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Sample records for luciliinae fly species

  1. Phylogenetic radiation of the greenbottle flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Luciliinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kirstin A.; Lamb, Jennifer; Villet, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subfamily Luciliinae is diverse and geographically widespread. Its four currently recognised genera (Dyscritomyia Grimshaw, 1901, Hemipyrellia Townsend, 1918, Hypopygiopsis Townsend 1916 and Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) contain species that range from saprophages to obligate parasites, but their pattern of phylogenetic diversification is unclear. The 28S rRNA, COI and Period genes of 14 species of Lucilia and Hemipyrellia were partially sequenced and analysed together with sequences of 11 further species from public databases. The molecular data confirmed molecular paraphyly in three species-pairs in Lucilia that hamper barcode identifications of those six species. Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina were confirmed as mutual sister species. The placements of Dyscritomyia and Hypopygiopsis were ambiguous, since both made Lucilia paraphyletic in some analyses. Recognising Hemipyrellia as a genus consistently left Lucilia s.l. paraphyletic, and the occasionally-recognised (sub)genus Phaenicia was consistently paraphyletic, so these taxa should be synonymised with Lucilia to maintain monophyly. Analysis of a matrix of 14 morphological characters scored for adults of all genera and for most of the species included in the molecular analysis confirmed several of these findings. The different degrees of parasitism were phylogenetically clustered within this genus but did not form a graded series of evolutionary stages, and there was no particular relationship between feeding habits and biogeography. Because of the ubiquity of hybridization, introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in blow flies, we recommend that using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers should be a procedural standard for medico-criminal forensic identifications of insects. PMID:27103874

  2. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  3. Leaching of assimilable silicon species from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekos, R.; Paslawska, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the leaching of assimilable silicon species from coal fly ash with distilled water, sea waterand synthetic sea water at various fly ash/water ratios, pHs and temperatures. At the 1 g/100 ml fly ash/water ratio, less than 1 mg Si was found in 11 of aqueous slurries over the pH range 4-8 after 2 h at ambient temperature. The leaching was most effective at pH 10.5. At the fly ash/waterratio indicated, the pH of the suspensions decreased from 10.4 to 8.4 after 5days. The pH of fly ash slurries in sea water varied only slightly over time as compared with that in distilled water. Generally, the leaching of assimilable silicon species with distilled water was more intense than that with the sea water. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

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    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Native Chromium Resistant Staphylococci Species from a Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six chromium-resistant Staphylococci species belonging to S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. arlettae were previously isolated from a chromium-polluted Fly ash (FA) dumping site in South Africa. However the genetic mechanisms responsible for chromium resistance were not known. Polymerase chain ...

  6. Molecular identification of tsetse fly ( Diptera: Glossinidae ) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspite of the few mixed clusters, the pattern produced in the phylogenetic trees can provide a good guide to support any other method of Glossina identification. It was recommended that evaluations be made to validate other genetic markers that can produce better resolutions to identify tsetse fly species using phylogenetic ...

  7. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

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    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  8. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrero, Juan

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  9. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  10. Natural infection of the sand fly Phlebotomus kazeruni by Trypanosoma species in Pakistan

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    Iwata Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural infection of phlebotomine sand flies by Leishmania parasites was surveyed in a desert area of Pakistan where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Out of 220 female sand flies dissected, one sand fly, Phlebotomus kazeruni, was positive for flagellates in the hindgut. Analyses of cytochrome b (cyt b, glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences identified the parasite as a Trypanosoma species of probably a reptile or amphibian. This is the first report of phlebotomine sand flies naturally infected with a Trypanosoma species in Pakistan. The possible infection of sand flies with Trypanosoma species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  11. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  12. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Venter, Jan-Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  13. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  14. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    support high abundance of biting flies due to the favourable conditions within the forest for breeding, refuge and easy migration of adult females to animal cages to seek for blood meal. Table 1: Abundance of Biting Flies in Relation to Species in the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden. Site. Stomoxys calcitrans. Haematopota.

  15. Checklist of American sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae: genera, species, and their distribution

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    Paloma Helena Fernandes Shimabukuro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are dipteran insects of medical importance because many species are involved in the transmission of pathogens between human and non-human animals. A total of 530 American species of sand flies is presented in an updated checklist, along with their author(s and year of publication using the classification by Galati (1995, 2003. Distribution by country is also provided.

  16. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

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    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution Species Composition And Size Of Flying Fish Exocoetidae In The Ceram Sea

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    Friesland Tuapetel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ceram Sea is new resources area of catching flying fish. The purpose of study is to determine the species composition size and distribution of flying fish caught by drifting baits. Flying fish data collection was conducted in June until October 2013 in three locations i.e Kaimana East Ceram and Fak-Fak. There are three flying fish species collected namely Hirundichthys oxycephalus Torani Cypselurus poecilopterus Banggulung and Chellopogon abeia yellow wing. The results was showed that in Fak-Fak and Kaimana there are two types of fly fishing that H. oxycephalus andC. poecilopterus whereas in East Ceram found three types including H. oxycephalus C. poecilopterus and C. abeia. The dominant type of flying fish in three locations is H. oxycephalus. Flying fish has a variety size range of body size from 195.6 to 243.6 mm in Kaimana East Ceram range from 206.3 to 284.3 mm while Fak-Fak range from 187.1 to 243.1 mm. The result is expected to be a reference literature as basic data for the management and sustainable utilization of flyling fish in Ceram sea.

  18. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Larval morphology of Chrysomya nigripes (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-05-01

    The morphology of all instars of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a blow fly species of forensic importance, is presented with the aid of both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, and dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax are highlighted. No consistent features were found, even using SEM, for distinguishing the first instar of C. nigripes from that of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) or Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), two other commonly associated blow fly species in corpses in Thailand. Several features observed in second and third instars proved to be valuable characteristics for separating these species.

  20. Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species in Blood-Feeding Bat Flies from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaluk, Alexandra E; Stuckey, Matthew J; Jaffe, David A; Kasten, Rickie W; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; García-Flores, María Martha; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; García-Baltazar, Anahí; Chomel, Bruno B

    2018-05-01

    Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. were identified in bat flies collected on two bat species, with the highest prevalence in Trichobius parasiticus and Strebla wiedemanni collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). When comparing Bartonella sequences from a fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA), vector-associated strains were diverse and generally close to, but distinct from, those recovered from their bacteremic bat hosts in Mexico. Complete Bartonella sequence concordance was observed in only one bat-vector pair. The diversity of Bartonella strains in bat flies reflects the frequent host switch by bat flies, as they usually do not live permanently on their bat host. It may also suggest a possible endosymbiotic relationship with these vectors for some of the Bartonella species carried by bat flies, whereas others could have a mammalian host.

  1. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  2. Distribution and ecology of pest fruit fly species in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan; Vueti, Ema Tora

    2003-01-01

    Fruit flies belong to the very diverse family Tephritidae, which consists of over 4,500 species distributed in most temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. In Asia and the Pacific regions, most of the major pest species belong to two genera. Bactrocera and Dacus. Representatives of Ceratitis occur in southwest Western Australia and the Indian Ocean islands and Carpomya occur in the Indian sub-continent and in Mauritius and Reunion. In the Asian region, 180 species of Bactrocera and 30 species of Dacus have been recorded and in the Australasian and Oceanic region, there are 270 species of Bactrocera and 27 species of Dacus. The diversity of species progressively decreases as the plant/host diversity decreases from west in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea to east in the Polynesian Island countries. The major pest species in the Asian region belong to the dorsalis complex (B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. occipitalis, B. philippinensis, B. papayae and B. pyrifoliae) and include other species such as B. cucurbitae, B. zonata, B. latifrons, and others. In the Pacific region, Australia has 100 species of fruit flies. Many Pacific Island countries each have endemic species, several of which are major pests. The factors that impact on populations of fruit flies include host ranges, life cycles, mating and oviposition behavior, dispersal capacity, nutritional, moisture, temperature and light requirements, and competition within and between species. (author)

  3. Comparative fly species composition on indoor and outdoor forensic cases in Malaysia.

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    Syamsa, Rizal Abdullah; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Firdaus Mohd Salleh; Hidayatulfathi, Othman; Shahrom, Abd Wahid

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

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    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  5. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  6. Use of DNA sequences to identify forensically important fly species and their distribution in the coastal region of Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Angie; Honda, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Forensic entomology has gained prominence in recent years, as improvements in DNA technology and molecular methods have allowed insect and other arthropod evidence to become increasingly useful in criminal and civil investigations. However, comprehensive faunal inventories are still needed, including cataloging local DNA sequences for forensically significant Diptera. This multi-year fly-trapping study was built upon and expanded a previous survey of these flies in Santa Clara County, including the addition of genetic barcoding data from collected species of flies. Flies from the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were trapped in meat-baited traps set in a variety of locations throughout the county. Flies were identified using morphological features and confirmed by molecular analysis. A total of 16 calliphorid species, 11 sarcophagid species, and four muscid species were collected and differentiated. This study found more species of flies than previous area surveys and established new county records for two calliphorid species: Cynomya cadaverina and Chrysomya rufifacies. Differences were found in fly fauna in different areas of the county, indicating the importance of microclimates in the distribution of these flies. Molecular analysis supported the use of DNA barcoding as an effective method of identifying cryptic fly species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The northern flying squirrel as an indicator species of temperate rain forest: test of an hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2005-01-01

    Management indicator species (MIS) often are selected because their life history and demographics are thought to reflect a suite of ecosystem conditions that are too difficult or costly to measure directly. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) has been proposed as an MIS of temperate rain forest of southeastern Alaska based on previous...

  8. Baseline susceptibility to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides in two old world sand fly species (diptera: psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted with support from the Department of Defense’s Deployed Warfighter Protection (DWFP) Program to evaluate the susceptibility of two old world sand fly species, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. duboscqi, to a number of commonly used pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. A simpl...

  9. New species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae recorded from caves in Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry Disney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of scuttle fly are reported from caves in Nevada, USA, namely Aenigmatias bakerae Disney, Megaselia excuniculus Disney, M. krejcae Disney, M. folliculorum Disney, M. necpleuralis Disney and a female Megaselia that can not be named until linked to its male.

  10. Natural infections of man-biting sand flies by Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in the northern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Vargas, Franklin; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kento; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Velez, Lenin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2011-05-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was studied in the Andean areas of Peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana is endemic. Sand flies were captured by human bait and Center for Disease Control (CDC) light trap catches at Nambuque and Padregual, Department of La Libertad, Peru, and morphologically identified. Among 377 female sand flies dissected, the two dominant man-biting species were Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) peruensis (211 flies) and Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) caballeroi (151 flies). Another sand fly species captured by light trap was Warileya phlebotomanica (15 flies). The natural infection of sand flies by flagellates was detected in 1.4% of Lu. (H.) peruensis and 2.6% of Lu. (H.) caballeroi, and the parasite species were identified as Le. (V.) peruviana and Trypanosoma avium, respectively, by molecular biological methods. The results indicated that the vector species responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the study areas is Lu. (H.) peruensis. In addition, the presence of Trypanosoma in man-biting sand fly species means that more careful consideration is necessary for vector research in areas of Andean Peru where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  11. Patterns of host adaptation in fly infecting Entomophthora species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Insect pathogenic fungi (IPF) differ widely in their capability to infect different hosts. Some are generalists and will, given a sufficient number of infectious spores are present, infect almost any species of insect (e.g. Hypocrealean Metarhizium and Beauveria). Members of a different main IPF ...

  12. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  13. Plant and animal species composition and heavy metal content in fly ash ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brieger, G.; Wells, J.R.; Hunter, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Plant and animal species present on a coal fly ash slurry pond site and a dry deposit site were surveyed and sampled during a two-day period in October. Elemental analyses were determined for most of the species encountered. A total of 48 plant species were observed on the two sites, with 35 species on the wet site, and 20 on the dry site. Eighteen terrestrial and 7 aquatic animal species were found on the wet site, exclusive of vertebrates which were not studied with the exception of a carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eleven terrestrial invertebrate and one aquatic species were observed on the dry site. Neutron activation analysis was carried out for: Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Co, Sb, Cd, and As. Using literature values for phytotoxicity, it is concluded that, in general, plants did not accumulate toxic levels of metals. Only one plant (Impatiens biflora Willd.) showed a significant level of Cd. Of 20 plants analyzed on the wet site, 10 had excessive Se concentrations (>5 ppm); on the dry site 6 out of 18 had high Se values. In animals (Gryllus sp.; Melanoplus sp.; Trachelipus sp; Lumbricus terrestris; Physa integra; Cyprinus carpio) the trace metal concentration was generally in between that of control animals and that of the fly ash itself. One exception included Zn, which, although the most variable element examined, was concentrated in all the terrestrial animals to levels higher than in fly ash. Crickets are the most consistent bioconcentrators with Cr, Se, and Zn at higher levels than for control animals. All animals species studied accumulated Se compared to controls. 48 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Species composition of carrion blow flies in northern Thailand: altitude appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  15. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

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    Kittikhun Moophayak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (44.7%, C. pinguis (Walker (15.1%, C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%, C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%; Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart (10.5%, A. villeneuvi (Patton (2.2%; Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%, L. porphyrina (Walker (12.4%, L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%; Hemipyrellia ligurriens(Wiedemann (1.3%, H. pulchra(Wiedemann (0.1%; Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot (0.6%, Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2% and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%. Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  16. A global checklist of the 932 fruit fly species in the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiel Doorenweerd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev., is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev., is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017, comb. n.; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938, comb. n.; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983, comb. n.; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939, comb. n.; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi

  17. A global checklist of the 932 fruit fly species in the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L; Jose, Michael San; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus ; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus ; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera ; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017), comb. n. ; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938), comb. n. ; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983), comb. n. ; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939), comb. n. ; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi, 1916

  18. Optical remote sensing for monitoring flying mosquitoes, gender identification and discussion on species identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Adrien P.; Basistyy, Roman; Williams, Gregory M.; Thomas, Benjamin P.

    2018-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a major challenge for Human health as they affect nearly 700 million people every year and result in over 1 million deaths. Reliable information on the evolution of population and spatial distribution of key insects species is of major importance in the development of eco-epidemiologic models. This paper reports on the remote characterization of flying mosquitoes using a continuous-wave infrared optical remote sensing system. The system is setup in a controlled environment to mimic long-range lidars, mosquitoes are free flying at a distance of 4 m from the collecting optics. The wing beat frequency is retrieved from the backscattered light from mosquitoes transiting through the laser beam. A total of 427 transit signals have been recorded from three mosquito species, males and females. Since the mosquito species and gender are known a priori, we investigate the use of wing beat frequency as the sole predictor variable for two Bayesian classifications: gender alone (two classes) and species/gender (six classes). The gender of each mosquito is retrieved with a 96.5% accuracy while the species/gender of mosquitoes is retrieved with a 62.3% accuracy. Known to be an efficient mean to identify insect family, we discuss the limitations of using wing beat frequency alone to identify insect species.

  19. Aquatic dance flies (Diptera, Empididae, Clinocerinae and Hemerodromiinae of Greece: species richness, distribution and description of five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivković

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All records of aquatic dance flies (37 species in subfamily Clinocerinae and 10 species in subfamily Hemerodromiinae from the territory of Greece are summarized, including previously unpublished data and data on five newly described species (Chelifera horvati Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n., Wiedemannia iphigeniae Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n., W. ljerkae Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n., W. nebulosa Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n. and W. pseudoberthelemyi Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n.. The new species are described and illustrated, the male terminalia of Clinocera megalatlantica (Vaillant are illustrated and the distributions of all species within Greece are listed. The aquatic Empididae fauna of Greece consists of 47 species, with the following described species reported for the first time: Chelifera angusta Collin, Hemerodromia melangyna Collin, Clinocera megalatlantica, Kowarzia plectrum (Mik, Phaeobalia dimidiata (Loew, W. (Chamaedipsia beckeri (Mik, W. (Philolutra angelieri Vaillant and W. (P. chvali Joost. A key to species of aquatic Empididae of Greece is provided for the first time. Information related to the European Ecoregions in which species were found is given. Compared to the other studied countries in the Balkans, the Greek species assemblage is most similar to that of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

  20. Species structure of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna in the Brazilian western Amazon

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    Luiz Herman Soares Gil

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed areas of the state of Rondônia in western Amazon for phlebotomine, which are potential vectors of leishmaniasis. A total of 5,998 specimens were captured, resulting in the identification of 48 species within the Lutzomyia (99.98% and Brumptomyia (0.02% genera. The predominant species was Lutzomyia davisi, followed by Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi, Lutzomyia c. carrerai, Lutzomyia dendrophyla, Lutzomyia nevesi and Lutzomyia whitmani. All sand flies identified as vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, i.e., Lu. davisi, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. c. carrerai and Lu. whitmani, were found in the surveyed areas.

  1. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

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    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  2. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp. and Lutzomyia (57 spp.. Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N. whitmani, L. (N. flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  3. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.S.; Pasion, W.B.; Moy, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 49 0 C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Effects of environmental temperature on oviposition behavior in three blow fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ody, Helen; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2017-06-01

    A number of factors are known to affect blow fly behavior with respect to oviposition. Current research indicates that temperature is the most significant factor. However temperature thresholds for oviposition in forensically important blow flies have not been well studied. Here, the oviposition behavior of three species of forensically important blow fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata,) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions over a range of temperatures (10-40°C). Lower temperature thresholds for oviposition of 16°C and 17.5°C were established for C. vomitoria and L. sericata respectively, whilst C. vicina continued to lay eggs at 10°C. C. vomitoria and L. sericata both continued to lay eggs at 40°C, whilst the highest temperature at which oviposition occurred in C. vicina was 35°C. Within these thresholds there was considerable variation in the number of surviving pupae, with a general pattern of a single peak within the range of temperatures at which eggs were laid, but with the pattern being much less distinct for L. sericata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does temperature-mediated reproductive success drive the direction of species displacement in two invasive species of leafminer fly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Wang

    Full Text Available Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae are two highly invasive species of leafmining flies, which have become established as pests of horticultural crops throughout the world. In certain regions where both species have been introduced, L. sativae has displaced L. trifolii, whereas the opposite has occurred in other regions. These opposing outcomes suggest that neither species is an inherently superior competitor. The regions where these displacements have been observed (southern China, Japan and western USA are climatically different. We determined whether temperature differentially affects the reproductive success of these species and therefore if climatic differences could affect the outcome of interspecific interactions where these species are sympatric. The results of life table parameters indicate that both species can develop successfully at all tested temperatures (20, 25, 31, 33°C. L. sativae had consistently higher fecundities at all temperatures, but L. trifolii developed to reproductive age faster. Age-stage specific survival rates were higher for L. sativae at low temperatures, but these were higher for L. trifolii at higher temperatures. We then compared the net reproductive rates (R0 for both species in pure and mixed cultures maintained at the same four constant temperatures. Both species had significantly lower net reproductive rates in mixed species cultures compared with their respective pure species cultures, indicating that both species are subject to intense interspecific competition. Net reproductive rates were significantly greater for L. sativae than for L. trifolii in mixed species groups at the lower temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred at the higher temperature. Therefore, interactions between the species are temperature dependent and small differences could shift the competitive balance between the species. These temperature mediated effects may contribute to the current ongoing displacement

  6. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in Thailand: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K

    2001-12-01

    The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.

  7. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  8. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Srichairat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967–2012 in the Natural History Museum (THNHM, National Science Museum, Technopolis, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1 nostril direction; 2 type of tympanum; 3 pattern of patagium; and 4 snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. The specimens were identified into nine species—Draco blanfordii, Draco fimbriatus, Draco maculatus, Draco maximus, Draco melanopogon, Draco obscurus, Draco quinquefasciatus, Draco taeniopterus and Draco volans.

  9. Multilevel landscape utilization of the Siberian flying squirrel: Scale effects on species habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Jaanus; Hanski, Ilpo K; Tuominen, Sakari; Selonen, Vesa

    2017-10-01

    Animals use and select habitat at multiple hierarchical levels and at different spatial scales within each level. Still, there is little knowledge on the scale effects at different spatial levels of species occupancy patterns. The objective of this study was to examine nonlinear effects and optimal-scale landscape characteristics that affect occupancy of the Siberian flying squirrel, Pteromys volans , in South- and Mid-Finland. We used presence-absence data ( n  = 10,032 plots of 9 ha) and novel approach to separate the effects on site-, landscape-, and regional-level occupancy patterns. Our main results were: landscape variables predicted the placement of population patches at least twice as well as they predicted the occupancy of particular sites; the clear optimal value of preferred habitat cover for species landscape-level abundance is a surprisingly low value (10% within a 4 km buffer); landscape metrics exert different effects on species occupancy and abundance in high versus low population density regions of our study area. We conclude that knowledge of regional variation in landscape utilization will be essential for successful conservation of the species. The results also support the view that large-scale landscape variables have high predictive power in explaining species abundance. Our study demonstrates the complex response of species occurrence at different levels of population configuration on landscape structure. The study also highlights the need for data in large spatial scale to increase the precision of biodiversity mapping and prediction of future trends.

  10. THE TRUE IDENTITY OF COPELAND'S AQUATIC SCUTTLE FLY (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) FROM INDIANA AND RECOGNITION OF A SIBLING SPECIES FROM TEXAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R Henry L; Copeland, Robert S; Murrell, Ebony

    2009-07-01

    Among the insects reported by Copeland (1989) breeding in the waters retained by treeholes in Indiana was a scuttle fly identified by W. H. Robinson as Megaselia scalaris (Loew). It is here reported that in fact this fly, along with fresh material from Illinois and Missouri, is M. imitatrix Borgmeier, whose type series was from Puerto Rico. An aquatic species reported from Texas is recognized as a sibling species of M. imitatrix and is named M. hansonix Disney, sp. nov. A single female from Brazil represents a third species of this complex, thus raising doubts about the identity of specimens from Brazil attributed to M. imitatrix by Benton and Claugher (2000).

  11. Hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu

    2003-11-01

    We reported on the hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, collected from a human corpse in Thailand. Although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of C. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. Not only has the resemblance of a hairy appearance between C. villeneuvi and C. rufifacies larvae been documented but also their similarity in predacious feeding behavior. The differentiation between these two species is necessary for post-mortem interval estimation in the corpse.

  12. Insecticide-mediated apparent displacement between two invasive species of leafminer fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Closely related invasive species may often displace one another, but it is often difficult to determine mechanisms because of the historical nature of these events. The leafmining flies Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii have become serious invasive agricultural pests throughout the world. Where both species have invaded the same region, one predominates over the other. Although L. sativae invaded Hainan Island of China first, it recently has been displaced by the newly invasive L. trifolii. We hypothesized that differential susceptibilities to insecticides could be causing this demographic shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Avermectin and cyromazine are the most commonly used insecticides to manage leafminers, with laboratory bioassays demonstrating that L. trifolii is significantly less susceptible to these key insecticides than is L. sativae. In trials where similar numbers of larvae of both species infested plants, which subsequently were treated with the insecticides, the eclosing adults were predominately L. trifolii, yet similar numbers of adults of both species eclosed from control plants. The species composition was then surveyed in two regions where L. trifolii has just begun to invade and both species are still common. In field trials, both species occurred in similar proportions before insecticide treatments began. Following applications of avermectin and cyromazine, almost all eclosing adults were L. trifolii in those treatment plots. In control plots, similar numbers of adults of the two species eclosed, lending further credence to the hypothesis that differential insecticide susceptibilities could be driving the ongoing displacement of L. sativae by L. trifolii. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that differential insecticide susceptibility can lead to rapid shifts in the demographics of pest complexes. Thus, successful pest management requires the identification of pest species to understand the

  13. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam. PMID:27695048

  14. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Alten

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011-2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported.A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy, P. ariasi (France, P. neglectus (Greece, P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey, P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia. Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector

  15. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alten, Bulent; Maia, Carla; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Molina, Ricardo; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Prudhomme, Jorian; Vergnes, Baptiste; Toty, Celine; Cassan, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Thierry, Magali; Sereno, Denis; Bongiorno, Gioia; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Karakus, Mehmet; Ozbel, Yusuf; Arserim, Suha K; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Gunay, Filiz; Oguz, Gizem; Kaynas, Sinan; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Giorgobiani, Ekaterina; Gramiccia, Marina; Volf, Petr; Gradoni, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011-2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector. Adults

  16. Identification and characterization of bacterial symbionts in three species of filth fly parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelman, Kfir; Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Shamir, Maayan; Chiel, Elad

    2017-09-01

    Facultative bacterial symbionts are widespread among insects and have diverse effects on their biology. Here, we focused on bacterial symbionts of three ecologically and economically important filth flies parasitoid species-Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor. Both Spalangia species harbored a Sodalis bacterium that is closely related to Spalangia praecaptivus (a free-living bacterium) and to Sodalis symbionts of weevils. This is the only case of Sodalis infection in the important order Hymenoptera. We also found, for the first time in this parasitoid guild, a Rickettsia infecting the two Spalangia spp., albeit in much higher prevalence in S. cameroni. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses revealed that it is closely related to Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia species from the 'transitional' group. All three parasitoid species harbored Wolbachia. Using multi-locus sequence typing, we found that M. raptor harbors a single Wolbachia strain whereas the Spalangia spp. have multiple strains. By controlled crossings, we found that Wolbachia infection in S. endius causes incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility and increased longevity, thereby promoting Wolbachia's spread. In contrast, no effects of Wolbachia on the reproduction and longevity of M. raptor were found. This study underscores the diversity and nature of symbiotic interactions between microbes and insects. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520

  19. Keys to the blow flies of Taiwan, with a checklist of recorded species and the description of a new species of Paradichosia Senior-White (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tsai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae show a great diversity in behavior and ecology, play important roles in ecosystems, and have medical and forensic importance to humans. Despite this, the taxonomy and classification of Taiwan's Calliphoridae have rarely been studied. In this study, specimens of Taiwanese calliphorids were collected and carefully studied, and all 76 species recorded in Taiwan are listed following the identification keys. Dichotomous keys to all subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species of blow flies recorded in Taiwan are provided, including 16 species that are newly recorded from Taiwan. In addition, one new species of the genus Paradichosia Senior-White is described and illustrated. We also discuss the morphological differences between the specimens of Silbomyia hoeneana Enderlein collected from China and Taiwan, a species that has only been found previously in Southern China.

  20. Keys to the blow flies of Taiwan, with a checklist of recorded species and the description of a new species of Paradichosia Senior-White (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) show a great diversity in behavior and ecology, play important roles in ecosystems, and have medical and forensic importance to humans. Despite this, the taxonomy and classification of Taiwan's Calliphoridae have rarely been studied. In this study, specimens of Taiwanese calliphorids were collected and carefully studied, and all 76 species recorded in Taiwan are listed following the identification keys. Dichotomous keys to all subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species of blow flies recorded in Taiwan are provided, including 16 species that are newly recorded from Taiwan. In addition, one new species of the genus Paradichosia Senior-White is described and illustrated. We also discuss the morphological differences between the specimens of Silbomyia hoeneana Enderlein collected from China and Taiwan, a species that has only been found previously in Southern China. PMID:25152681

  1. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differe...

  2. Species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected from natural reserves in the Pacific and Darien regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael J; Contreras, María Angélica; Suaza, Juan D; Vélez, Iván D; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra

    2017-03-29

    The departments of Chocó and Antioquia in Colombia show climatic and vegetation conditions favoring the establishment of vector species of the genus Lutzomyia and the transmission of Leishmania spp. to human populations entering conserved forest environments. To report the species of Phlebotomine sandflies present in three natural reserves in the Darien and Pacific regions of Colombia. Sand flies were collected specifically in the natural reserves El Aguacate (Acandí, Chocó), Nabugá (Bahía Solano, Chocó) and Tulenapa (Carepa, Antioquia). Sand flies were collected with CDC light traps, active search in resting places and Shannon traps. The taxonomic determination of species was based on taxonomic keys. For some species of taxonomic interest, we evaluated the partial sequences of the 5' region of COI gene. A total of 611 adult sand flies were collected: 531 in Acandí, 45 in Carepa and 35 in Bahía Solano. Seventeen species of the genus Lutzomyia, three of the genus Brumptomyia and one of the genus Warileya were identified. The genetic distances (K2P) and grouping supported (>99%) in the neighbor joining dendrogram were consistent for most established molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) of the Aragaoi group and clearly confirmed the identity of Lu. coutinhoi. Species that have importance in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Acandí, Bahía Solano and Carepa were identified. The presence of Lu. coutinhoi was confirmed and consolidated in Colombia.

  3. Differential divergences of obligately insect-pathogenic Entomophthora species from fly and aphid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen; López Lastra, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Three DNA regions (ITS 1, LSU rRNA and GPD) of isolates from the insect-pathogenic fungus genus Entomophthora originating from different fly (Diptera) and aphid (Hemiptera) host taxa were sequenced. The results documented a large genetic diversity among the fly-pathogenic Entomophthora and only minor differences among aphid-pathogenic Entomophthora. The evolutionary time of divergence of the fly and the aphid host taxa included cannot account for this difference. The host-driven divergence of Entomophthora, therefore, has been much greater in flies than in aphids. Host-range differences or a recent host shift to aphid are possible explanations.

  4. Growth and elemental content of two tree species growing on abandoned coal fly ash basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.L.; Adriano, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in aboveground tissue concentrations of trace elements were assessed for sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis L.) growing on two abandoned coal fly ash basins and a control soil. The wet basin (pH = 5.58) had originally received precipitator ash in an ash-water slurry, while the dry basin (pH = 8.26) had received both precipitator and bottom ash in dry form. In general, trees from the wet basin exhibited elevated trace element concentrations in comparison to the controls, while the dry basin trees exhibited reduced concentrations. On eof the most striking differenced in elemental concentrations among the ash basin and control trees was observed for Mn, with the control trees exhibiting concentrations orders of magnitude greater than the ash basin trees. Differences in foliar trace element concentrations among the sites can generally be explained by differences in substrate trace element concentrations and/or substrate pH. While trees from the wet ash basin generally had the highest trace element concentrations, these trees also attained the greatest height and diameter growth, suggesting that the elevated trace element concentrations in the wet basin substrate are not limiting the establishment of these two species. The greater height and diameter growth of the wet basin trees is presumably a result of the greater water-holding capacity of the substrate on this site. Differences in growth and tissue concentrations between sweetgum and sycamore highlight the importance of using more than one species when assessing metal toxicity or deficiency on a given substrate

  5. From the Atlantic Forest to the borders of Amazonia: species richness, distribution, and host association of ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Eder; Bernard, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    Better knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and their hosts can contribute to clarifying aspects of host specificity, as well as on the interactions among hosts, parasites, and the environment in which both exist. Ectoparasitic flies of the Nycteribiidae and Streblidae families are highly specialized hematophagous parasites of bats, whose distributional patterns, species richness, and associations with hosts remain underexplored and poorly known in Brazil. Here, we used information available in the literature and unpublished data to verify if the occurrence of bat hosts in a given environment influences the occurrence and distribution of nycteribiid and streblid flies in different ecoregions in the northeastern Brazil. We evaluate species richness and similarity between ecoregions and tested correlations between species richness and the number of studies in each ecoregion and federative unit. We recorded 50 species and 15 genera of bat ectoparasitic flies on 36 species and 27 genera of bat hosts. The Atlantic Forest had the highest fly species richness (n = 31; 62%), followed by Caatinga (n = 27; 54%). We detected the formation of distinct groups, with low species overlap between ecoregions for both flies and bats. Fly species richness was correlated with host species richness and with the number of studies in each federative unit, but not with the number of studies by ecoregion. Due to the formation of distinct groups with low species overlap for both groups, host availability is likely to be one of the factors that most influence the occurrence of highly specific flies. We also discuss host specificity for some species, produced an updated list of species and distribution for both nycteribiid and streblid flies with information on interaction networks, and conclude by presenting recommendations for more effective inventories of bat ectoparasites in the future.

  6. A new genus and species of micro bee fly from the Earliest Eocene French amber (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskowiak, Justine; Garrouste, Romain; Nel, Andre

    2016-05-26

    Mythicomyiidae, or micro bee flies, are tiny flies (0.5-5.0 mm) that are found throughout most parts of the world except the highest altitudes and latitudes (Greathead & Evenhuis 2001). Including all extinct and extant taxa, the Mythicomyiidae currently comprise more than 380 valid taxonomic species distributed among 30 genera. The subfamily Psiloderoidinae is especially well represented among the fossil Mythicomyiidae by seven Cretaceous or Cenozoic genera. We here describe a new genus and a new species of this subfamily based on fossils from the Earliest Eocene of Oise (France). A Psiloderoidinae, Proplatypygus matilei Nel & DePloëg, 2004, is already described in this amber. Another mythicomyiid, Eurodoliopteryx inexpectatus Nel, 2006, is the most frequent bombylioid in this amber (Nel & DePloëg, 2004; Nel, 2006).

  7. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  8. Direct multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the identification of six Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae), including major Leishmania vectors of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  9. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀ , Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀ , Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀ . Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp . (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on

  10. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: West African species Glossina tachinoides, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. morsitans submorsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse

    Full Text Available Here we describe field trials designed to standardize tools for the control of Glossina tachinoides, G. palpalis gambiensis and G.morsitans submorsitans in West Africa based on existing trap/target/bait technology. Blue and black biconical and monoconical traps and 1 m(2 targets were made in either phthalogen blue cotton, phthalogen blue cotton/polyester or turquoise blue polyester/viscose (all with a peak reflectance between 450-480 nm and a black polyester. Because targets were covered in adhesive film, they proved to be significantly better trapping devices than either of the two trap types for all three species (up to 14 times more for G. tachinoides, 10 times more for G. palpalis gambiensis, and 6.5 times for G. morsitans submorsitans. The relative performance of the devices in the three blue cloths tested was the same when unbaited or baited with a mixture of phenols, 1-octen-3-ol and acetone. Since insecticide-impregnated devices act via contact with flies, we enumerated which device (traps or targets served as the best object for flies to land on by also covering the cloth parts of traps with adhesive film. Despite the fact that the biconical trap proved to be the best landing device for the three species, the difference over the target (20-30% was not significant. This experiment also allowed an estimation of trap efficiency, i.e. the proportion of flies landing on a trap that are caught in its cage. A low overall efficiency of the biconical or monoconical traps of between 11-24% was recorded for all three species. These results show that targets can be used as practical devices for population suppression of the three species studied. Biconical traps can be used for population monitoring, but a correction factor of 5-10 fold needs to be applied to captures to compensate for the poor trapping efficiency of this device for the three species.

  11. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  12. Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azpurua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the genus Lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the New World. Within the watershed of the Panama Canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. Here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both Leishmania and a microbe that can potentially serve in vector population control, the cytoplasmically transmitted rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis. Knowing accurately which Lutzomyia species are present, what their evolutionary relationships are, and how they are infected by strains of both Leishmania and Wolbachia is of critical value for building strategies to mitigate the impact of this disease in humans.We collected, sorted and then used DNA sequences to determine the diversity and probable phylogenetic relationships of the Phlebotominae occurring in the understory of Barro Colorado Island in the Republic of Panama. Sequence from CO1, the DNA barcoding gene, supported 18 morphology-based species determinations while revealing the presence of two possible "cryptic" species, one (Lu. sp. nr vespertilionis within the Vespertilionis group, the other (Lu. gomezi within the Lutzomyia-cruciata series. Using ITS-1 and "minicircle" primers we detected Leishmania DNA in 43.3% of Lu. trapidoi, 26.3% of Lu. gomezi individuals and in 0% of the other 18 sand fly species. Identical ITS-1 sequence was obtained from the Leishmania infecting Lu. trapidoi and Lu. gomezi, sequence which was 93% similar to Leishmania (viannia naiffi in GenBank, a species previously unknown in Panama, but recognized as a type of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored broadly across northern and central South America. Distinct strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia were detected in three of 20 sand fly species, including Lu. trapidoi

  13. Comparison of Bloodmeal Digestion and the Peritrophic Matrix in Four Sand Fly Species Differing in Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Seblova, Veronika; Homola, Miroslav; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The early stage of Leishmania development in sand flies is closely connected with bloodmeal digestion. Here we compared various parameters of bloodmeal digestion in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to Leishmania donovani, to study the effects on vector competence. The volume of the bloodmeal ingested, time of defecation of bloodmeal remnants, timing of formation and degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) and dynamics of proteolytic activities were compared in four sand fly species. Both proven vectors of L. donovani showed lower trypsin activity and slower PM formation than refractory species. Interestingly, the two natural L. donovani vectors strikingly differed from each other in secretion of the PM and midgut proteases, with P. argentipes possessing fast bloodmeal digestion with a very high peak of chymotrypsin activity and rapid degradation of the PM. Experimental infections of P. argentipes did not reveal any differences in vector competence in comparison with previously studied P. orientalis; even the very low initial dose (2×103 promastigotes/ml) led to fully developed late-stage infections with colonization of the stomodeal valve in about 40% of females. We hypothesise that the period between the breakdown of the PM and defecation of the bloodmeal remnants, i.e. the time frame when Leishmania attach to the midgut in order to prevent defecation, could be one of crucial parameters responsible for the establishment of Leishmania in the sand fly midgut. In both natural L. donovani vectors this period was significantly longer than in S. schwetzi. Both vectors are equally susceptible to L. donovani; as average bloodmeal volumes taken by females of P. argentipes and P. orientalis were 0.63 μl and 0.59 μl, respectively, an infective dose corresponding to 1-2 parasites was enough to initiate mature infections.

  14. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, K.; Hall, M. J. R.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photograp...... larva of L. richardsi is described for the first time and an identification key to the first instars of European species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy of forensic importance is presented....

  15. A binomial and species-independent approach to trap capture analysis of flying insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interpretation of trap captures of flying insects is hampered by factors associated with the performance of traps (i.e. lure, trap design, placement) but also by an often poorly defined relationship between trap captures and population density. In this study, we analyzed multiple trapping data sets ...

  16. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  17. Ecology of Glossina species inhabiting peridomestic agroecosystems in relation to options for tsetse fly control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madubunyi, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Unbaited blue biconical traps were used to sample populations of Glossina once a week from April 1984 to March 1988 in three peridomestic agroecosystems of the Nsukka area, Nigeria. Serological analysis of 1764 fly midgut contents revealed that G. tachinoides had fed on reptiles, birds and mammals, with the domestic pig accounting for 88.08% of the 730 identifiable bloodmeals. The frequency distribution of flies in various stages of the trophic cycle showed that males and females feed at 2.88 ± 0.42 and 2.43 ± 0.44 day intervals, respectively. Flies were caught in greater numbers in biotopes containing domestic pigs, while the presence of man depressed trap catches. The larger the pig population in an agroecosystem, the larger the G. tachinoides population. However, reduction in the pig population to below five triggered the collapse of one of the G. tachinoides populations, which disappeared following the removal of all the pigs. The fly populations exhibited marked seasonal fluctuations in apparent density, largely caused by routine agronomic practices. These density fluctuations undermine recruitment of new adults into the population, especially during the wet season. It is suggested that tsetse populations in this area, already being kept at low density by routine agricultural procedures, could be further reduced by combining insecticides impregnated traps or targets with insect proofing of the piggeries. Methods aimed at undermining the recruitment of young adults into tsetse populations, capitalizing on naturally occurring sex ratio distortion as well as on maintaining populations of preferred hosts of the tsetse fly at low levels, should form part of integrated tsetse control packages. Selection of sterile male release sites and the number of sterile males to be released in them during sterile insect technique campaigns should take into account the sex ratio dynamics of target tsetse populations. 28 ref, 9 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Development of female fruit fly, Ceratitis species, attractant systems for trapping and sterility assessment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyles, D.K.; Du Plessis, N.; Barnes, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    . capitata. No conclusions could be drawn on C. rosa in this trial. In Year 4, the most effective traps for both C capitata and C rosa females were the wet TEPHRI (FA-3) and the wet IPMT (FA-3) systems. The least effective systems for females of both species were the dry TEPHRI (FA-3) system and the IPMT (borax + protein hydrolysate) system. Fruit fly population levels affected the performance of some systems. (author)

  19. A new Huffmanela species, H. schouteni sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from flying fishes in Curaçao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Campbell, B G

    1991-01-01

    A new nematode species, Huffmanela schouteni sp. n., has been established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters (adult nematodes are unknown). The dark-shelled eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the abdominal cavity, serose covers of internal organs and in the liver of the flying fishes Hirundichthys affinis Günther (type host) and Cypselurus cyanopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes in Curaçao. The eggs of H. schouteni sp. n. differ from those in other congeneric species mainly in the absence of small spines on the surface of the transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, measurements (size of eggs 0.069-0.075 x 0.027-0.030 mm) and their localization in the host. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology has been provided.

  20. The effect of starvation on the larval behavior of two forensically important species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Bala, Madhu

    2009-12-15

    The postfeeding larval stage in blow flies is generally an irreversible condition when the fully grown third instar larvae stop feeding and give no response towards food. The larvae of most species then disperse away from their feeding medium and pupariate. There are several cases reported about the use of postfeeding larvae as forensic evidence. It is a matter of common observation that the postfeeding stage can be reached earlier than the expected time if food becomes unavailable. However, no information is available on whether postfeeding stage induced by scarcity of food is also irreversible. Similarly, the minimum period of development required by the larvae of different blow flies species to enable their survival as postfeeding larvae and pupariation in the absence of food is unknown. It was observed during the present studies that the larvae of two Chrysomya species must feed for at least 35 h at 28 degrees C in order to be capable of reaching the postfeeding stage and subsequent pupariation. Duration of the starvation period required to induce postfeeding behavior decreases with increasing age of larvae. In the case of Chrysomya megacephala, 35, 45, 55 and 65 h old larvae attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 30, 20, 12 and 2 h of starvation, respectively. Similarly, larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies that were 35, 45, 55 and 60 h old attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 25, 16, 6 and 2 h of starvation, respectively.

  1. Cross-species genetic exchange between visceral and cutaneous strains of Leishmania in the sand fly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Audrey; Inbar, Ehud; Debrabant, Alain; Charmoy, Melanie; Lawyer, Phillip; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Shaik, Jahangheer; Dobson, Deborah; Beverley, Stephen M; Sacks, David L

    2014-11-25

    Genetic exchange between Leishmania major strains during their development in the sand fly vector has been experimentally shown. To investigate the possibility of genetic exchange between different Leishmania species, a cutaneous strain of L. major and a visceral strain of Leishmania infantum, each bearing a different drug-resistant marker, were used to coinfect Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Eleven double-drug-resistant progeny clones, each the product of an independent mating event, were generated and submitted to genotype and phenotype analyses. The analysis of multiple allelic markers across the genome suggested that each progeny clone inherited at least one full set of chromosomes from each parent, with loss of heterozygosity at some loci, and uniparental retention of maxicircle kinetoplast DNA. Hybrids with DNA contents of approximately 2n, 3n, and 4n were observed. In vivo studies revealed clear differences in the ability of the hybrids to produce pathology in the skin or to disseminate to and grow in the viscera, suggesting polymorphisms and differential inheritance of the gene(s) controlling these traits. The studies, to our knowledge, represent the first experimental confirmation of cross-species mating in Leishmania, opening the way toward genetic linkage analysis of important traits and providing strong evidence that genetic exchange is responsible for the generation of the mixed-species genotypes observed in natural populations.

  2. Providing the Air Force with Data on Species Sensitive to Noise from Low Flying Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howie, Shara

    2000-01-01

    ...), the ACC must evaluate its air operations for impacts to noise sensitive wildlife. The areas used for training flights change, the list of species believed sensitive to noise changes, the species and the species information are dynamic...

  3. Flesh flies species (Diptera: Sarcophagidae from a grassland and a woodland in a Nature Reserve of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Mulieri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes of flesh flies abundance were simultaneously recorded at monthly intervals during a year in a woodland and in a grassland at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" (RECS, Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Samples were taken at monthly intervals (February 2004-January 2005. Hourly captures of adult flies (10:00 am - 04:00 pm were taken each sampling date with a hand net. Temperature was recorded at each hourly capture. The baits used were 200 g of rotten cow liver and 200 g of fresh dog faeces. Records of abundance included only species whose abundance was ≥30 individuals accumulated during the whole sampling period. Considering overall abundance, a non-parametric Chi-square test was used to estimate deviations of an expected habitat and bait preference ratios of 1:1. The same criterion was applied to include species in a contingency table to describe their seasonality. The final matrix included four species whose associations to seasons were analyzed by using a Correspondence Analysis. To normalize the data, a log 10(n+1 transformation was applied prior to the analysis of correlation. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to examine the relationship between flesh-fly abundance with temperature and habitat preference. The entire sample accumulated 1 305 individuals and 18 species. The flies were more abundant in the grassland than in the woodland. Microcerella muehni, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis, O. varia and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula occidua exhibited the higher relative abundance, representing the remaining species less than 8 % of the entire sample. Most of the recorded species showed preference for faces as bait. Concerning the dominant species, all of them but M. muehni, a suggestively termophobic species, prevailed in late spring-summer. The observed species arrangement at both sites indicates low species diversity and equitability and high information per individual in the average. The referred community traits would

  4. Morphology of immature stages of blow fly, Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a potential species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wannasan, Anchalee; Kraisittipanit, Rungroj; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2017-12-01

    Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly species of potential forensic importance since adults are attracted to, and colonize, decomposing vertebrate remains. Blow fly larvae associated with human corpses can be useful evidence in forensic investigations; however, their use is dependent in most cases on proper species identification and availability of developmental data. For identification, morphological information on each life stage is traditionally used. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the ultrastructure of eggs, all instars, and puparia, of L. sinensis. The important characteristics used to differentiate L. sinensis from other species are provided. Distinctive features of the eggs are the slight widening median area extending almost the entire length. The last abdominal segment of the first instar bears elongated outer ventral tubercles along the rim of the last abdominal segment. These tubercles, as well as the well developed median and outer dorsal tubercles, are more prominent in the second and third instars. The surface integument of the tubercles is equipped with circular rows of microtrichia. Pairs of inner dorsal tubercle are absent. Each anterior spiracle is comprised of 9-12 papillae arrange in a single row in the second and third instars. As for the third instar, the dorsal spines between the first and second thoracic segments are delicate, narrow, small, and close together (as row or set). The peristigmatic tufts adjacent to the posterior spiracle of the third instar are moderately branches of short, fine hairs, but minute in puparia. In conclusion, the prominent outer ventral tubercle in all instars and puparia is a new diagnostic feature of L. sinensis and helpful in differentiating it from other Lucilia species that are forensically important. The description of immature L. sinensis in this study will be useful for forensic entomologists in countries where this species exists. Copyright © 2017

  5. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres.

  6. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Elías Bejarano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres.

  7. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  8. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  9. Functional Analysis of the Alternative Sigma-28 Factor FliA and Its Anti-Sigma Factor FlgM of the Nonflagellated Legionella Species L. oakridgensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlapák, Hana; Rydzewski, Kerstin; Schulz, Tino; Weschka, Dennis; Schunder, Eva; Heuner, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    Legionella oakridgensis causes Legionnaires' disease but is known to be less virulent than Legionella pneumophila L. oakridgensis is one of the Legionella species that is nonflagellated. The genes of the flagellar regulon are absent, except those encoding the alternative sigma-28 factor (FliA) and its anti-sigma-28 factor (FlgM). Similar to L. oakridgensis , Legionella adelaidensis and Legionella londiniensis , located in the same phylogenetic clade, have no flagellar regulon, although both are positive for fliA and flgM Here, we investigated the role and function of both genes to better understand the role of FliA, the positive regulator of flagellin expression, in nonflagellated strains. We demonstrated that the FliA gene of L. oakridgensis encodes a functional sigma-28 factor that enables the transcription start from the sigma-28-dependent promoter site. The investigations have shown that FliA is necessary for full fitness of L. oakridgensis Interestingly, expression of FliA-dependent genes depends on the growth phase and temperature, as already shown for L. pneumophila strains that are flagellated. In addition, we demonstrated that FlgM is a negative regulator of FliA-dependent gene expression. FlgM seems to be degraded in a growth-phase- and temperature-dependent manner, instead of being exported into the medium as reported for most bacteria. The degradation of FlgM leads to an increase of FliA activity. IMPORTANCE A less virulent Legionella species, L. oakridgensis , causes Legionnaires' disease and is known to not have flagella, even though L. oakridgensis has the regulator of flagellin expression (FliA). This protein has been shown to be involved in the expression of virulence factors. Thus, the strain was chosen for use in this investigation to search for FliA target genes and to identify putative virulence factors of L. oakridgensis One of the five major target genes of FliA identified here encodes the anti-FliA sigma factor FlgM. Interestingly, in

  10. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  11. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  12. Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliraine, F N; Bonizzoni, M; Guglielmino, C R; Osir, E O; Lux, S A; Mulaa, F J; Gomulski, L M; Zheng, L; Quilici, S; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

    2004-03-01

    A set of 10 microsatellite markers was used to survey the levels of genetic variability and to analyse the genetic aspects of the population dynamics of two potentially invasive pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and C. fasciventris, in Africa. The loci were derived from the closely related species, C. capitata. The degree of microsatellite polymorphism in C. rosa and C. fasciventris was extensive and comparable to that of C. capitata. In C. rosa, the evolution of microsatellite polymorphism in its distribution area reflects the colonization history of this species. The mainland populations are more polymorphic than the island populations. Low levels of differentiation were found within the Africa mainland area, while greater levels of differentiation affect the islands. Ceratitis fasciventris is a central-east African species. The microsatellite data over the Uganda/Kenya spatial scale suggest a recent expansion and possibly continuing gene flow within this area. The microsatellite variability data from C. rosa and C. fasciventris, together with those of C. capitata, support the hypothesis of an east African origin of the Ceratitis spp.

  13. Patterns of resource exploitation in four coexisting globeflower fly species ( Chiastocheta sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompanon, François; Pettex, Emeline; Després, Laurence

    2006-03-01

    Life history and spatio-temporal patterns of resource utilisation were characterised in four Chiastocheta (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) species, whose larvae compete as seed predators on Trollius europaeus fruits. Interspecific co-occurrence was observed in 80% of the resource patches (= Trollius fruits) in the two communities studied. Isolated larvae from all species had a similar food intake, but differed in development time and size at emergence. Different species exhibit contrasting resource exploitation strategies with specific mining patterns and a partial temporal shift. Two species exhibited particularly singular strategies. C. rotundiventris escaped from strong interactions with other species because it was the first species to develop and the only one to exploit the central pith of Trollius fruits. The key role of this species as the main pollinator of the host-plant appears to be a by-product of constraints imposed by occupying a restricted niche. Although the resource is ephemeral due to seed dispersal, C. dentifera, the last species to oviposit, is not disadvantaged because it has a short development time and rapid food intake. The different patterns can partly explain the stability of Chiastocheta communities, but do not prevent competition to occur at high larval densities.

  14. The draft genome of the pest tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni: resources for the genomic analysis of hybridising species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Anthony Stuart; Shearman, Deborah C A; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A; Deshpande, Nandan P; Wilkins, Marc R; Sherwin, William B; Sved, John A

    2014-12-20

    The tephritid fruit flies include a number of economically important pests of horticulture, with a large accumulated body of research on their biology and control. Amongst the Tephritidae, the genus Bactrocera, containing over 400 species, presents various species groups of potential utility for genetic studies of speciation, behaviour or pest control. In Australia, there exists a triad of closely-related, sympatric Bactrocera species which do not mate in the wild but which, despite distinct morphologies and behaviours, can be force-mated in the laboratory to produce fertile hybrid offspring. To exploit the opportunities offered by genomics, such as the efficient identification of genetic loci central to pest behaviour and to the earliest stages of speciation, investigators require genomic resources for future investigations. We produced a draft de novo genome assembly of Australia's major tephritid pest species, Bactrocera tryoni. The male genome (650-700 Mbp) includes approximately 150 Mb of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences and 60 Mb of satellite DNA. Assessment using conserved core eukaryotic sequences indicated 98% completeness. Over 16,000 MAKER-derived gene models showed a large degree of overlap with other Dipteran reference genomes. The sequence of the ribosomal RNA transcribed unit was also determined. Unscaffolded assemblies of B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi were then produced; comparison with B. tryoni showed that the species are more closely related than any Drosophila species pair. The similarity of the genomes was exploited to identify 4924 potentially diagnostic indels between the species, all of which occur in non-coding regions. This first draft B. tryoni genome resembles other dipteran genomes in terms of size and putative coding sequences. For all three species included in this study, we have identified a comprehensive set of non-redundant repetitive sequences, including the ribosomal RNA unit, and have quantified the major satellite DNA

  15. Morphology of second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Narongchai, Paitoon; Samai, Wirachai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda

    2005-11-25

    The morphology of the second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, a fly species of forensic importance, was presented by use of light microscopy. Both instars were of hairy appearance, bearing elongated tubercles along the abdominal and caudal segments. The anterior spiracle had 13-15 papillae. Minute dark spots were observed to thoroughly cover the tubercle's surface, with 4-6 strong dark tips. Regarding the third instar, the intersegmental spines between the prothorax and mesothorax were heavily pigmented. The posterior spiracle had a thick and heavily pigmented incomplete peritreme. The surface and tip of the tubercles was covered with heavily pigmented sharp spines. The integument of the body was covered with numerous distinct net-like patches. A comparison with another well-known hairy maggot, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), was discussed.

  16. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves de; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region.

  17. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  18. Lack of population genetic structure and host specificity in the bat fly, Cyclopodia horsfieldi, across species of Pteropus bats in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olival, Kevin J; Dick, Carl W; Simmons, Nancy B; Morales, Juan Carlos; Melnick, Don J; Dittmar, Katharina; Perkins, Susan L; Daszak, Peter; Desalle, Rob

    2013-08-08

    Population-level studies of parasites have the potential to elucidate patterns of host movement and cross-species interactions that are not evident from host genealogy alone. Bat flies are obligate and generally host-specific blood-feeding parasites of bats. Old-World flies in the family Nycteribiidae are entirely wingless and depend on their hosts for long-distance dispersal; their population genetics has been unstudied to date. We collected a total of 125 bat flies from three Pteropus species (Pteropus vampyrus, P. hypomelanus, and P. lylei) from eight localities in Malaysia, Cambodia, and Vietnam. We identified specimens morphologically and then sequenced three mitochondrial DNA gene fragments (CoI, CoII, cytB; 1744 basepairs total) from a subset of 45 bat flies. We measured genetic diversity, molecular variance, and population genetic subdivision (FST), and used phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses to quantify parasite genetic structure across host species and localities. All flies were identified as Cyclopodia horsfieldi with the exception of two individuals of Eucampsipoda sundaica. Low levels of population genetic structure were detected between populations of Cyclopodia horsfieldi from across a wide geographic range (~1000 km), and tests for isolation by distance were rejected. AMOVA results support a lack of geographic and host-specific population structure, with molecular variance primarily partitioned within populations. Pairwise FST values from flies collected from island populations of Pteropus hypomelanus in East and West Peninsular Malaysia supported predictions based on previous studies of host genetic structure. The lack of population genetic structure and morphological variation observed in Cyclopodia horsfieldi is most likely due to frequent contact between flying fox species and subsequent high levels of parasite gene flow. Specifically, we suggest that Pteropus vampyrus may facilitate movement of bat flies between the three Pteropus

  19. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  20. Evidence for potential of managing some african fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aq...

  1. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  2. Temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Spafford, H; Dadour, I R

    2010-06-01

    The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25

  3. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  4. Evidence for anthropophily in five species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from northern Colombia, revealed by molecular identification of bloodmeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina, Luís E; Verbel-Vergara, Daniel; Romero-Ricardo, Luís; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Paternina-Gómez, Margaret; Martínez, Lily; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the bloodmeal sources of phlebotomine sand flies is fundamental to determining which species are anthropophilic and understanding the transmission of Leishmania parasites in natural epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to identify sand fly bloodmeals in the mixed leishmaniasis focus of the department of Sucre, northern Colombia. In all 141 engorged female sand flies were analyzed, after being captured in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary habitats with Shannon and CDC traps and by active searching in diurnal resting sites. Bloodmeals were identified by sequencing and analysis of a 358bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (CYB) and a 330bp fragment of the nuclear gene prepronociceptin (PNOC). Using both genes 105 vertebrate bloodmeals were identified, with an efficiency of 72% for CYB but only 7% for PNOC. Ten species of vertebrates were identified as providing bloodmeal sources for 8 sand fly species: Homo sapiens (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia micropyga, Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia atroclavata), Equus caballus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis), Equus asinus (L. evansi and L. panamensis), Bos taurus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Tamandua mexicana (L. shannoni and Lutzomyia trinidadensis), Proechimys guyanensis (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Mabuya sp. (Lutzomyia micropyga), Anolissp. (L. micropyga), Sus scrofa (L. evansi and Lutzomyia gomezi) and Gallus gallus (L. evansi). Cattle, donkeys, humans and pigs were significantly more important than other animals (P=0.0001) as hosts of L. evansi, this being the most abundant sand fly species. The five Lutzomyia species in which blood samples of human origin were detected included L. micropyga and L. atroclavata, constituting the first evidence of anthropophily in both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New Records of some Filth Flies Species (Diptera: Milichiidae) in Southwest Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawah, H.A; Abdullah, M.A

    2007-01-01

    A Malaise trap was used during different time periods between 2002 and 2006, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia at different localities. Nine known species of Milichiidae (some of them of medical importance) have been identified. These are: Desmometopa m-nigrum (Zetterstedt, 1848); D. varipalpis Malloch 1927; D. singaporensis Kertesz 1899; Leptometopa rufifrons Becker 1903; L. latipes (Meigen 1830); L. nilssoni Sabrosky, 1987; Milichia pubescens Becker 1907; Milichiella lacteipennis (Loew 1866); Enigmilichia dimorphica Deeming, 1981, from South-Western Saudi Arabia, the last seven species of the above are recorded for the first time. Biological information and distribution of these species are included. The fauna of Milichiidae found in this study is much more of Afrotropical than Palaearctic origin. (author)

  6. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  7. Molecular Identification of Necrophagous Muscidae and Sarcophagidae Fly Species Collected in Korea by Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I Nucleotide Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of insect species is an important task in forensic entomology. For more convenient species identification, the nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene have been widely utilized. We analyzed full-length COI nucleotide sequences of 10 Muscidae and 6 Sarcophagidae fly species collected in Korea. After DNA extraction from collected flies, PCR amplification and automatic sequencing of the whole COI sequence were performed. Obtained sequences were analyzed for a phylogenetic tree and a distance matrix. Our data showed very low intraspecific sequence distances and species-level monophylies. However, sequence comparison with previously reported sequences revealed a few inconsistencies or paraphylies requiring further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report of COI nucleotide sequences from Hydrotaea occulta, Muscina angustifrons, Muscina pascuorum, Ophyra leucostoma, Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, Sarcophaga harpax, and Phaonia aureola.

  8. Cuticle hydrolysis in four medically important fly species by enzymes of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguś, M I; Włóka, E; Wrońska, A; Kaczmarek, A; Kazek, M; Zalewska, K; Ligęza-Żuber, M; Gołębiowski, M

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species. The larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) are resistant, but adults exposed to C. coronatus quickly perish. Fungus was cultivated for 3 weeks in a minimal medium. Cell-free filtrate, for which activity of elastase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitobiosidase and lipase was determined, was used for in vitro hydrolysis of the cuticle from larvae, puparia and adults. Amounts of amino acids, N-glucosamine and fatty acids released were measured after 8 h of incubation. The effectiveness of fungal enzymes was correlated with concentrations of compounds detected in the cuticles of tested insects. Positive correlations suggest compounds used by the fungus as nutrients, whereas negative correlations may indicate compounds responsible for insect resistance. Adult deaths result from the ingestion of conidia or fungal excretions. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. The potential of four woody species for the revegetation of fly ash deposits from the ‘Nikola Tesla-a’ thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four woody species, Tamarix tentandra Pallas, Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (planted and Amorpha fruticosa L. (naturally colonized were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 3 (L1 and 11 years (L2. All species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content and the pH and EC of the ash. A reduced vitality of all populations growing on the ash was observed, except for the naturally colonized A. fruticosa. High vitality on all sites, except at L2, increased chlorophyll content and absence of damage symptoms indicates a tolerance in relation to the uptake of toxic elements from the ash. Therefore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for modeling future actions of biological restoration of fly ash deposits.

  10. Tracking movement and temperature selection of larvae of two forensically important blow fly species within a "maggot mass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wighton, Samuel J; Wallman, James F

    2014-11-01

    The current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." The temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. Infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. Individual Chrysomya rufifacies larvae selected temperatures above 27°C, significantly higher than the temperature selected by Calliphora vicina larvae (24.5°C). However, this same difference was not seen within a mass, with both species selecting temperatures around 28°C. Larval movement in a mass was nonrandom, indicating that larvae actively select their position in a mass. Furthermore, larvae have a strong tendency to select the hottest part of a mass; therefore, maximum mass temperatures might provide a reliable proxy for the actual temperatures experienced by larvae. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  12. Field Trapping Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae with Select Eugenol Analogs That Have Been Found to Attract Other ‘Non-Responsive’ Fruit Fly Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant T. McQuate

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae is a pest fruit fly species native to Oriental Asia which has invaded and established in Hawaii and Tanzania and has been recovered in detection trapping in California. It is largely non-responsive to the male lures cuelure and methyl eugenol. Alpha-ionol + cade oil is a moderately effective male B. latifrons attractant, but is not as attractive as cuelure or methyl eugenol are to other fruit fly species. An improved attractant is therefore desired. With the recent success in finding other non-responsive fruit fly species attracted to isoeugenol, methyl-isoeugenol, or dihydroeugenol in Australia and other countries, we wanted to assess whether B. latifrons might also respond to these “eugenol analogs.” Working with wild B. latifrons populations in Hawaii, we assessed the relative catch of B. latifrons in traps baited with the eugenol analogs with catch in traps baited with alpha-ionol, alpha-ionol + cade oil, or alpha-ionol + eugenol. Catch was significantly higher in traps baited with alpha-ionol + cade oil relative to traps with any of the other baits. There was, though, some male B. latifrons catch in traps baited with dihydroeugenol or isoeugenol but none in traps baited with methyl-isoeugenol.

  13. Trypanosoma teixeirae: A new species belonging to the T. cruzi clade causing trypanosomosis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Mackie, John T; Stenner, Robyn; Gillett, Amber; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of trypanosomes in Australian bats. Recently a novel trypanosome species was identified in an adult female little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) with clinical and pathological evidence of trypanosomosis. The present study used morphology and molecular methods to demonstrate that this trypanosome is a distinct species and we propose the name Trypanosoma teixeirae sp. n. Morphological comparison showed that its circulating trypomastigotes were significantly different from those of Trypanosoma pteropi and Trypanosoma hipposideri, two species previously described from Australian bats. Genetic information was not available for T. pteropi and T. hipposideri but phylogenetic analyses at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) loci indicated that T. teixeirae sp. n. was genetically distinct and clustered with other bat-derived trypanosome species within the Trypanosoma cruzi clade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Species Composition of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Main Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Azizi, Kourosh; Aghaei Afshar, Abbas; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Fekri, Sajjad; Safari, Reza

    2018-02-28

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the main neglected vector-borne diseases in the Middle East, including Iran. This study aimed to map the spatial distribution and species composition of sand flies in Hormozgan Province and to predict the best ecological niches for main CL vectors in this area. A database that included all earlier studies on sand flies in Hormozgan Province was established. Sand flies were also collected from some localities across the province. Prediction maps for main vectors were developed using MaxEnt model. A total of 27 sand fly species were reported from the study area. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Parrot, Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, Sergentomyia sintoni Pringle, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, Sergentomyia tiberiadis Adler, and Sergentomyia baghdadis Adler (Diptera: Psychodidae) had the widest distribution range. The probability of their presence as the main vectors of CL was calculated to be 0.0003-0.9410 and 0.0031-0.8880 for P. papatasi and P. sergenti s.l., respectively. The best ecological niches for P. papatasi were found in the central south, southeast, and a narrow area in southwest, whereas central south to northern area had better niches for P. sergenti s.l. The endemic areas are in Bandar-e Jask, where transmission occurs, whereas in Bastak, the cases were imported from endemic foci of Fars province. In conclusion, proven and suspected vectors of CL and VL were recorded in this study. Due to the existence of endemic foci of CL, and favorite ecological niches for its vectors, there is potential risk of emerging CL in new areas.

  15. Scanning electron microscopic studies on antenna of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)-A blow fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Garima; Maity, Aniruddha; Naskar, Atanu; Ansar, Waliza; Ghosh, Shyamasree; Saha, Goutam Kumar; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2017-08-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H. ligurriens is with profound importance in better understanding of the insect morphology from forensic entomological perspective, and also could aid in proper identification of the species from other calliphorid flies. The structural peculiarities observed in the (i) antenna of H. ligurriens with three segments- scape, pedicel and flagellum with dorso-laterally placed arista (ii) densely covered microtrichia and most abundant trichoid sensilla identified on the antenna (iii) observation of only one type of sensilla, chaetic sensilla (ChI) on the scape (iv) two types of chaetic sensilla (ChI and ChII) and styloconic sensilla on the pedicel (v) the flagellum with three types of sensilla- trichoid, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla (vi) Basiconic sensilla with multiporous surfaces with characteristic olfactory function. Moderate sexual dimorphism in the width of the flagellum, the females with wider flagella than the males, bear significance to the fact that they bear more multi-porous sensilla than the males, thus suffice their need to detect oviposition sites. Significant difference was observed in the length and width of coeloconic sensilla between the two sexes, the females showed bigger coeloconic sensilla, suggesting their function in oviposition site detection and successful colonization in corpses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological Features of Regurgitate and Defecatory Stains Deposited by Five Species of Necrophagous Flies are Influenced by Adult Diets and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; McGregor, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of artifacts from five species of necrophagous flies were examined following feeding on several types of diets. Four types of insect stains were produced by each species: regurgitate, defecatory, translocation, and tarsal tracks. Regurgitate was the most frequent type deposited (70.9 ± 2.4%), followed by defecatory (19.8 ± 4.0%), tarsal tracks (8.6 ± 1.2%), and translocation (0.7 ± 0.1%). Artifact shapes, sizes, and color were highly variable and species and diet specific. Calliphora vicina and Sarcophaga bullata consistently deposited the largest artifacts after feeding, whereas Chrysomya rufifacies and Ch. megacephala produced more tarsal tracks than the other species examined. Artifacts with tails were infrequently observed (4.1 ± 0.6% of all stains) but occurred as either defecatory or regurgitate stains. The widely variable morphologies of all types of fly artifacts underscores the view that insect stains cannot be distinguished from human bloodstains based on morphology alone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  18. Species composition of sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic foci, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, Samia; Kahime, Kholoud; Samy, Abdallah M; Salem, Abdelkrim Ben; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-02-02

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in Morocco. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the main culprits identified in all endemic foci across the country. These two etiological agents are transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, the two most prevalent sand fly species in Morocco. Previous studies reflected gaps of knowledge regarding the environmental fingerprints that affect the distribution of these two potential vectors across Morocco. The sand flies were collected from 48 districts across Morocco using sticky paper traps. Collected specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol for further processing and identification. Male and female densities were calculated in each site to examine their relations to the environmental conditions across these sites. The study used 19 environmental variables including precipitation, aridity, elevation, soil variables and a composite representing maximum, minimum and mean of day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A total of 11,717 specimens were collected during this entomological survey. These specimens represented 11 species of two genera; Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Correlations of the sand fly densities with the environmental variables were estimated to identify the variables which influence the distribution of the two potential vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, associated with all CL endemic foci across the country. The density of P. papatasi was most affected by temperature changes. The study showed a significant positive correlation between the densities of both sexes of P. papatasi and night-time temperatures. Both P. papatasi and P. sergenti showed a negative correlation with aridity, but, such correlation was only significant in case of P. papatasi. NDVI showed a positive correlation only with densities of P. sergenti, while, soil PH and soil water stress were negatively correlated with the

  19. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Gustave

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Methods Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. Results About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2% of which were dissected, 60 (20.3% blood meals collected and 57 (19.3% trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined

  20. Use of the CO I Gene as a Species Indicator for Forensically Important Flies: A Forensic Entomology Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Jeffrey Y.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic entomologists utilize insects (particularly flies) to establish the time interval between death and body discovery. This important piece of information may answer questions as to the circumstances of the individual's death and insects are now routinely utilized and recognized as being important forensic indicators. Of extreme importance…

  1. Researches Regarding the Adaptation Process of the Species Miscanthus Giganteus under the Conditions of Fly Ash Deposit from Utvin, Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus giganteus is a large, perennial (up to 20 years grass hybrid of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus native to Japan. Is a C4 carbon fixation plant, and thus exhibits greater photosynthetic efficiency and lower water use requirements than other kinds of plants. It has very low nutritional requirements – it has high nitrogen use efficiency and therefore is capable of growing well on barren land without the aid of heavy fertilization. M. giganteus is a sterile hybrid, therefore propagates vegetative through its rhizomes and that it is a completely non-invasive species. In this paper are presented the results of this grass species growing on fly ash deposit Utvin after the first year from the planting. Order to stimulate the process of vegetative from the first year, have used three different fertilizing: with sewage sludge, with cattle manure and mineral supplement such as N.P.K. We have also provided an adequate irrigation during dry periods of the summer. The best germination percentage was obtained in variants fertilized with sewage sludge and manure of cattle. Further the same variations recorded a good growth rate and higher biomass production. However, good production of biomass produced in the first year of all variants show a good adaptability of the species M. giganteus to arid biotope conditions of the fly ash dump.

  2. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  3. Morphometric and molecular analyses of the sand fly species Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) collected from seven different geographical areas in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, David A; Davies, Stephen J; Olsen, Cara; Lawyer, Phillip; Lipnick, Robert; Schultz, George; Rowton, Edgar; Wilkerson, Richard; Keep, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    A morphometric and molecular study of adult male and female Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) collected at seven different locations within the southeastern United States was conducted to assess the degree of divergence between the grouped specimens from each location. The collection locations were as follows: Fort Bragg, NC; Fort Campbell, KY; Fort Rucker, AL; Ossabaw Island, GA; Patuxent National Wildlife Research Refuge, MD; Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge, FL; and Baton Rouge, LA. Forty males and forty females from each location were analyzed morphometrically from 54 and 49 character measurements, respectively. In addition, the molecular markers consisting of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (from 105 sand flies: 15 specimens/collection site) and the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 (from 42 sand flies: six specimens/collection site) were compared. Multivariate analyses indicate that the low degree of variation between the grouped specimens from each collection site prevents the separation of any collection site into an entity that could be interpreted as a distinct population. The molecular analyses were in concordance with the morphometric study as no collection location grouped into a separate population based on the two partial markers. The grouped specimens from each collection site appear to be within the normal variance of the species, indicating a single population in the southeast United States. It is recommended that additional character analyses of L. shannoni based on more molecular markers, behavioral, ecological, and physiological characteristics, be conducted before ruling out the possibility of populations or a cryptic species complex within the southeastern United States.

  4. External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.

  5. Cryptic east-west divergence and molecular diagnostics for two species of silver flies (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae: Leucopis ) from North America being evaluated for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Stephen D. Gaimari; Adalgisa. Caccone

    2018-01-01

    Exploring genetic diversity within species of biological control agents can expose previously overlooked beneficial genotypes. This may be the case for two species of silver flies, Leucopis argenticollis and L. piniperda, predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in the Pacific Northwest of...

  6. Seasonal biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and evaluation of ecological factors influencing species distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuka, Wichai; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Taai, Kritsana; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, A J; Vasquez, A A; Hudson, P; Fujimoto, M; Ram, J L

    2016-02-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or 'species group' level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  8. Species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae collected from natural reserves in the Pacific and Darien regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael J. Vivero

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Species that have importance in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Acandí, Bahía Solano and Carepa were identified. The presence of Lu. coutinhoi was confirmed and consolidated in Colombia.

  9. Larval competition of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): behavior and ecological studies of two blow fly species of forensic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Shiuh-Feng; Yeh, Ta-Chuan

    2008-07-01

    previous studies, and we suspect that the difference was partially caused by different experimental designs and different biological characters of different blow fly colonies. Our results also suggest that both the predation ability and defense or escape activity should be taken into account when evaluating larval competitive advantages. The durations of larval stages of these two species could be decreased by approximately 54 h when a single species was reared alone and food was limited; the largest reduction in larval duration, approximately 25 h in C. megacephala and 34 h in C. rufifacies, caused by interspecific competition was under a high larval density. In conclusion, competition decreased the larval duration of these two species by up to 2 d; this also draws attention to justifying the postmortem interval estimation of using larval developmental data when larval competition exists.

  10. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  11. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  12. Comparing Species Composition of Passive Trapping of Adult Flies with Larval Collections from the Body during Scene-Based Medicolegal Death Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    Collection of insects at the scene is one of the most important aspects of forensic entomology and proper collection is one of the biggest challenges for any investigator. Adult flies are highly mobile and ubiquitous at scenes, yet their link to the body and the time of colonization (TOC) and post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates is not well established. Collection of adults is widely recommended for casework but has yet to be rigorously evaluated during medicolegal death investigations for its value to the investigation. In this study, sticky card traps and immature collections were compared for 22 cases investigated by the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences, Houston, TX, USA. Cases included all manner of death classifications and a range of decomposition stages from indoor and outdoor scenes. Overall, the two methods successfully collected at least one species in common only 65% of the time, with at least one species unique to one of the methods 95% of the time. These results suggest that rearing of immature specimens collected from the body should be emphasized during training to ensure specimens directly associated with the colonization of the body can be identified using adult stages if necessary. PMID:28338605

  13. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  14. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes of two commonly found blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Aris, Edah Mohd; Surin, Johari; Omar, Baharudin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2009-08-01

    The mitochondiral DNA region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) genes of two Malaysian blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were studied. This region, which spans 2303bp and includes the COI, tRNA leucine and partial COII was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. Intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for Ch. megacephala and 0.17% for Ch. rufifacies, while sequence divergence between the two species was recorded at a minimum of 141 out of 2303 sites (6.12%). Results obtained in this study are comparable to published data, and thus support the use of DNA sequence to facilitate and complement morphology-based species identification.

  15. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  16. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  17. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  18. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  19. Effects of timber harvest on phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in a production forest: abundance of species on tree trunks and prevalence of trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest is being exploited for timber production. The harvest removes trees, used by sand flies as resting sites, and decreases the canopy, used as refuges by some hosts. The present study evaluated the impact of the timber harvest, the abundance of sand flies, and their trypanosomatid infection rates before and after selective logging. The study was accomplished in terra-firme production forest in an area of timber harvest, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Sand fly catches were carried out in three areas: one before and after the timber harvest, and two control areas, a nature preservation area and a previously exploited area. The flies were caught by aspiration on tree trunks. Samples of sand flies were dissected for parasitological examination. In the site that suffered a harvest, a larger number of individuals was caught before the selective extraction of timber, showing significant difference in relation to the number of individuals and their flagellate infection rates after the logging. The other two areas did not show differences among their sand fly populations. This fact is suggestive of a fauna sensitive to the environmental alterations associated with selective logging.

  20. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  1. Aerodynamic evaluation of wing shape and wing orientation in four butterfly species using numerical simulations and a low-speed wind tunnel, and its implications for the design of flying micro-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Eastwood, Rodney; Vogt, Daniel; Ithier, Carter; Smith, Michael; Wood, Rob; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Many insects are well adapted to long-distance migration despite the larger energetic costs of flight for small body sizes. To optimize wing design for next-generation flying micro-robots, we analyse butterfly wing shapes and wing orientations at full scale using numerical simulations and in a low-speed wind tunnel at 2, 3.5 and 5 m s -1 . The results indicate that wing orientations which maximize wing span lead to the highest glide performance, with lift to drag ratios up to 6.28, while spreading the fore-wings forward can increase the maximum lift produced and thus improve versatility. We discuss the implications for flying micro-robots and how the results assist in understanding the behaviour of the butterfly species tested.

  2. Aerodynamic evaluation of wing shape and wing orientation in four butterfly species using numerical simulations and a low-speed wind tunnel, and its implications for the design of flying micro-robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Rodney; Vogt, Daniel; Ithier, Carter; Smith, Michael; Wood, Rob; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are well adapted to long-distance migration despite the larger energetic costs of flight for small body sizes. To optimize wing design for next-generation flying micro-robots, we analyse butterfly wing shapes and wing orientations at full scale using numerical simulations and in a low-speed wind tunnel at 2, 3.5 and 5 m s−1. The results indicate that wing orientations which maximize wing span lead to the highest glide performance, with lift to drag ratios up to 6.28, while spreading the fore-wings forward can increase the maximum lift produced and thus improve versatility. We discuss the implications for flying micro-robots and how the results assist in understanding the behaviour of the butterfly species tested. PMID:28163879

  3. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  4. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  5. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  6. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  7. Optimization of total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME) for the determination of lipid profiles of Phormia regina, a forensically important blow fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren; Picard, Christine; Goodpaster, John

    2017-11-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of fatty acids, sterols, and other lipids which naturally occur within pupae of the blow fly Phormia regina. The method relies upon liquid extraction in non-polar solvent, followed by derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) w/ 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS) carried out inside the sample vial. The analysis is facilitated by total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) serving as the instrumentation for analysis. The TV-SPME delivery technique is approximately a factor of five more sensitive than traditional liquid injection, which may alleviate the need for rotary evaporation, reconstitution, collection of high performance liquid chromatography fractions, and many of the other pre-concentration steps that are commonplace in the current literature. Furthermore, the ability to derivatize the liquid extract in a single easy step while increasing sensitivity represents an improvement over current derivatization methods. The most common lipids identified in fly pupae were various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranging from lauric acid (12:0) to arachinoic acid (20:4), as well as cholesterol. The concentrations of myristic acid (14:0), palmitelaidic acid (16:2), and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the most reliable indicators of the age of the pupae. Graphical abstract Blow fly pupae were extracted prior to emerging as adults. The extracts were analyzed via total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), revealing a complex mixture of lipids that could be associated with the age of the insect. This information may assist in determining a post-mortum interval (PMI) in a death investigation.

  8. 'Flying barnacles'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    in temperate areas spreading widely over inland and marine habitats outside the breeding season. The species is known to perform long-distance migration to Africa and the Middle East. Combining present knowledge on the birds' migratory pattern and the home range of the barnacle species, it is concluded...... that the cypris larvae of F. pallidus must have settled in African waters, whereas the area where F. albicostatus settled on the bird leg rings is less certain. The barnacles were of adult size and must thus have been attached for a period of no less than 2 months. More than 30 individual barnacles could occur...

  9. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  10. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  11. Rediscovery of Rhabdomastix (Rhabdomastix incapax Starý, 2005 (Diptera, Limoniidae, a crane fly species flightless in both sexes and probably endemic to Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Stary

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rediscovery of Rhabdomastix (Rhabdomastix incapax Starý, 2005 in Sardinia made it possible to update the description of the male and to provide the first description of the female of this species. Notes on the wing reduction, ecology, and behaviour of this species are appended.

  12. Roads may act as barriers to flying insects: species composition of bees and wasps differs on two sides of a large highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Andersson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads may act as barriers to animal movements, but direct barrier effects on insects have rarely been studied. In this study we collected data on bees and wasps along two sides of a large road in Sweden using yellow pan traps. We then analyzed if the species composition differed between the two sides of the road; first for the whole community, and then only for the smallest species (which typically are poorer dispersers. As a complement, we analyzed if different vegetation variables differed between the two sides of the road, as this may also affect differences in species composition. Finally, we analyzed if species richness and abundance in general differed between the two sides and how these two response variables were explained by the vegetation variables. There was a significant difference in species composition between the eastern and the western side of the road when analyzing the whole community, and this relationship became even stronger when the largest species were excluded. The vegetation variables did not strongly differ between the two sides, and there was no difference in species richness and abundance of bees and wasps either. Abundance was, however, explained by the number of flowering plants in the surroundings of the trap. Even though using a rather limited data set, our results indicate that large roads may act as barriers on the movement of bees and wasps, especially for small species with poor dispersal ability. On the other hand, road verges may be important habitat for many species, which leads to a potential conflict that is important to consider in the planning of green infrastructure.

  13. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  14. Review of the Oriental lantern-fly genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, with a new species from Sumatra (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Datua brevirostris Lallemand, 1959 is transferred to the genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011 in the Aphaeninae and the new combination Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959 comb. nov. is proposed. Egregia marpessa Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, the type-species of the genus Egregia, is synonymized with Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959. A second species, Egregia laprincesse sp. nov. is described from Sumatra, extending the distribution of the genus hitherto recorded only from Borneo. Distribution maps and an identification key are provided. The male genitalia of E. brevirostris are illustrated and described. The genus Datua Schmidt, 1911 now contains a single species, D. bisinuata Schmidt, 1911.

  15. Chemical kinetics of Cs species in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and pyrophyllite-based system using Cs K-edge in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi; Ina, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We conducted in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ XAFS) analysis at the Cs K-edge to investigate the chemical kinetics of Cs species during reaction in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) and pyrophyllite-based system. Understanding the kinetics of Cs is essential to the design of appropriate conditions for Cs stabilization. In situ XAFS analysis of four pastes, prepared from NaOHaq, sodium silicate solution, pyrophyllite, and MSWIFA with the addition of CsCl, was conducted in custom-built reaction cells at four curing temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, 80 °C, 105 °C) for approximately 34 h. The results indicated that the change in Cs species during reaction at room temperature was small, while changes at higher temperatures were faster and more extreme, with the fastest conversion to pollucite occurring at 105 °C. Further analysis using a leaching test and a simple reaction model for Cs species during reaction showed that the pollucite formation rate was dependent on the curing temperature and had a significant negative correlation with Cs leaching. The activation energy of pollucite formation was estimated to be 31.5 kJ/mol. These results revealed that an important change in the chemical state of Cs occurs during reaction in the system.

  16. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  17. Applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase I in identification of forensically important flies (Diptera) from China and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa Mohamed; Wen, Jifang

    2013-07-01

    Precise species identification of every insect sample collected from criminal scenes play an essential role in the accurate estimation of postmortem interval. The morphological similarity poses a great challenge for forensic entomologists. DNA-based method can be used as a supplemental means of morphological method. In the present study, we demonstrate the applicability of the 304-bp cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment in molecular identification of forensically important Diptera. We analyzed 75 specimens belonging to 19 species of 3 families originating from China (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Aldrichina grahami; Lucilia bazini, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia porphyrina; Muscidae: Musca autumnalis, Musca domestica, Fannia canicularis, Stomoxys calcitrans; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga albiceps, Sarcophaga dux, Helicophagella melanura) and Egypt (Calliphoridae: C. megacephala, C. albiceps, L. sericata; Muscidae: M. domestica, F. canicularis, S. calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga argyrostoma). This region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing of the amplification products. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura two-parameter distance model and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree generated. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0-0.8 % and interspecific variation occurred between 1-19 %. Although all examined specimens were assigned to the correct species and formed distinct monophyletic clades, the data of the phylogenetic analysis were not completely in accordance with the traditional morphological classification. As both C. nigripes and A. grahami unexpectedly joined with Muscidae and Sarcophagidae groups respectively. Moreover, both Calliphorinae and Luciliinae clades failed to represent Calliphoridae as a separate group. Therefore, although molecular methods are beneficial

  18. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  19. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  20. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juárez, M. L.; Devescovi, F.; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D. F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, P.; Ruiz, M. J.; Yang, J.; Teal, P. E. A.; Cáceres, C.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Hendrichs, J.; Vera, M. T.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 125-155 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : species delimitation * field cages * Tephritidae * Anastrepha fraterculus * Bactrocera dorsalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6133

  3. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  4. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  5. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  6. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  7. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  8. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  9. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  10. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?ler, Sara; Rumpold, Birgit A.; Jander, Elisabeth; Rawel, Harshadrai M.; Schl?ter, Oliver K.

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor) and 8.8% (H. illucens) and increas...

  11. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value......), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy, and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y....

  12. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  13. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bußler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor and 8.8% (H. illucens and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.

  14. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußler, Sara; Rumpold, Birgit A; Jander, Elisabeth; Rawel, Harshadrai M; Schlüter, Oliver K

    2016-12-01

    Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens . T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% ( T. molitor ) and 8.8% ( H. illucens ) and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.

  15. Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97% of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages.

  16. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  17. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  18. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  19. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  20. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  1. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  2. Effects of decomposition on carcass attendance in a guild of carrion-breeding flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A

    2003-09-01

    Many forensically important calliphorids, sarcophagids and muscids (Diptera) oviposit or larviposit on corpses only during the early stages of decomposition, yet individuals may attend bodies throughout decay. A field study was conducted to investigate how patterns of carcass use and attendance by some fly species are affected by decomposition. Five fly traps were placed in the forest and baited with whole, fresh piglet carcasses. Piglets decomposed in traps throughout the experiment, and all were skeletonized within 6 days. Flies were trapped at both early and late decomposition stages, and the species and population structures of trap catches were compared. More flies attended carcasses early rather than late in decay. For all species, flies attending early were mainly gravid females, but few gravid females attended late in decay. No females ovi- or larviposited late in decay, whereas females of all fly species deposited offspring early in decay. The number of males trapped of each species correlated positively with the number of females with eggs at early development stages. Observations were made of fly predation by European wasps Vespula germanica Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and jumper ants Myrmecia pilosula Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) throughout the experiment. There was a higher risk for smaller fly species of being killed following predator attack. Ants and wasps attacked smaller fly species, whereas only wasps attacked larger fly species.

  3. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  4. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  5. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  6. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  7. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  9. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  10. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  11. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  12. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladhim, Maha; V Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano; Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Jochim, Ryan C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-07-01

    Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies.

  13. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  14. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  16. A meta-analysis of forest age and structure effects on northern flying squirrel densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian L. Holloway; Winston P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Research on the impact of clearcut logging and partial harvesting practices on northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) has shown inconsistent and contrary results, limiting the use of this species as a management indicator species. Much of this variability in study results is due to the labor intensive nature of studying flying squirrels,...

  17. Cues used by the black fly, Simulium annulus, for attraction to the common loon (Gavia immer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinandt, Meggin L; Meyer, Michael; Strand, Mac; Lindsay, Alec R

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic relationship between a black fly, Simulium annulus, and the common loon (Gavia immer) has been considered one of the most exclusive relationships between any host species and a black fly species. To test the host specificity of this blood-feeding insect, we made a series of bird decoy presentations to black flies on loon-inhabited lakes in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. To examine the importance of chemical and visual cues for black fly detection of and attraction to hosts, we made decoy presentations with and without chemical cues. Flies attracted to the decoys were collected, identified to species, and quantified. Results showed that S. annulus had a strong preference for common loon visual and chemical cues, although visual cues from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrynchos) did attract some flies in significantly smaller numbers. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  19. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  20. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tetrameric structure of the flagellar cap protein FliD from Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, So Yeon; Song, Wan Seok; Hong, Ho Jeong; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kang, Seung Goo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun; Yoon, Sung-Il

    2017-07-15

    Bacterial motility is provided by the flagellum. FliD is located at the distal end of the flagellum and plays a key role in the insertion of each flagellin protein at the growing tip of the flagellar filament. Because FliD functions as an oligomer, the determination of the oligomeric state of FliD is critical to understanding the molecular mechanism of FliD-mediated flagellar growth. FliD has been shown to adopt a pentameric or a hexameric structure depending on the bacterial species. Here, we report another distinct oligomeric form of FliD based on structural and biochemical studies. The crystal structures of the D2 and D3 domains of Serratia marcescens FliD (smFliD) were determined in two crystal forms and together revealed that smFliD assembles into a tetrameric architecture that resembles a four-pointed star plate. smFliD tetramerization was also confirmed in solution by cross-linking experiments. Although smFliD oligomerizes in a head-to-tail orientation using a common primary binding interface between the D2 and D3' domains (the prime denotes the second subunit in the oligomer) similarly to other FliD orthologs, the smFliD tetramer diverges to present a unique secondary D2-D2' binding interface. Our structure-based comparative analysis of FliD suggests that bacteria have developed diverse species-specific oligomeric forms of FliD that range from tetramers to hexamers for flagellar growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from estrildid finches (Aves: Passeriformes: Estrildidae) and louse-flies (Insecta: Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from birds in Senegal, with descriptions of three new species of the genus Brueelia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Najer, T.; Čapek, Miroslav; Koubek, Petr; Procházka, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2714, - (2010), s. 59-68 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chewing lice * louse-flies * Passeriformes * Senegal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2010/f/zt02714p068.pdf

  3. Eco-epidemiology of Novel Bartonella Genotypes from Parasitic Flies of Insectivorous Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Attila D; Földvári, Mihály; Krawczyk, Aleksandra I; Sprong, Hein; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Barti, Levente; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Szekeres, Sándor; László, Zoltán; Hornok, Sándor; Földvári, Gábor

    2018-04-29

    Bats are important zoonotic reservoirs for many pathogens worldwide. Although their highly specialized ectoparasites, bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea), can transmit Bartonella bacteria including human pathogens, their eco-epidemiology is unexplored. Here, we analyzed the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella strains sampled from 10 bat fly species from 14 European bat species. We found high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in most bat fly species with wide geographical distribution. Bat species explained most of the variance in Bartonella distribution with the highest prevalence of infected flies recorded in species living in dense groups exclusively in caves. Bat gender but not bat fly gender was also an important factor with the more mobile male bats giving more opportunity for the ectoparasites to access several host individuals. We detected high diversity of Bartonella strains (18 sequences, 7 genotypes, in 9 bat fly species) comparable with tropical assemblages of bat-bat fly association. Most genotypes are novel (15 out of 18 recorded strains have a similarity of 92-99%, with three sequences having 100% similarity to Bartonella spp. sequences deposited in GenBank) with currently unknown pathogenicity; however, 4 of these sequences are similar (up to 92% sequence similarity) to Bartonella spp. with known zoonotic potential. The high prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. suggests a long shared evolution of these bacteria with bat flies and bats providing excellent study targets for the eco-epidemiology of host-vector-pathogen cycles.

  4. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  5. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  6. Can Escherichia coli fly? The role of flies as transmitters of E. coli to food in an urban slum in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Phelps, Matthew; Tulsiani, Suhella; Farhana, Israt; Begum, Anowara; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of faecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. Over a period of 2 months, paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of Escherichia coli and genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. Rice was at greater risk (P E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (P 0·6 × 103 CFU. Genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified: the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). Flies may transmit large quantities of E. coli to food under field settings. The findings highlight the importance of implementing control measures to minimise exposure of food to flies to ensure food safety. Fly control measures should be considered for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases caused by E. coli. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  8. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  9. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  10. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  11. New records of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Alexander

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The plebotomine sand fly fauna of Ecuador was surveyed in two 3-month collecting trips made in 1988 and 1990. A total of 12 provinces were visited, including three (Bolivar, Loja and Morona Santiago from wich no previous records to phlebotomines existed. Forty-six species were collected, 13 of wich, together with 1 subspecies and 1 genus (Warileya represented new records for the country. This survey increases the known number of species in Ecuador to 60. The distribuition of Ecuadorian sand flies is discussed in the light of these new findings.

  12. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  13. The specificity of host-bat fly interaction networks across vegetation and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa-Carbajal, Mariana; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Stoner, Kathryn E; Benitez-Malvido, Julieta

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation type and seasonality promote changes in the species composition and abundance of parasite hosts. However, it is poorly known how these variables affect host-parasite interaction networks. This information is important to understand the dynamics of parasite-host relationships according to biotic and abiotic changes. We compared the specialization of host-bat fly interaction networks, as well as bat fly and host species composition between upland dry forest and riparian forest and between dry and rainy seasons in a tropical dry forest in Jalisco, Mexico. Bat flies were surveyed by direct collection from bats. Our results showed that host-bat fly interaction networks were more specialized in upland dry forest compared to riparian forest. Bat fly species composition was different between the dry and rainy seasons, while host species composition was different between upland dry forest and riparian forest. The higher specialization in upland dry forest could be related to the differences in bat host species composition and their respective roosting habits. Variation in the composition of bat fly species between dry and rainy seasons coincides with the seasonal shifts in their species richness. Our study confirms the high specialization of host-bat fly interactions and shows the importance of biotic and abiotic factors to understand the dynamics of parasite-host interactions.

  14. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  15. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  16. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  17. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  18. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  19. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  20. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  1. Behaviour of Onobrychis Viciifolia Growing on Fly Ash Experimental Parcels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to identify a treatment method for upper layers of fly ash to cover them with vegetation. Fixing plant layer acts against erosion/washes of fly ash deposits. Studies emphasized the need of use of an organic fertilizer mixed with inorganic materials such as volcanic tuff and, also, the need of selecting a plant species compatible with the treated culture medium. The use of an amended variant of compost and modified volcanic tuff of fly ash layers shows that the selected leguminous species, Onobrychis viciifolia, installs itself quickly on the third level of Braun - Blanquet scale. The reduction of toxic heavy metals bioaccumulation from the aerial plant tissues such as lead and nickel of 72-79%, and copper and zinc of 50-68%, respectively, allows obtaining of a safe biomass for wildlife visiting the area.

  2. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  3. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  4. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  5. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.

  6. Evolutionary history of Indian Ocean nycteribiid bat flies mirroring the ecology of their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Pablo; Dsouli, Najla; Gomard, Yann; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dick, Carl W; Goodman, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species.

  7. Evolutionary history of Indian Ocean nycteribiid bat flies mirroring the ecology of their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tortosa

    Full Text Available Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species.

  8. Experimental and field investigation of non-biting flies as potential mechanical vectors of Echinococcus granulosus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Sahel; Afshar, Abbas Aghaei; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Afgar, Ali; Nasibi, Saeid; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2018-06-01

    Synanthropic fly species can be potential mechanical vectors of many infectious agents. The potential of the flies to carry Echinococcus granulosus eggs is not fully documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the possible role of non-biting flies to carry taeniid eggs. A total of 210 flies were collected from seven selected sites in areas of Kerman city, southeastern Iran from November 2016 to May 2017. Adult flies were live-caught using sweeping nets. Flies were placed individually in small glass bottles and transported to the laboratory. All the flies were killed by deep freezing and then identified to the species level using both morphological and molecular methods. The flies were homogenized in test tubes and genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR protocols were used both to identify the live-caught flies to the species level, and for the detection of E. granulosus. The laboratory reared second generation flies were experimentally exposed to dog feces manually spiked by Echinococcus eggs. Two runs of experiments with 1-3 h of exposure were designed. For each experiment 20 flies were selected from the stock colony and were starved for three days. After each experiment, the flies were frozen for further molecular studies. The dominant fly species were Musca domestica and Lucilia sericata. No eggs were found on the body surface and/or guts of live-caught flies. After the first hour of exposure, 60%, of the flies of both species were found to harbor Echinococcus eggs. However, in the case of L. sericata 50% of the flies harbored Echinococcus eggs after 3 h of exposure. Results of the present study indicate the probable role of synanthropic flies in harboring Echinococcus eggs and mechanical transmission of cystic echinococcosis. When the helminth eggs are susceptible to desiccation grooming flies can remove many of eggs from exterior surfaces of them. Despite this result the role of synanthropic flies in the transmission of

  9. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  10. Revegetating fly ash landfills with Prosopis juliflora L.: impact of different amendments and Rhizobium inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Pandey, K; Sinha, S; Singh, A; Saxena, R; Gupta, D K

    2004-05-01

    A revegetation trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of growing a legume species, Prosopis juliflora L., on fly ash ameliorated with combination of various organic amendments, blue-green algal biofertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation. Significant enhancements in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, protein content and in vivo nitrate reductase activity were found in the plants grown on ameliorated fly ash in comparison to the plants growing in unamended fly ash or garden soil. Higher growth was obtained in fly ash amended with blue-green algae (BGA) than farmyard manure or press mud (PM), a waste from sugar-processing industry, due to the greater contribution of plant nutrients, supply of fixed nitrogen and increased availability of phosphorus. Nodulation was suppressed in different amendments of fly ash with soil in a concentration-duration-dependent manner, but not with other amendments. Plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr in various fly ash amendments than in garden soil. Further, inoculation of the plant with a fly ash tolerant Rhizobium strain conferred tolerance for the plant to grow under fly ash stress conditions with more translocation of metals to the above ground parts. The results showed the potential of P. juliflora to grow in plantations on fly ash landfills and to reduce the metal contents of fly ash by bioaccumulation in its tissues.

  11. Noninvasive analysis of microbiome dynamics in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christine; Staubach, Fabian; Kuenzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Roeder, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The diversity and structure of the intestinal microbial community has a strong influence on life history. To understand how hosts and microbes interact, model organisms with comparatively simple microbial communities, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), offer key advantages. However, studies of the Drosophila microbiome are limited to a single point in time, because flies are typically sacrificed for DNA extraction. In order to test whether noninvasive approaches, such as sampling of fly feces, could be a means to assess fly-associated communities over time on the same cohort of flies, we compared the microbial communities of fly feces, dissected fly intestines, and whole flies across three different Drosophila strains. Bacterial species identified in either whole flies or isolated intestines were reproducibly found in feces samples. Although the bacterial communities of feces and intestinal samples were not identical, they shared similarities and obviously the same origin. In contrast to material from whole flies and intestines, feces samples were not compromised by Wolbachia spp. infections, which are widespread in laboratory and wild strains. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we showed that simple nutritional interventions, such as a high-fat diet or short-term starvation, had drastic and long-lasting effects on the micobiome. Thus, the analysis of feces can supplement the toolbox for microbiome studies in Drosophila, unleashing the full potential of such studies in time course experiments where multiple samples from single populations are obtained during aging, development, or experimental manipulations.

  12. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  13. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  14. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  15. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  16. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  17. Leg structure explains host site preference in bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) parasitizing neotropical bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco

    2018-03-22

    Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.

  18. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  19. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  20. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  1. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  2. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  3. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  4. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  5. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  6. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Ramadan, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  7. Two new Myxidium species (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) infecting the gallbladder of African flying fish, Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier, Caesio suevicus from the Red Sea, Egypt: a morphological and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

    2009-08-01

    Myxidium maamouni sp. n. and Myxidium aydai sp. n. were described from the gallbladder of the African flying fish Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier Caesio suevicus, respectively. Fishes were collected from the Red Sea at Al-Quseir, Egypt. M. maamouni have irregular to mostly rounded polysporous plasmodia with diameter of 27 microm. Spores were sigmoid or S-shaped and sometimes spindle-shaped in the frontal view with smooth valves. They measured 13.5 x 8.0 x 8.2 microm in size. Their polar capsules were equal pyriform and measured 7.0 x 3.2 microm in size with nine to 12 coils. Spores of M. aydai were spindle-shaped in the frontal view with thin smooth valves. They measured 23.0 x 5.6 x 5.5 microm in size. Their polar capsules were pyriform and measured 7.2 x 3.4 microm in size with eight to nine coils.

  8. New Records and Updated Checklist of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauer, P J; Rueda, L M; El-Hossary, S S; Watany, N; Stoops, C A; Fakoli, L S; Bolay, F K; Diclaro, J W

    2016-05-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies from three counties in Liberia were collected from January 2011 to July 2013. In total, 3,118 sand flies were collected: 18 species were identified, 13 of which represented new records for Liberia. An updated taxonomic checklist is provided with a brief note on sand fly biology, and the disease vector potential for species is discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae), its history and importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão, Ana Margarida; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2003-01-01

    This is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  10. Vector soup: high-throughput identification of Neotropical phlebotomine sand flies using metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Gaborit, Pascal; Zinger, Lucie; Holota, Helene; Valiere, Sophie; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Murienne, Jerome

    2017-03-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are haematophagous dipterans of primary medical importance. They represent the only proven vectors of leishmaniasis worldwide and are involved in the transmission of various other pathogens. Studying the ecology of sand flies is crucial to understand the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and further control this disease. A major limitation in this regard is that traditional morphological-based methods for sand fly species identifications are time-consuming and require taxonomic expertise. DNA metabarcoding holds great promise in overcoming this issue by allowing the identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample. Here, we assessed the reliability of a short insect metabarcode located in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for the identification of Neotropical sand flies, and constructed a reference database for 40 species found in French Guiana. Then, we conducted a metabarcoding experiment on sand flies mixtures of known content and showed that the method allows an accurate identification of specimens in pools. Finally, we applied metabarcoding to field samples caught in a 1-ha forest plot in French Guiana. Besides providing reliable molecular data for species-level assignations of phlebotomine sand flies, our study proves the efficiency of metabarcoding based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for studying sand fly diversity from bulk samples. The application of this high-throughput identification procedure to field samples can provide great opportunities for vector monitoring and eco-epidemiological studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Greek Aegean Islands: ecological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsirigotakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. Different Phlebotomus species transmit different Leishmania species causing leishmaniases which are neglected diseases emerging/reemerging in new regions. Thirteen sand fly species, ten belonging to the medically important genus Phlebotomus and three belonging to Sergentomyia are known in Greece. An increasing number of human and dog cases are reported each year from all parts of the country including the Aegean Islands. However, no previous study has been conducted on the sand fly fauna on the islands, except for Rhodes and Samos. The aim of this study was to investigate sand fly species in eleven small Aegean islands; to understand species-specific relationships with environmental and climatic factors and to compare sand fly community parameters among islands. A risk analysis was carried out for each species using climatic and environmental variables. Results Nine sand fly species: Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi, P. similis, P. simici, P. perfiliewi, P. alexandri, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia minuta and S. dentata, were collected from the islands studied. Phlebotomus (Adlerius sp. and Sergentomyia sp. specimens were also collected but not identified to the species level. There was a positive effect of distance from the sea on the abundance of P. neglectus, S. minuta and S. dentata, and a negative effect on the abundance of P. tobbi, P. simici and P. similis. In general, temperature preferences of sand fly populations were between 21 and 29 °C. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in terms of temperature and relative humidity preference ranges among species. The most important species found, P. neglectus, was indisputably the most adapted species in the study area with a very high reaction norm, favoring even the lower temperature and humidity ranges. Overall, the sand fly fauna in the islands was very rich but there

  12. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  13. Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

    2009-10-15

    Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

  14. Repellency and other biological effects of natural substances against the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia or others, with different species affecting different geographic ranges. Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishma...

  15. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  16. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  17. [New records of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) near the Amoya River in Chaparral, Tolima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, María Angélica; Vivero, Rafael José; Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Carrillo, Lina María; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2012-06-01

    In Colombia, the diversity of phlebotomine sand flies is high, with 162 recorded species, and which include vectors of Leishmania spp. To identify the sand fly species of medically importance in the area of influence from Amoyá River Hydroelectric Project, Colombia. Sand flies were collected with CDC light traps, Shannon traps and sticky traps, from 15 villages in Chaparral County,Tolima. A total of 1,077 adult sand fly specimens were collected. Thirteen species were found in the genus Lutzomyiaand one species in the genus Warileya.Among the Lutzomyia species, three species--Lutzomyia longiflocosa, Lutzomyia columbiana and Lutzomyia nuneztovari--are important for their epidemiological history.Lutzomyia suapiensis was a new record for Colombia, and Warileya rotundipennis was recorded for the first time in Tolima. This study contributed to an increased knowledge of Colombian sand flies in terms of (1) expanding the geographical distribution of members of the subfamily Phlebotominae, (2) gaining estimates of species-richness and species associations in central Colombia, and (3) providing a better understanding of epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Chaparral area.

  18. Diversity of sand flies in domiciliary environment of Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil: species composition and abundance patterns in rural and urban areas Diversidade de flebotomíneos no ambiente domiciliar de Santarém, estado do Pará, Brazil: composição de espécies e padrões de abundância em áreas urbanas e rurais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the richness, abundance and frequency of sand fly occurrence in rural and urban areas American visceral Leishmaniasis -AVL is endemic in the study area of Santarém municipality, Pará state. Sand flies were collected during 1995-2000, using CDC light traps placed in neighborhoods and rural areas of the municipality. A total of 53.454 individuals and 26 species of sand flies were collected. The most abundant species in both urban and rural environments was Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of AVL in the area. The highest species richness by capture was in rural area. In all years sampled, the largest number of species of sand fly collected was always in rural areas. The species of sand flies in urban and rural area were similar in 11 species. In the rural area other 11 species were found, a total of 22 species. Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.12 to 0.84 at rural areas and 0.08 to 0.34 at urban ones. In general, rural localities showed higher diversity (H' of phlebotomines than urban ones. Individual-based rarefaction curves for each area demonstrated that urban localities had the lowest expected number of phlebotomine species and the richest rural ones reach higher expected values with lower amount of individuals than urban sites. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia longipalpis, Evandromyia carmelinoi and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata.Com o objetivo de comparar a riqueza, abundância e freqüência de ocorrência de flebotomíneos em sítios rurais e urbanos numa área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral no município de Santarém (PA foi realizado no período entre 1995-2000, capturas de flebotomíneos por meio de armadilhas luminosas CDC montadas no ambiente domiciliar em diferentes bairros e localidades rurais do município. Foram capturados 53.454 indivíduos, de 26 espécies e dentre elas, a mais abundante, tanto em ambiente urbano e rural, foi Lutzomyia longipalpis, vetor da leishmaniose visceral americana na

  19. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  20. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Roles of semiochemicals in mating systems: A comparison between Oriental fruit fly and Medfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Ritsuo; Shelly, Todd E.; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Males of tephritid fruit fly species show strong affinity to specific chemicals produced by plants. Amongst the economically important species in the Asian Pacific area, methyl eugenol acts as a potent attractant for males of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and several other species within the dorsalis species complex (e.g., B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, etc.), cuelure [4-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and the naturally occurring deacetyl derivative (raspberry ketone) act as specific attractants for flies such as the melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni (Froggatt) (Metcalf 1990). These attractants have been successfully used as baits in mass trapping for monitoring populations during eradication programmes for these pests (Chambers 1977, Koyama et al. 1984). Likewise, trimedlure has been developed as a synthetic attractant for males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), while α-copaene has been known to be a naturally occurring attractant for the species. For most tephritids, however, the biological function of male attraction to these natural or artificial compounds remains unclear. Recent studies (Nishida et al. 1988 1997, Nishida and Fukami 1990, Tan 1993, Tan and Nishida 1996) have shown that males of B. dorsalis and related species ingest these compounds from natural sources, selectively incorporate them into the rectal glands, and use them to synthesise the sex pheromone and allomone. It appears that similar chemical compounds, when ingested, may provide pheromonal precursors in the melon fly as well (Nishida et al. 1993, Shelly and Villalobos 1995). In contrast, Medfly males do not feed on the source of chemical attractant. According to our observations, α-copaene strongly affected the courtship behaviour of the Medfly, which suggests that these natural compounds may possibly be involved in the formation of leks and the mating

  2. Interspecific Mating between Wild and Sterile Fruit Flies of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) with Guava Fruit Fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pransopon, Prapon; Sutantawong, Manon

    2003-06-01

    Copulation and sperm transfer were observed between wild flies and sterile flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in cages. 8-day old pupae of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were irradiated with gamma rays at 90 and 80 gray respectively. Wild flies from infested fruits and sterile flies from artificial diet in the labolatory were used for testing. The experiments were conducted 3 treatments and 3 replications. The ratio of sterile male : wild male: wild female were 3:1:1 by using sterile male of B. dorsalis: wild male of B. correcta : wild female of B. correcta and sterile male of B. correcta: wild male of B. dorsalis: wild female of B. dorsalis as 60:20:20 flies respectively. The experiment found 69 pairs of copulation consisting of 3 mating pairs(4.3%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 22 mating pairs (31.9%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta, 42 mating pairs(60.9%) of sterile male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. The cages which ratio 1:1 consisted of wild B. dorsalis and wild B. correcta (male and female = 50:50 flies) were observed and found that 43 pairs of copulation such as 2 mating pairs (4.6%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 26 mating pairs (60.5%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B. dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta and 15 mating pairs(34.9%) of wild male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. Mated female flies were separated from male flies. Egg hatch and sperm were checked. The hatchability of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 81 and 90%. The average sperm level in spermathecae of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 2.2 and 2.3 respectively but had no sperm in their spemathecae of females of interspecific copulations Mating behavior of both species began in the evening before sunset at

  3. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  4. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  5. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  6. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  7. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  8. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  9. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  10. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera:

  11. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a Fossil Sand Fly from Dominican Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity.

  12. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  13. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  14. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  15. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  16. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Espada, Liz; Santos, Rocío Del Pilar; Fernandez, Roberto; Urquia, Albino; Stoops, Craig A; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Lescano, Andres G; Vásquez, Gissella M; Valdivia, Hugo O

    2017-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the

  17. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zorrilla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission.Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR and nested Real time PCR for species identification.A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species and Brumptomyia (2 species were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia spp. (24%, Lu. whitmani (19.4% and Lu. yucumensis (15.8% in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools, Mavila (10 pools and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the

  18. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Espada, Liz; Santos, Rocío del Pilar; Fernandez, Roberto; Urquia, Albino; Stoops, Craig A.; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Lescano, Andres G.; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Valdivia, Hugo O.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. Methods Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. Results A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu

  19. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  20. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  1. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) From Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador. The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and “Leishmania sp. siamensis”. Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. PMID:28981860

  2. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  4. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  5. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  6. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  7. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  8. Proximate and biochemical characterization of burrito (Bachydeuterus auritus) and flying gurnard (Dactylopterus volitans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Lawrence D; Glover-Amengor, Mary; Atikpo, Margaret Ottah; Howell, Nazlin K

    2017-05-01

    With limited protein resources and depleting commercial fish species there is the need to improve utilization of some of the lesser known species which are underutilized, for example, big eye grunt (burrito), Bachydeuterus auritus, and the flying gurnard ( Dactylopterus volitans ), (other names Cephalocanthus volitans (local) Pampansre ). This study was to characterize some of the proximate and biochemical properties of burrito and the flying gurnard so as to evaluate their potential for use in human nutrition and other value-added products. Proximate and chemical analysis were determined by the methods of AOAC. Fatty acid profiles were determined following the method of Saaed and Howell (1999). Amino acid profiles for the species were determined according to Bidlingmeyer et al. (1987). The protein content of both the water soluble and salt soluble protein extracts of the fish species were determined by the Bradford Protein Assay method (Bradford 1976). Rancidity of the fish species was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Peroxide value (PV) as described by Saeed and Howell (1999). Burrito contained 18% protein, whereas the flying gurnard contained 22.3%. Calcium content was 296 mg/100 g for burrito and 185 mg/100 g for flying gurnard, whereas iron content was 4.1 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g for burrito and the flying gurnard, respectively. Palmitic acid (C16) was 27% and 14.3% for the flying gurnard and burrito, respectively. C17: 1ω8 was 3% in the flying gurnard and 0.2% in burrito. Oleic (C18:1ω9) was 17% in the flying gurnard and 6% in burrito. C20:4ω6 was 1.6% in the flying gurnard and 3% in burrito. Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6ω3) was 4.9% in the flying gurnard and 4.0% in burrito. Both burrito and the flying gurnard are of high nutritional quality as they had a high protein content, good general amino acid profile and abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Armijos, Diego; Quezada-Ríos, Noelia; Soto-Armijos, Carolina; Mengual, Ximo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area. PMID:29200924

  10. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marín-Armijos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area.

  11. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks.

  12. Sex determination mechanisms in the Calliphoridae (blow flies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M J; Pimsler, M L; Tarone, A M

    2014-01-01

    The Calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. Some Calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). Calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top being the most recently added. Unlike the model fly Drosophila melanogaster, where sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes, in the Australian sheep blow fly (Lucilia cuprina) sex is determined by a Y-linked male-determining gene (M). A different regulatory system appears to operate in the hairy maggot blow fly (Chrysomya rufifacies) where the maternal genotype determines sex. It is hypothesized that females heterozygous for a dominant female-determining factor (F/f) produce only female offspring and homozygous f/f females produce only sons. The bottom of the regulatory hierarchy appears to be the same in D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, with sex-specific splicing of doublesex transcripts being controlled by the female-specific Transformer (TRA) protein. We discuss a model that has been proposed for how tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in calliphorids, which is very different from D. melanogaster. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Current knowledge of sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of northwestern Yemen and how it relates to leishmaniasis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sawaf, Bahira M; Kassem, Hala A; Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first entomological survey of the sand fly fauna in northwestern Yemen. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps and CDC light traps from Hajjah governorate, a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus due to Leishmania tropica. Six Phlebotomus species: P. alexandri, P. arabicus. P. bergeroti, P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and ten Sergentomyia species: S. africana, S. antennata, S. christophersi, S. dolichopa, S. dreyfussi, S. fallax, S. multidens, S. taizi, S. tiberiadis, S. yusafi were identified. P. alexandri was the most predominant Phlebotomus species and P. papatasi was a scarce species. S. fallax was the principal Sergentomyia species and S. dolichopa was the least species encountered. The diversity of the sand fly fauna within and among three altitudinal ranges using Simpson index and Jaccard's diversity coefficient respectively were measured. High species diversity was found in all altitude ranges. There seemed to be more association between sand fly fauna in higher altitudes with fauna from moderate altitudes. Sand fly seasonal activity showed a mono-modal trend in the lowland and a confluent bimodal trend in the highlands. Leishmania DNA could not be detected from 150 Phlebotomus females using PCR-RFLP. A possible zoonotic cutaneous transmission cycle due to Leishmania tropica in northwestern Yemen would involve P. arabicus as the sand fly vector and the rock hyrax as the reservoir host. The vector competence for P. alexandri as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Hajjah governorate is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Diversity of Yellow-Related Proteins in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae.

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    Michal Sima

    Full Text Available Yellow-related proteins (YRPs present in sand fly saliva act as affinity binders of bioamines, and help the fly to complete a bloodmeal by scavenging the physiological signals of damaged cells. They are also the main antigens in sand fly saliva and their recombinant form is used as a marker of host exposure to sand flies. Moreover, several salivary proteins and plasmids coding these proteins induce strong immune response in hosts bitten by sand flies and are being used to design protecting vaccines against Leishmania parasites. In this study, thirty two 3D models of different yellow-related proteins from thirteen sand fly species of two genera were constructed based on the known protein structure from Lutzomyia longipalpis. We also studied evolutionary relationships among species based on protein sequences as well as sequence and structural variability of their ligand-binding site. All of these 33 sand fly YRPs shared a similar structure, including a unique tunnel that connects the ligand-binding site with the solvent by two independent paths. However, intraspecific modifications found among these proteins affects the charges of the entrances to the tunnel, the length of the tunnel and its hydrophobicity. We suggest that these structural and sequential differences influence the ligand-binding abilities of these proteins and provide sand flies with a greater number of YRP paralogs with more nuanced answers to bioamines. All these characteristics allow us to better evaluate these proteins with respect to their potential use as part of anti-Leishmania vaccines or as an antigen to measure host exposure to sand flies.

  15. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  16. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    al estudio de los Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psichodidae). Phlebotomus del grupo anthophorus en Guatemala. Rev. Colegio Mdd. Guatemala 22:187-193...studied in detail. A review of the North American Phiebotominae is in progress. Unclassie SECRIT CLASSFICTIO O TH PGE~ en om nteed 4[ AD_____ STUDIES OF...Diptera, Psychodidae) in Belize, Central America. Bull . Ent. Res. 65:595-599. Young, D.G. 1979. A review of the bloodsucking psychodid flies of Colombia

  17. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  18. A preliminary account of the fruit fly fauna of Timor-Leste (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Glenn A; Brito, Americo A; Jesus, Hipolito DE; Quintao, Valente; Sarmento, Joaquim C; Bere, Apolinario; Rodrigues, João; Hancock, David L

    2017-12-05

    Opportunistic monitoring using baited fruit fly traps throughout Timor-Leste revealed the presence of 16 species of Bactrocera and one species of Dacus, all of which are previously reported from the region. Sampling of a range of commercial fruit species detected an additional species, B. latifrons, and revealed that nine species are attacking commercial fruits and vegetables. A key for separating these species is provided. New host records were found for B. minuscula, B. floresiae and B. bellisi. Variation in the morphology of B. minuscula, B. floresiae and an undescribed species and within B. albistrigata confounded attempts at accurate identification of some specimens.

  19. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art Borkent; Brian V. Brown; Peter H. Adler; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Kevin Barber; Daniel Bickel; Stephanie Boucher; Scott E. Brooks; John Burger; Zelia L. Burington; Renato S. Capellari; Daniel N. R. Costa; Jeffrey M. Cumming; Greg Curler; Carl W. Dick; John H. Epler; Eric Fisher; Stephen D. Gaimari; Jon Gelhaus; David A. Grimaldi; John Hash; Martin Hauser; Heikki Hippa; Sergio Ibanez-Bernal; Mathias Jaschhof; Elena P. Kameneva; Peter H. Kerr; Valery Korneyev; Cheslavo A. Korytkowski; Giar-Ann Kung; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Owen Lonsdale; Stephen A. Marshall; Wayne N. Mathis; Verner Michelsen; Stefan Naglis; Allen L. Norrbom; Steven Paiero; Thomas Pape; Alessandre Pereira-Colavite; Marc Pollet; Sabrina Rochefort; Alessandra Rung; Justin B. Runyon; Jade Savage; Vera C. Silva; Bradley J. Sinclair; Jeffrey H. Skevington; John O. Stireman; John Swann; F. Christian Thompson; Pekka Vilkamaa; Terry Wheeler; Terry Whitworth; Maria Wong; D. Monty Wood; Norman Woodley; Tiffany Yau; Thomas J. Zavortink; Manuel A. Zumbado

    2018-01-01

    Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America....

  20. Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    of PhD. thesis named "Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction", Anna Dostálová, 2011 This thesis focuses on the development of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania in their insect vectors, sand flies. It sums up results of three projects I was involved in during my PhD studies. Main emphasis was put on permissive sand fly species that support development of various species of Leishmania. Using a novel method of...

  1. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, P [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico); Cancino, J; Gutierrez, J M; Santiago, G [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Tephritid fruit flies are some of the most economically important species of insects worldwide. In Mexico, the native Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. striata, are among the most important problems because of the great number of commercial fruits they attack. In an attempt to solve the Anastrepha fruit flies problems, the Mexican Government created the National Campaign against Fruit Flies in 1992. Using an area-wide approach and an integrated pest management framework, that included the use of environment-friendly strategies to suppress/eradicate fruit flies, the Mexican Campaign has integrated different technologies such as the application of specific toxic bait, the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), and the release of the endoparasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which attacks preferably third instar larvae of fruit flies. Since 1995, the Moscafrut mass-rearing facility has the capacity to produce an average of 50 millions of parasitised pupae per week, with 65-70% of parasitoid emergence using irradiated A. ludens larvae as host. The mass-rearing procedures of D. longicaudata have been fully described by Cancino. Parasitised pupae are sent via commercial flights to several states of the country (i.e. Michoacan, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Tamaulipas), according to a yearly national plan. This plan derives from industry requirements and/or availability of biological material. In the target zones, parasitoids are released in specific periods and specific areas where the environmental, biological and social conditions are considered as adequate. Packing and release procedures of parasitoids follow those that Montoya et al used. The releases are focused on Anastrepha spp. host trees located in marginal areas (i.e backyard orchards), with the objective to prevent the migration of fruit fly populations into commercial orchards. The impact of parasitoids on fruit fly populations is evaluated through

  2. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  3. [Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaviare Province, Colombia, with 4 new records for the country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Mosquera, Laureano; Santamaría, Erika; Ferro, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Although cases of leishmaniasis have been reported in the province of Guaviare, Colombia, no entomological studies were included to identify the Lutzomyia sand fly vector species in that area. Lutzomyia species were identified from four townships of Guaviare. Probable vectors were named based on those species involved in transmission in other areas. Sampling was undertaken with CDC light traps suspended at heights between 1.5 m and 9 m. Additional sand flies were collected with Shannon traps and by aspiration of adult flies from daytime resting sites. Sand flies belonging to 37 different species were collected. 35 of them were recorded for the first time in Guaviare Province. Four species were new records for Colombia: Lutzomyia begonae, L. campbelli, L. sericea and L. nematoducta. The most abundant species were L. hirsuta 24.3% (148/610), L. yuilli 15.2% (93/610), L. davisi 10.3% (63/610), followed by L. fartigi, L. carrerai, L. antunesi, L. flaviscutellata and L. olmeca bicolor. Seven of these species of have been associated previously with endemic or epidemic transmission of leishmaniasis.

  4. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2- but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1- for survival in permissive sand fly vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svárovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly species able to support the survival of the protozoan parasite Leishmania have been classified as permissive or specific, based upon their ability to support a wide or limited range of strains and/or species. Studies of a limited number of fly/parasite species combinations have implicated parasite surface molecules in this process and here we provide further evidence in support of this proposal. We investigated the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycans (PGs in sand fly survival, using Leishmania major mutants deficient in LPG (lpg1(-, and the phosphoglycan (PG-deficient mutant lpg2(-. The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development.The lpg2(- mutants did not survive well in any of the three sand fly species, suggesting that phosphoglycans and/or other LPG2-dependent molecules are required for parasite development. In vitro, all three L. major lines were equally resistant to proteolytic activity of bovine trypsin, suggesting that sand fly-specific hydrolytic proteases or other factors are the reason for the early lpg2(- parasite killing. The lpg1(- mutants developed late-stage infections in two permissive species, P. perniciosus and P. argentipes, where their infection rates and intensities of infections were comparable to the wild type (WT parasites. In contrast, in P. duboscqi the lpg1(- mutants developed significantly worse than the WT parasites.In combination with previous studies, the data establish clearly that LPG is not required for Leishmania survival in permissive species P. perniciosus and P. argentipes but plays an important role in the specific vector P. duboscqi. With regard to PGs other than LPG, the data prove the importance of LPG2-related molecules for survival of L. major in the three sand fly species tested.

  5. A Vision-Based Counting and Recognition System for Flying Insects in Intelligent Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhong Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate counting and recognition of flying insects are of great importance, especially for pest control. Traditional manual identification and counting of flying insects is labor intensive and inefficient. In this study, a vision-based counting and classification system for flying insects is designed and implemented. The system is constructed as follows: firstly, a yellow sticky trap is installed in the surveillance area to trap flying insects and a camera is set up to collect real-time images. Then the detection and coarse counting method based on You Only Look Once (YOLO object detection, the classification method and fine counting based on Support Vector Machines (SVM using global features are designed. Finally, the insect counting and recognition system is implemented on Raspberry PI. Six species of flying insects including bee, fly, mosquito, moth, chafer and fruit fly are selected to assess the effectiveness of the system. Compared with the conventional methods, the test results show promising performance. The average counting accuracy is 92.50% and average classifying accuracy is 90.18% on Raspberry PI. The proposed system is easy-to-use and provides efficient and accurate recognition data, therefore, it can be used for intelligent agriculture applications.

  6. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  7. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  8. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  9. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  10. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of sand flies infected with Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Puja; Kumar, Dinesh; Mishra, Mukesh; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening neglected infectious disease in the Indian subcontinent, transmitted by the bite of female sand flies. Estimation of the infectivity in the vector population, collected in different seasons, may be useful to better understanding the transmission dynamics of VL as well as to plan vector control measures. We collected sand flies from highly endemic regions of Bihar state, India for one year over three seasons. The species of the sand flies were confirmed by species-specific PCR-RFLP. Leishmania donovani infection was investigated in 1397 female Phlebotomus argentipes using PCR, targeting the Leishmania specific minicircle of the kDNA region. Further, the parasitic load in the infected sand flies was measured using quantitative PCR. Though sand flies were most abundant in the rainy season, the highest rate of infection was detected in the winter season with 2.84% sand flies infected followed by the summer and rainy seasons respectively. This study can help in vector elimination programmes and to reduce disease transmission.

  11. How lizards fly: A novel type of wing in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehling, J Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Flying lizards of the genus Draco are renowned for their gliding ability, using an aerofoil formed by winglike patagial membranes and supported by elongated thoracic ribs. It remains unknown, however, how these lizards manoeuvre during flight. Here, I present the results of a study on the aerial behaviour of Dussumier's Flying Lizard (Draco dussumieri) and show that Draco attaches the forelimbs to the leading edge of the patagium while airborne, forming a hitherto unknown type of composite wing. The attachment of the forelimbs to the patagium suggests that that aerofoil is controlled through movements of the forelimbs. One major advantage for the lizards is that the forelimbs retain their complete range of movement and functionality for climbing and running when not used as a part of the wing. These findings not only shed a new light on the flight of Draco but also have implications for the interpretation of gliding performance in fossil species.

  12. The phlebotomine sand flies fauna in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Andrade Filho, Jose Dilermando

    2015-12-02

    Phlebotomine sand flies are dipterans of the family Psychodidae. They are very important to veterinary medicine because some species are vectors of infective forms of Leishmania spp., the etiological agents of leishmaniasis. The Parque Estadual do Rio Doce is located in an area with constant reports of cases of leishmaniasis. In order to better understanding the phlebotamine sand fly fauna of the park, the present work was undertaken with the goal of analyzing phlebotomine sand flies collected there, verifying their seasonality and correlating their presence with forest and/or anthropic areas. To analyze the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies, HP-type, model CDC light traps were distributed along the Juquita trail of PERD. Twelve traps were installed between September 2012 and February 2014, and captured specimens were identified to species. A total of 1993 phlebotomine sand flies of 30 species were captured. The most abundant species were Pressatia choti, Psychodopygus davisi and Nyssomyia intermedia. The high number of Nyssomyia intermedia captured drew attention because they are considered one of the vectors of the infective Leishmania braziliensis present at PERD. No seasonality was observed in the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies captured at PERD. The number of captured specimens of vector species, and the distance of traps from the forest boarder, were negatively correlated, showing that these vectors (Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei) were less common inside the forest area and that attention should be drawn to other potential vector species in the forest. These results can contribute to leishmaniasis prevention strategies directed at the visitors and professionals at or near PERD. The finding of the presence of Leishmania vectors in the park area must be given attention, since disease transmission can threaten people who visit PERD and its surroundings. Therefore, information on the prevention of leishmaniasis needs to be

  13. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  14. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  15. A tripartite survey of hyperparasitic fungi associated with ectoparasitic flies on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a neotropical cloud forest in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa J; Dorrestein, Annabel; Camacho, Jasmin J; Meckler, Lauren A; Silas, Kirk A; Hiller, Thomas; Haelewaters, Danny

    2018-01-01

    The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae), and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%). The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei) and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus). All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%). Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama), G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales. © M.J. Walker et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  16. A tripartite survey of hyperparasitic fungi associated with ectoparasitic flies on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in a neotropical cloud forest in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Melissa J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae, and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%. The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus. All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%. Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama, G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales.

  17. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  18. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  19. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  20. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  1. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  2. Biological and chemical interactions excelerating the removal of impurities from fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic bacteria were isolated from the deposit of fly ash in Chalmová (Slovakia and identified using the BBL identification system. Bacillus cereus was the dominant species in this deposit of aluminosilicate minerals. Under laboratory conditions , Bacillus cereus accelerated the extraction of major and trace impurities in fly ash during bioleaching processes. This process was dependent on bacterial adhesion and production of organic acids. The effect of organic acids produced by bacteria was detected especially in sites where impregnated metals were found in the aluminosilicate structure. Amorphous spherical aluminosilicate particles in allotriomorphic aluminosilicate grains represent a main mineral component of fly-ash in which also elements such as Fe, Ti, Mn, As are bound. The rate of mobilization of Al, Si and Ti from coal fly ash under biochemically relevant conditions in vitro was previously shown to depend on the quantity of the ash microspheres. The qualitative EDS analyse of leachates confirmed the extraction of toxic elements (As and Mn from the initial sample of fly ash.Heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus genus are capable to remove impurities from deposited fly-ash. A long-term deposition of energy fly-ash causes chemical and mineralogical changes as a result of weathering processes. Depending on the composition of coal concentrate containing SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO and other oxides, fly ash can provide a useful preliminary batch for the preparation of glass-ceramics or zeolite after extracting of bacterially dissolved elements from it. The mobility of major impurities (Ca and Fe and heavy metals, caused by biochemical leaching of fly ash, suggests the possibility of the development of an alternative way of this raw material treatment. The advantage of bioleaching is relatively low cost and the subsequent low demand for energy compared with conventional technologies.

  3. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches

  4. Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, L.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2008-08-15

    Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium. and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash: all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons.

  5. Molecular identification of tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... plates (Bauer and Wetzel, 1976). The blood is usually collected ... number of males and females, although sex was not considerd in the identification. .... Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) of the DNA sequences of COII ...

  6. Temporal segregation between dung-inhabiting beetle and fly species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládeček, František Xaver Jiří; Segar, Simon Tristram; Lee, C.; Wall, R.; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e0170426. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * intraguild predation * community ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http:// journals .plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170426

  7. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  8. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo [INTA La Consulta, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  9. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  10. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV)

    OpenAIRE

    Waksmonski, Sarah N.; Huffman, Justin M.; Mahan, Carolyn G.; Steele, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys): one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus) without ill effects (G. volans) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G...

  11. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Differential Microbial Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster: Are Fruit Flies Potential Vectors of Opportunistic Pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Ramírez-Camejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies. The most abundant microorganisms identified were the yeast Candida inconspicua and the bacterium Klebsiella sp. The yeast Issatchenkia hanoiensis was significantly more common internally than externally in flies. Species richness was higher in fungi than in bacteria, but diversity was lower in fungi than in bacteria. The microbial composition of flies was similar internally and externally. We identified a variety of opportunistic human and plant pathogens in flies such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Fusarium equiseti/oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Microbacterium oxydans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Despite its utility as a model system, D. melanogaster can be a vector of microorganisms that represent a potential risk to plant and public health.

  13. Drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions in anthropogenic neotropical landscapes at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Jacqueline; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Amador-Hernández, Sergio; Oyama, Ken; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel

    2018-05-21

    The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat-parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host-bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat-streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat-fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.

  14. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  15. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  16. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  17. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  19. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  20. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  1. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  2. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  3. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang; Lin, Qibin; Engel, Michael S

    2013-03-07

    The species of the Strashilidae (strashilids) have been the most perplexing of fossil insects from the Jurassic period of Russia and China. They have been widely considered to be ectoparasites of pterosaurs or feathered dinosaurs, based on the putative presence of piercing and sucking mouthparts and hind tibio-basitarsal pincers purportedly used to fix onto the host's hairs or feathers. Both the supposed host and parasite occur in the Daohugou beds from the Middle Jurassic epoch of China (approximately 165 million years ago). Here we analyse the morphology of strashilids from the Daohugou beds, and reach markedly different conclusions; namely that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions. The idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported, and the lineage can be placed within the true flies. In terms of major morphological and inferred behavioural features, strashilids resemble the recent (extant) and relict members of the aquatic fly family Nymphomyiidae. Their ontogeny are distinguished by the persistence in adult males of larval abdominal respiratory gills, representing a unique case of paedomorphism among endopterygote insects. Adult strashilids were probably aquatic or amphibious, shedding their wings after emergence and mating in the water.

  4. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  5. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montoya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae confronts two fundamental requirements: (1 the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2 the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies.

  6. Leishmania development in sand flies: parasite-vector interactions overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Anna; Volf, Petr

    2012-12-03

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases with 0.9 - 1.4 million new human cases each year worldwide. In the vectorial part of the life-cycle, Leishmania development is confined to the digestive tract. During the first few days after blood feeding, natural barriers to Leishmania development include secreted proteolytic enzymes, the peritrophic matrix surrounding the ingested blood meal and sand fly immune reactions. As the blood digestion proceeds, parasites need to bind to the midgut epithelium to avoid being excreted with the blood remnant. This binding is strictly stage-dependent as it is a property of nectomonad and leptomonad forms only. While the attachment in specific vectors (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi and P. sergenti) involves lipophosphoglycan (LPG), this Leishmania molecule is not required for parasite attachment in other sand fly species experimentally permissive for various Leishmania. During late-stage infections, large numbers of parasites accumulate in the anterior midgut and produce filamentous proteophosphoglycan creating a gel-like plug physically obstructing the gut. The parasites attached to the stomodeal valve cause damage to the chitin lining and epithelial cells of the valve, interfering with its function and facilitating reflux of parasites from the midgut. Transformation to metacyclic stages highly infective for the vertebrate host is the other prerequisite for effective transmission. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of molecular interactions occurring in all these distinct phases of parasite colonization of the sand fly gut, highlighting recent discoveries in the field.

  7. Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Hope, Michelle; Olson, Jimmy K

    2004-01-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. The species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. Herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya pacifica Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Musca domestica L. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew). A 1% potassium permanganate solution was used to stain egg surfaces for 1 min, followed by dehydration in 15, 70, and 95%, absolute alcohol (each solution for 1 min) and the eggs were permanently mounted. The characteristics are based on the width of plastron, morphology of plastron area surrounding the micropyle and chorionic sculpturing, with the length of egg being used as supplemental feature.

  8. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  9. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Plant, Richard E; Carey, James R

    2013-10-07

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy.

  10. Prevalence and relative risk of Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual filth flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Pearson, Rachel E Goeriz; Miller, Amy K; Ziobro, George C

    2012-11-01

    Although flies are important vectors of food-borne pathogens, there is little information to accurately assess the food-related health risk of the presence of individual flies, especially in urban areas. This study quantifies the prevalence and the relative risk of food-borne pathogens associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual wild flies. One hundred flies were collected from the dumpsters of 10 randomly selected urban restaurants. Flies were identified using taxonomic keys before being individually dissected. Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were detected using the PCR-based BAX system Q7. Positive samples were confirmed by culture on specific media and through PCR amplification and sequencing or ribotyping. Among collected flies were the housefly, Musca domestica (47%), the blowflies, Lucilia cuprina (33%) and Lucilia sericata (14%), and others (6%). Cronobacter species were detected in 14% of flies, including C. sakazakii, C. turicensis, and C. universalis, leading to the proposal of flies as a natural reservoir of this food-borne pathogen. Six percent of flies carried Salmonella enterica, including the serovars Poona, Hadar, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, and Brackenridge. L. monocytogenes was detected in 3% of flies. Overall, the prevalence of food-borne pathogens was three times greater in the guts than on the body surfaces of the flies. The relative risk of flies carrying any of the three pathogens was associated with the type of pathogen, the body part of the fly, and the ambient temperature. These data enhance the ability to predict the microbiological risk associated with the presence of individual flies in food and food facilities.

  11. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  13. Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    gaster species group (Bock and Wheeler 1972) and in the ... pur fruit market, Bangalore (hereafter referred as Banga- ... F1 virgin flies were collected from each vial and sexed and kept in different vials with a density of 25 flies .... J. R. David group (see Morin et al. ..... different life history strategies – the fast developers die.

  14. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  15. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine.Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M'sila where P. (Phlebotomus papatasi was the only sand fly species detected.The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field. The low cost, reliability and

  16. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M'sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field. The low cost, reliability and rapidity of MALDI

  17. Trypanosomiasis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Stenner, R; Gillett, A K; Barbosa, A; Ryan, U; Irwin, P J

    2017-07-01

    An adult female Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) presented with icterus and anaemia. Examination of a blood smear revealed numerous trypanosomes 20.4-30.8 µm long with tapered ends. Necropsy and histological findings were consistent with trypanosome infection of lymphoid tissue and intravascular haemolysis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated this trypanosome species to be genetically distinct and most similar to Trypanosoma minasense and Trypanosoma rangeli (with a genetic distance of 1% at the 18S rRNA locus for both). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a trypanosome infection associated with clinical disease in bats. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  19. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera) under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, AH; Mostafavi, R; Akbarzadeh, K; Oshaghi, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. Methods: Rate of development (ROD) and accumulated degree day (ADD) of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C) was calculated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata) in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K) were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD) for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study. PMID:22808410

  20. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shiravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp.Methods: Rate of development (ROD and accumu­lated degree day (ADD of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C was calcu­lated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively.Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.

  1. Utilisation of the egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus, for augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Ernest J.; Bautista, Renato C.; Spencer, John P.

    2000-01-01

    In Hawaii, entomologists concerned about tephritid fruit fly control recognise and accept the fact that the introduction of tephritid fruit flies consisting of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata (Wiedemann), Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) required the introduction of many species of parasitoids into Hawaii (Clausen 1956) to reduce crop damage caused by tephritid fruit flies. The parasitoids established in the order of their succession were Diachasimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), and Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan). F. arisanus was first discovered in Hawaii in 1949 in a guava fruit collection (van den Bosch and Haramoto 1951). In 1950, the rate of parasitism caused F. arisanus to increase and this insect spread and became the dominant and most widely distributed parasitoid in Hawaii (Haramoto and Bess 1970). Entomologists investigating fruit fly ecology in Hawaii recognised that the four species of tephritid fruit flies differ in their distribution, abundance and host utilisation patterns in different habitats. The rapid spread and distribution of F. arisanus in Hawaii indicated the reality that among the parasitoids, F. arisanus has the highest adaptation capabilities in the Hawaiian ecosystem comparable to that of B. dorsalis and C. capitata, the most persistent fruit fly species in Hawaii. A strategy receiving high priority to improve biological control of tephritid fruit flies is foreign exploration to find new parasitoids for introduction into tephritid fruit fly invested areas including Guatemala and Hawaii. It is possible another species comparable to F. arisanus might be found. New introductions could increase the diversity of parasitoid species and result in the introduction of species more efficient for suppressing B. latifrons in Hawaii. The cost of parasitoid exploration is very expensive, US$100,000 or

  2. Seasonal and habitat abundance and distribution of some forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Adrienne; Bros, Shannon; Honda, Jeffrey Y

    2011-10-10

    Seasonal and habitat calliphorid abundance and distribution were examined weekly for two years (2001-2003) in Santa Clara County, California, using sentinel traps baited with bovine liver. Of the 34,389 flies examined in three defined habitats (rural, urban, and riparian), 38% of the total catch represented Compsomyiops callipes (Bigot) and 23% represented Phormia regina (Meigen). Other flies collected in this survey included Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora latifrons (Hough), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), and Lucilia mexicana (Macquart), which is a new record for the area. Multivariate MANOVA and ANOVA (P ≤ 0.05) analysis indicate significant seasonal habitat preference for all fly species examined. This information may be used to identify potentially forensically impo rtant fly species within Santa Clara County, California. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Current Understanding and Future Prospects of Host Selection, Acceptance, Discrimination, and Regulation of Phorid Fly Parasitoids That Attack Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn A. Mathis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phorid fly parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae have evolved a diverse array of cues used to successfully parasitize their ant hosts. Successful parasitism often involves (a host habitat location, (b host location, (c host acceptance, (d host discrimination, and (e host regulation. In this paper we discuss our current understanding of how phorid flies use each of these steps to successfully parasitize ant hosts. We examine the wide variety of strategies and cues used by a multiple species of phorid flies within three separate genera that most commonly parasitize ants (Apocephalus, Pseudacteon, and Neodohrniphora and discuss future directions within this field of study.

  4. Irradiation effect on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► No research has been done to examine effect of electron beam irradiation on leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash. ► Electron beam irradiation on fly ash had significant effect on heavy metal leaching. ► Leaching potential of heavy metals in fly ash differed among metal species tested (Pb, Zn, Cu). ► Metal forms in the ash were analyzed to explain the difference. ► The difference could be explained by metal form change. - Abstract: Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is commonly classified as hazardous waste. High-energy electron beam irradiation systems have gained popularity recently as a clean and promising technology to remove environmental pollutants. Irradiation effects on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash have not been investigated in any significant detail. An electron beam accelerator was used in this research. Electron beam irradiation on fly ash significantly increased the leaching potential of heavy metals from fly ash. The amount of absorbed dose and the metal species affected leaching behavior. When electron beam irradiation intensity increased gradually up to 210 kGy, concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased linearly as absorbed dose increased, while that of Cu underwent no significant change. Concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased up to 15.5% (10.7 mg/kg), and 35.6% (9.6 mg/kg) respectively. However, only 4.8% (0.3 mg/kg) increase was observed in the case of Cu. The results imply that irradiation has significant effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash, and the effect is quite different among the metal species tested in this study. A commonly used sequential extraction analysis which can classify a metal species into five forms was conducted to examine any change in metal form in the irradiated fly ash. Notable change in metal form in fly ash was observed when fly ash was irradiated. Change in Pb form was much greater than that of

  5. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  6. First fossil of an oestroid fly (Diptera: Calyptratae: Oestroidea) and the dating of oestroid divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Stireman, John O; Pape, Thomas; O'Hara, James E; Marinho, Marco A T; Rognes, Knut; Grimaldi, David A

    2017-01-01

    Calyptrate flies include about 22,000 extant species currently classified into Hippoboscoidea (tsetse, louse, and bat flies), the muscoid grade (house flies and relatives) and the Oestroidea (blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and relatives). Calyptrates are abundant in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems, often playing key roles as decomposers, parasites, parasitoids, vectors of pathogens, and pollinators. For oestroids, the most diverse group within calyptrates, definitive fossils have been lacking. The first unambiguous fossil of Oestroidea is described based on a specimen discovered in amber from the Dominican Republic. The specimen was identified through digital dissection by CT scans, which provided morphological data for a cladistic analysis of its phylogenetic position among extant oestroids. The few known calyptrate fossils were used as calibration points for a molecular phylogeny (16S, 28S, CAD) to estimate the timing of major diversification events among the Oestroidea. Results indicate that: (a) the fossil belongs to the family Mesembrinellidae, and it is identified and described as Mesembrinella caenozoica sp. nov.; (b) the mesembrinellids form a sister clade to the Australian endemic Ulurumyia macalpinei (Ulurumyiidae) (McAlpine's fly), which in turn is sister to all remaining oestroids; (c) the most recent common ancestor of extant Calyptratae lived just before the K-Pg boundary (ca. 70 mya); and (d) the radiation of oestroids began in the Eocene (ca. 50 mya), with the origin of the family Mesembrinellidae dated at ca. 40 mya. These results provide new insight into the timing and rate of oestroid diversification and highlight the rapid radiation of some of the most diverse and ecologically important families of flies. ZooBank accession number-urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0DC5170B-1D16-407A-889E-56EED3FE3627.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. Identification of the ubiquitous antioxidant tripeptide glutathione as a fruit fly semiochemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects mark their oviposition sites with a host marking pheromone (HMP) to deter other females from over-exploiting these sites for egg-laying. Previous studies have identified and used HMPs to manage certain fruit fly species. However, few examples are known for African indigenous fruit flie...

  10. A review of bacterial interactions with blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow flies are commonly associated with decomposing material. In most cases, the larvae are found feeding on decomposing vertebrate remains. However, some species have specialized to feed on living tissue or can survive on other alternate resources like feces. Because of their affiliation with su...

  11. A fly in the ointment: evaluation of traditional use of plants to repel and kill blowfly larvae in fermented fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo J de Boer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L. H. Ohashi (Fabaceae, Uraria crinita (L. Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae and Bambusa multiplex (Lour. Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. RESULTS: The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars.

  12. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with the appearance of urban Leishmaniasis in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Uribe, Sandra; Rojas, Winston; Dario Velez, Iván

    2002-07-01

    Although once associated only with rural areas, the American leishmaniasis vectors now appear to be associated also with urban and suburban areas of the Neotropics. Following the appearance of the first autochthonous visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the urban area of the city of Sincelejo, Colombia, a preliminary entomological survey of the sand fly species composition was performed using Shannon and CDC light traps. A total of 486 sand flies representing six Lutzomyia species were collected. L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. gomezi, known vectors of Leishmania spp. were the predominant sand fly species around dwellings. The finding of these species in relation to the appearance of the first cases of leishmaniasis in the city mentioned is discussed.

  13. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with the appearance of urban leishmaniasis in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Elías Bejarano

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Although once associated only with rural areas, the American leishmaniasis vectors now appear to be associated also with urban and suburban areas of the Neotropics. Following the appearance of the first autochthonous visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the urban area of the city of Sincelejo, Colombia, a preliminary entomological survey of the sand fly species composition was performed using Shannon and CDC light traps. A total of 486 sand flies representing six Lutzomyia species were collected. L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. gomezi, known vectors of Leishmania spp. were the predominant sand fly species around dwellings. The finding of these species in relation to the appearance of the first cases of leishmaniasis in the city mentioned is discussed.

  14. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh.

  15. Habitat analysis of North American sand flies near veterans returning from leishmania-endemic war zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1300 cases of leishmaniasis have been identified in American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The symptoms of this disease can range from a mild, self-limiting cutaneous infection to a deadly visceral infection and are not prevented by chemoprophylaxis or immunization. Effective treatments, however, are available. The disease-causing parasite is spread through the bite of the female sand fly. Although the disease occurs in both the Old World and the New World, the parasite species differ between the hemispheres. The large number of cases in military veterans has caused some concern that Old World, temperate-adapted parasite species could be introduced into the native sand fly populations of American military facilities where veterans of the current conflicts return following their deployments. This paper reports part of a larger study to analyze the risk of such an accidental importation. Four potential habitats on two large Army facilities in the Southeast United States were surveyed to determine relative sand fly density. The National Land Cover Map was used to provide sand fly density prediction maps by habitat. Results Sand fly density was significantly higher in deciduous forest and even higher at the interface between forest and open grassland. The evergreen forest and agricultural fields supported very low densities. On Fort Campbell, KY, the percentage of land covered by suitable habitat was very high. A sand fly density prediction map identified large tracts of land where infected individuals would be at higher risk of exposure to sand fly bites, resulting in an increased risk of introducing the parasite to a native insect population. On Fort Bragg, NC, however, commercial farming of long leaf pine reduced the percentage of the land covered in vegetation suitable for the support of sand flies. The risk of introducing an exotic Leishmania spp. on Fort Bragg, therefore, is considered to be

  16. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  17. A wolf in sheep's clothing: The description of a fly resembling jumping spider of the genus Scoturius Simon, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Huriini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Robert; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2018-01-01

    Fly resemblance in arthropods is much less common than e.g., resemblance to ants or wasps, and has been mainly observed in beetles. Putative fly mimicry in arachnids has been reported only from the jumping spider genus Saitis. However, recent literature has attributed the fly-resembling characteristics in Saitis to sexual signalling during courtship. The lack of observation of fly mimicry in spiders is not surprising as flies belong to the most important prey item group of spiders. In this study, a new fly-resembling species of the jumping spider tribe Huriini, Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov., from the pre-Andean Chiquitano forest at the Bolivian orocline is described and illustrated. The new species was tentatively placed into Scoturius because the epigynum has a single large elliptical opening. Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of this tribe by a combination of following characteristics: epigynum with a large anterior elliptical atrium and initial portion of the copulation ducts dilated as a chamber (shared with Urupuyu); relatively joined copulation openings and short copulation ducts; kidney-shaped spermathecae, advanced at the atrium level. Several somatic features, two of them found exclusively in S. dipterioides sp. nov., increase the resemblance to flies. The Huriini are currently the only spider tribe that is suggested to feature fly mimics.

  18. Fly ash as a potential starting reagent for the synthesis of ultramarine blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, A.A.; De Waal, D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-02

    The traditional starting reagent for the synthesis of ultramarine blue, namely kaolin, has to be heated before the synthesis to weaken the structure of the kaolin. Two batches of fine fly ash (an aluminosilicate waste product from the combustion of coal) were successfully used to synthesize ultramarine blue. Infrared, Raman and X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of the product. Fly ash has the advantage over kaolin of being amorphous. The results further showed that the transition from the green ultramarine species to the blue species coincided with an increase in the ratio of the amount of S-3{sup -1} species relative to the amount of S-2{sup -1} species.

  19. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  1. Cadaver wrapping and arrival performance of adult flies in an oil palm plantation in northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Azwani; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Aziz, Al Thbyani; Boots, Michael

    2011-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.

  2. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Instar- and host-associated differentiation of bacterial communities in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Malacrinò, Antonino; Campolo, Orlando; Medina, Raul F; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Microorganisms are acknowledged for their role in shaping insects' evolution, life history and ecology. Previous studies have shown that microbial communities harbored within insects vary through ontogenetic development and among insects feeding on different host-plant species. In this study, we characterized the bacterial microbiota of the highly polyphagous Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), at different instars and when feeding on different host-plant speci...

  4. Aquatic dance flies fauna (Diptera, Empididae: Clinocerinae and Hemerodromiinae) of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković, Marija; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Miliša, Marko; Previšić, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Adult aquatic dance flies (Empididae) were collected during July 2012 and July 2013 in Montenegro using sweep nets and by aspirator at 21 sampling sites. From 25 species recorded in this study, 22 species are new to the fauna of Montenegro: Chelifera pyrenaica Vaillant, Hemerodromia laudatoria Collin, Clinocera stagnalis (Haliday), Clinocera wesmaeli (Macquart), Clinocerella sorex (Engel), Dolichocephala guttata (Haliday), Kowarzia barbatula Mik, Kowarzia plectrum Mik, Roederiodes macedonicus...

  5. Host range and reproductive output of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies newly imported to Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, R.H.; Ramadan, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four exotic tephritid fruit fly pests have colonised the Hawaiian islands over the past 100 years, where they have become major pests infesting hundreds of horticultural crops. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) are considered among the major obstacles to the development of a more robust agricultural economy in the state of Hawaii. Furthermore, the flies pose a continuous threat to agriculture in California and other areas in the southern United States, where it has been estimated that the establishment of the Medfly alone would result in losses of over one billion dollars annually (Andrew et al. 1978). Entomologists in Hawaii have conducted a number of classical biological control programmes against these tephritid pests over the years, resulting in the establishment of several parasitoid species and partial control of the flies in some crops (see reviews in Clausen et al. 1965, Wharton 1989). However, these programmes were conducted before the invasion of the state by the Solanaceous fruit fly; thus, there have been no biocontrol programmes targeted against this pest. Also, several entomologists have pointed out the potential of improved control over the other tephritid species in Hawaii by introducing new natural enemies (Gilstrap and Hart 1987, Messing 1995, Steck et al. 1986, Wharton 1989, Wong and Ramadan 1992). We have therefore renewed efforts to import parasitoids from tropical and sub-tropical areas around the world to attack tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. As part of this effort, we imported Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway from Queensland, Australia, where it is an endemic parasitoid of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and several other endemic Australian tephritids. This paper reports the results of initial host range tests and studies on the reproductive output of D. kraussii in quarantine

  6. Web Services Integration on the Fly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Hoe W

    2008-01-01

    .... Given data, software agents and supporting software infrastructure, web services integration on the fly means that human coding is not required to integrate web services into a Web Service Architecture...

  7. Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Roll, Jesse; Van Kooten, Stephen; Deng, Xinyan

    2018-05-01

    The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly. Quantification of the flow from the Schlieren images was then obtained by applying a physics-based optical flow method, extending the potential applications of the method to further studies of flying insects. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  9. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  10. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  11. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  12. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  13. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  14. Attracting the attention of a fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can d...

  15. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  16. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  17. Comparison of inter- and intraspecies variation in humans and fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation is essential to species survival and adaptation during evolution. This variation is conferred by the imperfection of biochemical processes, such as mutations and alterations in DNA sequences, and can also be seen within genomes through processes such as the generation of antibodies. Recent sequencing projects have produced multiple versions of the genomes of humans and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster. These give us a chance to study how individual gene sequences vary within and between species. Here we arranged human and fly genes in orthologous pairs and compared such within-species variability with their degree of conservation between flies and humans. We observed that a significant number of proteins associated with mRNA translation are highly conserved between species and yet are highly variable within each species. The fact that we observe this in two species whose lineages separated more than 700 million years ago suggests that this is the result of a very ancient process. We hypothesize that this effect might be attributed to a positive selection for variability of virus-interacting proteins that confers a general resistance to viral hijacking of the mRNA translation machinery within populations. Our analysis points to this and to other processes resulting in positive selection for gene variation.

  18. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Eriksson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.

  19. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  20. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  1. Field evaluation of a new light trap for phlebotomine sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2017-10-01

    Light traps are one of the most common attractive method for the collection of nocturnal insects. Although light traps are generally referred to as "CDC light traps", different models, equipped with incandescent or UV lamps, have been developed. A new light trap, named Laika trap 3.0, equipped with LED lamps and featured with a light and handy design, has been recently proposed into the market. In this study we tested and compared the capture performances of this new trap with those of a classical light trap model under field conditions. From May to November 2013, a Laika trap and a classical light trap were placed biweekly in an area endemic for sand flies. A total of 256 sand fly specimens, belonging to 3 species (Sergentomyia minuta, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus) were collected during the study period. The Laika trap captured 126 phlebotomine sand flies: P. perniciosus (n=38); S. minuta (n=88), a similar number of specimens (130) and the same species were captured by classical light trap which collected also 3 specimens of P. neglectus. No significant differences in the capture efficiency at each day of trapping, neither in the number of species or in the sex of sand flies were observed. According to results of this study, the Laika trap may be a valid alternative to classical light trap models especially when handy design and low power consumption are key factors in field studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Naturally infected Lutzomyia sand flies in a Leishmania-endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Andrade Filho, Jose D; Falcao, Alda L; Rocha Lima, Ana C V M; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2008-06-01

    In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, giving rise to different transmission cycles. The present study focused on naturally infected phlebotomines originating from Santa Luzia, a municipality near Belo Horizonte, capital of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, in which leishmaniasis are endemic. Systematic and non systematic approaches,involving the use of light traps and direct aspiration from resting sites, respectively, were used to collect females and flies. Identification of the captured insects and determination of natural infection by Leishmania spp. were performed using both conventional dissection methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dissection of 102 sand flies allowed five species of Lutzomyia to be identified, although no flagellate parasite forms were observed.In addition, 211 sand flies were identified, were separated according to species, and were combined into 11 pools of up to 20 individuals each. PCR analyses showed that two of these pools were infected with Leishmania:one pool of Lu. whitmani was infected with Le. (Viannia) spp. and another of Lu. cortelezzii was infected with Le. chagasi. This suggests that Lu. whitmani may be a possible vector of Leishmania in the study area, and more work needs to be performed to assess the role of Lu. cortelezzii as a vector.

  3. The development of Leishmania turanica in sand flies and competition with L. major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajbullinova, Alsu; Votypka, Jan; Sadlova, Jovana; Kvapilova, Katerina; Seblova, Veronika; Kreisinger, Jakub; Jirku, Milan; Sanjoba, Chizu; Gantuya, Sambuu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Volf, Petr

    2012-10-02

    In Central Asian foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniases, mixed infections of Leishmania turanica and L. major have been found in a reservoir host (the great gerbil, Rhombomys opimus) as well as in the sand fly vector Phlebotomus papatasi, but hybrids between these two Leishmania species have never been reported. In addition, the role of sand fly species other than P. papatasi in L. turanica circulation is not clear. In this work we compared the development of L. turanica in three sand fly species belonging to different subgenera. In addition, we studied experimental co-infections of sand flies by both Leishmania species using GFP transfected L. turanica (MRHO/MN/08/BZ18(GFP+)) and RFP transfected L. major (WHOM/IR/-/173-DsRED(RFP+)). The possibility of Leishmania genetic exchange during the vectorial part of the life cycle was studied using flow cytometry combined with immunofluorescent microscopy. Late-stage infections of L. turanica with frequent colonization of the stomodeal valve were observed in the specific vector P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi and in the permissive vector P. (Adlerius) arabicus. On the other hand, in P. sergenti (the specific vector of L. tropica), L. turanica promatigotes were present only until the defecation of bloodmeal remnants. In their natural vector P. papatasi, L. turanica and L. major developed similarly, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of localization in the sand fly gut was the same for both leishmania species. Fluorescence microscopy in combination with FACS analyses did not detect any L. major / L. turanica hybrids in the experimental co-infection of P. papatasi and P. duboscqi. Our data provide new insight into the development of different leishmania parasite species during a mixed infection in the sand fly gut. Despite the fact that both Leishmania species developed well in P. papatasi and P. duboscqi and did not outcompete each other, no genetic exchange was found. However, the ability of L. turanica to establish late

  4. Clean up fly ash from coal burning plants by new isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium glabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu

    2017-09-15

    In Turkey approximately 45 million tons of coals are burned in a year and 19.3 million tons of fly ash have emerged. The bioremediation of heavy metals or different elements from fly ash makes them bio-available. However, in previous studies, requiring of long operational time and failing to show tolerance to high pulp densities of fly ash of selected fungal species makes them impractical. In this work, bioremediation of fly ash by new isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium glabrum were investigated in one step and two step bioremediation process. Ca, Si, Fe and S were found to be considerable amount in studied fly ashes by ED-XRF element analysis. The bioremediation yields of Mo (100%), S (64.36%) Ni (50%) and Cu (33.33%) by F. oxysporum were high. The remediated elements by P. glabrum in fly ash were Mo (100%), S (57.43%), Ni (25%), Si (24.66%), V (12.5%), Ti (5%) and Sr (3.2%). The isolation of high fly ash resistant fungi and reduction of the bioremediation time will allow the practical applications of the bioremediation technology when it is scaled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  6. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  7. Morphological comparison between Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom

    2006-12-20

    In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.

  8. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: microstructure and metal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Davidovits, Joseph; Antenucci, Diano; Nugteren, Henk; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino

    2009-07-15

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilize a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  9. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: Microstructure and metal leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Maria, E-mail: mariaizq@ija.csic.es [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' -CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' -CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Davidovits, Joseph [Cordi-Geopolymere, Espace Creatis, Z.A. Bois de la Chocque 02100 Saint-Quentin (France); Antenucci, Diano [Institut Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP) 200, rue du Chera, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Nugteren, Henk [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Particle Technology Group, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Fernandez-Pereira, Constantino [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilise a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  10. The cessation of long-term fly-ash dumping: effects on macrobenthos and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrando Perez, S.; Frid, C.L.J. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields (United Kingdom). Dove Marine Lab., Dept. of Marine Science and Coastal Management

    1998-10-01

    Four decades of continual fly-ash disposal off Northumberland, UK, ended in December 1992. Quantitative sampling of the sediment and the macrobenthos was undertaken in the summer 1993. The offshore portion of the region surveyed bore only traces of fly-ash particles, waste being confined to the region shallower than 45 m. There, disposals have changed local sedimentary conditions increasing the spatial patchiness of sediment types and altering silt-clay dynamics. Inshore of the dumpsite, substrata affected by long-term tipping have effectively become an artificial reef due to the cementation of the waste. The seabed within the designated dumpsite was still composed of pure fly ash, resulting in macrobenthic densities and species richness markedly lower than control areas, though higher than recorded in a previous survey in 1988. Nine months after cessation of dumping recovery was essentially dependent on the decrease in the concentration of the waste.

  11. Labelling of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis by activable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, H.J.; Iwannek, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Tsetse flies of the species Glossina palpalis palpalis Rob. Desv. were subjected to various treatments with an aim of achieving labelling with the activable stable elements dysprosium, europium or lanthanum. The substances were injected as chlorides or nitrates, they were added to the food of the flies or applied externally to pupae or adults by dipping, or by spraying with the solutions. Feeding with the labelling substance was in principle the easiest method to handle a large number of flies. Only lanthanum salts have been tested so far and it was found that they were excreted relatively fast. They gave detectable labelling for 4 days after application only. The spraying of adults with lanthanum-containing aerosols was a technique which could be used on a mass-production scale. A fairly homogeneous degree of labelling was achieved, which was so high that during mating a clearly measurable amount of lanthanum was transferred from the labelled male to the female. (Auth.)

  12. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: Microstructure and metal leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Davidovits, Joseph; Antenucci, Diano; Nugteren, Henk; Fernandez-Pereira, Constantino

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilise a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  13. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.

  15. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  16. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously

  17. Sand flies of Nicaragua: a checklist and reports of new collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell W Raymond

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies within the genus Lutzomyia serve as the vectors for all species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania in the New World. In this paper, we present a summary of the 29 species of Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia previously reported for Nicaragua and report results of our recent collections of 565 sand flies at eight localities in the country from 2001-2006. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species collected within the Pacific plains region of western Nicaragua, while Lutzomyia cruciata or Lutzomyia barrettoi majuscula were the species most frequently collected in the central highlands and Atlantic plains regions. The collection of Lutzomyia durani (Vargas & Nájera at San Jacinto in July 2001 is a new record for Nicaragua. Leishmaniasis is endemic to Nicaragua and occurs in three forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Cutaneous infections are the most prevalent type of leishmaniasis in Nicaragua and they occur in two different clinical manifestations, typical cutaneous leishmaniasis and atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the species of the infecting Leishmania parasite. The distribution of sand flies collected during this study in relation to the geographic distribution of clinical forms of leishmaniasis in the country is also discussed.

  18. Synanthropy of mosquitoes and sand flies near the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, R A; Ursine, R L; Nunes, F P; Morais, D H; Araújo, H S

    2012-12-01

    The environmental changes resulting from the construction of hydroelectric dams may affect the fauna of insect vectors and consequently the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. This work examined the mosquito and sand fly fauna in the area of the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, analyzing the seasonal distribution and the degree of species synanthropy in different ecotopes. Between November, 2008 and September, 2009, entomological captures were performed with the help of HP light traps in the rural, urban, and forest areas of Aimorés, Ituêta, Resplendor, and Baixo Guandu counties. The fauna proved to be quite diversified. Twenty-two species of mosquitoes and 11 species of sand flies were found. Culex quinquefasciatus was predominant among mosquitoes (76.7%), while Lutzomyia intermedia prevailed among sand flies (34.5%). Some of the captured species have medical interest. Supported by the high degree of synanthropy, those species reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Acoustic signals in the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto Alexandre A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acoustic signals are part of the courtship of many insects and they often act as species-specific signals that are important in the reproductive isolation of closely related species. Here we report the courtship songs of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, one of the main vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Findings Recordings were performed using insects from three localities from Eastern Brazil: Posse and Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro State and Corte de Pedra in Bahia State. The three areas have remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, they are endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and L. intermedia is the predominant sand fly species. We observed that during courtship L. intermedia males from all populations produced pulse songs consisting of short trains. No significant differences in song parameters were observed between the males of the three localities. Conclusions L. intermedia males produce acoustic signals as reported for some other sand flies such as the sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. The lack of differences between the males from the three localities is consistent with previous molecular studies of the period gene carried out in the same populations, reinforcing the idea that L. intermedia is not a species complex in the studied areas and that the three populations are likely to have similar vectorial capacities.

  20. Acoustic signals in the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Acoustic signals are part of the courtship of many insects and they often act as species-specific signals that are important in the reproductive isolation of closely related species. Here we report the courtship songs of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, one of the main vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Findings Recordings were performed using insects from three localities from Eastern Brazil: Posse and Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro State and Corte de Pedra in Bahia State. The three areas have remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, they are endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and L. intermedia is the predominant sand fly species. We observed that during courtship L. intermedia males from all populations produced pulse songs consisting of short trains. No significant differences in song parameters were observed between the males of the three localities. Conclusions L. intermedia males produce acoustic signals as reported for some other sand flies such as the sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. The lack of differences between the males from the three localities is consistent with previous molecular studies of the period gene carried out in the same populations, reinforcing the idea that L. intermedia is not a species complex in the studied areas and that the three populations are likely to have similar vectorial capacities. PMID:21569534

  1. Acoustic signals in the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Souza, Nataly A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2011-05-13

    Acoustic signals are part of the courtship of many insects and they often act as species-specific signals that are important in the reproductive isolation of closely related species. Here we report the courtship songs of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, one of the main vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Recordings were performed using insects from three localities from Eastern Brazil: Posse and Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro State and Corte de Pedra in Bahia State. The three areas have remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, they are endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and L. intermedia is the predominant sand fly species. We observed that during courtship L. intermedia males from all populations produced pulse songs consisting of short trains. No significant differences in song parameters were observed between the males of the three localities. L. intermedia males produce acoustic signals as reported for some other sand flies such as the sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. The lack of differences between the males from the three localities is consistent with previous molecular studies of the period gene carried out in the same populations, reinforcing the idea that L. intermedia is not a species complex in the studied areas and that the three populations are likely to have similar vectorial capacities.

  2. The eradication of the Mexico killing fly; L'eradication de la mouche tueuse du Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, P

    2009-06-15

    In Mexico an industrial facility produces millions of sterile flies. These flies are then released in the wild to eliminate the 'Cochliomyia hominivorax' flu species whose larvae generate large sanitary and economical damage. The flies are made sterile through gamma irradiation at the cocoon stage. Containers filled with 40.000 cocoons are exposed to Cs{sup 137} gamma radiation doses of 55 Gy, the irradiation session lasts 2 minutes and a half. After the cocoons undergo strict quality control they are deposited in natural places. The irradiation generates cell damages in semen and ovaries while preserving the capacity of copulating and the lifetime of the flies. (A.C.)

  3. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  4. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  5. Efficacy of Different Sampling Methods of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kashan District, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hesam-Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trapping methods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species.The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City. Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours, Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2 light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets and animal-baited trap.A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86% species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies.Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area.

  6. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  7. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  9. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  10. Monitoring and eradication of exotic fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan; Vueti, Ema Tora

    2003-01-01

    Fruit flies (family Tephritidae) are very mobile and are capable of breaching quarantine barriers, resulting in authorities and horticultural industries having to conduct expensive eradication programs. During the last two decades, with improved air travel and large increases in traveller numbers, the numbers of incursions and outbreaks of exotic pest fruit flies, especially in the Pacific region, have increased, particularly those species belonging to the dorsalis complex. Quarantine surveillance or early warning systems for recording exotic fruit flies include border inspections, passenger profiling, detection trapping, host surveys, and emergency response capacity. Having these systems fully operational improves the prospects of recording new incursions or outbreaks before they have time to expand, but it is still essential to have the capacity to undertake an eradication response as quickly as possible. Eradication programs using protein bait application technique, male annihilation technique, and, in some cases, sterile insect technique have been recently used in Mauritius, Thailand, Philippines, Australia, Nauru, Cook Islands, and French Polynesia against a range of fruit fly species. (author)

  11. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) From Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Cristina; Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio

    2017-11-07

    The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador.The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and "Leishmania sp. siamensis". Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Paul A; Depaquit, Jerôme; Galati, Eunice A B; Kamhawi, Shaden; Maroli, Michele; McDowell, Mary Ann; Picado, Albert; Ready, Paul D; Salomón, O Daniel; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Warburg, Alon

    2015-02-27

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature.

  13. Description of a nanobody-based competitive immunoassay to detect tsetse fly exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the main vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes. The Tsal proteins in tsetse fly saliva were previously identified as suitable biomarkers of bite exposure. A new competitive assay was conceived based on nanobody (Nb technology to ameliorate the detection of anti-Tsal antibodies in mammalian hosts.A camelid-derived Nb library was generated against the Glossina morsitans morsitans sialome and exploited to select Tsal specific Nbs. One of the three identified Nb families (family III, TsalNb-05 and TsalNb-11 was found suitable for anti-Tsal antibody detection in a competitive ELISA format. The competitive ELISA was able to detect exposure to a broad range of tsetse species (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and did not cross-react with the other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao. Using a collection of plasmas from tsetse-exposed pigs, the new test characteristics were compared with those of the previously described G. m. moristans and rTsal1 indirect ELISAs, revealing equally good specificities (> 95% and positive predictive values (> 98% but higher negative predictive values and hence increased sensitivity (> 95% and accuracy (> 95%.We have developed a highly accurate Nb-based competitive immunoassay to detect specific anti-Tsal antibodies induced by various tsetse fly species in a range of hosts. We propose that this competitive assay provides a simple serological indicator of tsetse fly presence without the requirement of test adaptation to the vertebrate host species. In addition, the use of monoclonal Nbs for antibody detection is innovative and could be applied to other tsetse fly salivary biomarkers in order to achieve a multi-target immunoprofiling of hosts. In addition, this approach could be broadened to other pathogenic organisms for which accurate serological diagnosis remains a bottleneck.

  14. Adaptation and prospects of breeding flies Black lvink (Hermetia illucens in circumpolar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology has recently become pervasive, as a prospective branch of science that study the possibilities of using living organisms, systems or products of their vital activity to solve technological problems. American type of fly - the Black lvink (Hermetia illucens is used as a research object. The species lives in countries with warm climate, but recently the issue of flies breeding in the regions with cold climatic conditions has been actively discussed. Unlike America and countries of Western Europe, in Russia this issue is underexplored. The analysis of literature sources will allow determining the optimal conditions for the growth, development and reproduction of the species in artificially created laboratory conditions. The insect has gained widespread appreciation due to its highly effective bioconversion of various solid organic wastes as well as high nutrition of larvae with the possibility of using them in feeding farm animals and aquaculture. However, this is not the full range of research areas of fly use. The larva of the fly is characterized by the ability to absorb virtually any biowastes. As a result, its body accumulates a complex of substances, the percentage of which depends on the diet. The larva contains about 40% amino acids which produce a favorable effect on the growth and development of farm animals and birds, and confirm the possibility of using dry larvae as a fodder additive. Black lvink causes great scientific and practical interest. Artificial creation of the necessary conditions for the life of the species when studying and adaptation of an insect in cold climate as well as the development of technologies for the development and reproduction of insects in laboratory and industrial conditions will provide fly breeding in circumpolar regions and allow developing a number of biotechnology directions in Arkhangelsk region.

  15. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  16. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

  17. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  18. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  19. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis infection in outbreak areas where several species of Leishmania

  20. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). METHODS We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis

  1. Systematic relationships among Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Peru and Colombia based on the analysis of 12S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beati, Lorenza; Cáceres, Abraham G; Lee, Jamie A; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2004-02-01

    Lutzomyia spp. are New World phlebotomine sand flies, many of which are involved in the transmission of human diseases, such as leishmaniases and bartonellosis. The systematic classification of the approximately 400 species in the genus has been based on morphological characters, but the relationships within the genus are still very much in question. We have inferred phylogenies of 32 species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to seven sub-genera and two species groups, by using fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit (12SrRNA) and of the nuclear large subunit (28SrRNA) ribosomal gene sequences. The subgenus Helcocyrtomyia and the Verrucarum species group, prominent representatives of the Peruvian sand fly fauna, were represented by 11 and 7 species, respectively. Although based on a limited number of taxa, the resulting phylogenies, based on 837 characters, provide an initial phylogenetic backbone for the progressive reconstruction of infrageneric relationships within Lutzomyia.

  2. Parturition in Tsetse Flies: Endocrine Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zd' arek, J; Cvacka, J; Sanda, M [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, AV CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Takac, P; Keszeliova, D; Simo, L; Roller, L [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    A problem in tsetse mass rearing facilities is the increased incidence of abortions of underdeveloped larvae or pupariation of larvae within the mother's uterus. We analysed the problem by investigating neural, hormonal and environmental factors controlling parturition. Input from the mother's brain is essential for normal parturition, since a female whose brain is disconnected by ligation fails to deposit her larva. The expulsion of a larva is stimulated by a putative parturition hormone present within the female's uterus. The hormone also elicits abortion when injected into neck ligated females at earlier stages of pregnancy. This report describes attempts to reveal the chemical nature of this hormone by purification of extracts of uteri of Glossina females and identification of behaviourally active fractions using a MALDI-MS instrument. Genomic (BLAST) analysis of the identified sequences did not reveal a significant match with any protein with bioactive properties in other species. However, similarity with various enzymes or structural proteins (and hypothetical proteins) was detected occasionally. In the Glossina genomic and cDNA databases no nucleotide sequence corresponding to the deduced AA sequences was found. Perhaps the deduced sequences are too short to obtain more significant hits both in protein and nucleotide databases. We also made investigations to elucidate environmental influences and physiological mechanisms associated with tsetse parturition. We found that the circadian rhythm of parturition of flies kept in Bratislava (G. m. morsitans, G. f. fuscipes and G. pallidipes) is less pronounced than under natural conditions. The loss of synchrony in the laboratory may have three possible causes: (i) genetic - absence of selective pressure, (ii) environmental - low intensity or absence of an entraining light or temperature stimulus, and (iii) physiological - impaired sensitivity to olfactory stimulation by a hypothetical 'oviposition' pheromone that

  3. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Lantero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L. trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control

  4. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantero, E.; Matallanas, B.; Ochando, M.D.; Pascual, S.; Callejas, C.

    2017-07-01

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control.

  5. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantero, E.; Matallanas, B.; Ochando, M.D.; Pascual, S.; Callejas, C.

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control.

  6. Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N., Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F., Hipatia; Romero A., Daniel; Gomez L., Eduardo; Martini R., Luiggi; Zambrano C., Flavio; Calvopina H., Manuel; Caceres G., Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  7. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  8. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  9. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  10. Molecular detection of Leishmania parasites and host blood meal identification in wild sand flies from a new endemic rural region, south of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Askari, Mohammad Bagher; Kalantari, Mohsen; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniosis (ZCL) remains the most crucial vector-borne public health disease particularly in endemic rural parts of Iran. The main aim of this study is to identify wild sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), determine their infection rate, and differentiate their host blood meal sources using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Sand fly populations were caught with sticky paper traps from 10 different villages in the county of Darab, Fars province, southern Iran. Following their species identification, they were used in one step PCR to determine their infection with Leishmania spp. parasites. They were then subjected to PCR-RFLP protocol to identify and differentiate their blood meal sources. Two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia comprising 13 species of sand flies were identified in this region. From a total of 150 parous female sand flies, encompassing 4 different medically important species, 7 specimens (4.7%) including 6 Phlebotomus papatasi and 1 Phlebotomus bergeroti were infected with Leishmania major. Molecular data indicated that about 32% of female sand flies fed on man, while nearly 43% fed on rodent and canine hosts. Molecular detection is an efficient way of differentiating the source of blood meals in female sand flies feeding on different vertebrate hosts. It is suggested that P. papatasi is not highly anthropophagic and appears to be an opportunistic feeder on man. This species is, however, the primary vector of ZCL in this region.

  11. Revised Distribution of Bactrocera tryoni in Eastern Australia and Effect on Possible Incursions of Mediterranean Fruit Fly: Development of Australia's Eastern Trading Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Mapson, Richard

    2017-12-05

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly called 'Queensland fruit fly' in Australia, and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the two most economically important fruit fly in Australia with B. tryoni in the east and Mediterranean fruit fly in the west. The two species coexisted for several decades, but it is believed that B. tryoni displaced Mediterranean fruit fly. In southeastern Australia, this was deemed inadequate for export market access, and a large fruit fly free zone (fruit fly exclusion zone) was developed in 1996 where B. tryoni was eradicated by each state department in their portion of the zone. This zone caused an artificial restricted distribution of B. tryoni. When the fruit fly exclusion zone was withdrawn in Victoria and New South Wales in 2013, B. tryoni became endemic once again in this area and the national distribution of B. tryoni changed. For export markets, B. tryoni is now deemed endemic to all eastern Australian states, except for the Greater Sunraysia Pest-Free Area. All regulatory controls have been removed between eastern states, except for some small zones, subject to domestic market access requirements. The eastern Australian states now form a B. tryoni endemic trading group or block. All Australian states and territories maintain legislation to regulate the movement of potentially infested host fruit into their states. In particular, eastern states remain active and regulate the entry of commodities possibly infested with Mediterranean fruit fly. The combination of regulatory controls limits the chances of Mediterranean fruit fly entering eastern states, and if it did, Mediterranean fruit fly is unlikely to establish in the opposition to a well-established B. tryoni population. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in Hawaiian fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, L. Michael

    2003-01-01

    ) augmentative parasitoid releases and 5) sterile insect releases. Program implementation will require ARS, state, university and community partnerships with the support of other research, regulatory and government agencies. Progress to date includes identification of three geographical areas on three islands for program implementation based on: 1) population monitoring, and 2) agricultural and geographical assessments throughout the state for areas most likely to benefit from application of the area-wide approach. In cooperation with the University of Hawaii, the Hawaii State Department of Agriculture, growers and other organizations, we have secured Special Local Needs (SLN) registrations for agricultural chemicals, implemented a fruit fly IPM extension educational program, developed site specific implementation plans and initiated trapping, sanitation and control measures within a defined grid area for sites on Hawaii Island and Maui Island. A third site is presently being developed on Oahu Island. Future plans for FY 03 include expansion of area-wide implementation activities in each of the identified areas, expansion to include suppression of new fruit fly species, continued research to address problems which inhibit implementation of the IPM program, and expansion into other agricultural areas not part of the existing area-wide program. (author)

  13. Physiological stress and Hendra virus in flying-foxes (Pteropus spp., Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress. Pooled and individual urine samples were non-invasively collected from under roosting flying-foxes at two latitudinally disparate regions in the eastern Australian state of Queensland. Hendra virus detection, and (in individual urine samples sex and species determination were PCR-based. Urinary cortisol measurement used a validated enzyme immunoassay. We found no direct correlation between increased urinary cortisol and Hendra virus excretion, but our findings do suggest a biologically plausible association between low winter temperatures and elevated cortisol levels in P. alecto in the lower latitude Southeast Queensland roosts. We hypothesize an indirect association between low winter temperatures and increased Hendra virus infection and excretion, mediated by the physiological cost of thermoregulation. Our findings and our approach are directly relevant to elaboration of the disease ecology of Nipah virus and other emerging henipaviruses in bats. More broadly, they inform investigation of emerging disease infection dynamics across the wildlife/livestock/human interface.

  14. Gene discovery using massively parallel pyrosequencing to develop ESTs for the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Daniel A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flesh flies in the genus Sarcophaga are important models for investigating endocrinology, diapause, cold hardiness, reproduction, and immunity. Despite the prominence of Sarcophaga flesh flies as models for insect physiology and biochemistry, and in forensic studies, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for members of this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a substantial EST dataset for the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from whole bodies of all life stages and normalized the cDNA pool after reverse transcription. Results We obtained 207,110 ESTs with an average read length of 241 bp. These reads assembled into 20,995 contigs and 31,056 singletons. Using BLAST searches of the NR and NT databases we were able to identify 11,757 unique gene elements (ES. crassipalpis unigenes among GO Biological Process functional groups with that of the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggests that our ESTs are broadly representative of the flesh fly transcriptome. Insertion and deletion errors in 454 sequencing present a serious hurdle to comparative transcriptome analysis. Aided by a new approach to correcting for these errors, we performed a comparative analysis of genetic divergence across GO categories among S. crassipalpis, D. melanogaster, and Anopheles gambiae. The results suggest that non-synonymous substitutions occur at similar rates across categories, although genes related to response to stimuli may evolve slightly faster. In addition, we identified over 500 potential microsatellite loci and more than 12,000 SNPs among our ESTs. Conclusion Our data provides the first large-scale EST-project for flesh flies, a much-needed resource for exploring this model species. In addition, we identified a large number of potential microsatellite and SNP markers that could be used in population and systematic

  15. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Blow flies as urban wildlife sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Rodríguez, Pablo; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2018-05-01

    Wildlife detection in urban areas is very challenging. Conventional monitoring techniques such as direct observation are faced with the limitation that urban wildlife is extremely elusive. It was recently shown that invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) can be used to assess wildlife diversity in tropical rainforests. Flies, which are ubiquitous and very abundant in most cities, may also be used to detect wildlife in urban areas. In urban ecosystems, however, overwhelming quantities of domestic mammal DNA could completely mask the presence of wild mammal DNA. To test whether urban wild mammals can be detected using fly iDNA, we performed DNA metabarcoding of pools of flies captured in Berlin, Germany, using three combinations of blocking primers. Our results show that domestic animal sequences are, as expected, very dominant in urban environments. Nevertheless, wild mammal sequences can often be retrieved, although they usually only represent a minor fraction of the sequence reads. Fly iDNA metabarcoding is therefore a viable approach for quick scans of urban wildlife diversity. Interestingly, our study also shows that blocking primers can interact with each other in ways that affect the outcome of metabarcoding. We conclude that the use of complex combinations of blocking primers, although potentially powerful, should be carefully planned when designing experiments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The peaks observed at 1546 and 1511 cm−1 correspond to CO3. 2- group. Symmetric .... The values of RL reported in Table 5 obtained were less than one, indicating that the adsorption of eosin dye ... This work. Coal fly ash. Crystal Violet.

  18. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  19. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  20. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  1. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  2. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to attempt making zeolite from fly ash (Höller and Wir- sching 1985; Henmi ... thermal treatment method to synthesize low silica NaX- type zeolite from .... catalytic applications. Mixture of ... amount of Fe2O3 and the oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti etc. The chemical ..... This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Human. Resource ...

  3. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  4. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  5. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  6. Fauna and Monthly Activity of Sand Flies at Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmanianisis Focus in Qomrooddistrict of Qom Province in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzinnia B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a parasitological disease transmitted by female sand flies. There are several endemic foci of disease in different parts of Iran. The disease is mostly reported from central part of Qom Province including the villages Ghanavat and Qomrood. It is clear that knowledge on sand flies ecologyhas the main role in planning the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL. This study was carried out to determinecutaneous leishmaniasis vectors in Gomrood district of Qom provincein 2009. Methods: The present study was a descriptive, cross-sectional one conducted on sand flies (the leishmaiosis vectors. It was carried out in Qomrood area of central district of Qom province during 2009. Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors (bed rooms, stables, etc. and outdoors-rodent burrows of three villages in Gomrood district, using 180 sticky traps (castor oil coated white paper 20 x 32 cm from the beginning (May to the end (November of the active season. For species identification, sand flies were mounted in Puri’s medium and identified after 24 hours using the keys of Theodor and Mesghali (1964.Results: A total of 10252 adult sand flies (4578 from indoors and 5674 from outdoors were collected and identified during May and November 2009. The following seven species were found in indoors: Phlebotomuspapatasi (86.1%, p. salehi (0/021%, P. sergenti (1/74%, p. caucasicus (1/26%, p. alexandri(0/24%, Sergentomyiasintoni (10/35% and S. theodori(0/26%. The collected species of oudoors were Phlebotomuspapatasi (54/67%, P. sergenti (0/35%, p. alexandri(0/035%, S. sintoni (44/02% S. dentata (0/21% S. clydei (0/19%, S. theodori (0/46% and S. pawlowski (0/05%. The most common sand flies in indoors and outdoors resting places were P. papatasi and S. sintoni. P. salehi was the lowest collected species in Gomrood district. The active peaks of sand flies were observed in late May and late August.The sex ratio

  7. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhoundi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates, Aspergillus (14, Acremonium (5, Fusarium (1, Geotrichum (1 and Candida (1. We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (6, Pseudomonas fluorescens (6, Klebsiella ozaenae (4, Acinetobacter sp. (3, Escherichia coli (3, Asaia sp. (1 and Pantoea sp. (1 as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5 and Micrococcus luteus (5 in 10 isolates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial

  8. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Lee Grismer, L; Das, Indraneil; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2012-11-01

    The closed-canopy forests of Southeast Asia are home to an impressive number of vertebrates that have independently evolved morphologies that enhance directed aerial descent (gliding, parachuting). These assemblages include numerous mammal, frog, snake, and lizard clades. Several genera of gekkonid lizards, in particular, have evolved specialized structures such as cutaneous expansions, flaps, and midbody patagia, that enhance lift generation in the context of unique gliding and parachuting locomotion. The genus Ptychozoon represents arguably the most morphologically extreme, highly specialized clade of gliding geckos. Despite their notoriety and celebrated locomotor ability, members of the genus Ptychozoon have never been the subject of a species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis. In this paper, we utilize molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments to estimate the evolutionary relationships of this unique group of flying geckos. Capitalizing on the recent availability of genetic samples for even the rarest of known species, we include the majority of known taxa and use model-based phylogenetic methods to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Because one species, P. kuhli, exhibits an unusually wide distribution coupled with an impressive range of morphological variation, we additionally use intensive phylogeographic/population genetic sampling, phylogenetic network analyses, and Bayesian species delimitation procedures to evaluate this taxon for the possible presence of cryptic evolutionary lineages. Our results suggest that P. kuhli may consist of between five and nine unrecognized, distinct species. Although we do not elevate these lineages to species status here, our findings suggest that lineage diversity in Ptychozoon is likely dramatically underestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  10. Population genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourti, A.; Loukas, M.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic structure of 15 wild populations of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), sampled from different geographical areas and different host fruit tree species, has been studied. Each population was analysed for 25 enzyme systems detected electrophoretically. All the Mediterranean populations proved to be highly monomorphic (H-bar=0.053) whereas those from South Africa and Reunion were highly heteromorphic (H-bar=0.234 and 0.153 respectively). As the urea denaturation method was used, no hidden genetic variability caused by the usual electrophoretic conditions was detected. The most probable explanation of the low genetic variability observed in the introduced populations of the medfly seems to be the historical reasons, namely the time elapsed since colonization and the number of individuals of the founder population. Experiments in the field and in the laboratory failed to detect any pattern of preference for oviposition sites in the medfly populations. More specifically, the differences in allele frequencies for the polymorphic loci among these populations do not seem to be correlated either with the taxonomic status of the host fruit or with the size of the fruit. It is concluded that the medfly as a fine grained species may utilize many alternative food resources without an apparent action of selection (or at least one that is detectable by the methods used). By estimating the genetic distances between the populations and/or by using the allozymes as genetic markers the route(s) of dispersion of the fly from its geographic centre of origin, which is placed in Africa, could be roughly traced. Finally, no systematic changes in allele frequencies were observed in populations reared on artificial substrate. (author). 43 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-07-30

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood.

  12. Speciation of major and selected trace elements in IGCC fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Frank E. Huggins; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The speciation of Ga, Ge, Ni, V, S and Fe in fly ash from IGCC power plant were investigated for possible further extraction process by combining conventional mineral and chemical analysis, leaching tests, wet sequential extraction, Moessbauer and XAFS spectroscopies. The results shown that Ge occurs mainly as water-soluble species, GeS and/or GeS{sub 2} and hexagonal GeO{sub 2}. Ga is present as an oxide, Ni occurs mainly as nickeline (NiAs), with minor proportions of Ni arsenates and vanadium as V(III) with minor amounts of V(IV) in the aluminosilicate glass matrix. Pyrrhotite and wurtzite-sphalerite are sulfide species containing Fe and Zn, but an important fraction of iron is also present in the aluminosilicate glass. These clear differences between the speciation of the above elements in this material and those reported for fly ash from conventional PC combustion. 15 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete ... and 10% Fly ash content at 2500C. This is an indication that the strength of Fly ash/OPC Laterized concrete is generally sufficient for use at elevated temperature ...

  14. Elucidating the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) in Peninsular Malaysia through Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Peng, Lee Yin; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; McConkey, Kim R; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Gan, Han Ming

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and understand the ecosystem services of pollination and seed dispersal provided by threatened mammals such as flying foxes. The first step towards this is to obtain comprehensive data on their diet. However, the volant and nocturnal nature of bats presents a particularly challenging situation, and conventional microhistological approaches to studying their diet can be laborious and time-consuming, and provide incomplete information. We used Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a novel, non-invasive method for analysing the diet of the island flying fox ( Pteropus hypomelanus ) on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Through DNA metabarcoding of plants in flying fox droppings, using primers targeting the rbcL gene, we identified at least 29 Operationally Taxonomic Units (OTUs) comprising the diet of this giant pteropodid. OTU sequences matched at least four genera and 14 plant families from online reference databases based on a conservative Least Common Ancestor approach, and eight species from our site-specific plant reference collection. NGS was just as successful as conventional microhistological analysis in detecting plant taxa from droppings, but also uncovered six additional plant taxa. The island flying fox's diet appeared to be dominated by figs ( Ficus sp.), which was the most abundant plant taxon detected in the droppings every single month. Our study has shown that NGS can add value to the conventional microhistological approach in identifying food plant species from flying fox droppings. At this point in time, more accurate genus- and species-level identification of OTUs not only requires support from databases with more representative sequences of relevant plant DNA, but probably necessitates in situ collection of plant specimens to create a reference collection. Although this method cannot be used to quantify true abundance or proportion of plant species, nor plant parts consumed, it ultimately provides a

  15. Elucidating the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus in Peninsular Malaysia through Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheema Abdul Aziz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to identify and understand the ecosystem services of pollination and seed dispersal provided by threatened mammals such as flying foxes. The first step towards this is to obtain comprehensive data on their diet. However, the volant and nocturnal nature of bats presents a particularly challenging situation, and conventional microhistological approaches to studying their diet can be laborious and time-consuming, and provide incomplete information. We used Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS as a novel, non-invasive method for analysing the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Through DNA metabarcoding of plants in flying fox droppings, using primers targeting the rbcL gene, we identified at least 29 Operationally Taxonomic Units (OTUs comprising the diet of this giant pteropodid. OTU sequences matched at least four genera and 14 plant families from online reference databases based on a conservative Least Common Ancestor approach, and eight species from our site-specific plant reference collection. NGS was just as successful as conventional microhistological analysis in detecting plant taxa from droppings, but also uncovered six additional plant taxa. The island flying fox’s diet appeared to be dominated by figs (Ficus sp., which was the most abundant plant taxon detected in the droppings every single month. Our study has shown that NGS can add value to the conventional microhistological approach in identifying food plant species from flying fox droppings. At this point in time, more accurate genus- and species-level identification of OTUs not only requires support from databases with more representative sequences of relevant plant DNA, but probably necessitates in situ collection of plant specimens to create a reference collection. Although this method cannot be used to quantify true abundance or proportion of plant species, nor plant parts consumed, it ultimately

  16. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  17. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  18. Enrichment of thallium in fly ashes in a Spanish circulating fluidized-bed combustion plant

    OpenAIRE

    López Antón, María Antonia; Spears, D. Alan; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Díaz, Luis; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of thallium in a 50 MW industrial circulating fluidized-bed combustion plant (CFBC), focusing on the distribution of this element among the bottom and fly ashes separated by the solid retention devices in the plant. The results show that thallium species are mainly retained in the solid by-products and are not emitted to air with flue gases in significant amounts, proving that this technology is a more effective means of preventing thallium emissions than pulv...

  19. FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE AND THEIR PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT HOG PLUM GENOTYPES IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO DA SILVA SOUSA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the infestation of fruit fly species and their parasitoids, associated with 20 hog plum genotypes (Spondias mombin L. in a commercial orchard in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The survey was conducted by fruit sampling and monitoring through traps stocked with bait food, in the period from January to December 2012. Overall, 6560 fruits were collected (79.58 kg, resulting in 23059 pupae, of which 10080 fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha and 4984 braconid parasitoids emerged. Anastrepha obliqua species was the predominant with 99.92%. F16P13 and F11P10 genotypes had the highest infestation indexes and F15P11 and F04P01 genotypes, the lowest. The main parasitoids collected were Opius bellus (77.65%, Doryctobracon areolatus (19.88% and Utetes anastrephae (2.47%. The average parasitism rate among genotypes was of 30.46%. In traps, a total of 1434 fruit flies were collected, whose species were: A. obliqua (97.6%, A. serpentina (1.4%, A. fraterculus (0.4%, A. striata (0.4%, A. dissimilis (0.1%, A. pseudoparallela (0.1%. Anastrepha obliqua species was predominant in the area, based on faunistic analysis. The infestation index in the orchard was relevant for five months (January-May, coinciding with the period of availability of hog plum fruits, reaching the highest peak in March (2.86 FAT. There was a significant negative correlation between number of fruit flies in the orchard and the average air temperature, and a significant positive correlation with rainfall and relative humidity. However, the main factor that influenced the observed infestation index in the hog plum orchard was fruit availability.

  20. Group-specific multiplex PCR detection systems for the identification of flying insect prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sint

    Full Text Available The applicability of species-specific primers to study feeding interactions is restricted to those ecosystems where the targeted prey species occur. Therefore, group-specific primer pairs, targeting higher taxonomic levels, are often desired to investigate interactions in a range of habitats that do not share the same species but the same groups of prey. Such primers are also valuable to study the diet of generalist predators when next generation sequencing approaches cannot be applied beneficially. Moreover, due to the large range of prey consumed by generalists, it is impossible to investigate the breadth of their diet with species-specific primers, even if multiplexing them. However, only few group-specific primers are available to date and important groups of prey such as flying insects have rarely been targeted. Our aim was to fill this gap and develop group-specific primers suitable to detect and identify the DNA of common taxa of flying insects. The primers were combined in two multiplex PCR systems, which allow a time- and cost-effective screening of samples for DNA of the dipteran subsection Calyptratae (including Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, other common dipteran families (Phoridae, Syrphidae, Bibionidae, Chironomidae, Sciaridae, Tipulidae, three orders of flying insects (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Plecoptera and coniferous aphids within the genus Cinara. The two PCR assays were highly specific and sensitive and their suitability to detect prey was confirmed by testing field-collected dietary samples from arthropods and vertebrates. The PCR assays presented here allow targeting prey at higher taxonomic levels such as family or order and therefore improve our ability to assess (trophic interactions with flying insects in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  2. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria

    OpenAIRE

    Blanckenhorn Wolf U.; Gautier Roland; Nick Marcel; Puniamoorthy Nalini; Schäfer Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species populations individuals and even within individuals. Age or developmental stage and sex specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage and sex specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) a...

  3. Trace elements and As speciation analysis of fly ash samples from an Indonesian coal power plant by means of neutron activation analysis and synchrotron based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawat; Bennett, J.W.; Juan Jose Leani; Mateusz Czyzycki; Alessandro Migliori; Germanos Karydas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The elemental characterization of coal fly ash samples is required to estimate the coal burning emissions into the environment and to assess the potential impact into the biosphere. Fly ash samples collected from a coal fired power plant in center Java, Indonesia were characterized by instrumental neutron activation analysis at two different facilities (BATAN, ANSTO) and synchrotron based techniques at Elettra Italy. Assessment of thirty (30) elements and an investigation of the potential toxicity of As species in coal fly ash were presented. The results obtained are discussed and compared with those reported from other regions of the world. (author)

  4. Diversity patterns, Leishmania DNA detection, and bloodmeal identification of Phlebotominae sand flies in villages in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; León, Cielo; Paz, Andrea; López, Marla; Molina, Gisell; Toro, Diana; Ortiz, Mario; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Atencia, María Claudia; Aguilera, Germán; Tovar, Catalina

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections. The study was carried out in Colombia, in 13 municipalities of Cordoba department, implementing a methodology that could be further used for the evaluation of vector-borne diseases in villages or towns. Our sampling design included 24 houses randomly selected in each of 15 villages distributed in 13 municipalities, which were sampled in two seasons in 2015 and 2016. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps placed in intra and peridomestic habitats. In addition to the morphological identification, molecular identification through DNA barcodes was also performed. A total of 19,743 sand flies were collected and 13,848 of them (10,268 females and 3,580 males) were used in molecular procedures. Circulation of two known parasite species-Leishmania infantum and Leishmania panamensis was confirmed. Blood source analyses showed that sand flies fed on humans, particularly in the case of the known L. infantum vector, P. evansi; further analyses are advised to evaluate the reservoirs involved in parasite transmission. Our sampling design allowed us to evaluate potential transmission cycles on a department scale, by defining suspected vector species, parasite species present in different municipalities and feeding habits.

  5. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  6. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  7. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  8. Diet and food availability of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus): implications for dispersal in a fragmented forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie E. Trapp; Winston P. Smith; Elizabeth A. Flaherty

    2017-01-01

    A history of timber harvest in West Virginia has reduced red spruce (Picea rubens) forests to < 10% of their historic range and resulted in considerable habitat fragmentation for wildlife species associated with these forests. The Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) has been described as a red...

  9. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  10. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    All flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 X 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,348 species. These amount to more than half the number...

  11. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  12. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California - release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic strains of the African endoparasitoids Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were released to suppress the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California from 2006 – 2016. Both parasitoid species were recovered post-release within the same fruit season; ho...

  13. Hidden diversity of Nycteribiidae (Diptera) bat flies from the Malagasy region and insights on host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Goodman, Steven M; Gomard, Yann; Dick, Carl W; Tortosa, Pablo

    2017-12-29

    We present information on Nycteribiidae flies parasitizing the bat families Pteropodidae, Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae from the Malagasy Region, contributing insight into their diversity and host preference. Our phylogenetic analysis identified nine clusters of nycteribiid bat flies on Madagascar and the neighbouring Comoros Archipelago. Bat flies sampled from frugivorous bats of the family Pteropodidae are monoxenous: Eucampsipoda madagascariensis, E. theodori and Cyclopodia dubia appear wholly restricted to Rousettus madagascariensis, R. obliviosus and Eidolon dupreanum, respectively. Two different host preference patterns occurred in nycteribiids infecting insectivorous bats. Flies parasitizing bats of the genera Miniopterus (Miniopteridae) and Myotis (Vespertilionidae), namely Penicillidia leptothrinax, Penicillidia sp. and Nycteribia stylidiopsis, are polyxenous and showed little host preference, while those parasitizing the genera Pipistrellus and Scotophilus (both Vespertilionidae) and referable to Basilia spp., are monoxenous. Lastly, the inferred Bayesian phylogeny revealed that the genus Basilia, as currently configured, is paraphyletic. This study provides new information on the differentiation of nycteribiid taxa, including undescribed species. Host preference is either strict as exemplified by flies parasitizing fruit bats, or more relaxed as found on some insectivorous bat species, possibly because of roost site sharing. Detailed taxonomic work is needed to address three undescribed nycteribiid taxa found on Pipistrellus and Scotophilus, tentatively allocated to the genus Basilia, but possibly warranting different generic allocation.

  14. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio