literature review and a c

  15. Home energy monitors: impact over the medium-term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.S.; Bakker, C.A.; Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), e.g. energy monitors, are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS increasingly receive attention for their role in energy conservation in households. A literature review and a c

  16. Lunar Network Tracking Architecture for Lunar Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Shane B.; Geller, David

    2010-01-01

    A trade study was conducted with the objective of comparing and contrasting the radiometric navigation performance provided by various architectures of lunar-based navigations assets. Architectures considered consist of a compliment of two beacons located on the lunar surface, and two orbiting beacons that provide range and range-rate measurements to the user. Configurations of these assets include both coplanar and linked constellations of frozen elliptic orbiters and halo orbiters. Each arc...

  17. EU workshop: Monitoring of environmental impacts of genetically modified plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miehe, A. (ed.); Miklau, M.; Gaugitsch, H.; Heissenberger, A.

    2001-08-01

    The main goal of the workshop was to initiate a discussion on how monitoring of GMOs should be - or can be - implemented. Monitoring shall help to detect in an early stage possible 'direct', 'indirect', 'immediate' and 'delayed' effects resulting from the deliberate release of GMOs into the environment, but there is still no consensus on the scope, the methods and the duration of such monitoring programmes. Since the term 'monitoring', but also other terms in this field (e.g. general surveillance) are still subject to various interpretations, it was also necessary to deal with definitions. Moreover the intention of the workshop was an exchange of experience on monitoring projects already conducted in some of the Member States and an exchange of views on monitoring concepts developed so far. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Workshops war es, eine Diskussion darueber zu beginnen, wie das Monitoring von GVO umgesetzt werden kann bzw. soll. Ein Monitoring soll dazu dienen, so frueh wie moeglich moegliche direkte, indirekte, unmittelbare und verzoegerte Effekte, die sich aus der Freisetzung von GVO in die Umwelt ergeben koennten, zu erfassen. Ueber den Umfang, die Methoden und die Dauer solcher Monitoringprogramme besteht allerdings noch weitgehend Uneinigkeit. Da der Begriff 'Monitoring' - aber auch andere Begriffe in diesem Zusammenhang, wie zum Beispiel 'general surveillance' - unterschiedlich interpretiert werden, war es auch notwendig, sich mit der Bestimmung dieser und anderer Begriffe zu beschaeftigen. Darueber hinaus war beabsichtigt, einen Ueberblick ueber Monitoringprojekte, die in einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten existieren und einen Meinungsaustausch ueber bereits entwickelte Monitoringkonzepte zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  18. Longitudinal and Seasonal Variation of Lunar tide strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Pacheco, E. E.; Valladares, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    It has been known since many decades that lunar tide, which manifests itself as a semi-diurnal wave that precesses through all local times within one lunar month, has been identified as a significant force that can produce a notable influence on the longitudinal equatorial density distribution and equatorial electrojet (EEJ). However, there has never been a comprehensive study, except some statistical analysis using the satellite based in-situ observations, of the lunar tide effect on a global scale. This left several questions, like the longitudinal and solar flux dependence of the lunar tide, the tidal wave strength difference between new and full moon phases, remained unanswered. The proximity of the Earth/Moon system to the Sun, proximity of a New/Full Moon to one of the nodes of the lunar orbit, and the proximity of a New/Full Moon to the perigee of the lunar orbit are among the main factors that can affect the seasonal variability of lunar tide strength. With the indications of lunar tide influence on the strength of dayside EEJ, enhancing EEJ's strength shortly after new and full moon, we utilize the ground-based magnetometer fourteen years (1998 - 2012) data and investigate the various aspects of lunar tide effects on the EEJ at three different longitudinal sectors. The equatorial magnetometers located at Jicamarca for American sector, Addis Ababa for African sector, and Tirunelveli for Indian sector are used for this comprehensive study. Simultaneously, using the GPS TEC data, we examined the lunar tide impacts on the equatorial density irregularities and bubble formations at different longitudinal sectors. We found surprising strong longitudinal dependence in the lunar tide strength and its influence on EEJ and density bubble formation. Significant solar flux and seasonal dependences in lunar tide strength have also been observed at all longitudinal sectors. Finally, we investigated the lunar tide strength difference between new moon and full moon phases.

  19. Lunar based massdriver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René

    2017-05-01

    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  20. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  1. LUNAR AND PLANETARY RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPECTRA, LUNAR ENVIRONMENTS, MERCURY ( PLANET ), PLANETS , SURFACE PROPERTIES, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH....MARS( PLANET ), *VENUS( PLANET ), *MOON, *ASTRONOMY, OPTICAL SCANNING, SPECTROSCOPY, OPTICAL ANALYSIS, INFRARED SPECTRA, ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA, VISIBLE

  2. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of

  3. A Mission Control Architecture for robotic lunar sample return as field tested in an analogue deployment to the sudbury impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John E.; Francis, Raymond; Mader, Marianne; Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Barry, N.; Basic, G.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Blain, S.; Bondy, M.; Capitan, R.-D.; Chanou, A.; Clayton, J.; Cloutis, E.; Daly, M.; Dickinson, C.; Dong, H.; Flemming, R.; Furgale, P.; Gammel, J.; Gharfoor, N.; Hussein, M.; Grieve, R.; Henrys, H.; Jaziobedski, P.; Lambert, A.; Leung, K.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; McManus, C.; Neish, C. D.; Ng, H. K.; Ozaruk, A.; Pickersgill, A.; Preston, L. J.; Redman, D.; Sapers, H.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Souders, K.; Stenning, B.; Stooke, P.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L.

    2012-12-01

    A Mission Control Architecture is presented for a Robotic Lunar Sample Return Mission which builds upon the experience of the landed missions of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. This architecture consists of four separate processes working in parallel at Mission Control and achieving buy-in for plans sequentially instead of simultaneously from all members of the team. These four processes were: science processing, science interpretation, planning and mission evaluation. science processing was responsible for creating products from data downlinked from the field and is organized by instrument. Science Interpretation was responsible for determining whether or not science goals are being met and what measurements need to be taken to satisfy these goals. The Planning process, responsible for scheduling and sequencing observations, and the Evaluation process that fostered inter-process communications, reporting and documentation assisted these processes. This organization is advantageous for its flexibility as shown by the ability of the structure to produce plans for the rover every two hours, for the rapidity with which Mission Control team members may be trained and for the relatively small size of each individual team. This architecture was tested in an analogue mission to the Sudbury impact structure from June 6-17, 2011. A rover was used which was capable of developing a network of locations that could be revisited using a teach and repeat method. This allowed the science team to process several different outcrops in parallel, downselecting at each stage to ensure that the samples selected for caching were the most representative of the site. Over the course of 10 days, 18 rock samples were collected from 5 different outcrops, 182 individual field activities - such as roving or acquiring an image mosaic or other data product - were completed within 43 command cycles, and the rover travelled over 2200 m. Data transfer from communications passes were filled to 74

  4. Monitoring recreational impacts in wilderness of Kamchatka (on example of Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anya V. Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment and monitoring program that was designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in a wilderness in Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application to a case study conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (Kamchatka peninsula,...

  5. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  6. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  7. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond (Purdue); Doug Adams (Purdue)

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the

  8. Monitoring ecological recovery in a stream impacted by contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Cada, G.F.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Past in-ground disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. A biological monitoring program initiated in 1984 has evaluated the effectiveness of the extensive remedial actions undertaken to address contamination sources. Elements of the monitoring program included toxicity testing with fish and invertebrates, bioaccumulation monitoring, and instream monitoring of streambed invertebrate and fish communities. In the mid 1980`s, toxicity tests on stream water indicated that the headwaters of the stream were acutely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates as a result of infiltration of a metal-enriched groundwater from ponds used to dispose of acid wastes. Over a twelve year period, measurable toxicity in the headwaters decreased, first becoming non-toxic to larval fish but still toxic to invertebrates, then becoming intermittently toxic to invertebrates. By 1997, episodic toxicity was infrequent at the site that was acutely toxic at the start of the study. Recovery in the fish community followed the pattern of the toxicity tests. Initially, resident fish populations were absent from reaches where toxicity was measured, but as toxicity to fish larvae disappeared, the sites in upper Bear Creek were colonized by fish. The Tennessee dace, an uncommon species receiving special protection by the State of Tennessee, became a numerically important part of the fish population throughout the upper half of the creek, making Bear Creek one of the most significant habitats for this species in the region. Although by 1990 fish populations were comparable to those of similar size reference streams, episodic toxicity in the headwaters coincided with a recruitment failure in 1996. Bioaccumulation monitoring indicated the presence of PCBs and mercury in predatory fish in Bear Creek, and whole forage fish contained elevated levels of cadmium, lead, lithium, nickel, mercury, and uranium.

  9. The lunar cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Expanded experiment-carrying capability, to be used between the Apollo 11 capability and the lunar roving vehicle capability, was defined for the lunar surface crewmen. Methods used on earth to satisfy similar requirements were studied. A two-wheeled cart was built and tested to expected mission requirements and environments. The vehicle was used successfully on Apollo 14.

  10. A lunar venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

    1989-01-01

    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  11. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle.

  12. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  13. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

    1976-12-01

    A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

  14. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  15. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  16. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  17. Lunar meteorites:witnesses of the composition and evolution of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Bingkui; CHEN Hongyi; XIA Zhipeng; YAO Jie; XIE Lanfang; NI Wenjun; ZHANG Chuantong

    2014-01-01

    Lunar meteorites are fragments of the Moon that escaped the gravity of the Moon following high-energy impacts by asteroids, subsequently fell to Earth. An inventory of 165 lunar meteorites has been developed since the discovery and identiifcation of the ifrst lunar meteorite, ALHA 81005, in 1979. Although the Apollo samples are much heavier in mass than lunar meteorites, the meteorites are still an important sample supplement for scientiifc research on the composition and history of the Moon. Apart from a small amount of unbrecciated crystalline rocks, the majority of lunar meteorites are breccias that can be classiifed into three groups:highland feldspathic breccia, mare basaltic breccia, and mingled(including lfedspathic and basaltic clasts) breccia. The petrography of lunar rocks suggests that there are a series of rock types of anorthosite, basalt, gabbro, troctolite, norite and KREEP in the Moon. Although KREEP is rare in lunar rocks, KREEP components have been found in the increasing number of lunar meteorites. KREEP provides important information on lunar magmatic evolution, e.g., the VHK KREEP clasts in SaU 169 may represent the pristine lunar magma (urKREEP). Six launching pairs of lunar meteorites have been proposed now, along with ten possible lunar launching sites. In addition, symplectite is often found in lunar basalts, which is a signiifcant record of shock metamorphism on the lunar surface. Furthermore, isotopic ages and noble gases not only provide information on crystallization processes in lunar rocks and the formation of lunar crust, but also provide insight into shock events on the lunar surface.

  18. Distributed Impact Detector System (DIDS) Health Monitoring System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Damage due to impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris is one of the most significant on-orbit hazards for spacecraft. Impacts to thermal protection systems must be detected and the damage evaluated to determine if repairs are needed to allow safe re-entry. To address this issue for the International Space Station Program, Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center technologists have been working to develop and implement advanced methods for detecting impacts and resultant leaks. LaRC funded a Small Business Innovative Research contract to Invocon, Inc. to develop special wireless sensor systems that are compact, light weight, and have long battery lifetimes to enable applications to long duration space structures. These sensor systems are known as distributed impact detection systems (DIDS). In an assessment, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center procured two prototype DIDS sensor units to evaluate their capabilities in laboratory testing and field testing in an ISS Node 1 structural test article. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  19. [Lunar phases as triggers for delinquent behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    For many centuries, mankind has been concerned about the potential impact that the moon may have on human behavior, especially delinquency. The author presents a case report, in which the delinquency of the offender seems to show a certain synchronisation with the lunar phases. Finally, the issue is discussed on the basis of today's scientific literature on this topic.

  20. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  1. SMART-1 results and future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2008-04-01

    We present some highlights from SMART-1's science and technology payload, and the relevance of SMART-1 results and lessons for future lunar exploration. SMART-1 is the first ESA mission that reached the Moon. It is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. It has fulfilled its technology objectives to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. After a 15-month cruise with primary SEP and successful technology demonstration, the SMART-1 science and exploration phase, provided first lunar orbit results. The mission has been extended one year and ended with an impact on 3 September 2006.

  2. Transient Lunar Phenomena: Regularity and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin P S

    2007-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled. A review of TLP reports shows regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by human observer effects, terrestrial atmospheric effects or processes tied to the lunar surface. I interrogate an extensive TLP catalog to determine if human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. I divide the sample according to variables which should produce varying results if determining factors involve humans e.g., historical epoch or geographical location of the observer, not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Regardless of how we split the ample, the results are similar: ~50% of the reports involve crater Aristarchus nd vicinity, ~16% from Plato, ~6% from other recent, major impacts, plus a few at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal for three of five averages of up to 7% of the reports (however, Crisium is an extended feature). The consistency in ...

  3. Lunar Polar Illumination for Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents illumination analyses using the latest Earth-based radar digital elevation model (DEM) of the lunar south pole and an independently developed analytical tool. These results enable the optimum sizing of solar/energy storage lunar surface power systems since they quantify the timing and durations of illuminated and shadowed periods. Filtering and manual editing of the DEM based on comparisons with independent imagery were performed and a reduced resolution version of the DEM was produced to reduce the analysis time. A comparison of the DEM with lunar limb imagery was performed in order to validate the absolute heights over the polar latitude range, the accuracy of which affects the impact of long range, shadow-casting terrain. Average illumination and energy storage duration maps of the south pole region are provided for the worst and best case lunar day using the reduced resolution DEM. Average illumination fractions and energy storage durations are presented for candidate low energy storage duration south pole sites. The best site identified using the reduced resolution DEM required a 62 hr energy storage duration using a fast recharge power system. Solar and horizon terrain elevations as well as illumination fraction profiles are presented for the best identified site and the data for both the reduced resolution and high resolution DEMs compared. High resolution maps for three low energy storage duration areas are presented showing energy storage duration for the worst case lunar day, surface height, and maximum absolute surface slope.

  4. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] BACKGROUND The CSIR Marine Outfalls Monitoring Programme has a history of 45 years, and comprises a suite of projects in KwaZulu-Natal and Cape coastal waters. Previous work has also been conducted in the Southern African Development Community... to monitor wastewater discharge impacts, including toxicity testing, environmental chemistry, benthic community status and bio-accumulation studies. The CSIR laboratories are accredited for the analysis of marine water, sediment and biological tissue...

  5. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  6. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  7. Lunar Excavator Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control...

  8. Potential of derived lunar volatiles for life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, R. J.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith contains small quantities of solar wind implanted volatile compounds that have vital, basic uses for maintaining life support systems of lunar or space settlements. Recent proposals to utilize the helium-3 isotope (He-3) derived from the lunar regolith as a fuel for fusion reactors would result in the availability of large quantities of other lunar volatile compounds. The quantities obtained would provide the annual life support replacement requirements of 1150 to 23,000 inhabitants per ton of He-3 recovered, depending on the volatile compound. Utilization of the lunar volatile compounds for life support depends on the costs, in terms of materials and energy, associated with their extraction from the lunar regolith as compared to the delivery costs of these compounds from Earth resources. Considering today's conservative estimated transportation costs ($10,000 dollars per kilogram) and regolith mining costs ($5 dollars per ton), the life support replacement requirements could be more economically supplied by recovering the lunar volatile compounds than transporting these materials from Earth resources, even before He-3 will be utilized as a fusion fuel. In addition, availability of lunar volatile compounds could have a significant cost impact on maintaining the life support systems of the space station and a Mars base.

  9. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  10. Holter monitoring for syncope: diagnostic yield in different patient groups and impact on device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, M; Schaer, B; Moulay, N; Sticherling, C; Osswald, S

    2007-12-01

    Holter monitoring is routinely used in patients referred for the evaluation of syncope, but its diagnostic value in different patient groups is unclear, as is its impact on device implantation (pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator). To determine the diagnostic yield of Holter monitoring in the routine evaluation of syncope, and its impact on subsequent device implantation. Retrospective record review. We reviewed all Holter studies in patients referred with syncope between 2000 and 2005. Strict criteria were applied to determine whether a study was diagnostic. The diagnostic value of Holter monitoring (overall and in five subgroups: age, gender, structural heart disease, ejection fraction, medication) and its impact on the implantation of devices, were determined. Of 4877 Holter studies, 826 were performed in patients with syncope (age 72 +/- 15 years): 71 (8.6%) were considered to explain the syncope. Structural heart disease, ejection fraction and age were significant predictors of a diagnostic study (all p Holter did not explain their syncope, after mean 7 months, whereas 45 patients (5.4%) received a pacemaker based on the Holter results (p = 0.32). The overall diagnostic yield of Holter monitoring in the evaluation of syncope was 8.6%, with dramatic differences between subgroups. Our data suggest that the impact of Holter monitoring on device implantation is generally overestimated.

  11. Lunar cinder cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGetchin, T R; Head, J W

    1973-04-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluating Projects : A Step-by-Step Primer on Monitoring, Benchmarking, and Impact Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekka E. Grun

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to be a practical step-by-step guide to prepare and carry out benchmarking and impact analyses of projects. It's purpose is to attempt to present analytical tools solidly grounded in economic theory all while focusing on the practical questions of evaluations. Little space is given to theory, in order to spend more time on the actual steps involved, trying to make this ...

  13. Vehicle Dynamics Monitoring and Tracking System (VDMTS): Monitoring Mission Impacts in Support of Installation Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    performed using multiple vehicles at Fort Ri- ley , PTA, and Eglin AFB. The theoretical model results were compared with measured impact values. Additionally...Sample Conversions: $BB209 = -178.75°/s $ESOF2 = 0.806 g $H80BC = 0.094 gauss $J800D = 26.82 OC $S87FE = 4.95 1 V $IBF30 = -0.1 gauss l0004D295

  14. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  15. Lunar preform manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  16. Lunar surface magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind: results from lunar prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin; Mitchell; Curtis; Anderson; Carlson; McFadden; Acuna; Hood; Binder

    1998-09-04

    The magnetometer and electron reflectometer experiment on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft has obtained maps of lunar crustal magnetic fields and observed the interaction between the solar wind and regions of strong crustal magnetic fields at high selenographic latitude (30 degreesS to 80 degreesS) and low ( approximately 100 kilometers) altitude. Electron reflection maps of the regions antipodal to the Imbrium and Serenitatis impact basins, extending to 80 degreesS latitude, show that crustal magnetic fields fill most of the antipodal zones of those basins. This finding provides further evidence for the hypothesis that basin-forming impacts result in magnetization of the lunar crust at their antipodes. The crustal magnetic fields of the Imbrium antipode region are strong enough to deflect the solar wind and form a miniature (100 to several hundred kilometers across) magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock system.

  17. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyewon, E-mail: hyewon@ldeo.columbia.edu [Division of Biology and Paleo Environment, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Kim, Yong Hoon, E-mail: Yong.Kim@rpsgroup.com [RPS ASA, 55 Village Square Drive, South Kingstown, RI 02879 (United States); Kang, Seong-Gil, E-mail: kangsg@kriso.re.kr [Offshore CCS Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, 32 1312 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Deaejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ypark@kiost.ac.kr [Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787 Haeanro, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  18. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Modeling of the impact process predicts that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value, a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The excited lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 ME eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with constraints and models of late accretion. Whi...

  19. Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage : impacts of soil heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Impacts of heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation Wijbrand Sommer
    PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2015)
    ISBN 978-94-6257-294-2 Abstract Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is

  20. Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage : impacts of soil heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Impacts of heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation Wijbrand Sommer
    PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2015)
    ISBN 978-94-6257-294-2 Abstract Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is

  1. Examining Moderate Volatile Loss through Lunar History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Killen, Rosemary M.; Airapetian, Vladimir; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-06-01

    While the Moon and bulk silicate earth (BSE) share many compositional similarities, a notable difference is the apparent depletion of moderate volatiles in lunar samples. Depletion of elements such as sodium and potassium relative to BSE composition has been observed in Apollo samples. The source of these depletions is poorly understood but may be a result of preferential accretion of volatile-rich melt in the inner disk to the Earth during Moon formation.However, recent Kepler data has indicated that stellar analogues to our Sun experience enhanced flare activity early in their evolution. This implies that the Sun may have had a higher frequency and energy of flares and associated Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) in its distant past. We examine the potential impacts of this increased activity on lunar exosphere generation and specifically on potential loss of moderate volatiles including sodium and potassium.We use a surface bounded exosphere model that incorporates multiple processes including photon stimulated desorption, kinetic sputtering and impact vaporization in order to study potential moderate volatile loss under a variety of different conditions. This model is informed by appropriate solar wind and CME properties, which includes CMEs of different energies. We also incorporate regolith overturn to determine ranges of potential bulk depletion of moderate volatiles from the lunar regolith.Our work is aimed at determining the potential impact of solar activity on the depletion of moderate volatiles in the lunar regolith. Such a contribution is important to ascertain in order to isolate the depletion of volatiles due to disk processes and may thus help constrain details of the Moon's formation. Finally, we also examine the potential of lunar abundances of moderate volatiles as an observational tracer of past solar activity.

  2. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  3. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  4. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  5. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  6. High-frequency lunar teleseismic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, J.; Duennebier, F.; Ewing, M.; Lammlein, D.; Latham, G.

    1974-01-01

    A small number of seismic signals, including some of the strongest observed to date, have been identified as representing a fourth principal category of natural lunar seismic events with characteristics distinct from those produced by normal meteoroid impacts, deep moonquakes, and thermal moonquakes. These signals are much richer in high frequencies than other events observed at comparable distances, and display relatively impulsive P- and S-wave beginnings, indicating negligible seismic-wave scattering near the source. Source depths of these events may range between 0 and perhaps 300 km. These and other characteristics could represent either (1) meteoroids impacting upon outcrops of competent lunar crystal rock, (2) rare impacting objects that penetrate to competent rock below a scattering zone, or (3) shallow tectonic moonquakes.

  7. Persistence and origin of the lunar core dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suavet, Clément; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Chan, Lindsey; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Head, James W; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D

    2013-05-21

    The lifetime of the ancient lunar core dynamo has implications for its power source and the mechanism of field generation. Here, we report analyses of two 3.56-Gy-old mare basalts demonstrating that they were magnetized in a stable and surprisingly intense dynamo magnetic field of at least ~13 μT. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by ~160 My and indicate that the field was likely continuously active until well after the final large basin-forming impact. This likely excludes impact-driven changes in rotation rate as the source of the dynamo at this time in lunar history. Rather, our results require a persistent power source like precession of the lunar mantle or a compositional convection dynamo.

  8. Personnel reliability impact on petrochemical facilities monitoring system's failure skipping probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    The paper dwells upon urgent issues of evaluating impact of actions conducted by complex technological systems operators on their safe operation considering application of condition monitoring systems for elements and sub-systems of petrochemical production facilities. The main task for the research is to distinguish factors and criteria of monitoring system properties description, which would allow to evaluate impact of errors made by personnel on operation of real-time condition monitoring and diagnostic systems for machinery of petrochemical facilities, and find and objective criteria for monitoring system class, considering a human factor. On the basis of real-time condition monitoring concepts of sudden failure skipping risk, static and dynamic error, monitoring systems, one may solve a task of evaluation of impact that personnel's qualification has on monitoring system operation in terms of error in personnel or operators' actions while receiving information from monitoring systems and operating a technological system. Operator is considered as a part of the technological system. Although, personnel's behavior is usually a combination of the following parameters: input signal - information perceiving, reaction - decision making, response - decision implementing. Based on several researches on behavior of nuclear powers station operators in USA, Italy and other countries, as well as on researches conducted by Russian scientists, required data on operator's reliability were selected for analysis of operator's behavior at technological facilities diagnostics and monitoring systems. The calculations revealed that for the monitoring system selected as an example, the failure skipping risk for the set values of static (less than 0.01) and dynamic (less than 0.001) errors considering all related factors of data on reliability of information perception, decision-making, and reaction fulfilled is 0.037, in case when all the facilities and error probability are under

  9. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  10. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  11. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  12. Lunar Resources: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

  13. Formation of Lunar Swirls

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, R A; Cruz, F; Kellett, B J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Trines, R M G M; Halekas, J S; Kramer, G; Harnett, E; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show a plausible mechanism that could lead to the formation of the Dark Lanes in Lunar Swirls, and the electromagnetic shielding of the lunar surface that results in the preservation of the white colour of the lunar regolith. We present the results of a fully self-consistent 2 and 3 dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of mini-magnetospheres that form above the lunar surface and show that they are consistent with the formation of `lunar swirls' such as the archetypal formation Reiner Gamma. The simulations show how the microphysics of the deflection/shielding of plasma operates from a kinetic-scale cavity, and show that this interaction leads to a footprint with sharp features that could be the mechanism behind the generation of `dark lanes'. The physics of mini-magnetospheres is described and shown to be controlled by space-charge fields arising due to the magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions. A comparison between model and observation is shown for a number of key plasma parameters...

  14. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  15. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  16. MODIS and SeaWIFS on-orbit lunar calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Eplee, R.E.; Xiong, X.; Stone, T.; Meister, G.; McClain, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Moon plays an important role in the radiometric stability monitoring of the NASA Earth Observing System's (EOS) remote sensors. The MODIS and SeaWIFS are two of the key instruments for NASA's EOS missions. The MODIS Protoflight Model (PFM) on-board the Terra spacecraft and the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1) on-board the Aqua spacecraft were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002, respectively. They view the Moon through the Space View (SV) port approximately once a month to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of their Reflective Solar Bands (RSB). SeaWIFS was launched on-board the OrbView-2 spacecraft on August 1, 1997. The SeaWiFS lunar calibrations are obtained once a month at a nominal phase angle of 7??. The lunar irradiance observed by these instruments depends on the viewing geometry. The USGS photometric model of the Moon (the ROLO model) has been developed to provide the geometric corrections for the lunar observations. For MODIS, the lunar view responses with corrections for the viewing geometry are used to track the gain change for its reflective solar bands (RSB). They trend the system response degradation at the Angle Of Incidence (AOI) of sensor's SV port. With both the lunar observation and the on-board Solar Diffuser (SD) calibration, it is shown that the MODIS system response degradation is wavelength, mirror side, and AOI dependent. Time-dependent Response Versus Scan angle (RVS) Look-Up Tables (LUT) are applied in MODIS RSB calibration and lunar observations play a key role in RVS derivation. The corrections provided by the RVS in the Terra and Aqua MODIS data from the 412 nm band are as large as 16% and 13%, respectively. For SeaWIFS lunar calibrations, the spacecraft is pitched across the Moon so that the instrument views the Moon near nadir through the same optical path as it views the Earth. The SeaWiFS system gain changes for its eight bands are calibrated using the geometrically-corrected lunar observations. The radiometric

  17. Post-Impact Fatigue Damage Monitoring Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow-Shing Shin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that impact damage to composite materials can be revealed by embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG as a broadening and splitting of the latter’s characteristic narrow peak reflected spectrum. The current work further subjected the impact damaged composite to cyclic loading and found that the FBG spectrum gradually submerged into a rise of background intensity as internal damages progressed. By skipping the impact, directing the impact to positions away from the FBG and examining the extracted fibers, we concluded that the above change is not a result of deterioration/damage of the sensor. It is caused solely by the damages initiated in the composite by the impact and aggravated by fatigue loading. Evolution of the grating spectrum may therefore be used to monitor qualitatively the development of the incurred damages.

  18. LU60645GT and MA132843GT Catalogues of Lunar and Martian Impact Craters Developed Using a Crater Shape-based Interpolation Crater Detection Algorithm for Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamuniccar, Goran; Loncaric, Sven; Mazarico, Erwan Matias

    2012-01-01

    For Mars, 57,633 craters from the manually assembled catalogues and 72,668 additional craters identified using several crater detection algorithms (CDAs) have been merged into the MA130301GT catalogue. By contrast, for the Moon the most complete previous catalogue contains only 14,923 craters. Two recent missions provided higher-quality digital elevation maps (DEMs): SELENE (in 1/16° resolution) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (we used up to 1/512°). This was the main motivation for work on the new Crater Shape-based interpolation module, which improves previous CDA as follows: (1) it decreases the number of false-detections for the required number of true detections; (2) it improves detection capabilities for very small craters; and (3) it provides more accurate automated measurements of craters' properties. The results are: (1) LU60645GT, which is currently the most complete (up to D>=8 km) catalogue of Lunar craters; and (2) MA132843GT catalogue of Martian craters complete up to D>=2 km, which is the extension of the previous MA130301GT catalogue. As previously achieved for Mars, LU60645GT provides all properties that were provided by the previous Lunar catalogues, plus: (1) correlation between morphological descriptors from used catalogues; (2) correlation between manually assigned attributes and automated measurements; (3) average errors and their standard deviations for manually and automatically assigned attributes such as position coordinates, diameter, depth/diameter ratio, etc; and (4) a review of positional accuracy of used datasets. Additionally, surface dating could potentially be improved with the exhaustiveness of this new catalogue. The accompanying results are: (1) the possibility of comparing a large number of Lunar and Martian craters, of e.g. depth/diameter ratio and 2D profiles; (2) utilisation of a method for re-projection of datasets and catalogues, which is very useful for craters that are very close to poles; and (3) the extension of the

  19. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  20. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  1. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  2. Improvements to Lunar BRDF-Corrected Nighttime Satellite Imagery: Uses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; Roman, M. O.; Wanik, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Observations made by the VIIRS day/night band (DNB) provide daily, nighttime measurements to monitor Earth surface processes. However, these observations are impacted by variations in reflected solar radiation on the moon's surface. As the moon transitions from new to full phase, increasing radiance is reflected to the Earth's surface and contributes additional reflected moonlight from clouds and land surface, in addition to emissions from other light sources observed by the DNB. The introduction of a bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) algorithm serves to remove these lunar variations and normalize observed radiances. Provided by the Terrestrial Information Systems Laboratory at Goddard Space Flight Center, a 1 km gridded lunar BRDF-corrected DNB product and VIIRS cloud mask can be used for a multitude of nighttime applications without influence from the moon. Such applications include the detection of power outages following severe weather events using pre- and post-event DNB imagery, as well as the identification of boat features to curtail illegal fishing practices. This presentation will provide context on the importance of the lunar BRDF correction algorithm and explore the aforementioned uses of this improved DNB product for applied science applications.

  3. Shale gas impacts on groundwater resources: insights from monitoring a fracking site in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcoudiol, Nelly; Isherwood, Catherine; Gunning, Andrew; Kelly, Thomas; Younger, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Exploitation of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is highly controversial and concerns have been raised regarding induced risks from this technique. The SHEER project, an EU Horizon 2020-funded project, is looking into developing best practice to understand, prevent and mitigate the potential short- and long-term environmental impacts and risks from shale gas exploration and exploitation. Three major potential impacts were identified: groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. This presentation will deal with the hydrogeological aspect. As part of the SHEER project, four monitoring wells were installed at a shale gas exploration site in Northern Poland. They intercept the main drinking water aquifer located in Quaternary sediments. Baseline monitoring was carried out from mid-December 2015 to beginning of June 2016. Fracking operations occurred in two horizontal wells, in two stages, in June and July 2016. The monitoring has continued after fracking was completed, with site visits every 4-6 weeks. Collected data include measurements of groundwater level, conductivity and temperature at 15-minute intervals, frequent sampling for laboratory analyses and field measurements of groundwater physico-chemical parameters. Groundwater samples are analysed for a range of constituents including dissolved gases and isotopes. The presentation will focus on the interpretation of baseline monitoring data. The insights gained into the behaviour of the Quaternary aquifer will allow a greater perspective to be place on the initial project understanding draw from previous studies. Short-term impacts will also be discussed in comparison with the baseline monitoring results. The presentation will conclude with discussion of challenges regarding monitoring of shale gas fracking sites.

  4. Synthesis and Stability of Iron Nanoparticles for Lunar Environment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    Simulant of lunar dust is needed when researching the lunar environment. However, unlike the true lunar dust, today s simulants do not contain nanophase iron. Two different processes have been developed to fabricate nanophase iron to be used as part of the lunar dust simulant: (1) Sequentially treating a mixture of ferric chloride, fluorinated carbon, and soda lime glass beads at about 300 C in nitrogen, at room temperature in air, and then at 1050 C in nitrogen. The product includes glass beads that are grey in color, can be attracted by a magnet, and contain alpha-iron nanoparticles (which seem to slowly lose their lattice structure in ambient air during a period of 12 months). This product may have some similarity to the lunar glassy regolith that contains Fe(sup 0). (2) Heating a mixture of carbon black and a lunar simulant (a mixed metal oxide that includes iron oxide) at 1050 C in nitrogen. This process simulates lunar dust reaction to the carbon in a micrometeorite at the time of impact. The product contains a chemically modified simulant that can be attracted by a magnet and has a surface layer whose iron concentration increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be alpha-iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which appear to grow after the fabrication process, but stabilizes after 6 months of ambient air storage.

  5. Lunar ~3He estimations and related parameters analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a potential nuclear fuel, 3He element is significant for both the solution of impending human energy crisis and the conservation of natural environment. Lunar regolith contains abundant and easily extracted 3He. Based on the analyses of the impact factors of 3He abundance, here we have compared a few key assessment parameters and approaches used in lunar regolith 3He reserve estimation and some representative estimation results, and discussed the issues concerned in 3He abundance variation and 3He reserve estimation. Our studies suggest that in a range of at least meters deep, 3He abundance in lunar regolith is homogeneously distributed and generally does not depend on the depth; lunar regolith has long been in a saturation state of 3He trapped by minerals through chemical bonds, and the temperature fluctuation on the lunar surface exerts little influence on the lattice 3He abundance. In terms of above conclusions and the newest lunar regolith depth data from the microwave brightness temperature retrieval of the "ChangE-1" Lunar Microwave Sounder, a new 3He reserve estimation has been presented.

  6. Radio occultation measurements of the lunar ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.; Maccaferri, G.; Cassaro, P.

    Radio occultation measurements by using interplanetary probes is a well known technique to obtain information on planetary atmospheres. To further understand the morphology of the lunar ionosphere we performed radio occultation experiments by using the radio sounding technique. This method mainly consists in the analisys of the effects produced on the radio wave transmitted from the spacecraft to the Earth when it crosses the atmosphere. The wave amplitude and phase undergo modifications that are correlated to the physical parameters - i.e. electron density - of the crossed medium. The first data set was obtained during the lunar occultations of the European probe SMART-1 shortly before impacting the lunar soil on September 3rd, 2006. During this experiment several radio occultation measurements of the signal transmitted by the spacecraft were performed in S and X band by using the 32 meters radiotelescopes (at Medicina and Noto) of the Istituto di Radioastronomia - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. Further experiments were performed during lunar occultations of Saturn and Venus. On May 22nd and June 18th 2007 the Cassini spacecraft, orbiting Saturn, and the Venus Express spacecraft, orbiting Venus, respectively were occulted by the Moon. The variation of the Total Electron Content (TEC) measured by our instruments (˜ 1013 el/m2) on this occasion is in agreement with values of the electron number density acquired by in situ measuments of the US Apollo missions and the USSR Luna 19 and 22 probes.

  7. Environmental aspects of lunar helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Schmitt, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Three potential detrimental effects of lunar He-3 mining have been identified; visual changes, atmospheric contamination, and solid waste disposal. The removal of small craters (less than 20 m diameter) and the change in the albedo of the surface may cause a slight darkening of the regolith. However, it is not expected that this change will be visible from the earth even with powerful telescopes. The release of lunar volatile gases and their effect on the lunar 'atmosphere' is expected to be both local and temporary (on the order of a few weeks from the time of release). The solution to solid waste disposal is to recycle as much as possible and to bury the nonrecyclable waste. The lack of wind and water means that the waste will stay localized indefinitely and cause no contamination of the environment. The positive benefits of using lunar He-3 in terrestrial fusion plants far outweigh the detrimental effects of mining. The reduction in radioactive waste, greenhouse and acid gases, and the reduction in terrestrial mining for fossil fuels could have a major impact on the quality of life in the 21st century.

  8. Cataclysm No More: New Views on the Timing and Delivery of Lunar Impactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Nicolle E. B.

    2017-09-01

    If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth's nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation 4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors - and indeed the lunar impact record itself - are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed "lunar cataclysm" and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets. Investigations of the lunar impactor population over time have been undertaken and include analyses of orbital data and images; lunar, terrestrial, and other planetary sample data; and dynamical modelling. Here, the existing information regarding the nature of the lunar impact record is reviewed and new interpretations are presented. Importantly, it is demonstrated that most evidence supports a prolonged lunar (and thus, terrestrial) bombardment from 4.2 to 3.4 Ga and not a cataclysmic spike at 3.9 Ga. Implications for the conditions required for the origin of life are addressed.

  9. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  10. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  11. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  12. Investigation of the Lunar Deep Interior by SELENE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Kikuchi, F.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Hanada, H.; Yamada, R.; Kunimori, H.; Iwata, T.; Kawaguchi, N.; Kono, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Measurements of gravity and rotation of planets and satellites are important tools to investigate their internal structure. Lunar surface tidal deformation is small (10cm). But effect of lunar tidal deformation can be detected by gravity change, through degree 2 potential Love number, k2, which could constrain the state of the core (solid or liquid) and viscosity of the lower mantle of the Moon. Dissipations of lunar librations also depend on core and lower mantle states. Liquid metallic core would be caused by significant amount of sulfur to lower core melting temperature, whereas low-viscosity lower mantle would suggest the presence of water. In effect, the pressure level of lunar lower mantle is compatible with that of terrestrial asthenosphere, where water in silicate decreases viscosity significantly. Existence of volatiles in lunar deeper interior would modify lunar evolution scenario of hot origin: from the giant impact through the magma ocean. The k2 is sensitive to the state of deep interior. When the core radius is 350 km, k2 value changes by about 5% between liquid and solid cores. SELENE-2 is a planned lunar lander-orbiter mission by JAXA after successful mission KAGUYA (SELENE). We propose VLBI radio (VRAD) sources both in SELENE-2 lander and orbiter. Using same-beam (or two-beam) multi-frequency VLBI, we will determine orbits of the orbiter precisely, measure low-order gravity changes, and estimate k2 with uncertainty below 1%. If the core size is constrained by SELENE-2 seismometer, contributions of lower mantle and core on k2 would separated. We also propose a Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) reflector on SELENE-2 lander. With pre-existed reflectors, latitudinal component of lunar libration and its dissipation will be measured. Among LLR parameters, k2 and core oblateness are coupled. Once k2 is fixed, we can determine core oblateness, which would also constrain core and lower mantle states.

  13. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier

    2016-08-29

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physicochemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  15. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Lunar troilite: Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.

    1970-01-01

    Fine, euhedral crystals of troilite from lunar sample 10050 show a hexagonal habit consistent with the high-temperature NiAs-type structure. Complete three-dimensional counter intensity data have been measured and used to confirm and refine Bertaut's proposed low-temperature crystal structure.

  17. [Retrospective monitoring of radioactive pollution in zones of the nuclear industry impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremitina, T O; Polishchuk, Iu M; Nesvetaĭlo, V D

    2007-01-01

    An approach to the acquisition of retrospective information on the radioactive pollution of the territories to organize the radioecological monitoring of environment was proposed. The approach is based on the application of the method of dendrochronoindication, allowing one to obtain the retrospective information on the delivery and accumulation of radioactive and other chemicals in the growth rings of the trees. Statistical processing and the analysis of the arrays of the multidimensional retrospective data was carried out using the principal components method. It was shown that the approach proposed allows one to reveal the emergency emissions that took place in the past at the enterprises of nuclear industry and make a well-grounded selection of the monitoring sites to establish the radioecological monitoring in the zones of nuclear industry impact.

  18. Definition of Metric Dependencies for Monitoring the Impact of Quality of Services on Quality of Processes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Service providers have to monitor the quality of offered services and to ensure the compliance of service levels provider and requester agreed on. Thereby, a service provider should notify a service requester about violations of service level agreements (SLAs). Furthermore, the provider should point to impacts on affected processes in which services are invoked. For that purpose, a model is needed to define dependencies between quality of processes and quality of invoked services. In order to...

  19. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Rasubala; Lavanya Pernapati; Ximena Velasquez; James Burk; Yan-Fang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Bas...

  20. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.;

    2014-01-01

    -funded research project AMIGA − Assessing and monitoring Impacts of Genetically modified plants on Agro-ecosystems − aims to address this issue, by providing a framework that establishes protection goals and baselines for European agro-ecosystems, improves knowledge on the potential long term environmental...... focuses on ecological studies in different EU regions, the sustainability of GM crops is estimated by analysing the functional components of the agro-ecosystems and specific experimental protocols are being developed for this scope....

  1. On Applications of Selenodesy to Lunar Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Erhu; LIU Jingnan

    2006-01-01

    According to the history of lunar detection, the relationship between selenodesy and lunar detection is reviewed , and the focus of the lunar detection and the lunar detection plan of China are summarized. The key techniques of selenodesy are presented, and the applications of selenodesy to the lunar detection are discussed.

  2. Lunar-A mission: Outline and current status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Mizutani; A Fujimura; S Tanaka; H Shiraishi; T Nakjima

    2005-12-01

    The scientific objective of the Lunar-A,Japanese Penetrator Mission,is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments.Two penetrators containing two seismometers (horizontal and vertical components)and heat-flow probes will be deployed from a spacecraft onto the lunar surface,one on the near-side and the other on the far-side of the moon.The data obtained by the penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about 200 km. The spacecraft of a cylindrical shape,2.2 m in maximum diameter and 1.7 m in height,is designed to be spin-stabilized.The spacecraft will be inserted into an elliptic lunar orbit,after about a half- year cruise during which complex manoeuvering is made using the lunar-solar gravity assist.After lunar orbit insertion,two penetrators will be separated from the spacecraft near perilune,one by one,and will be landed on the lunar surface. The final impact velocity of the penetrator will be about 285 m/sec;it will encounter a shock of about 8000 G at impact on the lunar surface.According to numerous experimental impact tests using model penetrators and a lunar-regolith analog target,each penetrator is predicted to penetrate to a depth between l and 3 m,depending on the hardness and/or particle-size distribution of the lunar regolith.The penetration depth is important for ensuring the temperature stability of the instruments in the penetrator and heat flow measurements.According to the results of the Apollo heat flow experiment,an insulating regolith blanket of only 30 cm is sufficient to dampen out about 280 K lunar surface temperature fluctuation to > 3K variation. The seismic observations are expected to provide key data on the size of the lunar core,as well as data on deep lunar mantle structure.The heat flow measurements at two penetrator-landing sites will also provide important data on the thermal structure and bulk concentrations of heat- generating

  3. Solar wind and micrometeorite effects in the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Using available data from the literature, an outline is formulated for the major physical and chemical effects expected during solar-wind bombardment of the lunar regolith. In agreement with results of Auger and other analyses of the composition of lunar grain surfaces, this outline predicts that solar-wind sputtering will tend to clean exposed grain surfaces by ejecting material at velocities exceeding lunar escape velocity. Results are also discussed which show that Fe is partially reduced in the outer few 10 nm of grain surfaces and that this reduced Fe forms 10-nm-diameter metal spheres throughout the glass during agglutinate formation by micrometeorite impacts. These metal spheres give the agglutinates their distinctive optical and magnetic properties and are partially responsible for the decreasing albedo of the lunar surface with exposure age.

  4. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  5. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  6. The science of the lunar poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  7. JEM spotlight: Nuclear desalination--environmental impacts and implications for planning and monitoring activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasov, Vladimir; Khamis, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear desalination has been identified as an option since the 1960s, but only recently, as climate change intensifies, has it gained interest again. Although environmental impacts of nuclear desalination have not been paid a lot of attention in the few implemented projects, now more than ever, it is essential to provide an overview of their nature and magnitude. The gathered information and basic analysis allow for a general comparison of a 200,000 m(3)/d nuclear desalination facility using a once-through cooling system as a reference case, with alternative co-location options. Results of the review indicate that the potential for marine impacts requires careful planning and monitoring. They also reveal that adverse coastal, atmospheric and socio-economic impacts are minor in comparison with other co-location alternatives. The issues regarding public health are discussed and experiences presented. Nuclear desalination facilities are expected to show a better environmental performance than other co-located power/desalination options. Environmental planning and monitoring activities are thus much simpler and their scope smaller, with the most important monitoring parameters listed. In conclusion, the application of nuclear desalination is recommended as a less environmentally harmful option.

  8. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  9. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  10. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  11. Lunar Imaging and Ionospheric Calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov Technique

    CERN Document Server

    McFadden, Rebecca; Mevius, Maaijke

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the ionosphere is an important experimental concern as it reduces the pulse amplitude and subsequent chances of detection. We are continuing to investigate a new method to calibrate the dispersive effect of the ionosphere on lunar Cherenkov pulses via Faraday rotation measurements of the Moon's polarised emission combined with geomagnetic field models. We also extend this work to include radio imaging of the Lunar surface, which provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the lunar surface that may affect experimental strategies for the lunar Cherenkov technique.

  12. The impact of emotion on prospective memory and monitoring: no pain, big gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Cynthia; Owens, Max; Einstein, Gilles O

    2012-12-01

    The emotionally enhanced memory effect is robust across studies of retrospective memory, with heightened recall for items with emotional content (e.g., words like "murder") relative to neutral items (e.g., words like "envelope"). Only a handful of studies have examined the influence of emotion on prospective memory (PM), with mixed results. In some cases emotion enhances PM, and in others it impairs PM. Interpretation of these findings is clouded by methodological differences across studies and by the fact that, to date, no study has examined the impact of emotion on PM monitoring. In our study, we assessed PM performance when PM targets were neutral, negative, and positive, and also investigated monitoring across these different PM target types. Participants showed heightened PM performance for positive and negative relative to neutral targets, yet there was no evidence of additional monitoring for emotional targets. In fact, measures of monitoring were significantly reduced when the PM targets were emotional rather than neutral. Our findings suggest that it is possible to boost PM performance in a focal task using emotional cues, and that the use of emotional cues reduces the need for monitoring.

  13. The Lunar Regolith as a Recorder of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, D.; Riofrio, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon can be considered a giant tape recorder containing the history of the solar system and Universe. The lunar regolith (soil) has recorded the early history of the Moon, Earth, the solar system and Universe. A major goal of future lunar exploration should be to find and play back existing fragments of that tape . By reading the lunar tape, we can uncover a record of planetary bombardment, as well as solar and stellar variability. The Moon can tell us much about our place in the Universe. The lunar regolith has likely recorded the original meteoritic bombardment of Earth and Moon, a violent cataclysm that may have peaked around 4 Gyr, and the less intense bombardment occurring since that time. This impact history is preserved on the Moon as regolith layers, ejecta layers, impact melt rocks, and ancient impact breccias. The impact history of the Earth and Moon possibly had profound effects on the origin and development of life. Decrease in meteor bombardment allowed life to develop on Earth. Life may have developed first on another body, such as Mars, then arrived via meteorite on Earth. The solar system may have experienced bursts of severe radiation from the Sun, other stars, or from unknown sources. The lunar regolith has recorded this radiation history in the form of implanted solar wind, solar flare materials and radiation damage. Lunar soil can be found sandwiched between layers of basalt or pyroclastic deposits. This filling constitutes a buried time capsule that is likely to contain well-preserved ancient regolith. Study of such samples will show us how the solar system has evolved and changed over time. The lunar tape recorder can provide detailed information on specific portions of solar and stellar variability. Data from the Moon also offers clues as to whether so-called fundamental constants have changed over time.

  14. Trajectory Design for a Cislunar Cubesat Leveraging Dynamical Systems Techniques: The Lunar Icecube Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanac, Natasha; Cox, Andrew; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David

    2017-01-01

    Lunar IceCube is a 6U CubeSat that is designed to detect and observe lunar volatiles from a highly inclined orbit. This spacecraft, equipped with a low-thrust engine, will be deployed from the upcoming Exploration Mission-1 vehicle in late 2018. However, significant uncertainty in the deployment conditions for secondary payloads impacts both the availability and geometry of transfers that deliver the spacecraft to the lunar vicinity. A framework that leverages dynamical systems techniques is applied to a recently updated set of deployment conditions and spacecraft parameter values for the Lunar IceCube mission, demonstrating the capability for rapid trajectory design.

  15. Hydrogen isotope ratios in lunar rocks indicate delivery of cometary water to the Moon

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, James P.; Itoh , Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Warren, Paul; Taylor, Lawrence; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a critical role in the evolution of planetary bodies, and determination of the amount and sources of lunar water has profound implications for our understanding of the history of the Earth-Moon system. During the Apollo programme, the lunar samples were found to be devoid of indigenous water. The severe depletion of lunar volatiles, including water, has long been seen as strong support for the giant-impact origin of the Moon. Recent studies have found water in lunar volcanic glass...

  16. A review of performance standards to monitor, evaluate and assess the impact of technology transfer offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibongile Gumbi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of scientific discoveries to new products and processes and their launch onto the market can be a lengthy process. Similarly, it takes many years before the impact of scientific research on society and the economy is realised and a further length of time before its performance can be measured. Higher education and research institutions, and their governments, often make significant investments into intellectual property management and technology transfer activities through legislative and policy development, human resource development, financial allocation and infrastructure improvement. Since returns on such investments are not immediately apparent, it is important to establish a means by which the impact of their efforts can be determined. In this paper, I examined the measures and indicators that could be developed by institutions and their stakeholders in order to monitor, evaluate and determine the impact of research output and outcomes on the market.

  17. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  18. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  19. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    -3 fusion were calculated using a predicted minimum energy price in 2040 of 30.4 Euro/MWh. Annual costs are between 427.7 to 1,347.9 billion Euro, with annual expected profit ranging from -724.0 to 260.0 billion Euro. Due to the large scale of the mission, it has also been evaluated for providing 0.1% and 1% of the global energy demand in 2040. For 1%, the annual costs are 45.6 to 140.3 billion Euro and the expected annual profits are -78.0 to 23.1 billion Euro. For 0.1%, the annual costs are 7.7 to 20.5 billion Euro. The annual expected profits are -14.3 to -0.8 billion Euro. Feasibility has been addressed in three aspects. Technically, the mission is extremely challenging and complex. However, most required technologies exist or could be developed within a reasonable time span. From a political and legal perspective, the current international treaties hardly provide any framework for a lunar mining operation. Financially, the mission only produces a net profit in the best case, and only for medium- to large-scale operations, which require a very large initial investment. To make lunar Helium-3 usage possible, further research should concentrate on the mining operation and costs of fusion plants, as their impact by far outranks all other mission elements. Different transportation concepts may be investigated nevertheless. Many - not only technical - challenges concerning Helium-3 mining are still to be addressed. Although only a starting point for further investigations, this study shows that, despite popular claims, lunar Helium-3 is unsuitable to provide a significant percentage of the global energy demand in 2040.

  20. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous

  1. Modelling long-term trends in lunar exposure to the Earth's plasmasheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hapgood

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the exposure of the Moon to the Earth's plasmasheet is subject to decadal variations due to lunar precession. The latter is a key property of the Moon's apparent orbit around the Earth – the nodes of that orbit precess around the ecliptic, completing one revolution every 18.6 years. This precession is responsible for a number of astronomical phenomena, e.g. the year to year drift of solar and lunar eclipse periods. It also controls the ecliptic latitude at which the Moon crosses the magnetotail and thus the number and duration of lunar encounters with the plasmasheet. This paper presents a detailed model of those encounters and applies it to the period 1960 to 2030. This shows that the total lunar exposure to the plasmasheet will vary from 10 h per month at a minimum of the eighteen-year cycle rising to 40 h per month at the maximum. These variations could have a profound impact on the accumulation of charge due plasmasheet electrons impacting the lunar surface. Thus we should expect the level of lunar surface charging to vary over the eighteen-year cycle. The literature contains reports that support this: several observations made during the cycle maximum of 1994–2000 are attributed to bombardment and charging of the lunar surface by plasmasheet electrons. Thus we conclude that lunar surface charging will vary markedly over an eighteen-year cycle driven by lunar precession. It is important to interpret lunar environment measurements in the context of this cycle and to allow for the cycle when designing equipment for deployment on the lunar surface. This is particularly important in respect of developing plans for robotic exploration on the lunar surface during the next cycle maximum of 2012–2019.

  2. U-Pb Ages of Lunar Apatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Apatite is one of the minerals that is rarely utilized in U-Pb geochronology, compared to some other U-rich accessory phases. Relatively low U concentration, commonly high proportion of common Pb and low closure temperature of U-Pb system of apatite inhibit its application as geochronological tool when other minerals such as zircon are widely available. However, zircon appear to be restricted to certain type of lunar rocks, carrying so called KREEP signature, whereas apatite (and whitlockite) is a common accessory mineral in the lunar samples. Therefore, utilizing apatite for lunar chronology may increase the pool of rocks that are available for U-Pb dating. The low stability of U-Pb systematics of apatite may also result in the resetting of the system during meteoritic bombardment, in which case apatite may provide an additional tool for the study of the impact history of the Moon. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have analysed apatites and zircons from two breccia samples collected during the Apollo 14 mission. Both samples were collected within the Fra Mauro formation, which is interpreted as a material ejected during the impact that formed the Imbrium Basin.

  3. Lunar hand tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  4. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  5. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  6. Lunar base initiative 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The return to the Moon is no longer a question of yes or no, but a question of when and how. The first landing of a human being on the lunar surface in 1969 was a purely national effort of the U.S.A. Building a lunar base and operating it in the next century is rather a task for all nations of this planet, even if one nation could do it alone. However, there are several alternatives to carry out such a program and these will and should be debated during the next years on an urgent basis. To do this, one has to take into account not only the historical accomplishments and the present trends of cooperation in space programs, but also recent geopolitical developments as well as the frame of reference established by international law. The case for an International Lunar Base (ILB) has been presented to the International Academy of Astronautics on 11 October 1987 by the IAA Ad Hoc Committee "Return-to-the-Moon". This draft of a position paper was subsequently published in Acta Astronautica Vol. 17, No. 5, (pp. 463-489) with the request of public debate particularly by the members of the Academy. Some 80 Academicians responded to this invitation by the President of the Academy and voiced their opinions on the questions and issues raised by this draft of a position paper. This led to a refinement of the arguments and assumptions made and it is now possible to prepare an improved position paper proposing concrete steps which may lead to an ILB. An issue of this proportion must start with a discussion of goals and objectives to be arranged in some kind of a ranked order. It also has to take note of the limitations existing at any time by the availability of suitable space transportation systems. These will determine the acquisition date and rate of growth of a lunar base. The logistics system will also greatly influence the base characteristics and layout. The availability of heavy lift launch vehicles would simplify the task and allow to concentrate the construction

  7. An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Md Reazaul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Methods: Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACagevalues. P <0.05 was significant. Results: Sixty GAs of patients aged between 10 and 68 years were observed; 96.67% anaesthetics were conducted without entering 'birth year'. Thirty-four patients (mean age 35.14 ± 15.38 years were further assessed for impact of non-entry of age. The observed MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36–45 years group. Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Conclusion: Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.

  8. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  9. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  10. Understanding and monitoring the consequences of human impacts on intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Makiko; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Faith, Daniel P; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Colautti, Robert I; Araki, Hitoshi; Javadi, Firouzeh; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Mori, Akira S; Zhou, Shiliang; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Neaves, Linda E; Fukano, Yuya; Smith, Gideon F; Sato, Yo-Ichiro; Tachida, Hidenori; Hendry, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    Intraspecific variation is a major component of biodiversity, yet it has received relatively little attention from governmental and nongovernmental organizations, especially with regard to conservation plans and the management of wild species. This omission is ill-advised because phenotypic and genetic variations within and among populations can have dramatic effects on ecological and evolutionary processes, including responses to environmental change, the maintenance of species diversity, and ecological stability and resilience. At the same time, environmental changes associated with many human activities, such as land use and climate change, have dramatic and often negative impacts on intraspecific variation. We argue for the need for local, regional, and global programs to monitor intraspecific genetic variation. We suggest that such monitoring should include two main strategies: (i) intensive monitoring of multiple types of genetic variation in selected species and (ii) broad-brush modeling for representative species for predicting changes in variation as a function of changes in population size and range extent. Overall, we call for collaborative efforts to initiate the urgently needed monitoring of intraspecific variation.

  11. Handbook to guide the measurement and monitoring of project effectiveness and impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-15

    This handbook demonstrates the application of a tool for measuring and monitoring the impact of a development project in the Department of Quezaltenango, Guatemala. That project itself presently is a demonstration. It explores the technical feasibility and the commercial possibilities of direct geothermal heat applications to the processing of agricultural produce - with the eventual purpose of expanding agricultural exports from Guatemala. The handbook focuses on an early stage of the geothermal initiative and guides preparations for future impact measurement and monitoring of geothermal projects. Primarily, guidance is for projects in agricultural applications of geothermal heat - and basically in Quezaltenango. But the exercise and the handbook are relevant in broad outline to other, industrial applications projects as well which may be based in other departments and have immediate impact across the whole country. This handbook attempts to prepare geothermal energy planners in Guatemala for that juncture when geothermal projects can be managed by objectives. It promotes and facilitates thinking about defining specific objectives for projects that result from the demonstration at Zunil (in Quezaltenango Department); and it prompts preparations for obtaining baseline measurements and for making rational projections on the achievements of future projects.

  12. Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM) Measurements at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Harald; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Albin, Thomas; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Flandes, Alberto; Hirn, Attila; Kobayashi, Masanori; Loose, Alexander; Peter, Attila; Podolak, Morris

    2015-01-01

    The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae carries the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME). DIM employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by sub-millimeter and millimeter-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma. The DIM sensor measures dynamical data like flux and the directionality of the impacting particles. Mass and speed of the particles can be constrained assuming density and elastic particle properties. DIM was operated during three mission phases of Philae at the comet: (1) Before Philae's separation from Rosetta at distances of about 9.6 km, 11.8 km, and 25.3 km from the nucleus barycenter. In this mission phase particles released from the nucleus on radial trajectories remained undetectable because of significant obscuration by the structures of Rosetta, and no...

  13. New Evidence for Impact-induced Hydrothermal Alteration at the Lunar Crater, India: Implications for the Effect of Small Craters on the Mineralogical and Chemical Composition of the Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J.; Newsom, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar crater has several unique characteristics that make it a valid analogue for similar craters on Mars. We have characterized the secondary alteration assemblage at Lunar in order to make implications for martian alteration materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. New Evidence for Impact-induced Hydrothermal Alteration at the Lunar Crater, India: Implications for the Effect of Small Craters on the Mineralogical and Chemical Composition of the Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J.; Newsom, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar crater has several unique characteristics that make it a valid analogue for similar craters on Mars. We have characterized the secondary alteration assemblage at Lunar in order to make implications for martian alteration materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP). Part II. MONITOR: A Program and Data Base for Retrieval and Utilization of Pollutant Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, Keith F.; Stowe, Ralph F.; Frigerio, Norman A.

    1977-02-01

    The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP) is an ongoing project of the Laboratory's Division of Environmental Impact Studies that aims at developing methodologies for assessing the carcinogenic hazards associated with nuclear power development. The project's first report (ANL/ES-26, Part I), published in September.l973, discussed models of radiation carcinogenesis and the contribution of U .. S. background radiation levels to hazardous dose rates. The current report (Part II) treats the storage and access of available data on radiation and radioactivity levels in the u. S. A compute-r code. (the MONITOR program) is prf!sented, which can serve as a ready-access data. bank for all monitoring data acquired over the past two decades. The MONITOR program currently stores data on monitoring locations, types of monitoring efforts, and types of monitoring data. reported in Radiation Data and Reports by the various state and federal ne-tworks; expansion of this data base to include nuclear power facilities in operation or on order is ongoing ·. The MONITOR code retrieves information within a search radius, or rectangl.e ,. circumscribed by parameters of latitude and longitude, and l:.ists or maps the data_as: requested. The code, with examples, is given in full in the report ..

  16. Microstructural Studies of Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes which act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the moon, it includes a variety of processes which have formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. However, the regolith processes that cause these effects are not well known, nor is the petrographic setting of the products of these processes fully understood. An interesting confluence of events occurred in the early 1990s. First, came the discovery of vapor deposited coatings on lunar regolith grains by Keller and McKay, who showed that amorphous coatings from 50-100 nm thick containing fine-grained Fe metal (1-10 nm in diameter) were common in the fine size fraction of several mature lunar soils. The other discovery was the recognition that the optical properties of lunar soils were dominated by fine grain sized material (less than 45 micrometer fraction) by Pieters and coworkers. These discoveries led to coordinated studies that looked at the mineralogy, chemistry, and optical properties of lunar soils as function of composition, maturity, and grain size fraction. One of the major revelations from these studies was the recognition that much of the nanophase Fe metal is surface-correlated especially in the finest size fractions, and that it was this nanophase Fe that dominated the optical properties of the soil.

  17. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  18. The impact of an electronic monitoring and reminder device on patient compliance with antihypertensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Arne; Christrup, Lona Louring; Fabricius, Paul Erik;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) significantly increases overall cardiovascular risk, the incidence of ischemic heart disease and stroke. One of the most important causes of insufficient BP control is low treatment compliance. Reminders and electronic compliance monitoring have been shown...... to be effective in improving patient compliance to some extent, but the combined effect has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic reminder and monitoring device on patient compliance and BP control. METHODS: All patients received medical treatment with telmisartan once daily...... group 1, and between 32 and 38% in study group 2. CONCLUSION: The Helping Hand reminder device was most suitable if used for newly diagnosed hypertensive patients, when it improved compliance by 6%. With the present medical treatment, the device does not have any influence on BP control, but with less...

  19. Experimental Study on Stress Monitoring of Sand-Filled Steel Tube during Impact Using Piezoceramic Smart Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guofeng; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jicheng; Song, Gangbing

    2017-08-22

    The filling of thin-walled steel tubes with quartz sand can help to prevent the premature buckling of the steel tube at a low cost. During an impact, the internal stress of the quartz sand-filled steel tube column is subjected to not only axial force but also lateral confining force, resulting in complicated internal stress. A suitable sensor for monitoring the internal stress of such a structure under an impact is important for structural health monitoring. In this paper, piezoceramic Smart Aggregates (SAs) are embedded into a quartz Sand-Filled Steel Tube Column (SFSTC) to monitor the internal structural stress during impacts. The piezoceramic smart aggregates are first calibrated by an impact hammer. Tests are conducted to study the feasibility of monitoring the internal stress of a structure. The results reflect that the calibration value of the piezoceramic smart aggregate sensitivity test is in good agreement with the theoretical value, and the output voltage value of the piezoceramic smart aggregate has a good linear relationship with external forces. Impact tests are conducted on the sand-filled steel tube with embedded piezoceramic smart aggregates. By analyzing the output signal of the piezoceramic smart aggregates, the internal stress state of the structure can be obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that, under the action of impact loads, the piezoceramic smart aggregates monitor the compressive stress at different locations in the steel tube, which verifies the feasibility of using piezoceramic smart aggregate to monitor the internal stress of a structure.

  20. Lunar radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  1. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the iono

  2. Academic aspects of lunar water resources and their relevance to lunar protolife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 10(9) metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My). Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino acids. Soluble

  3. Academic Aspects of Lunar Water Resources and Their Relevance to Lunar Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My. Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino

  4. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  5. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  6. Monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin; Suivi de l'impact radiologique environnemental des activites du site AREVA du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercat, C.; Brun, F.; Florens, P.; Petit, J. [AREVA NC Pierrelatte, Direction surete environnement du site du Tricastin, 26 (France); Garnier, F. [EURODIF Production, Direction qualite securite surete environnement, 26 (France); Devin, P. [AREVA NC Pierrelatte, Direction surete, sante, securite, environnement, 26 (France)

    2010-06-15

    Set up at the beginning of the site's operations, in 1962, the monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin has evolved over time to meet more specifically the multiple objectives of environmental monitoring: to prove the respect of the commitments required by the authorities, to be able to detect a dysfunction in the observed levels, to enable the assessment of impacts of industrial activities, to ensure the balance between environmental quality and the use made by the local population and to inform the public of the radiological state of the environment. Thousands of data were acquired on the radioactivity of all environmental compartments as well as on the functioning of local ecosystems. Today, the Network of Environmental Monitoring of AREVA Tricastin goes beyond the requirements of routine monitoring to provide innovative solutions for monitoring the radioactivity (especially for uranium) in the environment. (author)

  7. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  8. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  9. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA's and NLSI's objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE's High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 140 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research. Three instruments have been developed or modified to evaluate the extent to which the High School Lunar Research Projects meets its objectives. These three instruments measure changes in student views of the nature of science, attitudes towards science and science careers, and knowledge of lunar science. Exit surveys for teachers, students, and mentors were also developed to elicit general feedback about the program and its impact. The nature of science

  10. Beliefs about the Potential Impacts of Exploiting Non-Timber Forest Products Predict Voluntary Participation in Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas Brites, Alice; Morsello, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory. We therefore evaluated whether people's beliefs about the potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-timber forest product exploitation increased their likelihood of volunteering to monitor. We studied a community of forest inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon who harvested and traded a commercially important non-timber forest product. Two methods of data gathering were employed: (i) a survey of 166 adults (51 households) to evaluate people's beliefs and their stated intention to engage in four different monitoring tasks and (ii) four pilot monitoring tasks to evaluate who actually participated. Based on mixed-effects regressions, the results indicated that beliefs regarding both types of impacts could predict participation in certain tasks, although gender, age and schooling were occasionally stronger predictors. On average, people had stronger beliefs about potential socioeconomic impacts than about potential ecological impacts, with the former also predicting participation in ecological data gathering. This finding reinforces the importance of monitoring both types of impacts to help achieve the win-win outcomes originally proposed by non-timber forest product trade initiatives.

  11. Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangermano, Florencia

    2009-12-01

    The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this

  12. Surface-Correlated Nanophase Iron Metal in Lunar Soils: Petrography and Space Weathering Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes that act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the Moon, it includes a variety of processes that formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Understanding these effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Galileo). Our objective is to determine the origin of space weathering effects in lunar soils through combined electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry techniques applied to individual soil particles from lunar soils. It has been demonstrated that it is the finest size fraction (lunar soils that dominates the optical properties of the bulk soils.

  13. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Narayan, Anilkumar; Yunus, Md; Kumar, Sanjay; Prakash, Avinash; Sahoo, Sarasa Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs) were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage) of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACage values. P MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36-45 years group). Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.

  15. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  16. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  17. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A; Tremblay, Louis A; Ellis, Joanne I; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan; Lear, Gavin; Atalah, Javier; Pochon, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physico-chemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of monitoring on adherence and persistence with antiresorptive treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowes, Jackie A; Peel, Nicola F A; Eastell, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Long-term adherence and persistence with any therapy are very poor ( approximately 50%). Adherence to therapy is defined as the percentage of prescribed medication taken, and persistence is defined as continuing to take prescribed medication. We examined whether monitoring by nursing staff could enhance adherence and persistence with antiresorptive therapy and whether presenting information on response to therapy provided additional benefit. In addition we evaluated the impact of monitoring on treatment efficacy. Seventy-five postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to 1) no monitoring, 2) nurse-monitoring, or 3) marker-monitoring. All subjects were prescribed raloxifene. At 12, 24, and 36 wk, the nursing staff reviewed subjects in the monitored (nurse-monitoring or marker-monitoring) groups using a predefined protocol. The marker-monitored group were also presented a graph of response to therapy using percentage change in urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTX), a bone resorption marker, at each visit. Biological response to therapy at 1 yr was determined using the percent change in bone mineral density (BMD) and uNTX. Treatment adherence and persistence were assessed using electronic monitoring devices. Survival analysis showed that the monitored group increased cumulative adherence to therapy by 57% compared with no monitoring (P = 0.04). There was a trend for the monitored group to persist with therapy for 25% longer compared with no monitoring (P = 0.07). Marker measurements did not improve adherence or persistence to therapy compared with nurse-monitoring alone. Adherence at 1 yr was correlated with percent change in hip (BMD) (r = 0.28; P = 0.01) and percent change in uNTX (r = -0.36; P = 0.002). In conclusion, monitoring of patients increased adherence to therapy by 57% at 1 yr. Increased adherence to therapy increased the effectiveness of raloxifene therapy determined using surrogate end points.

  19. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  20. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  1. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  2. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  3. Lunar Module Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This concept is a cutaway illustration of the Lunar Module (LM) with detailed callouts. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  4. Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Jaiteh, Malanding; de Sherbinin, Alexander; Longcore, Travis; Elvidge, Chris

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road networks. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA-NGDC) processes and archives data acquired by the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) which was initially designed to monitor the global distribution of clouds using visible and thermal infrared spectral bands. At night the visible band signal is intensified with a photomultiplier tube enabling the detection of moonlit clouds. The boost in gain provides this sensor with the unique capability of observing lights present at the earth's surface at night. Considering nighttime lights as a proxy for anthropogenic activities also influencing neighboring regions enables a globally consistent human impact analysis. The assessment of impacts on threatened ecosystems and related loss of biodiversity is essential in the context of the global (climate) change debate whereas monitoring and protecting the diversity of life on Earth is one of the 'global issues' affecting society. UNEP's World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) provides information on spatial distribution and delineation of protected areas. The information for this World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has been compiled since 1981 and is made available to the global community through UNEP's Protected Areas Programme. The WDPA is a joint project of UNEP and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) being prepared in collaboration with governments and NGOs. A set of spatial indicators describing lighting impact and approximated human influence was developed based

  5. The origin of lunar concentric craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawke, B. Ray

    2016-11-01

    Lunar concentric craters are a unique class of impact craters because the interior of the craters contains a concentric ridge, but their formation mechanism is unknown. In order to determine the origin of concentric craters, we examined multiple working hypotheses, which include eight impact-related and endogenic processes. We analyzed data sets that originated from instruments onboard Clementine, Kaguya, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize the morphology, spatial distribution, composition, and absolute model ages of 114 concentric craters. Concentric craters contain five key properties: (1) a concentric ridge, (2) anomalously shallow floors, (3) their occurrence is concentrated near mare margins and in mare pond regions (4) the concentric ridge composition is similar to the surrounding area and (5) concentric crater ages are Eratosthenian and older. These five key properties served as constraints for testing impact-related and endogenic mechanisms of formation. We find that most impact-related hypotheses cannot explain the spatial and age distribution of concentric craters. As for endogenic hypotheses, we deduce that igneous intrusions are the likely mechanism that formed concentric craters because of the close relationship between concentric craters and floor-fractured craters and the concentration of both features near mare-highland boundaries and in mare ponds. Furthermore, we observe that floor-fractured craters are common at crater diameters > 15 km, whereas concentric craters are common at crater diameters 15 km) produce floor-fractured craters.

  6. Protecting the Lunar Heritage Sites from the Effects of Visiting Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Lane, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The Problem: Rocket exhaust blows soil and rocks over vast distances at velocities upwards of 1 to 3 km/s, and this will be highly abrasive and damaging if it impacts the valuable lunar heritage sites.

  7. A new technique for monitoring inhomogeneous deformation during flyer plate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.; Chocron, Sidney; Dannemann, Kathryn A.; Bigger, Rory P.; Moore, Thomas Z.; Kirchdoerfer, Trenton T.

    2017-01-01

    A new and unique experimental configuration was developed and demonstrated to measure the inhomogeneous deformation of heterogeneous materials during flyer plate impact tests. Flyer plate experiments were performed on a granite material with a small scale structure; strain rates ranged from 105 to 107 s-1. A cross section of an impacted target was monitored and photographed during, and immediately following, passage of the shock wave through the material. Up to fourteen images were taken during passage of the shock wave. This was accomplished using an ultra-high speed Imacon camera with very short exposure times; for example, in one experiment the exposure time was 5 nanoseconds with a framing rate of 5 million frames per second. Continuous wave lasers were used as the illumination source. Edge and notch filters were used to lessen the intensity of the impact flash in the image. The photographic data was analyzed using a digital image correlation (DIC) system. These experiments examined inhomogeneous deformation on a cut plane within an inhomogeneous geological (granite) target.

  8. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  9. Lunar Base Sitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  10. Nineteenth lunar and planetary science conference. Press abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  11. PERSPECTIVE How committed are we to monitoring human impacts in Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2010-12-01

    Under the Antarctic Treaty System, environmental monitoring is a legal obligation for signatory nations and an essential tool for managers attempting to minimize local human impacts, but is it given the importance it merits? Antarctica is a vast frozen continent with an area around 1.5 times that of Europe (14 000 000 km2), but the majority of its terrestrial life is found on multiple outcrops or 'islands' of ice-free coastal ground, with a combined area of ~6000 km2, equivalent to four times that of Greater London (Tin et al 2009). The biological communities of these ice-free terrestrial habitats are dominated by a small number of biological groups, primarily mosses, lichens, microinvertebrates and microorganisms. They include many endemic species, while birds and marine mammals use coastal areas as breeding sites (Chown and Convey 2007). Figure 1 Figure 1. Map of the Antarctic Treaty area (south of latitude 60°S) showing the locations of year-round and seasonal stations built on rock or permanent ice (i.e. ice sheets or ice shelves). Data on station locations were taken from the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs website (COMNAP 2010). There is evidence to suggest that although these stations are registered on the COMNAP list, a number of stations are not regularly occupied or in use (see United Kingdom et al 2006, p 9). Since the influx of national scientific research programmes and infrastructure that accompanied the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), Antarctica's habitats have been encroached upon increasingly by human activities. Over 120 research stations have been built (~75 currently operational) with the great majority located on ice-free coastal ground to allow ease of access by ship. (Headland 2009, COMNAP 2010). Construction of cargo and personnel landing and handling facilities, station buildings, airport infrastructure, roads and fuel storage areas have, to varying degrees, destroyed native vegetation and terrestrial fauna

  12. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  13. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  14. Conceptual analysis of a lunar base transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Trevor D.; Johnson, Lloyd B., III; Persons, Mark B.; Wright, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Important to the planning for a lunar base is the development of transportation requirements for the establishment and maintenance of that base. This was accomplished as part of a lunar base systems assessment study conducted by the NASA Langley Research Center in conjunction with the NASA Johnson Space Center. Lunar base parameters are presented using a baseline lunar facility concept and timeline of developmental phases. Masses for habitation and scientific modules, power systems, life support systems, and thermal control systems were generated, assuming space station technology as a starting point. The masses were manifested by grouping various systems into cargo missions and interspersing manned flights consistent with construction and base maintenance timelines. A computer program that sizes the orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's), lunar landers, lunar ascenders, and the manned capsules was developed. This program consists of an interative technique to solve the rocket equation successively for each velocity correction (delta V) in a mission. The delta V values reflect integrated trajectory values and include gravity losses. As the program computed fuel masses, it matched structural masses from General Dynamics' modular space-based OTV design. Variables in the study included the operation mode (i.e., expendable vs. reusable and single-stage vs. two-stage OTV's), cryogenic specific impulse, reflecting different levels of engine technology, and aerobraking vs. all-propulsive return to Earth orbit. The use of lunar-derived oxygen was also examined for its general impact. For each combination of factors, the low-Earth orbit (LEO) stack masses and Earth-to-orbit (ETO) lift requirements are summarized by individual mission and totaled for the developmental phase. In addition to these discrete data, trends in the variation of study parameters are presented.

  15. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

  16. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  17. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  18. Modeling of Global BEAM Structure for Evaluation of MMOD Impacts to Support Development of a Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial modeling of the global response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris(MMOD) impacts using a structural, nonlinear, transient dynamic, finite element code. These models complement the on-orbit deployment of the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) to support structural health monitoring studies. Two global models were developed. The first focused exclusively on impacts on the soft-goods (fabric-envelop) portion of BEAM. The second incorporates the bulkhead to support understanding of bulkhead impacts. These models were exercised for random impact locations and responses monitored at the on-orbit sensor locations. The report concludes with areas for future study.

  19. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Agglutinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during smaller-scale (mostly micrometeorite) impacts. Agglutinate formation is a key space weathering process under which the optically-active component of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) is added to the lunar regolith. Here we have used energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging in the SEM to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principle chemical components contributing to the shock melt compositional variations.

  20. Evidence and implications of shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar microbreccias and loose regolith materials contain abundant evidence of shock metamorphism related to crater-forming meteorite impacts. Diagnostic shock effects include (i) planar features in a silica phase and feldspars, and lamellae in clinopyroxene, (ii) thetomorphic feldspar glass, (iii) heterogeneous glasses of rock and mineral composition, (iv) distinctive recrystallization textures, and (v) characteristic changes in crystal structure as indicated by x-ray diffraction analysis and measurements of refractive index. The microbreccias are produced from regolith materials (ejected fromz craters) by shock lithification. Some feldsparrich fragments may represent ejecta introduced from nonlocal sources, such as the lunar highlands.

  1. Near-term lunar nuclear thermal rocket engine options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Collins, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is an attractive candidate propulsion system option for manned planetary missions. Its high performance capability for such missions translates into a substantial reduction in low-earth-orbit (LEO) required mass and trip times with increased operational flexibility. This study examined NTR engine options that could support near-term lunar mission operations. Expander and gas generator cycle, solid-core NERVA derivative reactor-based NTR engines were investigated. Weight, size, operational characteristics, and design features for representative NTR engine concepts are presented. The impact of using these NTR engines for a typical lunar mission scenario is also examined.

  2. The impact of graphic organizer and metacognitive monitoring instruction on expository science text comprehension in fifth grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kristin Fisher

    This study sought to examine the impact of teaching both graphic organizer and metacognitive monitoring strategies on the comprehension of 5th grade students reading expository science text. In 2000, the National Reading Panel recommended multi-strategy comprehension instruction; graphic organizers and metacognitive monitoring were two of the recommended strategies. Few studies have examined the impact of combining graphic organizer instruction with metacognitive reading strategy instruction. In this study the effectiveness of teaching both graphic organizer and metacognitive monitoring strategies was compared with instruction in either graphic organizer or metacognitive monitoring strategies. Students in the Graphic Organizer + Metacognitive Monitoring Condition and students in the Metacognitive Monitoring Condition showed increased reading comprehension scores over the course of the six-week intervention on seven expository science passages, whereas students in the Graphic Organizer Condition showed no improvement in passage comprehension scores. In addition, over the course of the intervention, students in the Graphic Organizer + Metacognitive Monitoring Condition showed a significant increase in test scores on a standardized test of reading comprehension. With regard to the increase in reading passage and comprehension test scores, findings from this study revealed that score increases occurred only in conditions where students received metacognitive monitoring strategy instruction. Evidence from this study revealed the importance of metacognitive strategy instruction on reading comprehension gains.

  3. Monitoring trends of urban development and environmental impact of Beijing, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2011-08-15

    The high rates of environmental change and accelerated species loss in the urban development process should be quantified to rebalance the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In this study, an emergy-based environmental impact assessment model is designed according to the framework of the Eco-Indicator 99 for monitoring the negative effects on human well-being and ecosystem integrity in the urban development system of Beijing from 1999 to 2006. The environmental impact assessment model is based on the sustainability promotion perspective, and emphasizes the determinants of human health and ecosystem integrity in the urban development process. It is vital that the links among human health, ecosystem integrity and urban sustainability are therefore considered especially from the perspective of a supply-side environmental cost evaluation (including ecological service supply, ecological and economic losses and investment for treatment). Results suggest that: (1) out of all the pollutants, ecological services were mainly used to dilute sulfur dioxide and NH(3)-N; (2) nitrogen dioxide and greenhouse gases released by the urban system contribute heavily to both ecological and economic losses evaluated in emergy terms; and (3) emissions impact, mainly from airborne pollutants, with small contribution from waterborne emissions, generally increases from 1999 to 2006, undermining the sustainability of Beijing. The emergy synthesis proves to be very appropriate to account for large-scale and indirect costs generated by pollution as side effects of economic activity. Such knowledge is a necessary pre-requisite to perform a reliable cost-benefit evaluation of urban sustainability strategies, and provide guidance for policy decision making to maximize benefits and minimize negative impacts.

  4. The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter: A Discovery Class Lunar Water Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Sun, X.; Petro, N.; Farrell, W.; Abshire, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Green, R.; Thompson, D. E.; Greenberger, R.; Hurley, D.; McClanahan, T. P.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter is a Discovery Class mission concept aimed at characterizing the nature and mobility of water on the Moon. Its instruments include a laser spectrometer, an infrared hyperspectral imager, and a neutral mass spectrometer.

  5. Implications of Lunar Prospector Data for Lunar Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Research is sumamrized in the following areas: The Asymmetric Thermal Evolution of the Moon; Magma Transport Process on the Moon;The Composition and Origin of the Deep Lunar Crust;The Redistribution of Thorium on the Moon's Surface.

  6. Impact of clinical decision support guidelines on therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamicin in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzo-Christe, Caroline; Guignard, Bertrand; Zaugg, Claudia; Coehlo, Ana; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Gervaix, Alain; Desmeules, Jules; Rollason, Victoria; Combescure, Christophe; Corbelli, Regula; Rimensberger, Peter; Pfister, Riccardo; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Our institution's gentamicin dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) practices for newborns were suspected to be very heterogeneous. Once-daily dosing (ODD) or extended-interval dosing (EID) and trough concentration measurement were recommended. Clinical decision support guidelines were developed and implemented as clinical decision support in the computerized prescriber order entry system. Impact on dosing, TDM practices, and blood sampling were evaluated. A 1-year retrospective historically controlled study before (April 2008-March 2009) and after the implementation of guidelines (January 2010-December 2010) for newborns ( 0.05). After implementation of the guidelines, an ODD/EID regimen was almost exclusively used (97.7% versus 61.6%, P Guideline implementation generated a sharp reduction in blood sampling. Clinical benefits of better gentamicin dosing and TDM practices were evident. Cost-effectiveness and clinical benefit of reduced blood sampling should be evaluated.

  7. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments.

  8. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  9. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  10. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Observation from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Livak, M. M.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  11. Impact of a prescription monitoring program on doctor-shopping for high dosage buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, Vincent; Frauger, Elisabeth; Thirion, Xavier; Ronfle, Eléonore; Lapierre, Véronique; Masut, Alain; Coudert, Christine; Blin, Olivier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2009-01-01

    Doctor-shopping (simultaneous use of several physicians by a patient) is one of the most frequent ways of diversion for prescription drugs. A specific method was used to assess the evolution of doctor-shopping for High Dosage Buprenorphine (HDB) in a French region from 2000 to 2005 and the impact of a prescription monitoring program for HDB implemented in 2004. Data from eight periods (semesters of years 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2005) were extracted from a prescription database. Three quantities (the delivered, the prescribed, and the doctor-shopping quantity) were computed for each patient. The total doctor-shopping quantity and the doctor-shopping ratio (percentage of buprenorphine obtained through doctor-shopping) were used to evaluate the diversion of HDB among the population. The total prescribed quantity and the number of patients treated regularly were used as indicators of the access to treatment. The doctor-shopping ratio increased from 1st semester 2000 to 1st semester 2004 (from 14.9 to 21.7%) and then decreased to 16.9% in 2nd semester 2005. The total doctor-shopping quantity followed the same evolution. The number of patients treated remained stable from 1st semester 2000 to 2nd semester 2005. The prescribed quantity increased from 1st semester 2000 to 2nd semester 2002, decreased in 1st semester 2004 (4163 g) and then remained stable. After a four-year increase of the diversion through doctor-shopping for buprenorphine the beginning of the prescription monitoring program was concomitant with a marked decrease of doctor-shopping indicators without notable impact on the access to treatment.

  12. Effects of the lunar environment on optical telescopes and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles L.; Dietz, Kurtis L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the hostile lunar environment are assessed, and potential techniques for adverse-effect mitigation are developed. The environmental concerns addressed include Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on telescope electronics, lunar dust obscuration and damage to optical surfaces, and micrometeor cratering of the optics and support structure. The feasibility of shielding the electronics from the GCR flux and associated secondaries is investigated as one option for noise reduction. An alternative approach to noise reduction uses shorter integration ties and multiple images for background subtraction. Dust abatement techniques such as stabilizing the lunar soil at the launch and telescope sites and covering the optics during high contamination-risk times are evaluated. The micrometeorite flux and associated surface cratering are assessed for their impact on the lifetime and integrity of the telescope.

  13. Analysis of Logistics in Support of a Human Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Earle, Kevin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Reeves, j. D.; Andrashko, Mark; Merrill, R. Gabe; Stromgren, Chel

    2008-01-01

    Strategic level analysis of the integrated behavior of lunar transportation system and lunar surface system architecture options is performed to inform NASA Constellation Program senior management on the benefit, viability, affordability, and robustness of system design choices. This paper presents an overview of the approach used to perform the campaign (strategic) analysis, with an emphasis on the logistics modeling and the impacts of logistics resupply on campaign behavior. An overview of deterministic and probabilistic analysis approaches is provided, with a discussion of the importance of each approach to understanding the integrated system behavior. The logistics required to support lunar surface habitation are analyzed from both 'macro-logistics' and 'micro-logistics' perspectives, where macro-logistics focuses on the delivery of goods to a destination and micro-logistics focuses on local handling of re-supply goods at a destination. An example campaign is provided to tie the theories of campaign analysis to results generation capabilities.

  14. Monitoring the impacts of Ocean Acidification on coral reef bioerosion: challenges, methods, recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, I.; Manzello, D.; Carlton, R.

    2013-05-01

    Coral reef habitats exist as a dynamic balance between the additive process of calcification and the destructive effects of erosion. A disruption to either the positive or negative side of the coral reef carbonate budget can push a reef system towards rapid collapse. It is well understood that Ocean Acidification (OA) may impair calcification and emerging experimental evidence suggests that it will likely increase the erosive potential of a diverse suite of bioeroding taxa. This may lead to previously unforeseen scenarios where reef framework degradation occurs at a faster pace than that predicted by more simplistic models, resulting from the multifaceted impacts of both slower coral growth and enhanced rates of habitat erosion. As such, it is of paramount importance that monitoring plans tasked with assessing reef resilience to climate change and OA incorporate methods for quantifying bioerosion. This is a complex undertaking as reef ecosystem bioerosion is the result of numerous behaviors, employed by diverse flora and fauna, operating at vastly different scales. Furthermore, these erosive processes are highly variable, dependent on seasonal fluctuations and differing between reef regions, species, individuals, and even the physical characteristics of the substrates acted upon. The strengths and weaknesses of existing bioerosion monitoring methodologies are discussed, ranging from quantification of single species erosion rates to multi-phyletic census-based approaches. Traditional techniques involving the weight change of carbonate blocks are compared alongside more modern methodologies such as micro computed tomography. Finally, recommendations are made for a comprehensive monitoring strategy, incorporating multiple methodologies in a time and cost-effective manner.

  15. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  16. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  17. Dropping stones in magma oceans - Effects of early lunar cratering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    A new methodology is used to calculate the accumulation rate of megaregolith materials for two models of early lunar cratering, both with and without episodes of late cataclysmic cratering. Results show that the pulverization of early rock layers was an important process competing with the formation of a coherent rock lithosphere at the surface of the hypothetical lunar magma ocean. If a magma ocean existed, then its initial cooling was marked by a period of pre-lithospheric chaos in which impacts punched through the initially thin rocky skin, mixing rock fragments with splashed magma. Furthermore, the results show that intense brecciation and pulverization of rock materials must have occurred to a depth of at least tens of kilometers in the first few hundred years of lunar history regardless of whether a 'terminal lunar cataclysm' occurred around 4.0 G.y. ago. The predicted pattern of brecciation and the ages of surviving rock fragments is similar to that actually observed among lunar samples. More reliable dating of basin-forming events and models of rock exhumation and survival are needed in order to understand better the relation between the early intense bombardment of the moon and the samples collected on the moon today.

  18. Lunar Portable Life Support System Heat Rejection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Sompayrac,Robert G.; Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    Performing extravehicular activity (EVA) at various locations of the lunar surface presents thermal challenges that exceed those experienced in space flight to date. The lunar Portable Life Support System (PLSS) cooling unit must maintain thermal conditions within the space suit and reject heat loads generated by the crewmember and the PLSS equipment. The amount of cooling required varies based on the lunar location and terrain due to the heat transferred between the suit and its surroundings. A study has been completed which investigated the resources required to provide cooling under various lunar conditions, assuming three different thermal technology categories: 1. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) 2. Subcooled Phase Change Material (SPCM) 3. Radiators with and without heat pumps Results from the study are presented that show mass and power impacts on the cooling system as a function of the location and terrain on the lunar surface. Resources (cooling equipment mass and consumables) are greater at the equator and inside sunlit craters due to the additional heat loads on the cooling system. While radiator and SPCM technologies require minimal consumables, they come with carry-weight penalties and have limitations. A wider investigation is recommended to determine if these penalties and limitations are offset by the savings in consumables.

  19. Perceived accuracy in continuous glucose monitoring: understanding the impact on patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, William H; Hessler, Danielle

    2015-03-01

    In terms of accuracy and reliability, the technology of real-time (RT) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is advancing quickly. Still, current devices are imperfect; as a result, patient complaints and frustrations are not uncommon. How do patients' perceptions of device accuracy affect their experience with RT-CGM? In this article, we argue that patients' satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with accuracy has a major impact on how much they are likely to trust the device and how confident they may feel in using the information that is displayed. The available data suggest that greater satisfaction with accuracy is linked to better RT-CGM adherence, more confident and aggressive insulin adjustments, improvements in quality of life, reduced reliance on self-monitoring of blood glucose, and--potentially--less alarm fatigue. As the technology continues to mature, RT-CGM will become increasingly accurate and patients' confidence and trust in the available devices will likely grow, leading to greater uptake and more proactive use of RT-CGM. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Impact of shock requiring norepinephrine on the accuracy and reliability of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Ulrike; Warszawska, Joanna; Kitzberger, Reinhard; Herkner, Harald; Metnitz, Philipp G H; Madl, Christian

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy on the accuracy and reliability of a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in critically ill patients. A prospective, validation study of a medical intensive care unit at a university hospital was carried out. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed subcutaneously in 50 consecutive patients on intensive insulin therapy (IIT), who were assessed according to the a priori strata of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy or not. A total of 736 pairs of sensor glucose (SG)/blood glucose (BG) values were analysed (502 without and 234 with norepinephrine therapy). For all values, repeated measures Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.08 mmol/l (limits of agreement: -1.26 and 1.43 mmol/l). Circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy did not influence the relation of arterial BG with SG in a multivariable random effects linear regression analysis. The covariates norepinephrine dose, body mass index (BMI), glucose level and severity of illness also had no influence. Insulin titration grid analysis showed that 98.6% of the data points were in the acceptable treatment zone. No data were in the life-threatening zone. Circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy, as well as other covariates, had no influence on the accuracy and reliability of the CGMS in critically ill patients.

  1. Implementation of a monitoring system to measure impact of stormwater runoff infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, S; Gibert, J; Winiarski, T; Bertrand Krajewski, J L

    2002-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration is a drainage mode, which is more and more used in urban areas in France. Given the characteristics of urban surfaces, and especially the loads of various pollutants contained in stormwater, it is important to assess the impact of stormwater infiltration systems on soil and groundwater by carrying out field experiments. The main difficulty is due to the complexity of the system observed and the need of multidisciplinary approaches. Another difficulty is that measurements are carried out in situ, in an uncontrolled environment submitted to quantitatively and qualitatively highly variable interferences. Very long term monitoring is needed to get representative results. In order to contribute to solve these problems, the OTHU project has recently been launched in Lyon (France). One of its key action concerns a long-term (10 years) experiment on an infiltration basin specifically rehabilitated for measurements and operational drainage issues. This paper presents the experimental site, the objectives of the project and the way the monitoring process has been built according to the various disciplines involved (biology, ecology, hydrology, chemistry and soil sciences) and to the will of assessing all the uncertainties in the measurement process.

  2. Late Bombardment of the Lunar Highlands Recorded in MIL 090034, MIL 090036 and MIL 090070 Lunar Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J.; Turrin, B.; Swisher, C., III

    2013-01-01

    The Kaguya mission detected small but widespread outcrops of nearly pure ferroan anorthosite in and around large impact basins on the Moon. Along with certain lunar rocks, highly feldspathic lunar meteorites such as MIL 090034 (M34), 090036 (M36), and 090070 (M70) may provide samples of this material. We have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 release patterns and cosmogenic Ar-38 concentrations of several small (<200 microg) samples separated from M34,36, and 70. From petrographic observations concluded that "some of the clasts and grains experienced generations of modifications," a conclusion that we examine in light of our data.

  3. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  4. Spatial unmixing for environmental impact monitoring of mining using UAS and WV-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalieux, S.; Livens, S.; Goossens, M.; Reusen, I.; Tote, C.

    2012-04-01

    The three principal activities of the mineral resources mining industry - mining, mineral processing and metallurgical extraction - all produce waste. The environmental impact of these activities depends on many factors, in particular, the type of mining and the size of the operation. The effects of the mining (extraction) stage tend to be mainly local, associated with surface disturbance, the production of large amounts of solid waste material, and the spread of chemically reactive particulate matter to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Many studies have shown the potential of remote sensing for environmental impact monitoring, e.g., [1]. However, its applicability has been limited due to the inherent spatial-spectral and temporal trade-off of most sensors. More recently, miniaturization of sensors makes it possible to capture color images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with a very high spatial resolution. In addition, the UAS can be deployed in a very flexible manner, allowing high temporal resolution imaging. More detailed spectral information is available from multispectral images, albeit at lower spatial resolution. Combining both types of images using image fusion can help to overcome the spatial-spectral trade-off and provide a new tool for more detailed monitoring of environmental impacts. Within the framework of the ImpactMin project, funded by the Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission, the objective of this study is to implement and apply the spatial unmixing algorithm, as proposed by [2], on images of the 'Vihovici Coal Mine' area, located in the Mostar Valley, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A WorldView2 (WV2) satellite image will be employed, which provides 8-band multispectral data at a spatial resolution of 2m. High spatial resolution images, obtained by a SmartPlanes UAS, will provide RGB data with 0.05m spatial resolution. The spatial unmixing technique is based on the idea that a linear mixing model can be used to perform the downscaling of

  5. Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The sessions in the conference include: Titan, Mars Volcanism, Mars Polar Layered Deposits, Early Solar System Isotopes, SPECIAL SESSION: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Achondrites: Exploring Oxygen Isotopes and Parent-Body Processes, Solar System Formation and Evolution, SPECIAL SESSION: SMART-1, . Impact Cratering: Observations and Experiments, SPECIAL SESSION: Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Solar Nebula Composition, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Asteroid Observations: Spectra, Mostly, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: View from the Surface, Mars Tectonics and Crustal Dichotomy, Stardust: Wild-2 Revealed, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: The Map View, Chondrules and Their Formation, Enceladus, Asteroids and Deep Impact: Structure, Dynamics, and Experiments, Mars Surface Process and Evolution, Martian Meteorites: Nakhlites, Experiments, and the Great Shergottite Age Debate, Stardust: Mainly Mineralogy, Astrobiology, Wind-Surface Interactions on Mars and Earth, Icy Satellite Surfaces, Venus, Lunar Remote Sensing, Space Weathering, and Impact Effects, Interplanetary Dust/Genesis, Mars Cratering: Counts and Catastrophes?, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Atmosphere, Soils, Brines, and Minerals, Lunar Interior and Differentiation, Mars Magnetics and Atmosphere: Core to Ionosphere, Metal-rich Chondrites, Organics in Chondrites, Lunar Impacts and Meteorites, Presolar/Solar Grains, Topics for Print Only papers are: Outer Planets/Satellites, Early Solar System, Interplanetary Dust, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids and Meteoroids, Chondrites, Achondrites, Meteorite Related, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars, Astrobiology, Planetary Differentiation, Impacts, Mercury, Lunar Samples and Modeling, Venus, Missions and Instruments, Global Warming, Education and Public Outreach, Poster sessions are: Asteroids/Kuiper Belt Objects

  6. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  7. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  8. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  9. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  10. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  11. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  12. Lunar Probe Reaches Deep Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's second lunar probe, Chang'e-2, has reached an orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth for an additional mission of deep space exploration, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense announced.

  13. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  14. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  15. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  16. The lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P; Tikoo, Sonia M

    2014-12-05

    The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ∼3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization.

  17. Parameters and structure of lunar regolith in Chang'E-3 landing area from lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zehua; Fang, Guangyou; Ji, Yicai; Gao, Yunze; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landed in the northwest Mare Imbrium, a region that has not been explored before. Yutu rover that released by CE-3 lander carried the first lunar surface penetrating radar (LPR) for exploring lunar regolith thickness and subsurface shallow geological structures. In this paper, based on the LPR data and the Panoramic Camera (PC) data, we first calculate the lunar surface regolith parameters in CE-3 landing area including its permittivity, density, conductivity and FeO + TiO2 content. LPR data provides a higher spatial resolution and more accuracy for the lunar regolith parameters comparing to other remote sensing techniques, such as orbit radar sounder and microwave sensing or earth-based powerful radar. We also derived the regolith thickness and its weathered rate with much better accuracy in the landing area. The results indicate that the regolith growth rate is much faster than previous estimation, the regolith parameters are not uniform even in such a small study area and the thickness and growth rate of lunar regolith here are different from other areas in Mare Imbrium. We infer that the main reason should be geological deformation that caused by multiple impacts of meteorites in different sizes.

  18. Thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Xubing; Wu, Ke

    2016-07-01

    The thorium distribution on the lunar surface is critical for understanding the lunar evolution. This work reports a global map of the thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). Our work exhibits an interesting symmetrical structure of thorium distribution along the two sides of the belt of Th hot spots. Some potential positions of KREEP volcanism are suggested, which are the Fra Mauro region, Montes Carpatus, Aristarchus Plateau and the adjacent regions of Copernicus Crater. Based on the lunar map of thorium distribution, we draw some conclusions on two critical links of lunar evolution: (1) the thorium abundance within the lunar crust and mantle, in the last stage of Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization, may have a positive correlation with the depth in the crust, reaches a peak when coming through the transitional zone between the crust and mantle, and decreases sharply toward the inside of the mantle; thus, the Th-enhanced materials originated from the lower crust and the layer between the crust and mantle, (2) in PKT, KREEP volcanism might be the primary mechanism of Th-elevated components to the lunar surface, whereas the Imbrium impact acted as a relatively minor role.

  19. Detecting impacts of extreme events with ecological in situ monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mahecha

    2017-09-01

    be achieved by randomly designed networks. Spatio-temporal expansions of ecological in situ monitoring networks should carefully consider the size distribution characteristics of extreme events if the aim is also to monitor the impacts of such events in the terrestrial biosphere.

  20. Monitoring and Modeling the Impact of Grazers Using Visual, Remote and Traditional Field Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadknight, C. M.; Marshall, I. W.; Rose, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between wild and domestic animals and the landscape they graze upon is important to soil erosion studies because they are a strong influence on vegetation cover (a key control on the rate of overland flow runoff), and also because the grazers contribute directly to sediment transport via carriage and indirectly by exposing fresh soil by trampling and burrowing/excavating. Quantifying the impacts of these effects on soil erosion and their dependence on grazing intensity, in complex semi-natural habitats has proved difficult. This is due to lack of manpower to collect sufficient data and weak standardization of data collection between observers. The advent of cheaper and more sophisticated digital camera technology and GPS tracking devices has lead to an increase in the amount of habitat monitoring information that is being collected. We report on the use of automated trail cameras to continuously capture images of grazer (sheep, rabbits, deer) activity in a variety of habitats at the Moor House nature reserve in northern England. As well as grazer activity these cameras also give valuable information on key climatic soil erosion factors such as snow, rain and wind and plant growth and thus allow the importance of a range of grazer activities and the grazing intensity to be estimated. GPS collars and more well established survey methods (erosion monitoring, dung counting and vegetation surveys) are being used to generate a detailed representation of land usage and plan camera siting. This paper describes the data collection techniques, outlines the quantitative and qualitative data collected and proposes online and offline systems that can reduce the data processing time and increase focus on important subsets in the collected data. We also present a land usage model that estimates grazing intensity, grazer behaviours and their impact on soil coverage at sites where cameras have not been deployed, based on generalising from camera sites to other

  1. Measurements at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, A.; Albin, T.; Arnold, W.; Fischer, H. H.; Hirn, A.; Krüger, H.; Podolak, M.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Péter, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae carries the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME). The DIM sensor -on top of Philae- with its associate electronics consists of a 7 cm wide cube with piezoelectric plates aimed to detect millimetric and submilimetric dust particles. Through DIM we can estimate dynamical data like flux and the directionality of the impacting particles. Mass and speed of the grains can be constrained for pre-defined density and elastic grain properties. DIM was operated during three mission phases of Philae at the comet: (1) Before Philae's separation from Rosetta at distances of about 9.6 km, 11.8 km, and 25.3 km from the nucleus barycenter. In this mission phase particles released from the nucleus on radial trajectories remained undetectable because of significant obscuration by the structures of Rosetta, and no dust particles were indeed detected. (2) During Philae's six hours descent to its nominal landing site Agilkia, DIM detected one approximately millimeter-sized particle at a distance of 4.97 km from the nucleus' barycenter, corresponding to an altitude of 2.4 km from the surface. This is the closest ever dust detection at a cometary nucleus by a dedicated in-situ dust detector. Laboratory calibration experiments showed that the material properties of the detected particle are compatible with a porous grain having a bulk density of approximately 250kg/m3 and a high porosity. Particles leaving the comet on radial trajectories were detectable with only a very small sensitive area of the DIM sensor while backfalling particles or particles in orbit about the nucleus had a more favorable detection geometry. (3) At Philae's final landing site, Abydos, DIM detected no dust impact which may be due to low cometary activity in the vicinity of Philae, or due to shading by

  2. Osmium isotopes and highly siderophile elements in lunar glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, M.; Walker, R.; Shearer, C.; Papike, J.

    2003-04-01

    The absolute and relative abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) present in planetary mantles are primarily controlled by silicate-metal partitioning during core-mantle differentiation and by later planetary accretion. Constraints on HSE distributions in the lunar mantle will provide insights to the formation and late accretionary history of not only the Moon, but also Earth. Because no samples of the lunar mantle have been collected, the only materials presently available for constraining mantle abundances are lunar volcanic rocks. The Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glasses are spherules derived from fire-fountain eruptions of mare basalts. These glasses are more primitive than the mare basalts, and probably were derived by the melting of cumulate assemblages from the lunar magma ocean in the deep interior (> 400 km). Despite our limited understanding of mantle-melt partitioning of the HSE, even for terrestrial systems, these glasses provide the best hope for constraining the HSE composition of the lunar interior. We report Os isotopic composition data and Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd isotope dilution concentration data for green glass (15426,164) and orange glass (74001,1217). Absolute and relative abundances of HSE are variable. The green glass has elemental ratios of the HSE and an Os isotopic composition within the range defined by chondritic meteorites, suggesting that the HSE were dominated by a meteoritic contaminant. This sample probably provides little information about the lunar interior, but may help constrain the types of meteorites impacting the lunar surface. Two size fractions (180-325 mesh and 75-180 mesh) of the orange glass were analyzed. HSE patterns for both size fractions are fractionated, having higher chondrite-normalized abundances of Pt and Pd, compared with Os and Ir. The supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratio (0.1339) of the finer fraction indicates modestly fractionated Re/Os relative to chondritic. The coarser size fraction

  3. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn Martinez, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen exists in lunar materials in distinct phases having unique sources and equilibration histories. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O) of various components of lunar materials has been studied extensively, but analyses of water in these samples are relatively sparse [1-3]. Samples collected on the lunar surface reflect not only the composition of their source reservoirs but also contributions from asteroidal and cometary impacts, interactions with solar wind and cosmic radiation, among other surface processes. Isotopic characterization of oxygen in lunar water could help resolve the major source of water in the Earth-Moon system by revealing if lunar water is primordial, asteroidal, or cometary in origin [1]. Methods: A lunar rock/soil sample is pumped to high vacuum to remove physisorbed water before heating step-wise to 50, 150, and 1000°C to extract extraterrestrial water without terrestrial contamination. The temperature at which water is evolved is proportional to the strength with which the water is bound in the sample and the relative difficulty of exchanging oxygen atoms in that water. This allows for the isolated extraction of water bound in different phases, which could have different source reservoirs and/or histories, as evidenced by the mass (in)dependence of oxygen compositions. A low blank procedure was developed to accommodate the low water content of lunar material [4]. Results: Oxygen isotopic analyses of lunar water extracted by stepwise heating lunar basalts and breccias with a range of compositions, petrologic types, and surface exposure ages will be presented. The cosmic ray exposure age of these samples varies by two orders of magnitude, and we will consider this in discussing the effects of solar wind and cosmic radiation on the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O). I will examine the implications of our water analyses for the composition of the oxygen-bearing reservoir from which that water formed, the effects of surface

  4. Radiation Shielding of Lunar Regolith/Polyethylene Composites and Lunar Regolith/Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quincy F.; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Zhou, Jianren

    2011-01-01

    the regolith materials by about 6%. The findings may be utilized to extend the possibilities of potential candidate materials for lunar habitat structures, will potentially impact the design criteria of future human bases on the moon, and provide some guidelines for future space mission planning with respect to radiation exposure and risks posed on astronauts.

  5. PIC Simulations of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface and the formation of Lunar Swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, R. A.; Alves, E. P.; Kellett, B.; Bradford, W. J.; Silva, L.; Crawford, I. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Fonseca, R. A.; Gargate, L.; Bingham, R.

    2013-09-01

    Reiner Gamma (7.4°N, 300.9°E) on the western side of Oceanus Procellarum (Figure 1) is the most distinctive example of a 'Lunar Swirl' [1]. Lunar swirls are white, 'wispy' formations on the Lunar surface that appear to be unrelated to any topographical features or impact ejecta that could otherwise explain the higher albedo of the regolith. The 'fluid-like' discolouration of the formations are often accentuated by low albedo regions, or 'dark lanes', that wind between the bright swirls.(Figure 1). The width of the light and dark features can be mechanism that creates them operates on a very fine scale. It is well established that the lunar swirls are colocated with crustal magnetic field anomalies [3]. The implication is that it is an electromagnetic interaction with the fixed magnetic field of the crustal anomaly with the ions in the solar wind that is responsible for albedo alterations [3]. The proton flux is decreased at the swirls i.e. the surface is 'shielded', retarding the ageing processes, compared to non-swirl regions. Yet simultaneously the ion flux is increased on to the adjacent dark lanes accelerating the maturing process. This requires that the plasma interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic anomalies are similarly fine scaled as the markings. This places it in the realm of electron scale collisionless plasma interactions where large-scale approximations such as frozen-in-field and single fluid mechanics, are no longer applicable. Clear indications that this interaction is a miniature collisionless plasma shock is provided by the in-situ spacecraft observations that have traversed, at low altitude, the plasma environment directly above the lunar swirls and other crustal magnetic field anomalies [4]. The in-situ data from multiple spacecraft e.g. [4, 5, 6, 3] is summarized graphically in Figure 2. The collisionless shocks occur as low as 10-20 km above the surface from magnetic field intensities of 10nT (at the shock altitude). In this

  6. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  7. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Characterization of Non-Organized Soils at Gusev Crater with the Spirit Rover Data; Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions; Analysis of the Lunar Surface with Global Mineral and Mg-Number Maps ALH77005: The Magmatic History from Rehomogenized Melt Inclusions; New 70-cm Radar Mapping of the Moon; Cryptomare Deposits Revealed by 70-cm Radar; Construction of a PZT Sensor Network for Low and Hypervelocity Impact Detection; Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps; Physical Properties of Volcanic Deposits on Venus from Radar Polarimetry; Science Alert Demonstration with a Rover Traverse Science Data Analysis System; Earth and Mars, Similar Features and Parallel Lives? Didactic Activities; Expected Constraints on Rhea s Interior from Cassini; Microbially Induced Precipitates: Examples from CO3, Si-, Mn- and Fe-rich Deposits; Li, B - Behavior in Lunar Basalts During Shock and Thermal Metamorphism: Implications for H2O in Martian Magmas; Evaluation of CO Self-Shielding as a Possible Mechanism for Anomalous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Early Solar System Materials; Effect of Ground Ice on Apparent Thermal Inertia on Mars; Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparative Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars; Newly Discovered Meteor Crater Metallic Impact Spherules: Report and Implications; and Evidence of Very Young Glacial Processes in Central Candor Chasma, Mars.

  9. Algorithms for Lunar Flash Video Search, Measurement, and Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Wesley; Suggs, Robert; Cooke, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Lunar meteoroid impact flashes provide a method to estimate the flux of the large meteoroid flux and thus their hazard to spacecraft. Although meteoroid impacts on the Moon have been detected using video methods for over a decade, the difficulty of manually searching hours of video for the rare, extremely brief impact flashes has discouraged the technique's systematic implementation. A prototype has been developed for the purpose of automatically searching lunar video records for impact flashes, eliminating false detections, editing the returned possible flashes, Z and archiving and documenting the results. The theory and organization of the program is discussed with emphasis on the filtering out of several classes of false detections and retaining the brief portions of the raw video necessary for in depth analysis of the flashes detected. Several utilities for measurement, analysis, and location of the flashes on the moon included in the program are demonstrated. Application of the program to a year's worth of lunar observations is discussed along with examples of impact flashes as well as several classes of false impact flashes.

  10. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  11. Small reservoirs in the West African savanna: Usage, monitoring and impact (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Liebe, J. R.; Annor, F.; Andreini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The West African savanna is dotted with thousands of small reservoirs. These reservoirs were primarily built for irrigation purposes, supplying supplementary irrigation in the rainy season and full irrigation in the dry season. Some reservoirs were specifically constructed for watering cattle. Most reservoirs, however, now fulfill a multitude of functions in addition to irrigation and cattle watering, such as fishing, bathing, household water, supply of construction materials, and recreation. In the framework of the Small Reservoirs Project (www.smallreservoirs.org), extensive research has been undertaken over the past ten years that addresses the functioning of these reservoirs and the development of new monitoring methods. This presentation will give a general overview of our findings with respect to history, usage, and hydrological impact of small reservoirs in West Africa. In general, no comprehensive databases are available to local and national governments that contain all reservoirs and their attributes. Remote sensing, therefore, offers an interesting alternative to produce inventories of small reservoirs in a cost effective way. The most straightforward application is the mapping of small reservoirs with the aid of optical satellite images. Open water tends to stand out clearly from its surroundings in such images, allowing for relatively accurate determination of the location and surface area of the reservoirs. An important early discovery was that within a given geomorphological region, there is a very good correlation between surface area and storage volume. Once this correlation is established through a small sub-sample of the reservoirs, all volumes can be calculated on the basis of surfaces as determined through remote sensing. In turn, this opens up the opportunity to monitor water storage over the year by means of satellite images. Optical images are usually not available during large parts of the year due to cloud cover. This holds especially true

  12. Speciation and dissolution of hydrogen in the proto-lunar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Fegley, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Despite very high temperatures accompanying lunar origin, indigenous water in the form of OH has been unambiguously observed in Apollo samples in recent years. Such observations have prompted questions about the abundance and distribution of lunar hydrogen. Here, we investigate the related question of the origin of lunar H: is the hydrogen observed a remnant of a much larger initial inventory that was inherited from a wet Earth but partly depleted during the process of origin, or was hydrogen quantitatively lost from the lunar material, with water being delivered to lunar reservoirs via subsequent impacts after the origins sequence? Motivated by recent results pointing to a limited extent of hydrogen escape from the gravity field of the Earth during lunar origin, we apply a newly developed thermodynamic model of liquid-vapor silicates to the proto-lunar disk to interrogate the behavior of H as a trace element in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact. We find that: (1) pre-existing H-bearing molecules ar...

  13. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  14. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

  15. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  16. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  17. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for psychiatric indications with monitoring recommendation was developed. Results: Medication regimens for 68 members of the Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT program qualified for review. Fourteen medications, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine and fluphenazine long-acting injections (LAI, haloperidol and haloperidol LAI, lithium, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone and paliperidone LAI, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone and risperidone LAI, valproic acid/divalproex, and ziprasidone, were identified. In total, 111 medications are used on a monthly basis. Each member receives more than one medication qualifying for review. Additional monitoring parameters that were evaluated included changes in laboratory orders for members with insulin-dependent diabetes. Annual lipid panels were changed to every 6 months, if applicable. Conclusions and Future Directions: This medication monitoring program was developed to help ensure IMPACT members receive the most effective care and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was to improve coordination of care. Medication monitoring will be added as a continuous quality assurance measure. Lab results will be reviewed at least monthly. The medication monitoring program will be evaluated annually.

  18. Comparison of Low-Energy Lunar Transfer Trajectories to Invariant Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, transfer trajectories from the Earth to the Moon that encounter the Moon at various flight path angles are examined, and lunar approach trajectories are compared to the invariant manifolds of selected unstable orbits in the circular restricted three-body problem. Previous work focused on lunar impact and landing trajectories encountering the Moon normal to the surface, and this research extends the problem with different flight path angles in three dimensions. The lunar landing geometry for a range of Jacobi constants are computed, and approaches to the Moon via invariant manifolds from unstable orbits are analyzed for different energy levels.

  19. The estimate on lunar figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  20. Comparison of lunar rocks and meteorites: Implications to histories of the moon and parent meteorite bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, M.; Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    There are many similarities between lunar samples and stone meteorites. Lunar samples, especially from the highlands, indicate that they have been affected by complex and repeated impact processes. Similar complex and repeated impact processes have also been operative on the achondritic and chondritic meteorites. Similarities between lunar and meteoritic rocks are discussed as follows: (1) Monomict and polymict breccias occur in lunar rocks, as well as in achondritic and chondritic meteorites, having resulted from complex and repeated impact processes; (2) Chondrules are present in lunar meteorites, as well as in a few achondritic and most chondritic meteorites. They apparently crystallized spontaneously from molten highly supercooled droplets which may have formed from impact melts or, perhaps, volcanic processes (as well as from the solar nebula, in the case of meteoritic chondrites); (3) Lithic fragments vary from little modified (relative to the apparent original texture) to partly or completely melted and recrystallized lithic fragments. Their detailed study allows conclusions to be drawn about their parent rock types and their origin, thereby gaining insight into preimpact histories of lunar and meteoritic breccias. There is evidence that cumulate rocks were involved in the early history of both moon and parent meteorite bodies.

  1. Lunar Phase Modulates Circadian Gene Expression Cycles in the Broadcast Spawning Coral Acropora millepora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Aisling K; Willis, Bette L; Harder, Lawrence D; Vize, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    Many broadcast spawning corals in multiple reef regions release their gametes with incredible temporal precision just once per year, using the lunar cycle to set the night of spawning. Moonlight, rather than tides or other lunar-regulated processes, is thought to be the proximate factor responsible for linking the night of spawning to the phase of the Moon. We compared patterns of gene expression among colonies of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora at different phases of the lunar cycle, and when they were maintained under one of three experimentally simulated lunar lighting treatments: i) lunar lighting conditions matching those on the reef, or lunar patterns mimicking either ii) constant full Moon conditions, or iii) constant new Moon conditions. Normal lunar illumination was found to shift both the level and timing of clock gene transcription cycles between new and full moons, with the peak hour of expression for a number of genes occurring earlier in the evening under a new Moon when compared to a full Moon. When the normal lunar cycle is replaced with nighttime patterns equivalent to either a full Moon or a new Moon every evening, the normal monthlong changes in the level of expression are destroyed for most genes. In combination, these results indicate that daily changes in moonlight that occur over the lunar cycle are essential for maintaining normal lunar periodicity of clock gene transcription, and this may play a role in regulating spawn timing. These data also show that low levels of light pollution may have an impact on coral biological clocks.

  2. Structural analysis of lunar subsurface with Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-01-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information on lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E-3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in situ detector, Chang'E-3 LPR has relative higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars and earth-based radars. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E-3 in Mare Imbrium. Filter method and amplitude recovery algorithms are utilized to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Based on the processed radar image, we observe numerous diffraction hyperbolae, which may be caused by discrete reflectors beneath the lunar surface. Hyperbolae fitting method is utilized to reverse the average dielectric constant to certain depth (ε bar). Overall, the estimated ε bar increases with the depth and ε bar could be classified into three categories. Average ε bar of each category is 2.47, 3.40 and 6.16, respectively. Because of the large gap between the values of ε bar of neighboring categories, we speculate a three-layered structure of the shallow surface of LPR exploration region. One possible geological picture of the speculated three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is weathered layer of ejecta blanket with its average thickness and bound on error is 0.95±0.02 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding average thickness is about 2.30±0.07 m, which is in good agreement with the two primary models of ejecta blanket thickness as a function of distance from the crater center. The third layer is regarded as a mixture of stones and soil. The

  3. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  4. Lunar Rover Drivetrain Development to TRL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, P.; Edmundson, P.; Ghafoor, N.; Jones, H.; Kleinhenz, J.; Picard, M.

    2015-10-01

    The LRPDP and SPRP rovers are designed to provide high mobility and robustness in a lunar working environment and are compatible with various lunar surface activities. TRL-6 testing is scheduled for late 2015 on the rover drivetrain components.

  5. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  6. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH-, the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the Moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis provides information on evolved gas species and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGA studies included JSC-1A fine (Johnson Space Center Mare Type 1A simulant), NU-LHT-2M (National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-- United States Geological Survey (USGS)--Lunar Highlands Type 2M simulant) and its proposed feedstocks: anorthosite; dunite; high quality (HQ) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. As an example, the DTA and TGA profiles for anorthosite follow. The DTA indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water is lost accounting for approximately 0.1 percent mass loss. Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals along with other volatile oxides. Limited TGA-FTIR data is available at the time of this writing. For JSC-1A fine, the TGA-FTIR indicates at least two kinds of water are evolved in the 100 to 500 and the 700 to 900 C ranges. Evolution of carbon dioxide types occurs in the 250 to 545, 545 to 705, and 705 to 985 C ranges. Geologically, the results are consistent with the evolution of "water" in its several forms, CO2 from break down of secondary carbonates and magmatic, dissolved gas and glass

  7. Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: projected impacts, monitoring plan, and mitigation options for Cherokee County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Scharre, P.; Pressman, B.

    1979-07-01

    This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and monitoring plans for dealing with the problems identified. The four options and general implementation guidelines for each are presented after reviewing pertinent features of other mitigation and monitoring plans. The four options include (1) no action, (2) preventing impacts by preventing growth, (3) selective growth in designated areas as services can be supplied, and (4) maximum growth designed to attract as many in-movers as possible through a major program of capital investiments in public and private services. With the exception of the no action option, all plans deal with impacts according to some strategy determined by how the County wishes to manage growth. Solutions for impact problems depend on which growth strategy is selected and what additional resources are secured during the impact period. A monitoring program deals with the problems of data and projections uncertainty, while direct action is proposed to deal with the institutional problems of delay of the needed access road, timeing and location problems from the tax base mismatch, and lack of local planning capability.

  8. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUNAR team is exploring technologies that are likely to have a dual purpose, serving both exploration and science. There is a certain degree of commonality in much of LUNAR's research. Specifically, the technology development for a lunar radio telescope involves elements from LFCA, Heliophysics, Exploration Science, and Planetary Science; similarly the drilling technology developed for LLR applies broadly to both Exploration and Lunar Science.

  9. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  10. Sensitivity of Lunar Resource Economic Model to Lunar Ice Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Brad; Diaz, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector mission data indicates sufficient concentration of hydrogen (presumed to be in the form of water ice) to form the basis for lunar in-situ mining activities to provide a source of propellant for near-Earth and solar system transport missions. A model being developed by JPL, Colorado School of Mines, and CSP, Inc. generates the necessary conditions under which a commercial enterprise could earn a sufficient rate of return to develop and operate a LEO propellant service for government and commercial customers. A combination of Lunar-derived propellants, L-1 staging, and orbital fuel depots could make commercial LEO/GEO development, inter-planetary missions and the human exploration and development of space more energy, cost, and mass efficient.

  11. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers

  12. NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Lavoie, Anthony R.; Gilbert, Paul A.; Horack, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), and the International Lunar Network (ILN). The goals and instrumentation of these missions are reviewed.

  13. There's gold in them thar' lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David G.

    Lunar exploration intended to find lunar resources and future sources of terrestrial electrical power is addressed focusing on economic possibilities, lunar minerals, and estimated production of precious metals. It is noted that mining the moon for He-3 will be a massive undertaking, and if it ever takes place, every effort will have to be made to extract valuable materials from the very large throughput of lunar soil.

  14. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rasubala

    Full Text Available Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%, 190 (14.1%, and 140 (9.6% received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05. Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05. We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  15. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (pPrescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (pprescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  16. Experimental investigation of irregular motion impact on 4D PET-based particle therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Bert, C.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) is an in vivo and non-invasive imaging technique to monitor treatment delivery in particle therapy. The inevitable patient respiratory motion during irradiation causes artefacts and inaccurate activity distribution in PET images. Four-dimensional (4D) maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (4D MLEM) allows for a compensation of these effects, but has up to now been restricted to regular motion for PT-PET investigations. However, intra-fractional motion during treatment might differ from that during acquisition of the 4D-planning CT (e.g. amplitude variation, baseline drift) and therefore might induce inaccurate 4D PET reconstruction results. This study investigates the impact of different irregular analytical one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns on PT-PET imaging by means of experiments with a radioactive source and irradiated moving phantoms. Three sorting methods, namely phase sorting, equal amplitude sorting and event-based amplitude sorting, were applied to manage the PET list-mode data. The influence of these sorting methods on the motion compensating algorithm has been analysed. The event-based amplitude sorting showed a superior performance and it is applicable for irregular motions with  ⩽4 mm amplitude elongation and drift. For motion with 10 mm baseline drift, the normalised root mean square error was as high as 10.5% and a 10 mm range deviation was observed.

  17. Monitoring the Impacts of Severe Drought on Plant Species in Southern California Chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Coates, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Roth, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared image data acquired for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) preparatory campaign were used to measure changes in green vegetation fraction and land surface temperature for twelve dominant plant species affected by drought in the Santa Barbara region of California. Relative green vegetation fraction was calculated from seasonally-acquired Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data using pre-drought 2011 AVIRIS data as a baseline. Land surface temperature was retrieved from MODIS-ASTER Simulator (MASTER) data. Deeply rooted tree species, tree species found on more mesic north-facing slopes, and tree species found in riparian areas had the least change in relative green vegetation fraction in 2013 and 2014 (e.g. QUAG and UMCA in the figure below). Coastal sage scrub and chaparral shrub species demonstrated greater variability as well as a long-term decline in relative green vegetation fraction. Three Ceanothus species (CECU, CEME, and CESP in the figure below) had more severe reductions in relative green vegetation fraction in comparison to another common chaparral shrub species, Adenostoma fasciculatum (ADFA). Species formed clusters in the space defined by land surface temperature and relative green vegetation fraction. Declining relative green vegetation fraction corresponded with increasing land surface temperature. Combined, routine acquisition of imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared imagery should provide new opportunities for monitoring drought impacts on ecosystems.

  18. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  19. Lunar base construction requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  20. Lunar Dust Contamination Effects on Lunar Base Thermal Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John R.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to develop a thermal control system that can operate under the extreme thermal environments found on the lunar surface. While these proposed heat rejection systems use different methods to reject heat, each system contains a similar component, a thermal radiator system. These studies have always considered pristine thermal control system components and have overlooked the possible deleterious effects of lunar dust contamination. Since lunar dust has a high emissivity and absorptivity (greater than 0.9) and is opaque, dust accumulation on a surface should radically alter its optical properties and therefore alter its thermal response compared to ideal conditions. In addition, the non-specular nature of the dust particles will alter the performance of systems that employ specular surfaces to enhance heat rejection. To date, few studies have examined the effect of dust deposition on the normal control system components. These studies only focused on a single heat rejection or photovoltaic system. These studies did show that lunar dust accumulations alter the optical properties of any lunar base hardware, which in turn affects component temperatures, and heat rejection. Therefore, a new study was conducted to determine the effect of lunar dust contamination on heat rejection systems. For this study, a previously developed dust deposition model was incorporated into the Thermal Synthesizer System (TSS) model. This modeling scheme incorporates the original method of predicting dust accumulation due to vehicle landings by assuming that the thin dust layer can be treated as a semitransparent surface slightly above and in thermal contact with the pristine surface. The results of this study showed that even small amounts of dust deposits can radically alter the performance of the heat rejection systems. Furthermore. this study indicates that heat rejection systems be either located far from any landing sites or be protected from dust

  1. Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from W isotopes in lunar metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, M; Kleine, T; Bourdon, B; Palme, H; Wieler, R

    2007-12-20

    The Moon is thought to have formed from debris ejected by a giant impact with the early 'proto'-Earth and, as a result of the high energies involved, the Moon would have melted to form a magma ocean. The timescales for formation and solidification of the Moon can be quantified by using 182Hf-182W and 146Sm-142Nd chronometry, but these methods have yielded contradicting results. In earlier studies, 182W anomalies in lunar rocks were attributed to decay of 182Hf within the lunar mantle and were used to infer that the Moon solidified within the first approximately 60 million years of the Solar System. However, the dominant 182W component in most lunar rocks reflects cosmogenic production mainly by neutron capture of 181Ta during cosmic-ray exposure of the lunar surface, compromising a reliable interpretation in terms of 182Hf-182W chronometry. Here we present tungsten isotope data for lunar metals that do not contain any measurable Ta-derived 182W. All metals have identical 182W/184W ratios, indicating that the lunar magma ocean did not crystallize within the first approximately 60 Myr of the Solar System, which is no longer inconsistent with Sm-Nd chronometry. Our new data reveal that the lunar and terrestrial mantles have identical 182W/184W. This, in conjunction with 147Sm-143Nd ages for the oldest lunar rocks, constrains the age of the Moon and Earth to Myr after formation of the Solar System. The identical 182W/184W ratios of the lunar and terrestrial mantles require either that the Moon is derived mainly from terrestrial material or that tungsten isotopes in the Moon and Earth's mantle equilibrated in the aftermath of the giant impact, as has been proposed to account for identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon.

  2. Electrostatic Charging of Lunar Dust by UV Photoelectric Emissions and Solar Wind Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James f.; LeClair, Andre C.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of dust in the lunar environment with its high adhesive characteristics has been recognized to be a major safety issue that must be addressed in view of its hazardous effects on robotic and human exploration of the Moon. The reported observations of a horizon glow and streamers at the lunar terminator during the Apollo missions are attributed to the sunlight scattered by the levitated lunar dust. The lunar surface and the dust grains are predominantly charged positively by the incident UV solar radiation on the dayside and negatively by the solar wind electrons on the night-side. The charged dust grains are levitated and transported over long distances by the established electric fields. A quantitative understanding of the lunar dust phenomena requires development of global dust distribution models, based on an accurate knowledge of lunar dust charging properties. Currently available data of lunar dust charging is based on bulk materials, although it is well recognized that measurements on individual dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the bulk measurements. In this paper we present laboratory measurements of charging properties of Apollo 11 & 17 dust grains by UV photoelectric emissions and by electron impact. These measurements indicate substantial differences of both qualitative and quantitative nature between dust charging properties of individual micron/submicron sized dust grains and of bulk materials. In addition, there are no viable theoretical models available as yet for calculation of dust charging properties of individual dust grains for both photoelectric emissions and electron impact. It is thus of paramount importance to conduct comprehensive measurements for charging properties of individual dust grains in order to develop realistic models of dust processes in the lunar atmosphere, and address the hazardous issues of dust on lunar robotic and human missions.

  3. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of lunar regolith from the Sea of Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshin, M. K.; Ilin, N. P.; Spivak, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used in studying the morphology and cathodoluminescence of lunar regolith particles. Surface and structure of two groups of particles are differentiated: (1) Crystalline with well defined facets and spalling surfaces, which are grains of minerals and rock fragments: and (2) amorphous, fused, and partially or entirely glazed particles. Local melting of particles and the round openings on their surfaces are attributed to secondary influence on the regolith of factors of lunar weathering and above all micrometeoric impacts.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of lunar regolith from the Sea of Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshin, M. K.; Ilin, N. P.; Spivak, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used in studying the morphology and cathodoluminescence of lunar regolith particles. Surface and structure of two groups of particles are differentiated: (1) Crystalline with well defined facets and spalling surfaces, which are grains of minerals and rock fragments: and (2) amorphous, fused, and partially or entirely glazed particles. Local melting of particles and the round openings on their surfaces are attributed to secondary influence on the regolith of factors of lunar weathering and above all micrometeoric impacts.

  6. Framework for monitoring the social and economic impacts associated with the construction of the Skagit Nuclear Project in Skagit County, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwin, D.J.; Greene, M.

    1977-09-30

    The paper discusses an information system which has been developed to monitor the social and economic impacts associated with the construction of twin nuclear reactors in Skagit County, Washington, by Puget Sound Power and Light Company. The monitoring system has been specifically designed to track the social and economic impacts of the Skagit Nuclear Project as they occur.

  7. The Distribution of Anorthosite on the Lunar Farside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. A.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Blewett, D. T.; Spudis, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    There is much evidence to support the hypothesis that a giant impact on early Earth created the Moon and that a magma ocean was present on the young Moon. As the magma cooled and crystallized, plagioclase flotation could have produced the upper part of the Moon's original crust. But how much of this original crust has survived to the present? Has it been entirely disrupted, or do portions remain relatively unchanged? Remote sensing studies of the lunar highlands, combined with analysis of lunar materials returned from known locations on the surface of the Moon, have allowed the determination of the lithologies present in many locations on the Moon. Our study of the distribution of the various lunar-highland rock types has revealed large-scale patterns that suggest the broad outlines of the evolution of portions of the lunar crust. Our previous efforts have used Earth-based spectra and Galileo SSI to study the lunar nearside. We have used Clementine UV-VIS data to extend our studies of the lunar highlands to the farside. Calibration of the Clementine UV-VIS data is essentially complete, and FeO and Ti02 values derived from the Clementine data have been derived from this well-calibrated data. In addition, Lunar Prospector data are now available in preliminary form and can add to our understanding of the composition of highlands units on the farside. We can use this combined dataset to (1) study the composition of farside highlands units; (2) identify and determine the distribution of anorthosite on the lunar farside; and (3) investigate the stratigraphy of the farside crust. The great majority of the Moon's highlands surface is composed of only a few minerals, and these are easily distinguishable using reflection spectroscopy at wavelengths from the UV through visible light and into the near infrared. The mafic minerals pyroxene and olivine contain Fe that causes the minerals to absorb light with a wavelength near 1 micron In contrast, plagioclase feldspar does not

  8. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  9. Lunar maria - result of mantle plume activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E.

    It is generally accepted that lunar maria are the result of catastrophic impact events. However, comparative studying of the Earth's and the Moon's tectonomagmatic evolution could evidence about another way of these specific structures origin. Such studies showed that the both planetary bodies evolved on the close scenario: their geological development began after solidification of global magmatic oceans which led to appearance of their primordial crusts: granitic on the Earth and anorthositic - on the Moon. The further evolution of the both bodies occurred in two stages. For their first stages, lasted ˜2.5 mlrd. years on the Earth and ˜1.5 mlrd. years on the Moon, were typical melts, generated in depleted mantle (Bogatikov et al., 2000). However, at the boundary 2.2-2.0 Ga ago on the Earth and 3.9-3.8 Ga on the Moon another type of magmas appeared: geochemical enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts, characteristic for the terrestrial Phanerozoic plume-related situations, and basaltic mare magmatism with high-Ti varieties on the Moon. It suggests that evolution of the Earth's magmatism was linked with ascending of mantle plumes (superplumes) of two generation: (1) generated in the mantle, depleted during solidification of magmatic ocean and Archean magmatic activity, and (2) generated at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The latter were enriched in the mantle fluid components (Fe, Ti, alkalies, etc); this lighter material could ascend to shallower depths, leading to change of tectonic processes, in particular, to appearance of plate tectonics as the major type of tectonomagmatic activity till now (Bogatikov et al., 2000). By analogy to the Earth, magmatism of the Moon was also linked with ascending of mantle plumes: (1) generated in the depleted mantle (magnesian suite) and (2) generated at the lunar CMB with liquid at that time metallic core (mare basalt and picrites with high-Ti varieties). Like on the Earth, these plumes were lighter than the older plumes, and

  10. Compositional and Geochronological Constraints on the Lunar Cataclysm from Planetary Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric dating and compositional clustering of lunar impact-melt rocks form the backbone of the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Precise age determinations of Apollo and Luna impact-melt rocks define the classic formulation of the cataclysm: a large number of samples 3.9 Ga old, a steep decline after 3.9 Ga, and few impact rocks older than 4.0 Ga. Lunar meteorites more randomly sample the lunar surface, but impact-melt clasts in these rocks show the same apparent age cutoff at 4.0 Ga (though their ages extend approx.500 Myr later). Neither do impact-formed glass spherules and fragments, formed by impacts of all sizes throughout lunar history, predate 4.0 Ga. Geological associations between compositional groups of impact-melt rocks and specific impact basins imply that five large basins formed on the Moon within 200 Myr but a counter-argument postulates they are all products of the Imbrium basin-forming impact; it is not yet proven whether groups of impact melt that are resolvable from each other in age and in trace-element composition represent multiple impacts. The 3.9 Ga age peak and subsequent steep decline are not well mirrored in meteorite data. Radiometric ages in ordinary chondrites and HED meteorites peak around 3.9 Ga but ages older and younger than 3.9 Ga are common. Among Martian meteorites, there is a single impact-related age: ALH 84001 was shocked at 3.92 Ga. Differences in relative impact velocity, impact-melt production, and sampling rate could explain differences between the meteorite and lunar records. One way to anchor the early end of the lunar flux is to directly sample the impact-melt sheet of a large lunar basin distant from Imbrium, such as the South Pole-Aitken basin, where melt rocks probably still resides on the basin floor and could be directly sampled by a human or robotic mission.

  11. National Biological Monitoring Inventory. [Data base for information on biological monitoring of power plant impacts on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized.

  12. A systematic review of the psychometric properties, usability and clinical impacts of mobile mood-monitoring applications in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubad, M; Winsper, C; Meyer, C; Livanou, M; Marwaha, S

    2017-06-23

    Mobile mood-monitoring applications are increasingly used by mental health providers, widely advocated within research, and a potentially effective method to engage young people. However, little is known about their efficacy and usability in young populations. A systematic review addressing three research questions focused on young people: (1) what are the psychometric properties of mobile mood-monitoring applications; (2) what is their usability; and (3) what are their positive and negative clinical impacts? Findings were synthesised narratively, study quality assessed and compared with evidence from adult studies. We reviewed 25 articles. Studies on the psychometric properties of mobile mood-monitoring applications were sparse, but indicate questionable to excellent internal consistency, moderate concurrent validity and good usability. Participation rates ranged from 30% to 99% across studies, and appeared to be affected by methodological factors (e.g. payments) and individual characteristics (e.g. IQ score). Mobile mood-monitoring applications are positively perceived by youth, may reduce depressive symptoms by increasing emotional awareness, and could aid in the detection of mental health and substance use problems. There was very limited evidence on potential negative impacts. Evidence for the use of mood-monitoring applications in youth is promising but limited due to a lack of high-quality studies. Future work should explicate the effects of mobile mood-monitoring applications on effective self-regulation, clinical outcomes across disorders and young people's engagement with mental health services. Potential negative impacts in this population should also be investigated, as the adult literature suggests that application use could potentially increase negativity and depression symptoms.

  13. Lunar Ice Cube: Searching for Lunar Volatiles with a lunar cubesat orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.; Malphrus, Ben; Brown, Kevin; Hurford, Terry; Brambora, Cliff; MacDowall, Robert; Folta, David; Tsay, Michael; Brandon, Carl; Lunar Ice Cube Team

    2016-10-01

    Lunar Ice Cube, a NASA HEOMD NextSTEP science requirements-driven deep space exploration 6U cubesat, will be deployed, with 12 others, by NASA's EM1 mission. The mission's high priority science application is understanding volatile origin, distribution, and ongoing processes in the inner solar system. JPL's Lunar Flashlight, and Arizona State University's LunaH-Map, also lunar orbiters to be deployed by EM1, will provide complementary observations. Lunar Ice Cube utilizes a versatile GSFC-developed payload: BIRCHES, Broadband InfraRed Compact, High-resolution Exploration Spectrometer, a miniaturized version of OVIRS on OSIRIS-REx. BIRCHES is a compact (1.5U, 2 kg, 20 W including cryocooler) point spectrometer with a compact cryocooled HgCdTe focal plane array for broadband (1 to 4 micron) measurements and Linear Variable Filter enabling 10 nm spectral resolution. The instrument will achieve sufficient SNR to identify water in various forms, mineral bands, and potentially other volatiles seen by LCROSS (e.g., CH4) as well. GSFC is developing compact instrument electronics easily configurable for H1RG family of focal plane arrays. The Lunar Ice Cube team is led by Morehead State University, who will provide build, integrate and test the spacecraft and provide mission operations. Onboard communication will be provided by the X-band JPL Iris Radio and dual X-band patch antennas. Ground communication will be provided by the DSN X-band network, particularly the Morehead State University 21-meter substation. Flight Dynamics support is provided by GSFC. The Busek micropropulsion system in a low energy trajectory will allow the spacecraft to achieve the science orbit less than a year. The high inclination, equatorial periapsis orbit will allow coverage of overlapping swaths once every lunar cycle at up to six different times of day (from dawn to dusk) as the mission progresses during its nominal six month science mapping period. Led by the JPL Science PI, the Lunar Ice Cube

  14. Energy management analysis of lunar oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzolari, R.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Energy load models in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being developed. The load models will be used as a first step to ultimately determine the optimal energy system needed to supply the power requirements for the process. The goal is to determine the energy requirements in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite to produce oxygen. The general approach is shown, and the objectives are to determine the energy loads of the processes in the system. Subsequent energy management studies will be made to minimize the system losses (irreversibilities) and to design optimal energy system power requirements. A number of processes are being proposed as possible candidates for lunar application and some detailed experimental efforts are being conducted within this project at the University of Arizona. Priorities are directed toward developing the energy models for each of the proposed processes being considered. The immediate goals are to identify the variables that would impact energy requirements and energy sources of supply.

  15. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  16. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  17. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lender missons intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consist of three blocks: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors. Dust Experiment goals are: 1) Impact sensor to investigate the dynamics of dust particles near the lunar surface (speed, charge, mass, vectors of a fluxes) a) high speed micrometeorites b) secondary particles after micrometeorites soil bombardment c) levitating dust particles due to electrostatic fields PmL instrument will measure dust particle impulses. In laboratory tests we used - min impulse so as 7•10-11 N•c, by SiO2 dust particles, 20-40 µm with velocity about 0,5 -2,5 m/c, dispersion 0.3, and - max impulse was 10-6 N•c with possibility increased it by particles Pb-Sn 0,7 mm with velocity 1 m/c, dispersion ±0.3. Also Impact Sensor will measure the charge of dust particle as far as 10-15 C ( 1000 electrons). In case the charge and impulse of a dust particle are measured we can obtain velocity and mass of them. 2) Electric field Sensor will measure the value and dynamics of the electric fields the lunar surface. Two Electric Field Sensors both are measured the concentration and temperature of charged particles (electrons, ions, dust particles). Uncertainty of measurements is 10%. Electric Field Sensors contain of Lengmure probe. Using Lengmure probe to dark and light Moon surface we can obtain the energy spectra photoelectrons in different period of time. PmL instrument is developing, working out and manufacturing in IKI. Simultaneously with the PmL dust instrument to study lunar dust it would be very important to use an onboard TV system adjusted for imaging physical properties of dust on the lunar surface (adhesion, albedo, porosity, etc), and to collect dust particles samples from the lunar surface to return these samples to the Earth for measure a number of physic-chemical properties of the lunar dust, e.g. a quantum yield of

  18. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  19. NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulville, Daniel R.

    2006-07-01

    This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under what conditions? 2) How would they be accomplished and at what cost? Are they within budget? 3) What are the minimum requirements? What is the minimum mission set? 4) Integrate these elements together to show a viable robotic architecture. 5) Establish a strategic framework for a lunar robotics program. The LRAS Final Report presents analysis and recommendations concerning potential approaches related to NASA s implementation of the President's Vision for Space Exploration. Project and contract requirements will likely be derived in part from the LRAS analysis and recommendations contained herein, but these do not represent a set of project or contract requirements and are not binding on the U.S. Government unless and until they are formally and expressly adopted as such. Details of any recommendations offered by the LRAS Final Report will be translated into implementation requirements. Moreover, the report represents the assessments and projects of the report s authors at the time it was prepared; it is anticipated that the concepts in this report will be analyzed further and refined. By the time some of the activities addressed in this report are implemented, certain assumptions on which the report s conclusions are based will likely evolve as a result of this analysis. Accordingly, NASA, and any entity under contract with NASA, should not use the information in this report for final project direction. Since the conclusion of this study, there have been various changes to the Agency's current portfolio of lunar robotic precursor activities. First, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP

  20. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-09-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  1. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  2. Geopolymers from lunar and Martian soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Alberini, Federico; Meyer, Marit E.

    2017-01-01

    This work discusses the geopolymerization of lunar dust simulant JSC LUNAR-1A and Martian dust simulant JSC MARS-1A. The geopolymerization of JSC LUNAR-1A occurs easily and produces a hard, rock-like, material. The geopolymerization of JSC MARS-1A requires milling to reduce the particle size. Tests were carried out to measure, for both JSC LUNAR-1A and JSC MARS-1A geopolymers, the maximum compressive and flexural strengths. In the case of the lunar simulant, these are higher than those of conventional cements. In the case of the Martian simulant, they are close to those of common building bricks.

  3. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  4. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-01-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  5. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major

  6. Monitoring of urban growth and its related environmental impacts: Niamey case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Spadafora, Francesco; Yadji, Guero; Konaté, Moussa

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution is about a preliminary study of the evolution of Niamey city (Niger) during last decades. Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burkina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. Recent advances in remote sensing, both in satellite hardware technology (i.e. image availability) and image processing algorithm development, provide opportunities for collection and analysis of multitemporal information on urban form and size that can be useful for policy and planning. In spite of these developments, there are also limitations to remote sensing and its application in practice. Some opportunities for, and limitations on, monitoring urban growth using remote sensing data are shown in the present contribution; moreover examples of environmental impacts of urban growth, as monitored with remote sensing, are provided. Niamey is the capital of Niger and is the first city in the country in size and economic importance. Its population increased gradually, from about 3,000 units in 1930 to about 30,000 in 1960, rising to 250,000 in 1980 and, according to estimates, to 800,000 units in 2000. Its patterns of population distribution, livelihoods, and its dominant role within the national economy of Niger make it a good representative case study for West Africa. This case study will consider the recent historical context of continued urban growth and will assess potential future impacts of settlement patterns. The rapid growth of Niamey in the last decades brought relative prosperity but it certainly affected patterns of land use within the city and the emerging urban system. After a preliminary sketch of the georesources in the city (qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates), an analyses of the urban growth and

  7. The impact of a port on the surrounding seashores based on the 13-year monitoring results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Kont, Are

    2017-04-01

    The study was carried out in the vicinity of Sillamäe town and industrial port, located on the north-eastern coast of Estonia in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland (The Baltic Sea). Sillamäe was potentially one of the most serious threats for the whole Baltic Sea environment. The town was founded together with the construction of a highly specialized chemical and metallurgy plant in 1946, where fuel rods and nuclear materials for the Soviet nuclear power plants and weapons were produced. The current study is focusing on the shore processes and the coastal sea fronting Sillamäe. The town is located east of the port. It is the region with the highest potential impact of the port. Until the town was founded and the factory with its nuclear waste depository was constructed, the shores near the town were described as one litho-dynamic system with a good natural balance. Major human influence (construction of the port, waste depository, etc.) and additionally climate warming has taken place since then. The shores in front of the nuclear waste depository are well protected today. However, the rapidly expanding port is the major obstacle of the longshore sediment transport since 2001. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of the port to the changes in coastal evolution and sediment budget in the vicinity of the port based on the regular monitoring results. The dynamics of the seashores was assessed using remote methods and in situ measurements. Remote methods included the analyses of shoreline changes and changes in scarp positions in space and time using orthophotos. The study is also based on the measurements of scarp edges, shorelines and shore profiles conducted in 2004-2016. The measurements were carried out using Leica GS09 RTK-GPS and Leica level. The volume of sediments in the active zone of each profile was calculated. The active zone was defined as the zone from the mean shoreline to the elevation where storm waves were still able to

  8. Analysis of spacecraft data for the study of diverse lunar volcanism and regolith maturation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Sarah E.

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft missions provide new data for investigating the youngest impact craters on Mercury and the Moon, along with lunar volcanic end-members: ancient silicic and young basaltic volcanism. The LRO Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) in-flight absolute radiometric calibration used ground-based Robotic Lunar Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope data as standards. In-flight radiometric calibration is a small aspect of the entire calibration process but an important improvement upon the pre-flight measurements. Calibrated reflectance data are essential for comparing images from LRO to missions like MESSENGER, thus enabling science through engineering. Relative regolith optical maturation rates on Mercury and the Moon are estimated by comparing young impact crater densities and impact ejecta reflectance, thus empirically testing previous models of faster rates for Mercury relative to the Moon. Regolith maturation due to micrometeorite impacts and solar wind sputtering modies UV-VIS-NIR surface spectra, therefore understanding maturation rates is critical for interpreting remote sensing data from airless bodies. Results determined the regolith optical maturation rate on Mercury is 2 to 4 times faster than on the Moon. The Gruithuisen Domes, three lunar silicic volcanoes, represent relatively rare lunar lithologies possibly similar to rock fragments found in the Apollo sample collection. Lunar nonmare silicic volcanism has implications for lunar magmatic evolution. I estimated a rhyolitic composition using morphologic comparisons of the Gruithuisen Domes, measured from NAC 2-meter-per-pixel digital topographic models (DTMs), with terrestrial silicic dome morphologies and laboratory models of viscoplastic dome growth. Small, morphologically sharp irregular mare patches (IMPs) provide evidence for recent lunar volcanism widely distributed

  9. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research was to show how the environmental policy of city can affect the quality of soils. Studies were carried out simultaneously in the two cities of Ukrainian coast of the Azov Sea, which are significantly different in terms of technogenic impact. Berdyansk is a well known resort and wellness center, but until recently around 30 petrochemical, machine-building and other enterprises were located there. The largest industrial center Mariupol, where emissions from enterprises to the atmosphere exceed 300 thousand tons per year, is located about 60 km from Berdyansk in similar natural conditions. Observations of soil contamination was performed on 60 monitoring sites not less than 2500 m2, located in industrial, administrative, cultural, residential and recreational zones of each city. The time series of observations: the first stage in 2002-2003, the second in 2007-2008, third in 2012-2014. The available forms of heavy metals in the soils were determined by atomic-absorption method after extraction of buffer solution with pH 4.8 as well as 1 N HCl. The content of mineral salts in a water extract was measured titrimetrically. The content of heavy metals in grass vegetation and phytotoxicity of soil was determined in 50% of monitoring sites. Since 2002-2003, the level of soil contamination in the industrial zones of Berdyansk gradually decreased, but heavy metals began accumulate in soils of residential, cultural and administrative areas, and especially, in recreation objects. Probably, this is related to the reduction of the industrial sector and the increase of resort and tourist business. Consequently, the content of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in soils is reduced, but the content of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) increases. Currently the contamination of plants becomes less so the quality of local agricultural products is improved. In contrast to this, due to the intensive activity of the enterprises of iron and steel industry in Mariupol the level

  10. Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) onboard Rosetta/Philae: Comparison of experimental results and the theory behind the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, Alberto; Krüger, Harald; Loose, Alexander; Sperl, Matthias; Jürgen Seidensticker, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Arnold, Walter

    2013-08-01

    The Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) experiment on board the Rosetta spacecraft's lander, Philae, is a cube with three sides covered with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors (total sensitive area: ≈70cm2), aimed at measuring the physical properties of millimetric and sub-millimetric dust particles that move near the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov - Gerasimenko. In this work we study the performance of the DIM Flight Spare (FS) unit based on impact experiments and compare the measurements with the sensor's expected theoretical behavior as derived from Hertz' theory of elastic impact. We present the results of impact experiments performed with spherical particles of different densities and elastic properties. We performed two types of experiments: (a) we analyze the performance of the different sensor sides under identical impacts, and (b) we investigate the performance of DIM under impacts of different materials and different impact speeds. We discuss the possible influence of the microstructure of the PZT sensor on the signal strength and its variation with position of the impacting particles. Our results show that the signal strength and the contact times measured with the DIM PZT sensors can be well approximated by Hertz' contact mechanics.

  11. [Effect of lunar dust on humans: -lunar dust: regolith-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Miki, Takeo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Horie, Seichi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki

    2010-09-01

    We reviewed the effect of lunar dust (regolith) on humans by the combination of the hazard/exposure of regolith and microgravity of the moon. With regard to the physicochemical properties of lunar dust, the hazard-related factors are its components, fibrous materials and nanoparticles. Animal exposure studies have been performed using a simulant of lunar dust, and it was speculated that the harmful effects of the simulant lies between those of crystalline silica and titanium dioxide. Fibrous materials may not have a low solubility judging from their components. The nanoparticles in lunar dust may have harmful potentials from the view of the components. As for exposure to regolith, there is a possibility that particles larger than ones in earth (1 gravity) are respirable. In microgravity, 1) the deposition of particles of less than 1 µm in diameter in the human lung did not decrease, 2) the functions of macrophages including phagocytosis were suppressed, 3) pulmonary inflammation was changed. These data on hazard/exposure and microgravity suggest that fine and ultrafine particles in regolith may have potential hazards and risks for humans.

  12. Activity in the lunar surface: Transient Lunar Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    AF, Cruz Roa

    2013-01-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP) observed on the surface of the moon, are of high rarity, low repetition rate and very short observation times, resulting in that there is little information about this topic. This necessitates the importance of studying them in detail. They have been observed as very bright clouds of gases of past geological lunar activity. According its duration, there have been registered in different colors (yellow, orange, red). Its size can vary from a few to hundreds of kilometers. The TLP Usually occur in certain locations as in some craters (Aristarchus, Plato, Kepler, etc.) and at the edges of lunar maria (Sea of Fecundity, Alps hills area, etc.). The exposure time of a TLP can vary from a few seconds to a little more than one hour. In this paper, a literature review of the TLP is made to build a theory from the existing reports and scientific hypotheses, trying to unify and synthesize data and concepts that are scattered by different lunar research lines. The TLP need to be explained ...

  13. Impact of hair-care products on FAEE hair concentrations in substance abuse monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareri, Joey; Appenzeller, Brice; Walasek, Paula; Koren, Gideon

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the use of high-ethanol-content (>65%) hair-care products may elevate fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations in hair. In this case series, nine individuals were identified by FAEE analysis to be chronic alcohol abusers in the context of child-welfare substance abuse monitoring. Based on patient claims of moderate or no alcohol consumption, the presence of ethanol in the patients' hair-care regimens was investigated. Samples were additionally tested for the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). From a total of nine patients, 12 hair samples were submitted for analysis. Patient histories were obtained as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) listing hair-care product ethanol content. Hair samples were pre-washed to remove external contamination and analyzed for FAEE and EtG by GC-MS. According to the Society of Hair Testing consensus guidelines, FAEE levels exceeding 0.50 ng/mg and/or EtG levels exceeding 30 pg/mg indicate chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Upon initial analysis, the nine samples exhibited positive FAEE findings ranging from 0.496 to 4.984 ng/mg. MSDS review revealed the presence of ethanol from 10% to 95% by volume in at least one hair-care product used by each individual. Results of the EtG analysis ranged from 1.9 to 23.5 pg/mg. These findings indicate that regular use of products with ethanol content as low as 10% can impact FAEE results. EtG analysis should be used to confirm FAEE findings and appears to be unaffected by hair-care products, likely due to alternative mechanisms of incorporation.

  14. Topographic monitoring of a middle estuary mudflat, Humber estuary, UK--anthropogenic impacts and natural variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Allen, James H

    2007-01-01

    Annual topographic surveys were carried out at the Saltend mudflat (Humber estuary, UK) between 1998 and 2006. These surveys formed part of an ongoing monitoring programme to examine the potential effects on the mudflat topography of the construction and operation of a waste water treatment works (WwTW) development by Yorkshire Water. Of particular concern was the potential disruption to the sedimentological regime within the special protection area (SPA) and candidate special area of conservation (cSAC) which could affect the invertebrate communities and ornithological functioning of the site. In addition to the development of the WwTW located to the extreme north-west of the site, a port extension removing 10ha of the Saltend intertidal mudflat (outside the SPA but immediately south east of the WwTW) also occurred between 1999 and 2006. Minimal change was noted across the site following the construction and operation of the WwTW between 1998 and 2000. However, the construction of the bund in closer proximity to the SPA and cSAC masked any potential impact the WwTW could have had across the site after 2000. Profiles and contour mapping indicate that significant mudflat accretion occurred in the immediate area of the bund, with a general increase recorded across the western section of the site since 2000. In contrast the alternations to channel planform and subsequent rapid accretion of the mudflat to the east of the jetty, being a significant distance from the developments, are attributed to natural cyclical changes.

  15. Reflectance Spectral Characteristics of Lunar Surface Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Liao Zou; Jian-Zhong Liu; Jian-Jun Liu; Tao Xu

    2004-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mineral composition of major lunar rocks (highland anorthosite, lunar mare basalt and KREEP rock), we investigate the reflectance spectral characteristics of the lunar rock-forming minerals, including feldspar, pyroxene and olivine. The affecting factors, the variation of the intensity of solar radiation with wavelength and the reflectance spectra of the lunar rocks are studied. We also calculate the reflectivity of lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite at 300 nm, 415 nm, 750 nm, 900 nm, 950 nm and 1000 nm.It is considered that the difference in composition between lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite is so large that separate analyses are needed in the study of the reflectivity of lunar surface materials in the two regions covered by mare basalt and highland anorthosite, and especially in the region with high Th contents, which may be the KREEP-distributed region.

  16. Noble Gases in the Lunar Regolith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2003-01-01

    The most fundamental character of lunar soil is its high concentrations of solar-windimplanted dements,and the concentrations and behavior of the noble gases He,Ne,Ar,and Xe,which provide unique and extensive information about a broad range of fundamental problems. In this paper,the authors studied the forming mechanism of lunar regolith,and proposed that most of the noble gases in lunar regolith come from the solar wind. Meteoroid bombardment controls the maturity of lunar soil,with the degree of maturation decreasing with grain size; the concentrations of the noble gases would be of slight variation with the depth of lunar soil but tend to decrease with grain size. In addition,the concentrations of noble gases in lunar soil also show a close relationship with its mineral and chemical compositions. The utilization prospects of the noble gas s He in lunar regolith will be further discussed.

  17. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  18. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  19. Solar and lunar observation planning for Earth-observing sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.

    2011-11-01

    MODIS on-orbit calibration activities include the use of the on-board solar diffuser (SD), SD stability monitor (SDSM) and regularly scheduled lunar observations for the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) radiometric calibration. Normally, the SD door is closed when there is no SD/SDSM observation to avoid the unnecessary illumination of the sunlight on the SD, which causes the SD degradation. The SD is illuminated over a very short period of time when the spacecraft crosses from the night side to the day side. To implement a SD/SDSM calibration, the SD door needs to be open and the SDSM needs to be turned on during the short period of time when the SD is illuminated. A planning tool is needed to predict the exact times for the opening and closing of SD door and SDSM on/off operations of SDSM for each SD/SDSM calibration. The tool is also needed for MODIS yaw maneuvers implemented for SD bi-direction reflectance factor (BRF) validation and SD screen vignetting function (VF) derivation. MODIS observes the Moon through its space view (SV) port. To increase the opportunity for more lunar observations and to keep the lunar phase angle in a selected narrow range that minimizes the view geometric effect on the observed lunar irradiance, a spacecraft roll maneuver is allowed and implemented for MODIS lunar observations. A lunar observation planning tool is required to predict the time and roll angle needed for each lunar observation in the selected phase angle range. The tool is also needed to determine the phase angle range such that the MODIS can view the Moon in as many months as possible each year with the phase angle in the range. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) is responsible for MODIS instrument operation and calibration. We have developed a set of tools to address these needs and have successfully applied them to both Terra and Aqua MODIS. In this paper, we describe the design methodologies and the implementation of the tools. The tools have also been

  20. An Experimental Trial Exploring the Impact of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring upon Alcohol Consumption in a Cohort of Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university.\\ud \\ud Method: Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous ...

  1. Mineralogy and cooling history of magnesian lunar granulite 67415

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Masamichi

    1993-01-01

    Apollo granulite 67415 was investigated by mineralogical techniques to gain better understanding of cooling histories of lunar granulities. Cooling rates were estimated from chemical zoning of olivines in magnesian granulitic clasts by computer simulation of diffusion processes. The cooling rate of 10 deg C/yr obtained is compatible with a model of the granulite formation, in which the impact deposit was cooled from high temperature or annealed, at the depth of about 25 m beneath the surface.

  2. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  3. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  4. Lunar science. [geophysics, mineralogy and evolution of moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, R.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the recent developments in lunar science summarizing the most important lunar findings and the known restraints on the theories of lunar evolution is presented. Lunar geophysics is discussed in sections dealing with the figure of the moon, mascons, and the lunar thermal regime; recent seismic studies and magnetic results are reported. The chemical data on materials taken from lunar orbit are analyzed, and the lunar geology is discussed. Special attention is accorded the subject of minerology, reflecting the information obtained from lunar samples of both mare and nonmare origin. A tentative timetable of lunar events is proposed, and the problem of the moon's origin is briefly treated.

  5. Lunar resources and their utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.; Criswell, D.; Drexler, E.; Garmirian, J.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar surface materials offer a source of raw materials for space processing to produce structural metals, oxygen, silicon, glass, and ceramic products. Significant difference exist, however, between lunar surface materials in the highlands and those in the maria. In the highlands the soil depth is at least an order of magnitude greater, the Al:Fe ratio is ten times greater, the content of plagioclase as a source of clear glass is three times as great, and the content of Ti is at least an order of magnitude lower. Evaluation of the extractive metallurgy and chemical operations associated with carbothermic and silicothermic refinement of lunar regolith suggests that Fe, Al, Si, Mg and probably Ti, Cr and Mn can be recovered, while oxygen is produced as a by-product. A conservative plant design yields its own weight in oxygen, silicon, and structural metals in less than six days. Power requirements for a throughput of 300,000 tons per year is less than 500 megawatts. The processing is done more economically in space than on the lunar surface.

  6. Lunar secondary craters, part K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, V. R.; Morrison, R. H.; Wedekind, J.

    1972-01-01

    Formation of V-shaped structures surrounding the fresh Copernicus Crater and its secondary craters are reviewed, and preliminary observations of the more extensively eroded secondary crater field of Theophilus are presented. Results of laboratory simulation of secondary lunar craters to examine their effects on V-shaped ridges are also described.

  7. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  8. The Megalithic Lunar Season Pointer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Claus

    are concentrated in the east, east- southeast and southeast. This orientation points to specific full moons during the summer period – the lunar season pointer, where the rising points of the full moons, at the horizon concentrate around a few specific directions in the Southeastern quadrant, which specially...

  9. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  10. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  11. Martian "microfossils" in lunar meteorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D W; Kral, T A

    1998-07-01

    One of the five lines of evidence used by McKay et al. (1996) for relic life in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 was the presence of objects thought to be microfossils. These ovoid and elongated forms are similar to structures found in terrestrial rocks and described as "nanobacteria" (Folk, 1993; McBride et al., 1994). Using the same procedures and apparatus as McKay et al. (1996), we have found structures on internal fracture surfaces of lunar meteorites that cannot be distinguished from the objects described on similar surfaces in ALH 84001. The lunar surface is currently a sterile environment and probably always has been. However, the lunar and Martian meteorites share a common terrestrial history, which includes many thousands of years of exposure to Antarctic weathering. Although we do not know the origin of these ovoid and elongated forms, we suggest that their presence on lunar meteorites indicates that the objects described by McKay et al. (1996) are not of Martian biological origin.

  12. Ex Luna Scientia: The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX) is a next-generation mission concept that provides new capabilities for time-domain astrophysics and established the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics. Performance requirements are driven by Type-Ia supernova (SNeIa) science goals that seek to revel details of these profoundly radioactive objects, including their diversity. Primary science objectives include, but are not limited to, probing the fundamental thermonuclear physics processes, performing a census of progenitors and their explosion mechanisms, and evaluating the environmental conditions and intrinsic systematics of these enigmatic objects. LOX provides new capabilities for all-sky, continuous monitoring in the MeV regime (0.1-10 MeV) by leveraging the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Key benefits of the LOX/LOT approach include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass, low implementation risk, and demonstrated operational simplicity that leverages extensive experience with planetary orbital geochemistry investigations; LOX also enables long-term monitoring of MeV gamma-ray sources, a critical capability for SNeIa science. Proof-of-principle efforts validated all aspects of the mission using previously deployed lunar science assets, and led to the first high-energy gamma-ray source detected at the Moon. LOX mission performance, development progress, and expectations for science investigations will be presented.

  13. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of epilithic material in streams has a potential for monitoring impact from mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Jan; Nilsson, Mats; Bigler, Christian; Brooks, Stephen J; Renberg, Ingemar

    2007-04-15

    There is an increasing demand for cost-effective methods for environmental monitoring, and here we assess the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on epilithic material from streams (material covering submerged stones) as a new method for monitoring the impact of pollution from mining and mining-related industries. NIRS, a routine technique in industry, registers the chemical properties of organic material on a molecular level and can detect minute alterations in the composition of epilithic material. Epilithic samples from 65 stream sites (42 uncontaminated and 23 contaminated) in northern Sweden were analyzed. The NIRS approach was evaluated by comparing it with the results of chemical analyses and diatom analyses of the same samples. Based on Principal Component Analysis, the NIRS data distinguished contaminated from uncontaminated sites and performed slightly betterthan chemical analyses and clearly betterthan diatom analyses. Of the streams designated a priori as contaminated, 74% were identified as contaminated by NIRS, 65% were identified by chemical analysis, and 26% were identified by diatom analysis. Unlike chemical analyses of water samples, NIRS data reflect biological impacts in the streams, and the epilithic material integrates impact over time. Given that, and the simplicity of NIRS-analyses, further studies to assess the use of NIRS of epilithic material as an inexpensive environmental monitoring method are justified.

  15. Lunar Rings In South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, G. F.

    Recently [1], when I have revealed the basic property of planet Earth's outer shell ­ its axial structural symmetry. Thus, it became clear that mobilistic models are void now. One can see W.Indic and E.Pacific ridges on thje same meridiane (60 E, 120 W). They stretch northward to Urals (variscan) and Cordilleras (laramian) with the edge of Bear zone (precambrian) in America. Other structures are obvious. The giant fault-ridge line Apsheron - N.Anatolia - Atlas - Mavritanians has as its twin on the other globe side the fracture zone Mendocino with the Mapmaker island chain. African Ugartha has Hawaiians as its twin, rifts Chad-Njassa have as their twin island chain Line in Pacific etc. We can compare the Earth with its permamnent structural symmetry with other planets. Lunar and earthen tectonic megaforms: Imbrium, Oriental Mare and other have identical positions on their planets. It is evident if planet's 0-meridians are matched [1]. Lunar big rings have their places on the African old blocks. Tanganjica massive coincides with risen lunar region. Rodezian block with parts of Kibara, Lomagundy, Limpopo zones coincides with lunar Maria Nectaris and with their nearest rings. SW edge of these rings coincides with lunar Rupes Altai. Young structure of basin Congo coincides with risen block, its center- crater Delambr. Young ocean earthen structures have lunar images also. NW edge of Fecundidatis Maria and its floor coincides with Somali abissal plane, Davie ridge - with lunar Montes Pyrenaeus etc. Resume. The matrix of earthen tectonic forms is drawn on the Moon . The arc forms are cyclic renovating all the time on their own planet places with extending, shortening along one or another of their sides. Mountain arcs give birth to rear basalts. Question. Why 0-meridians of the Moon (center of its disk) and of the Earth (the decision of astronomers, 1884) have the same position relative to tectonic structures of their planets? Why earthen 0-meridian is chosen so

  16. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  17. Dynamic model building and simulation for mechanical main body of lunar lander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-chun; DENG Zong-quan; HU Ming; GAO Hai-bo

    2005-01-01

    Focused on the dynamics problems of a lunar lander during landing process, the whole process was analysed in detail, and the linear elastic model of the moon soil was established by means of experiments-analogic method. Combining the way of elastic impact with the way of velocity replacement, the dynamics model of damping free vibration dynamics model with 3-degree of freedom(DOF) for lunar lander is obtained according to the vibration mechanics elementary theory. Based on Lagrange equations and the energy principle, the damping free vibration differential equations for the lunar lander with 3-DOF are derived and the equations are solved in simulation ways by means of ADAMS software. The conclusions obtained can be used for the design and manufacture of lunar lander.

  18. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  19. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  20. A model of the primordial lunar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Elkins-Tanton, Lindy; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-09-01

    We create the first quantitative model for the early lunar atmosphere, coupled with a magma ocean crystallization model. Immediately after formation, the moon's surface was subject to a radiative environment that included contributions from the early Sun, a post-impact Earth that radiated like a mid-type M dwarf star, and a cooling global magma ocean. This radiative environment resulted in a largely Earth-side atmosphere on the Moon, ranging from ∼104 to ∼102 pascals, composed of heavy volatiles (Na and SiO). This atmosphere persisted through lid formation and was additionally characterized by supersonic winds that transported significant quantities of moderate volatiles and likely generated magma ocean waves. The existence of this atmosphere may have influenced the distribution of some moderate volatiles and created temperature asymmetries which influenced ocean flow and cooling. Such asymmetries may characterize young, tidally locked rocky bodies with global magma oceans and subject to intense irradiation.

  1. Beacons for supporting lunar landing navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Stephan; Bora, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    Current and future planetary exploration missions involve a landing on the target celestial body. Almost all of these landing missions are currently relying on a combination of inertial and optical sensor measurements to determine the current flight state with respect to the target body and the desired landing site. As soon as an infrastructure at the landing site exists, the requirements as well as conditions change for vehicles landing close to this existing infrastructure. This paper investigates the options for ground-based infrastructure supporting the onboard navigation system and analyzes the impact on the achievable navigation accuracy. For that purpose, the paper starts with an existing navigation architecture based on optical navigation and extends it with measurements to support navigation with ground infrastructure. A scenario of lunar landing is simulated and the provided functions of the ground infrastructure as well as the location with respect to the landing site are evaluated. The results are analyzed and discussed.

  2. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  3. Infrared Spectral Observations While Drilling into a Frozen Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Thompson, Sarah; Cook, Amanda; Kleinhenz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Past and continuing observations indicate an enrichment of volatile materials in lunar polar regions. While these volatiles may be located near the surface, access to them will likely require subsurface sampling, during which it is desirable to monitor the volatile content. In a simulation of such activities, a multilayer lunar simulant was prepared with differing water content, and placed inside a thermal vacuum chamber at Glenn Research Center (GRC). The soil profile was cooled using liquid nitrogen. In addition to the soil, a drill and infrared (IR) spectrometer (1600-3400 nm) were also located in the GRC chamber. We report the spectral observations obtained during a sequence where the drill was repeatedly inserted and extracted, to different depths, at the same location. We observe an overall increase in the spectral signature of water ice over the duration of the test. Additionally, we observe variations in the water ice spectral signature as the drill encounters different layers.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 13th, Houston, TX, March 15-19, 1982, Proceedings. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, W. V.; Ahrens, T. J.

    The present conference on planetary and lunar science considers theoretical models for the composition of the Venus crust, the lunar crust, the prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles, the volumetric analysis of complex lunar craters, grazing impacts on Mars, the determination of lunar structure by means of electrical conductivity and seismic experiments, results of studies on the Apollo 16 site rocks, as well as Apollo 14, 15 and 17 lunar glasses and regoliths, and carbon components and isotopic compositions of chondritic meteorites. Also discussed are iron meteorites, interplanetary dust and tektites, and such theoretical and experimental issues as refractory condensates and chondrules from solar furnace experiments, molecular synthesis through the irradiation of silicates, and the adsorption of excess fission Xe.

  5. Continuous cuff-less blood pressure monitoring based on the pulse arrival time approach: the impact of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlsteff, J; Aubert, X A; Morren, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an unmet need for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring especially, in personal healthcare applications. The pulse arrival time (PAT) approach might offer a suitable solution to enable comfortable BP monitoring even at beat-level. However, the methodology is based on hemodynamic surrogate measures, which are sensitive to patient activities such as posture changes, not necessarily related to blood pressure variations. In this paper, we analyze the impact of posture on the PAT measure and related hemodynamic parameters such as the pre-ejection period in well-defined procedures. Additionally, the PAT of a monitored subject is investigated in an unsupervised scenario illustrating the complexity of such a measurement. Our results show the failure of blood pressure inference based on simple calibration strategies using the PAT measure only. We discuss opportunities to compensate for the observed effects towards the realization of wearable cuff-less blood pressure monitoring. These findings emphasize the importance of accessing context information in personal healthcare applications, where vital sign monitoring is typically unsupervised.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: PoDS: A Powder Delivery System for Mars In-Situ Organic, Mineralogic and Isotopic Analysis Instruments Planetary Differentiation of Accreting Planetesimals with 26Al and 60Fe as the Heat Sources Ground-based Observation of Lunar Surface by Lunar VIS/NIR Spectral Imager Mt. Oikeyama Structure: First Impact Structure in Japan? Central Mounds in Martian Impact Craters: Assessment as Possible Perennial Permafrost Mounds (Pingos) A Further Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars New Insight into Valleys-Ocean Boundary on Mars Using 128 Pixels per Degree MOLA Data: Implication for Martian Ocean and Global Climate Change; Recursive Topography Based Surface Age Computations for Mars: New Insight into Surficial Processes That Influenced Craters Distribution as a Step Toward the Formal Proof of Martian Ocean Recession, Timing and Probability; Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A New Method for Stand-Off Quantitative Analysis of Samples on Mars; Milk Spring Channels Provide Further Evidence of Oceanic, >1.7-km-Deep Late Devonian Alamo Crater, Southern Nevada; Exploration of Martian Polar Residual Caps from HEND/ODYSSEY Data; Outflow Channels Influencing Martian Climate: Global Circulation Model Simulations with Emplaced Water; Presence of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons on Pluto; Difference in Degree of Space Weathering on the Newborn Asteroid Karin; Circular Collapsed Features Related to the Chaotic Terrain Formation on Mars; A Search for Live (sup 244)Pu in Deep-Sea Sediments: Preliminary Results of Method Development; Some Peculiarities of Quartz, Biotite and Garnet Transformation in Conditions of Step-like Shock Compression of Crystal Slate; Error Analysis of Remotely-Acquired Mossbauer Spectra; Cloud Activity on Titan During the Cassini Mission; Solar Radiation Pressure and Transient Flows on Asteroid Surfaces; Landing Site Characteristics for Europa 1: Topography; and The Crop Circles of Europa.

  7. A geochemical assessment of possible lunar ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Vaniman, David

    The Moon apparently formed without appreciable water or other relatively volatile materials. Interior concentrations of water or other volatile substances appear to be extremely low. On Earth, water is important to the genesis of nearly all types of ores. Thus, some have reasoned that only abundant elements would occur in ore concentrations. The definition and recognition of ores on the Moon challenge the imaginations and the terrestrial perceptions of ore bodies. Lunar ores included solar-wind soaked soils, which contain abundant but dilute H, C, N, and noble gases (including He-3). Oxygen must be mined; soils contain approximately 45 percent (wt). Mainstream processes of rock formation concentrated Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Ca, and possibly Ti and Cr. The highland surface contains approximately 70 percent (wt) feldspar (mainly CaAl2Si2O8), which can be separated from some highland soils. Small fragments of dunite were collected; dunite may occur in walls and central peaks of some craters. Theoretical extensions of observations of lunar samples suggest that the Moon may have produced ores of trace elements. Some small fragments have trace-element concentrations 104 times higher than the lunar average, indicating that effective geochemical separations occurred; processes included fractional crystallization, silicate immiscibility, vaporization and condensation, and sulfide metamorphism. Operations of these processes acting on indigenous materials and on meteoritic material in the regolith could have produced ores. Infalling carbonaceous meteorites and comets have added water and hydrocarbons that may have been cold-trapped. Vesicles in basalts, pyroclastic beads, and reported transient events suggest gag emission from the lunar interior; such gas might concentrate and transport rare elements. Large impacts may disperse ores or produce them through deposition of heat at depth and by vaporization and subsequent condensation. The main problem in assessing lunar resources is

  8. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Noble, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weathering processes - driven primarily by solar wind ion and micrometeorite bombardment, are constantly changing the surface regoliths of airless bodies, such as the Moon. It is essential to study lunar soils in order to fully under-stand the processes of space weathering, and how they alter the optical reflectance spectral properties of the lunar surface relative to bedrock. Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during micrometeorite impacts into the lunar regolith. The formation of the shock melt component in agglutinates involves reduction of Fe in the target material to generate nm-scale spherules of metallic Fe (nanophase Fe0 or npFe0). The ratio of elemental Fe, in the form of npFe0, to FeO in a given bulk soil indicates its maturity, which increases with length of surface exposure as well as being typically higher in the finer-size fraction of soils. The melting and mixing process in agglutinate formation remain poorly understood. This includes incomplete knowledge regarding how the homogeneity and overall compositional trends of the agglutinate glass portions (agglutinitic glass) evolve with maturity. The aim of this study is to use sub-micrometer scale X-ray compositional mapping and image analysis to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principal chemical components contributing to the shock melt composition variations. An additional focus is to see if agglutinitic glass contains anomalously high Fe sub-micron scale compositional domains similar to those recently reported in glassy patina coatings on lunar rocks.

  9. Study of Plume Impingement Effects in the Lunar Lander Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichalar, Jeremiah; Prisbell, A.; Lumpkin, F.; LeBeau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plume impingement effects from the descent and ascent engine firings of the Lunar Lander were analyzed in support of the Lunar Architecture Team under the Constellation Program. The descent stage analysis was performed to obtain shear and pressure forces on the lunar surface as well as velocity and density profiles in the flow field in an effort to understand lunar soil erosion and ejected soil impact damage which was analyzed as part of a separate study. A CFD/DSMC decoupled methodology was used with the Bird continuum breakdown parameter to distinguish the continuum flow from the rarefied flow. The ascent stage analysis was performed to ascertain the forces and moments acting on the Lunar Lander Ascent Module due to the firing of the main engine on take-off. The Reacting and Multiphase Program (RAMP) method of characteristics (MOC) code was used to model the continuum region of the nozzle plume, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Analysis Code (DAC) was used to model the impingement results in the rarefied region. The ascent module (AM) was analyzed for various pitch and yaw rotations and for various heights in relation to the descent module (DM). For the ascent stage analysis, the plume inflow boundary was located near the nozzle exit plane in a region where the flow number density was large enough to make the DSMC solution computationally expensive. Therefore, a scaling coefficient was used to make the DSMC solution more computationally manageable. An analysis of the effectiveness of this scaling technique was performed by investigating various scaling parameters for a single height and rotation of the AM. Because the inflow boundary was near the nozzle exit plane, another analysis was performed investigating three different inflow contours to determine the effects of the flow expansion around the nozzle lip on the final plume impingement results.

  10. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  11. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    ) program will be to: 1) reduce development and operational costs by sharing costs with industry; 2) create new markets in cis-lunar space to further reduce operational costs; and 3) enable NASA to develop an affordable and economical exploration Mars architecture. The paper will describe a plan for a proposed LCOTS program, its potential impact to an eventual Mars architecture and its many benefits to NASA, commercial space industry and the US economy.

  12. MyMoon: Engaging the “Missing Link” in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public’s interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists - and the public - to populate the site with science content, diverse media exhibits, events, and opportunities for involvement. Through MyMoon, the general public interacts with lunar content that informs them about lunar science research and missions, and engages them in future plans for lunar exploration and eventual habitation. MyMoon’s objectives are to: 1) develop a dynamic, new media learning portal that will enable the general public, with a focus on adults ages 18-35; 2) host a growing, active audience that becomes further involved in NASA’s lunar exploration by sharing their ideas about lunar topics, creating their own materials, and participating in events and experiences; 3) build a community of enthusiasts through social networking media; 4) create a model for online engagement of audiences 18 to 35, and provide detailed evaluation data on best practices and strategies for success. Immersive new media technologies are changing the way that people interact, work, learn, and teach. These provide potentially high-impact opportunities for reaching an audience of young adults, age 18 to 35, that largely is not accessed by, or accessing, NASA (Dittmar, 2004). MyMoon strives to engage - and involve - this audience to build a community of enthusiasts for lunar scientific exploration through social networks and current and emerging new media platforms, including posting videos on YouTube, photo contests on Flickr, and sharing events and challenges on Facebook and Twitter. MyMoon features interactive exhibits that are audience driven and added on a quarterly basis

  13. Real Time Monitoring the Orbit Insertion of Chang'E-1 Lunar Mission%嫦娥一号绕月探测器轨道投入过程实时监测判定的原理与技术实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平劲松; 王明远; 史弦; 简念川

    2011-01-01

    深空探测任务中的轨道机动是保证探测器进入预定轨道的关键环节,也是实际测控任务中的重点和难点.在轨道机动过程中,探测器通过点火产生自身加速度,此过程会造成飞行状态不稳定,使得对卫星机动过程的预测和判定变得更加复杂.针对这些问题,结合中国第一个深空探测任务嫦娥一号(CE-1)卫星,对其轨道机动段,特别是近月点入轨制动这一关键弧段,提出了基于视向速度对探测器飞行状态进行实时监测估计的原理和方法,进一步建立了相应的实时监测系统,并应用于实际工程任务,同时对该系统的表现进行评估,为未来深空探测中的类似问题提供了一种有效的解决方法.%China's first lunar satellite Chang'E-1 (CE-1) was launched on Oct.24, 2007.During its flight to the Moon, a series of maneuvers were performed to keep the satellite in the correct trajectory.Among these maneuvers, the one performed for Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) was the most important part since it directly decided whether the satellite could enter the mission orbit or not.Therefore,real time monitoring and estimation of the satellite's state during this stage became crucial.A system was develop for LOI monitoring using as few data as possible.This system included real time data transmission as well as real time data analysis which could provide the difference between the predicted and observed measurements in the first place, and then, most importantly, it also gives the ensuing orbit insertion conditions, i.e.predicts probable future orbit parameters after the maneuver.The presented method was successfully applied for the LOI process in the mission phase.

  14. Lunar Pyroclastic Eruptions: Basin Volcanism's Dying Gasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Nahm, A.; McGovern, P. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between mare volcanism and impact basins has long been recognized, although the degree of influence basin formation has on volcanism remains a point of contention. For example, did melting of magma sources result from thermal energy imparted by a basin-forming event? Did basin impacts initiate mantle overturn of the unstable LMO cumulate pile, causing dense ilmenite to sink and drag radioactive KREEPy material to provide the thermal energy to initiate melting of the mare sources? Did the dramatically altered stress states provide pathways ideally suited for magma ascent? The chemistry of sampled lunar volcanic glasses indicates that they experienced very little fractional crystallization during their ascent to the surface - they have pristine melt compositions. Volatile abundances, including recent measurements of OH [1,2] suggest that the mantle source of at least t