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Sample records for lucifer yellow ch

  1. Fluorimetric determination of copper(II) in aqueous solution using lucifer yellow CH as selective metal reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, T.; Wencel, D.; Werner, T. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany) Inst. of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors

    2001-09-01

    Lucifer yellow CH is shown to be a highly selective fluorescent reagent for the determination of Cu(II) in the {mu}g L{sup -1} concentration range. The fluorophore is statically quenched by Cu(II); the carbohydrazide group was assigned as the complexing part of the dye molecule. A total range of Cu(II) determination from 0.06 mg L{sup -1} (1 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) to 6.3 mg L{sup -1} (100 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 0.019 mg L{sup -1} (0.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) was obtained, along with surprisingly high selectivity. There was no interference from alkaline and earth alkaline metal ions. The cross sensitivity to heavy metal ions was evaluated by the separate solution method and by competitive binding experiments. Calibration plots are shown for Cu(II) determination at different pH and the dissociation constant was determined. The application of the reagent was demonstrated by the determination of the Cu(II) content of tap water samples. (orig.)

  2. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi; Zeinab Shankayi; Azam Izadi; Seyed Mohammad Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation...

  3. Bursting response to current-evoked depolarization in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons is correlated with lucifer yellow dye coupling but not with the presence of calbindin-D28k

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimbridge, K.G.; Peet, M.J.; McLennan, H.; Church, J.

    1991-01-01

    Calbindin-D28k (CaBP) immunohistochemistry has been combined with electrophysiological recording and Lucifer Yellow (LY) cell identification in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal formation. CaBP is shown to be contained within a distinct sub-population of CA1 pyramidal cells which is equivalent to the superficial layer described by Lorente de No (1934). The neurogenesis of these CaBP-positive neurons occurs 1-2 days later than the CaBP-negative neurons in the deep pyramidal cell layer, as shown by 3H-thymidine autoradiography. No correlation could be found between the presence or absence of CaBP and the type of electrophysiological response to current-evoked depolarizing pulses. The latter could be separated into bursting or non-bursting types, and the bursting-type response was nearly always found to be associated with the presence of LY dye coupling. Furthermore, when dye coupling involved three neurons, a characteristic pattern was observed which may represent the coupling of phenotypically identical neurons into distinct functional units within the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. In this particular case the three neurons were all likely to be CaBP-positive

  4. Flux and distribution of methane (CH4) in the Gunsan Basin of the southeastern Yellow Sea, off the Western Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Son, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Moonkoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Tsunogai, Urumu; Jeong, Kap-Sik

    2018-04-16

    The flux and distribution of methane (CH 4 ) was investigated in the seawater column at 14 stations in the Gunsan Basin, the southeastern part of Yellow Sea from 2013 to 2015. Here CH 4 is concentrated 2.4-4.7 (3.4 ± 0.7) nM in the surface and 2.5-7.4 (5.2 ± 1.7) nM in the bottom layer. The CH 4 saturation ratios ranged from 65.5% to 295.5% (162.6 ± 68.7), comprising the mean sea-to-air CH 4 flux of 3.8 to 25.3 (15.6 ± 5.5) µM m -2 d -1 . Methane concentration was largely different in the upper and the lower seawater layers that is separated by the thermocline of which depth is variable (20-60 m) depending on the time of sampling. The concentration of seawater dissolved CH 4 is high between the bottom surface of the thermocline layer and the sea floor. Generally it tends to decrease from the south-westernmost part of the basin toward the west coast of Korea. This distribution pattern of CH 4 seems to result from the CH 4 supply by decomposition of organic matters produced in the upper seawater layer that is superimposed by the larger supply from the underlying sediment layer especially beneath the thermocline. The latter is manifested by ubiquitous CH 4 seeps from the seafloor sediments.

  5. Development of kinetic inductance detectors for CUORE and LUCIFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanini, L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the CALDER project (Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detector with Excellent Resolution) is to develop new cryogenic light detectors to be used in CUORE and LUCIFER to improve the sensitivity in the search of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) and dark matter. The sensitivity of CUORE can be increased by a factor of 3, thanks to the reduction of the α background, obtained by detecting the Cherenkov light (∼ 100 eV) emitted by βs events and not by the α-background. In LUCIFER the ability to discriminate β/γ events (∼ 100 eV of scintillation light) from nuclear recoils (no light) in the low-energy region opens the way to search for dark matter interactions. This detectors must have an active area of 25 cm 2 , a baseline energy resolution of ∼ 20 eV RMS and a working temperature of 10 mK. The technology chosen is based on the phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). This paper presents the results of the first prototypes tested.

  6. Current Status and Future Perspectives of the LUCIFER Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Beeman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of fundamental particle physics, the neutrino has become more and more important in the last few years, since the discovery of its mass. In particular, the ultimate nature of the neutrino (if it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle plays a crucial role not only in neutrino physics, but also in the overall framework of fundamental particle interactions and in cosmology. The only way to disentangle its ultimate nature is to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay. The idea of LUCIFER is to combine the bolometric technique proposed for the CUORE experiment with the bolometric light detection technique used in cryogenic dark matter experiments. The bolometric technique allows an extremely good energy resolution while its combination with the scintillation detection offers an ultimate tool for background rejection. The goal of LUCIFER is not only to build a background-free small-scale experiment but also to directly prove the potentiality of this technique. Preliminary tests on several detectors containing different interesting DBD emitters have clearly demonstrated the excellent background rejection capabilities that arise from the simultaneous, independent, double readout of heat and scintillation light.

  7. Lucifer Yellow uptake by CHO cells exposed to magnetic and electric pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Miklavčič, Damijan; Towhidi, Leila; Firoozabadi, S. M. P.; Mozdarani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background The cell membrane acts as a barrier that hinders free entrance of most hydrophilic molecules into the cell. Due to numerous applications in medicine, biology and biotechnology, the introduction of impermeant molecules into biological cells has drawn considerable attention in the past years. One of the most famous methods in this field is electroporation, in which electric pulses with high intensity and short duration are applied to the cells. The aim of our study was to investigate...

  8. A scintillating bolometer array for double beta decay studies: The LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gironi, L., E-mail: luca.gironi@mib.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The main goal of the LUCIFER experiment is to study the neutrinoless double beta decay, a rare process allowed if neutrinos are Majorana particles. Although aiming at a discovery, in the case of insufficient sensitivity the LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment able to probe the entire inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this challenging result, high resolution detectors with active background discrimination capability are required. This very interesting possibility can be largely fulfilled by scintillating bolometers thanks to the simultaneous read-out of heat and light emitted by the interactions in the detector or by pulse shape analysis. - Highlights: • The LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment. • Scintillating bolometers allow high energy resolution and background discrimination. • The first choice for the LUCIFER tower are ZnSe crystals. • The LUCIFER setup will consist of an array of 30 individual single module detectors. • An array of ZnMoO4 crystals allowed the bolometric observation of the 2vDBD of {sup 100}Mo.

  9. LUCIFER, a potentially background-free approach to the search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nones, C. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, Bat. 108 Orsay Campus - Orsay (France)

    2011-08-15

    LUCIFER (Low-background Underground Cryogenic Installation For Elusive Rates) is a new project for the study of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay, based on the technology of scintillating bolometers. These devices promise a very efficient rejection of the alpha background, opening the way to a virtual background-free experiment if candidates with a transition energy higher than 2615 keV are investigated. The baseline candidate for LUCIFER is {sup 82}Se. This isotope will be embedded in ZnSe crystals grown with enriched selenium and operated as scintillating bolometers in a low-radioactivity underground dilution refrigerator. In this paper, the LUCIFER concept will be introduced. The sensitivity and the very promising prospects related to this project will be discussed.

  10. Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  11. RADIATE 1. 0 - an interface to ARIADNE 3. 0 for the Monte Carlos LUCIFER 2. 2 and TWISTER 1. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, N.H. (Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1992-04-01

    An interface program is presented which enables the lowest order photoproduction generators, LUCIFER and TWISTER, to be used with the Monte Carlo, ARIADNE. This facility provides QCD cascade generation based on the colour dipole approximation. (orig.).

  12. LUCIFER: A Scintillating Bolometer Array for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L

    2012-01-01

    One of the main limitations in the study of 0vDBD is the presence of a radioactive background in the energy region of interest. This limit can be overcome by the technological approach of the LUCIFER project, which is based the double read-out of the heat and scintillation light produced by ZnSe scintillating bolometers. This experiment aims at a background lower than 10 −3 counts/keV/kg/y in the energy region of the 0νDBD of 82 Se. Such a low background level will provide a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of the order of 100 meV. In the following, the results of the recent R and D activity are discussed, the single module for the LUCIFER detector is described, and the process for the production of 82 Se-enriched ZnSe crystals is presented.

  13. LUCIFER: a scintillating bolometer array for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the high precision achieved in the field of neutrino oscillations, there are some fundamental questions that can not be addressed by a study of ths phenomenon. We do not know in fact the absolute mass of neutrino and weather it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The LUCIFER experiment, financed by the ERC-AdG, will play an important role in this field. This project aims to push beyond the actual technological limits the possibility of observation of the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD). The detection of this extremely rare decay would indeed demonstrate that neutrino is a Majorana particle and, at the same time, would allow to set its absolute mass scale. LUCIFER will study the 0νDBD do 82 Se through ZnSe scintillating bolometers. Thanks to the simultaneous red-out of the heat and light produced by an interaction in the crystal, the background rate in the region of interest will be lower than 10 -3 counts/kg/keV/years. In the following, the expected performance of LUCIFER are discussed.

  14. Feeding of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faroni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of juveniles of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile was studied in the laboratory under light and dark conditions. Newly-hatched nauplii and metanauplii of Artemio were used as prey organisms. The fecding raie of L. foxoni was dependent on prey size and prey density, but was not obviously affected by light or dark conditions. The capture of the prey tended to increase with longer exposure time to prey. The maximum ingestion rate was 17.28 and 13.40 nauplii.L. faxoni .d- , in the light and in the dark conditions, respectively.O comportamento alimentar de espécimens jovens de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, em laboratório, sob condições de luz e escuro, foi estudado utilizando-se como alimento náuplios recém-eclodidos e metanáuplios de Artemio. Neste estudo a taxa de alimentação de L. faxoni foi influenciada pelo tamanho e concentração da presa, bem como pelo tempo de contato com a mesma. A atividade alimentar de L. faxoni foi maior em condições de luz, quando comparado com as condições de escuro. f- taxa máxima de ingestão calculada foi de 17,28 e 13,40 náuplios.L. faxoni .d- para as condições de luz e escuro, respectivamente.

  15. Yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ...

  16. Distribution of the Planktonic Shrimp Lucifer (Thompson, 1829 (Decapoda, Sergestoidea off the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFAC Melo

    Full Text Available Lucifer faxoni (BORRADAILE, 1915 and L. typus (EDWARDS, 1837 are species first identified in the neritic and oceanic waters off the Amazon. Samplings were made aboard the vessel “Antares” at 22 stations in July and August, 2001 with a bongo net (500-µm mesh size. Hydrological data were taken simultaneously for comparative purposes. L. faxoni was present at thirteen of the fourteen neritic stations analysed, as well as at five of the eight oceanic stations. L. typus was present at three of the fourteen neritic stations and in one of the eight oceanic stations. The highest density of L. faxoni in the neritic province was 7,000 ind.m–3 (St. 82 and 159 ind.m–3 (St. 75 in the oceanic area. For L. typus, the highest density observed was 41 ind.m–3 (St. 64 in the neritic province. In the oceanic province, the highest single density value was recorded at station 75 (5 ind.m–3. Overall, L. faxonitypically presented the highest densities.

  17. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 94720, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, 08544, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-13

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4·10{sup 22}, 1.3·10{sup 22} and 1.0·10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  18. LUCIFER: Scintillating bolometers for the search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignati, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma, I-00185 (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    The nature of neutrino mass is one of the frontier problems of particle physics. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0{nu}DBD) is a powerful tool to measure the neutrino mass and to test possible extensions of the Standard Model. Bolometers are excellent detectors to search for this rare decay, thanks to their good energy resolution and to the low background conditions in which they can operate. The current challenge consists in the reduction of the background, represented by environmental {gamma}'s and {alpha}'s, in view of a zero background experiment. We present the LUCIFER R and D, funded by an European grant, in which the background can be reduced by an order of magnitude with respect to the present generation experiments. The technique is based on the simultaneous bolometric measurement of the heat and of the scintillation light produced by a particle, that allows to discriminate between {beta} and {alpha} particles. The {gamma} background is reduced by choosing 0{nu}DBD candidate isotopes with transition energy above the environmental {gamma}'s spectrum. The prospect of this R and D are discussed.

  19. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Gironi, L.; Maino, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Dafinei, I.; Orio, F.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie de Masse, Orsay (France); Gotti, C.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Nagorny, S.; Pagnanini, L. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Nones, C. [SPP Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4.10{sup 22}, 1.3.10{sup 22} and 1.0.10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  20. LBT/LUCIFER OBSERVATIONS OF THE z ∼ 2 LENSED GALAXY J0900+2234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; Bechtold, Jill; McGreer, Ian D.; Just, Dennis W.; Sand, David J.; Green, Richard F.; Thompson, David; Peng, Chien Y.; Seifert, Walter; Ageorges, Nancy; Buschkamp, Peter; Juette, Marcus; Knierim, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We present rest-frame optical images and spectra of the gravitationally lensed, star-forming galaxy J0900+2234 (z = 2.03). The observations were performed with the newly commissioned LUCIFER1 near-infrared (NIR) instrument mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope. We fitted lens models to the rest-frame optical images and found that the galaxy has an intrinsic effective radius of 7.4 ± 0.8 kpc with a lens magnification factor of about 5 for the A and B components. We also discovered a new arc belonging to another lensed high-z source galaxy, which makes this lens system a potential double Einstein ring system. Using the high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame spectra covered by the H + K band, we detected Hβ, [O III], Hα, [N II], and [S II] emission lines. Detailed physical properties of this high-z galaxy were derived. The extinction toward the ionized H II regions (E g (B - V)) was computed from the flux ratio of Hα and Hβ and appears to be much higher than that toward the stellar continuum (E s (B - V)), derived from the optical and NIR broadband photometry fitting. The metallicity was estimated using N2 and O3N2 indices. It is in the range of 1/5 - 1/3 solar abundance, which is much lower than for typical z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies. From the flux ratio of [S II]λ6717 and [S II]λ6732, we found that the electron number density of the H II regions in the high-z galaxy was ≅1000 cm -3 , consistent with other z ∼ 2 galaxies but much higher than that in local H II regions. The star formation rate was estimated via the Hα luminosity, after correction for the lens magnification, to be about 365 ± 69 M sun yr -1 . Combining the FWHM of Hα emission lines and the half-light radius, we found that the dynamical mass of the lensed galaxy is (5.8 ± 0.9) x 10 10 M sun . The gas mass is (5.1 ± 1.1) x 10 10 M sun from the Hα flux surface density using global Kennicutt-Schmidt law, indicating a very high gas fraction of 0.79 ± 0.19 in J0900+2234.

  1. Method for indirect quantification of CH4 production via H2O production using hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth-Sophie eTaubner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ydrogenotrophic methanogens are an intriguing group of microorganisms from the domain Archaea. They exhibit extraordinary ecological, biochemical, physiological characteristics colorbox{yellow}{and have a huge biotechnological potential}. Yet, the only possibility to assess the methane (CH$_4$ production potential of hydrogenotrophic methanogens is to apply gas chromatographic quantification of CH$_4$.In order to be able to effectively screen pure cultures of hydrogenotrophic methanogens regarding their CH$_4$ production potential we developed a novel method for indirect quantification of colorbox{yellow}{the} volumetric CH$_4$ production rate by measuring colorbox{yellow}{the} volumetric water production rate. This colorbox{yellow}{ } method was established in serum bottles for cultivation of methanogens in closed batch cultivation mode. Water production was colorbox{yellow}{estimated} by determining the difference in mass increase in an isobaric setting.This novel CH$_4$ quantification method is an accurate and precise analytical technique, colorbox{yellow}{which can be used} to rapidly screen pure cultures of methanogens regarding colorbox{yellow}{their} volumetric CH$_{4}$ evolution rate. colorbox{yellow}{It} is a cost effective alternative colorbox{yellow}{determining} CH$_4$ production of methanogens over CH$_4$ quantification by using gas chromatography, especially if colorbox{yellow}{ } applied as a high throughput quantification method. colorbox{yellow}{Eventually, the} method can be universally applied for quantification of CH$_4$ production from psychrophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  2. The LUCIFER/CUPID-0 demonstrator: searching for the neutrinoless double-beta decay with Zn82Se scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusa, D. R.; Balzoni, A.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Camacho, A.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Keppel, G.; Maino, M.; Mancuso, M.; Martinez, M.; Morganti, S.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orlandi, D.; Pagnanini, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Puiu, A.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.; Zolotarova, A.

    2017-09-01

    Future experiments on neutrinoless double beta-decay with the aim of exploring the inverted hierarchy region have to employ detectors with excellent energy resolution and zero background in the energy region of interest. Cryogenic scintillating bolometers turn out to be a suitable candidate since they offer particle discrimination: the dual channel detection of the heat and the scintillation light signal allows for particle identification. In particular such detectors permit for a suppression of α-induced backgrounds, a key-issue for next-generation tonne-scale bolometric experiments. We report on the progress and current status of the LUCIFER/CUPID-0 demonstrator, the first array of scintillating bolometers based on enriched Zn82Se crystals which is expected to start data taking in 2016 and the potential of this detection technique for a future tonne-scale bolometric experiment after CUORE.

  3. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc

    Full Text Available Summary The yellow fever (YF virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98% and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  4. Estudo do desenvolvimento de Lucifer faxoni Borradaille, 1915 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Sergestidae através das medidas do somito pré-bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paloma Jimenez Alvarez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os estágios de desenvolvimento de Lucifer faxoni Borradaille ao largo de Santos, São Paulo, Brasil (24º16"S, 46º00W. A maturidade foi estabelecida em relação ao tamanho do somito pré-bucal As estações de maior abundãncia dos espécimes maduros, imaturos e larvais foram determinadas.The developmental stages of Lucifer faxoni Boradaille were studied off Santos, São Paulo, Brazil (24º16'S, 46º00'W. The maturity was established and related to the pre-buccal smite length. The seasons of greater abundance of mature, immature and larval specimens were determined.

  5. Distribution of the species of Lucifer Thompson, 1829 in the subtropical South Atlantic between parallels 20º and 30ºs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marafon-Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution of the species of Lucifer Thompson, 1829 (Decapoda: Luciferidae in the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre was assessed by the Brazil Transatlantic Commission in November and December 2009. The samples were collected at 83 stations on two profiles between Brazil and Africa (20 º and 30 ºS. Oblique hauls were performed with a WP-2 net up to 150 meters deep. A distinct sexual relationship was noted between the two species found and L. faxoni presented a significantly higher number of females relative to males 1:0.5 (X2 = 21.77, p = 0.0001. The L. typus sex ratio had significantly more males than females 1.86:1 (X2=50.84, p = 0.0001. The distribution of L. typus occurred in both the western and the eastern portions of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge. This distribution was significantly related to salinity (R2 = 0:13; F = 3.79, p = 0.009, which was higher in the western portion of the study area. In addition, the recordings of the two species were extended to the Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Overall, Luciferidae shrimp were more common and abundant at the stations west of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and L. typus was the most frequent and abundant species.

  6. Population ecology of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea, Sergestoidea, Luciferidae of the southeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah de Souza Alves Teodoro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Luciferid shrimps have short life spans and a rapid turnover of generations, engage in sequential spawning, and protect their eggs during incubation. This study investigates the ecology of Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 in the littoral zone, Ubatuba region, São Paulo. Sampling was conducted monthly from July 2005 to December 2006 using a Renfro net trawled over a distance of 50 m for a total sampling effort of 50 m² at each station. Nine stations were sampled, ranging from 1 to 15 m deep. Three stations each were grouped into zones 1, 2 and 3 (Z1, Z2 and Z3. Monthly values of salinity, temperature and rainfall were recorded at each station. The pre-buccal somite length (SL of each specimen was measured. The results showed that in shallower zones (Z1 and Z2, 6306 individuals were captured, whereas in the deeper zone (Z3, 3808 specimens were captured, but no significant differences in SL was detected between the specimens from Z1 and Z2 and those from Z3 (ANOVA, p=0.25. The abundance of shrimps did not differ significantly between seasons (Tukey's test, p=0.02 except in the spring. The sex ratio differed significantly over the seasons (χ², pEste estudo analisa a ecologia de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915 em Ubatuba, São Paulo. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente de julho de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, com uma rede de Renfro, arrastada por uma distância de 50 m, totalizando um esforço amostral de 50 m² em cada ponto de coleta. Nove pontos foram amostrados, variando de 1 a 15 m de profundidade. Cada 3 pontos foram agrupados em 3 zonas (Z1, Z2 e Z3. Os valores de salinidade, temperatura e pluviosidade foram registrados mensalmente em cada transecto. Os espécimes foram medidos quanto ao comprimento do somito pré-bucal (SL. Os resultados mostram que nas zonas mais rasas (Z1 e Z2 foram coletados 6306 indivíduos, enquanto que na mais profunda (Z3 obteve-se 3808 espécimes, não havendo diferença estatística entre as zonas (ANOVA, p=0

  7. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  8. The Spirit of Lucifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Highlighting so far unnoted and posthumously published material, the article aims to view the literary myth and works of Karen Blixen from a new perspective. The article contains a reading of the early short story fragment ‘The Story of Sebastian di Sandoval who gave his Soul to the Devil'...

  9. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  10. Kadurumba, CH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kadurumba, CH. Vol 33, No 3 (2014) - Research papers. Kinematics and Dynamic Evaluation of the Screw Conveyor of a Cassava Centrifuge Dewatering Machine Abstract PDF · Vol 33, No 3 (2014) - Research papers. Performance Optimization of a Cassava Pelleting Machine Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2467-8821. AJOL African ...

  11. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  12. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  13. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  14. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  16. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  17. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  18. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  19. LBT/LUCIFER view of star-forming galaxies in the cluster 7C 1756+6520 at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Laura; Sommariva, Veronica; Cresci, Giovanni; Sani, Eleonora; Galametz, Audrey; Mannucci, Filippo; Petropoulou, Vasiliki; Fumana, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Galaxy clusters are key places to study the contribution of nature (i.e. mass and morphology) and nurture (i.e. environment) in the formation and evolution of galaxies. Recently, a number of clusters at z > 1, i.e. corresponding to the first epochs of the cluster formation, have been discovered and confirmed spectroscopically. We present new observations obtained with the LBT Near Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER) spectrograph at Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) of a sample of star-forming galaxies associated with a large-scale structure around the radio galaxy 7C 1756+6520 at z = 1.42. Combining our spectroscopic data and the literature photometric data, we derived some of the properties of these galaxies: star formation rate, metallicity and stellar mass. With the aim of analysing the effect of the cluster environment on galaxy evolution, we have located the galaxies in the plane of the so-called fundamental metallicity relation (FMR), which is known not to evolve with redshift up to z = 2.5 for field galaxies, but it is still unexplored in rich environments at low and high redshifts. We found that the properties of the galaxies in the cluster 7C 1756+6520 are compatible with the FMR which suggests that the effect of the environment on galaxy metallicity at this early epoch of cluster formation is marginal. As a side study, we also report the spectroscopic analysis of a bright active galactic nucleus, belonging to the cluster, which shows a significant outflow of gas.

  20. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  1. Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... none were from the United States). What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that ...

  2. Inhibition of dye-coupling in Patella (mollusca) embryos by microinjection of antiserum against Nephrops (arthropoda) gap junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serras, F.; Buultjens, T.E.J.; Finbow, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Antiserum raised against Nephrops gap junctions was injected into single cells of the 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell stage of the Patella vulgata embryos. The pattern of junctional communication by iontophoresis of Lucifer Yellow CH was tested at the 32-cell stage. The results show that the normal

  3. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  4. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  5. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  6. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  7. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  8. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry of CH3CH2OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Bjørn Svendsen, Sissel; Østerstrøm, Freja From

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of methyl ethyl ether, CH3CH2OCH3, was examined using FT-IR/relative-rate methods. Hydroxyl radical and chlorine atom rate coefficients of k(CH3CH2OCH3+OH) = (7.53 ± 2.86) × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k(CH3CH2OCH3+Cl) = (2.35 ± 0.43) × 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were...

  10. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  11. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  12. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  13. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CH2CH2OH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, Michael D.; Misner, Jessica A.; Ball, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CF3CH2C(O)H and CF3CH2CH2OH in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 2 K. The rate constants determined were k(Cl+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (1.81 +/- 0.27) x 10(-11), k(OH+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (2.57 +/- 0.44...

  14. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  15. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  16. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  17. Estudio del CH interestelar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  18. Evaluating the applicability of four recent satellite–gauge combined precipitation estimates for extreme precipitation and streamflow predictions over the upper Yellow river basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to statistically and hydrologically assess the performance of four latest and widely used satellite–gauge combined precipitation estimates (SGPEs), namely CRT, BLD, 3B42CDR, and 3B42 for the extreme precipitation and stream'ow scenarios over the upper Yellow river basin (UYRB) in ch...

  19. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  20. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  1. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  2. A “Yellow Submarine” in Dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Satolli

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: HS is usually diagnosed at an already advanced clinical stage and it has a high mortality rate even today. Dermoscopy, showing a yellow and distributed homogeneously colour, can facilitate its hard diagnosis.

  3. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  5. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  6. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  7. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  8. CH2 molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.A.R.; Grosser, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular beam source of CH 2 is described. Coaxial beams of methylene halide and alkali metal react and the mixture is formed into a molecular beam. Passage through a mechanical velocity selector rotating at a suitably high speed purifies the beam, separating light, fast CH 2 from heavier, slower contaminating species

  9. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  10. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  11. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  13. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  14. CH-TRU Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  15. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-09-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  16. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-05-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  17. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-02-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  18. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  19. CH-TRU Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-10-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  20. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  1. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codesand corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  2. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-12-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  3. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  4. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-01-18

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  5. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-10-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  6. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  7. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  8. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  9. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-12-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  10. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-11-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  11. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-30

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  13. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  14. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-06-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  15. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...December 2015 SAR March 4, 2016 10:04:18 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Henry Vanderborght PMA-261 Heavy Lift Helicopters Program Executive Office - Air, Anti...757-5780 Fax: 301-757-5109 DSN Phone: 757-5780 DSN Fax: 757-5109 Date Assigned: May 29, 2014 Program Information Program Name CH-53K Heavy Lift

  16. Photoelectric observations of CH Cygni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luud, L; Ruusalepp, M; Vennik, Ya

    1977-01-01

    UBV observations of the peculiar variable star CH Cygni from 1968 up to 1974 are presented. HD 182691 served as a comparison star. It turned out that the colours are in accordance with a model for a symbiotic star. The colour-magnitude diagrams of CH Cygni allow dividing the period of the observations into two parts in dependence on the activity of CH Cygni. Observed brightness variations are analyzed by using autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, and power spectral density functions. It has been found that brightness variations have some periods which are given.

  17. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  18. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  19. [The fourth horseman: The yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Parás, Alfonso; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus three, Chikunguya and Zika have entered the national territory through the south of the country. Cases and outbreaks of yellow fever have now been identified in the Americas where it threatens to expand. Although Mexico has a robust epidemiological surveillance system for vector-borne diseases, our country must be alert in case of its possible introduction into the national territory. This paper presents theoretical assumptions based on factual data on the behavior of yellow fever in the Americas, as well as reflections on the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases.

  20. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  1. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  2. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  3. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  4. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  5. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  6. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  7. Molecular detection and characterisation of Horsegram Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific sets of primers (HYMV-A1500F & HYMV-A1500R and D-HYMV-B2200F & D-HYMV-B2200R) for the amplification of the complete DNA-A and DNA-B components of lima bean isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV-Lb).

  8. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  9. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  10. Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines that differed ...

  11. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  12. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  13. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  14. Monitored results from the Yellow House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.B.; Nielsen, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the monitoring program for The Yellow House, which consists of a four-storey high building with eight apartments. The monitoring started after the completion of the renovation in December 1996 and will continue until July 2000. Not all components have been measured during the whole period. The monitoring contains data for each apartment for space heating, electricity, cold water, hot water and gas. Also long-term measurements of the relative air humidity and room temperatures in two apartments have been made together with short-term measurements of daylight levels. For The Yellow House data has been registered for the PV-panels and solar collectors and also the climatic data have been measured. A questionnaire has been evaluated and a user survey will be carried out during summer 2000. (au)

  15. Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow ...

  16. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  17. CH-47F Improved Cargo Helicopter (CH-47F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 50% The Confidence Level of the CH-47F APB cost estimate, which was approved on April...M) Initial PAUC Development Estimate Changes PAUC Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 10.316 -0.491 3.003 -0.164 2.273 7.378...SAR Baseline to Current SAR Baseline (TY $M) Initial APUC Development Estimate Changes APUC Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total

  18. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  19. Gamma Radiation Effect on Titan Yellow Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the radiation induced color bleaching of Titan yellow dye (TY) in different solvents has been studied. The color bleaching of the dye solutions upon irradiation was followed spectrophotometrically. The % color bleaching of the dyes in different solvent systems was plotted against different gamma irradiation doses used and was determined and the obtained relationships were found to be linear in most cases. These relationships were used as calibration curves to determine the unknown irradiation dose. The results obtained were reproducible and showed differences from calculated values ranging from 10 % to 15 %

  20. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  1. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  2. Cholinesterase (ChE) response and related mortality among birds fed ChE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.; Hill, E.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Patterns of mortality and inhibition of brain and plasma ChE in birds treated with ChE inhibitors were studied in an attempt to determine the validity of using ChE activity as a monitoring and diagnostic technique. Analysis of brain ChE activity proved to be reliable for diagnosing and monitoring effects of selected ChE inhibitors in birds. Brain ChE inhibition exceeding 20% indicated exposure, and inhibition greater than 50% was sufficient for diagnosing cause of death. Individuals that died from dietary exposure to parathion or carbofuran had brain ChE activities below 55% of normal; although individuals could survive with brain ChE activity lower than 50%. Problems associated with collection, storage, and analysis of tissues for ChE activity are discussed.

  3. Stanovení vybraných vonných látek v kosmetických prostředcích

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá stanovením vybraných vonných látek v kosmetických prostředcích. Úvodem je popsán výskyt, metody získávání a využití těchto látek. Jsou nepostradatelnou součástí především kosmetických výrobků, avšak u citlivých jedinců mohou vyvolat alergickou reakci. O příčinách vzniku a průběhu těchto nežádoucích projevů je v teoretické části také pojednáno. Je známo několik stovek až tisíc vonných látek používaných v parfumérském průmyslu, z nichž je 26 ustanoveno evropskými ...

  4. Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

    2009-07-01

    Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine.

  5. The thermal stability of yellow fever vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of yellow fever vaccine thermostability both in lyophilized form and after reconstitution were analyzed. Two commercial yellow fever vaccines were assayed for their thermal stability. Vaccines were exposed to test temperatures in the range of 8 (graus C to 45 (graus C. Residual infectivity was measured by a plaque assay using Vero cells. The titre values were used in an accelerated degradation test that follows the Arrhenius equation and the minimum immunizing dose was assumed to be 10 (ao cubo particles forming unit (pfu/dose. Some of the most relevant results include that (i regular culture medium show the same degradation pattern of a reconstituted 17D-204 vaccine; (ii reconstituted YF-17D-204 showed a predictable half life of more than six days if kept at 0 (graus C; (iii there are differences in thermostability between different products that are probably due to both presence of stabilizers in the preparation and the modernization in the vaccine production; (iv it is important to establish a proper correlation between the mouse infectivity test and the plaque assay since the last appears to be more simple, economical, and practical for small laboratories to assess the potency of the vaccine, and (v the accelerated degradation test appears to be the best procedure to quantify the thermostability of biological products.

  6. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  7. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  8. Traveling Abroad: Latest Yellow Fever Vaccine Update | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier this month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its list of clinics that are administering the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, which has been made available to address the total depletion of the United States’ primary yellow fever vaccine, YF-VAX. These clinics will provide the vaccine to individuals preparing for international travel,

  9. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  10. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  11. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  12. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    effect of yellow sand with that of silica and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a ... [Ca2+]i was measured using the method previously des- cribed by Yang et ... particle activity as a Fenton catalyst). The capability of a particle to support transitional metal- dependent .... TNF-α production was increased in silica-treated cells and yellow ...

  13. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  14. The Size And Localisation Of Yellow Pigmented Lipid Cells 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size and distribution of the main pungent principle (6-gingerol) in two ginger varieties “ Tafin giwa” (the yellow variety) and “Yatsum biri” (the dark variety) at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months stages of maturity at harvest were studied empirically by the determination of the mean number of yellow pigmented lipid cells per unit area ...

  15. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Products of the Thermal Decomposition of CH3CHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle; Piech, Krzysztof M.; Zhang, Xu; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Osborn, David L.; Daily, John W.; Stanton, John F.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2011-04-06

    We have used a heated 2 cm x 1 mm SiC microtubular (mu tubular) reactor to decompose acetaldehyde: CH3CHO + DELTA --> products. Thermal decomposition is followed at pressures of 75 - 150 Torr and at temperatures up to 1700 K, conditions that correspond to residence times of roughly 50 - 100 mu sec in the mu tubular reactor. The acetaldehyde decomposition products are identified by two independent techniques: VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy (PIMS) and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy after isolation in a cryogenic matrix. Besides CH3CHO, we have studied three isotopologues, CH3CDO, CD3CHO, and CD3CDO. We have identified the thermal decomposition products CH3(PIMS), CO (IR, PIMS), H (PIMS), H2 (PIMS), CH2CO (IR, PIMS), CH2=CHOH (IR, PIMS), H2O (IR, PIMS), and HC=CH (IR, PIMS). Plausible evidence has been found to support the idea that there are at least three different thermal decomposition pathways for CH3CHO: Radical decomposition: CH3CHO + DELTA --> CH3 + [HCO] --> CH3 + H + CO Elimination: CH3CHO + DELTA --> H2 + CH2=C=O. Isomerization/elimination: CH3CHO + DELTA --> [CH2=CH-OH] --> HC=CH + H2O. Both PIMS and IR spectroscopy show compelling evidence for the participation of vinylidene, CH2=C:, as an intermediate in the decomposition of vinyl alchohol: CH2=CH-OH + DELTA --> [CH2=C:] + H2O --> HC=CH + H2O.

  17. Synthesis of CH3CH2Br - 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.E.; Pichat, L.

    1958-01-01

    The synthesis of ethyl bromide labelled with 14 C, starting from ethanol, has already been studied: 1- by TOLBERT, CHRISTENSON, NAI-HSUAN and SAH; 2- by SIXMA and HENDRIKS. After various blank tests of these two methods, we have finally obtained the best yields by treating the ethanol with a mixture of 40 per cent hydrobromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, in the apparatus normally used in the laboratory for the synthesis of CH 3 I slightly modified, so that the current of nitrogen carrying ethyl bromide and hydrobromic acid passes through a sintered glass disc before being bubbled through a solution of NaOH. We describe here the practical process used for the blank test which gave the best yield (91 per cent) and the active synthesis. (author) [fr

  18. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  20. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  1. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  2. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  3. libChEBI: an API for accessing the ChEBI database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainston, Neil; Hastings, Janna; Dekker, Adriano; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; May, John; Steinbeck, Christoph; Mendes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ChEBI is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. It is widely used as a source of identifiers to facilitate unambiguous reference to chemical entities within biological models, databases, ontologies and literature. ChEBI contains a wealth of chemical data, covering over 46,500 distinct chemical entities, and related data such as chemical formula, charge, molecular mass, structure, synonyms and links to external databases. Furthermore, ChEBI is an ontology, and thus provides meaningful links between chemical entities. Unlike many other resources, ChEBI is fully human-curated, providing a reliable, non-redundant collection of chemical entities and related data. While ChEBI is supported by a web service for programmatic access and a number of download files, it does not have an API library to facilitate the use of ChEBI and its data in cheminformatics software. To provide this missing functionality, libChEBI, a comprehensive API library for accessing ChEBI data, is introduced. libChEBI is available in Java, Python and MATLAB versions from http://github.com/libChEBI, and provides full programmatic access to all data held within the ChEBI database through a simple and documented API. libChEBI is reliant upon the (automated) download and regular update of flat files that are held locally. As such, libChEBI can be embedded in both on- and off-line software applications. libChEBI allows better support of ChEBI and its data in the development of new cheminformatics software. Covering three key programming languages, it allows for the entirety of the ChEBI database to be accessed easily and quickly through a simple API. All code is open access and freely available.

  4. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Mousson, F.; de Graaf, P.; Mokry, M.; Guryev, V.; Timmers, H.T.; Cuppen, E.; Jansen, R.

    2010-01-01

    MOTIVATION: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genome-wide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  5. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Colomé Tatché, Maria; Mousson, Florence; de Graaf, Petra; Mokry, Michal; Guryev, Victor; Timmers, H. Th. Marc; Cuppen, Edwin; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genomewide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/ or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  6. Dynamics of the F(-) + CH3I → HF + CH2I(-) Proton Transfer Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Xie, Jing; Hase, William L

    2015-12-17

    Direct chemical dynamics simulations, at collision energies Erel of 0.32 and 1.53 eV, were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the F(-) + CH3I reaction dynamics. There is only the F(-) + CH3I → CH3F + I(-) bimolecular nucleophilic substitution SN2 product channel at 0.32 eV. Increasing Erel to 1.53 eV opens the endothermic F(-) + CH3I → HF + CH2I(-) proton transfer reaction, which is less competitive than the SN2 reaction. The simulations reveal proton transfer occurs by two direct atomic-level mechanisms, rebound and stripping, and indirect mechanisms, involving formation of the F(-)···HCH2I complex and the roundabout. For the indirect trajectories all of the CH2I(-) is formed with zero-point energy (ZPE), while for the direct trajectories 50% form CH2I(-) without ZPE. Without a ZPE constraint for CH2I(-), the reaction cross sections for the rebound, stripping, and indirect mechanisms are 0.2 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.4, and 0.7 ± 0.2 Å(2), respectively. Discarding trajectories that do not form CH2I(-) with ZPE reduces the rebound and stripping cross sections to 0.1 ± 0.1 and 0.7 ± 0.5 Å(2). The HF product is formed rotationally and vibrationally unexcited. The average value of J is 2.6 and with histogram binning n = 0. CH2I(-) is formed rotationally excited. The partitioning between CH2I(-) vibration and HF + CH2I(-) relative translation energy depends on the treatment of CH2I(-) ZPE. Without a CH2I(-) ZPE constraint the energy partitioning is primarily to relative translation with little CH2I(-) vibration. With a ZPE constraint, energy partitioning to CH2I(-) rotation, CH2I(-) vibration, and relative translation are statistically the same. The overall F(-) + CH3I rate constant at Erel of both 0.32 and 1.53 eV is in good agreement with experiment and negligibly affected by the treatment of CH2I(-) ZPE, since the SN2 reaction is the major contributor to the total reaction rate constant. The potential energy surface and reaction dynamics for F

  7. Scientific Computing in the CH Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Cheng

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a general-purpose block-structured interpretive programming Ianguage. The syntax and semantics of this language called CH are similar to C. CH retains most features of C from the scientific computing point of view. In this paper, the extension of C to CH for numerical computation of real numbers will be described. Metanumbers of −0.0, 0.0, Inf, −Inf, and NaN are introduced in CH. Through these metanumbers, the power of the IEEE 754 arithmetic standard is easily available to the programmer. These metanumbers are extended to commonly used mathematical functions in the spirit of the IEEE 754 standard and ANSI C. The definitions for manipulation of these metanumbers in I/O; arithmetic, relational, and logic operations; and built-in polymorphic mathematical functions are defined. The capabilities of bitwise, assignment, address and indirection, increment and decrement, as well as type conversion operations in ANSI C are extended in CH. In this paper, mainly new linguistic features of CH in comparison to C will be described. Example programs programmed in CH with metanumbers and polymorphic mathematical functions will demonstrate capabilities of CH in scientific computing.

  8. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel yellow colored flame compositions with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of colored flames is the primary purpose of military signaling, projectile tracing, and illuminating devices. Certain elements and compounds when heated to high temperature have the unique property of emitting lines or narrow bands in the visible region (380–780 nm. This study, reports on the development of novel yellow colored flame compositions with enhanced spectral performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality to standard Russian yellow tracer. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed yellow flares were measured using digital luxmeter and UV–Vis. spectrometer respectively. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity, and color quality of Russian yellow tracer were improved by 287%, and 170% respectively. This was accomplished by means of optimizing the ratio of novel binder to color source using aluminum metal fuel. Aluminum-based formulations were found to maximize the formation of yellow reactive emitting specimens, and to eliminate any interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO. Quantification of yellow color emitting specimens in the combustion gaseous products was achieved using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology in Germany, Virgin 2008; in an attempt to judge the light quality. This improvement in yellow flare performance established the rule that the emission intensity increases as the reaction temperature increases. In the meantime upper limit of temperature was avoided to maximize the color quality.

  10. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  11. Palladium Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Fristrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are highlighted with emphasis on those leading to C-C bond formation, but where it was deemed necessary for the general understanding of the process closely related C-H oxidations and aminations are also included. It is found that C-H cleavage is most likely achieved by ligand participation which could involve......-H alkylation reaction which is the topic of the current review. Particular emphasis is put on current mechanistic proposals for the three reaction types comprising the overall transformation: C-H activation, nucleophillic addition, and re-oxidation of the active catalyst. Recent advances in C-H bond activation...... an acetate ion coordinated to Pd. Several of the reported systems rely on benzoquinone for re-oxidation of the active catalyst. The scope for nucleophilic addition in allylic C-H alkylation is currently limited, due to demands on pKa of the nucleophile. This limitation could be due to the pH dependence...

  12. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Methyl chloride, CH 3 Cl, is the major natural source of chlorine to the stratosphere. The production of CH 3 Cl is dominated by biological sources from the oceans and biomass burning. Production has a seasonal cycle which couples with the short lifetime of tropospheric CH 3 Cl to produce nonuniform global mixing. As an absorber of infrared radiation, CH 3 Cl is of interest for its potential affect on the tropospheric energy balance as well as for its chemical interactions. In this study, we estimate the radiative forcing and global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Cl. Our calculations use an infrared radiative transfer model based on the correlated k-distribution algorithm for band absorption. Global and annual average vertical profiles of temperature and trace gas concentration were assumed. The effects of clouds are modeled using three layers of global and annual average cloud optical properties. A radiative forcing value of 0.0053 W/m 2 ppbv was obtained for CH 3 Cl and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 300 times the forcing of CO 2 , on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation for CH 3 Cl is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Cl. The results give GWPs for CH 3 Cl of the order of 25 at a time of 20 years(CO 2 = 1). This result indicates that CH 3 Cl has the potential to be a major greenhouse gas if significant human related emissions were introduced into the atmosphere

  13. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  14. Inhibition of Ps Formation in Benzene and Cyclohexane by CH3CI and CH3Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1983-01-01

    Positron-annihilation lifetime spectra have been measured for mixtures of CH3Cl and CH3Br in cyclohexane and of CH3Cl in benzene. The ortho-positronium (Ps) yield decreased monotonically from 38% and 43% in cyclohexane and benzene respectively to 11% in pure CH3Cl and 6% in pure CH3Br. The strength......− anions to form Ps. while it forms a bound state with the halides. X−. CH3Cl was a roughly three times weaker Ps inhibitor in benzene than in cyclohexane, which shows that CH3Cl− does not dechlorinate in times comparable to or shorter than 400–500 ps in benzene. An improved model for the explanation of Ps...

  15. The reaction of fluorine atoms with methanol: yield of CH3O/CH2OH and rate constant of the reactions CH3O + CH3O and CH3O + HO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Vereecken, Luc; Fittschen, Christa

    2018-04-25

    Xenondifluoride, XeF2, has been photolysed in the presence of methanol, CH3OH. Two reaction pathways are possible: F + CH3OH → CH2OH + HF and F + CH3OH → CH3O + HF. Both products, CH2OH and CH3O, will be converted to HO2 in the presence of O2. The rate constants for the reaction of both radicals with O2 differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude, which allows an unequivocal distinction between the two reactions when measuring HO2 concentrations in the presence of different O2 concentrations. The following yields have then been determined from time-resolved HO2 profiles: φCH2OH = (0.497 ± 0.013) and φCH3O = (0.503 ± 0.013). Experiments under low O2 concentrations lead to reaction mixtures containing nearly equal amounts of HO2 (converted from the first reaction) and CH3O (from the second reaction). The subsequent HO2 decays are very sensitive to the rate constants of the reaction between these two radicals and the following rate constants have been obtained: k(CH3O + CH3O) = (7.0 ± 1.4) × 10-11 cm3 s-1 and k(CH3O + HO2) = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10-10 cm3 s-1. The latter reaction has also been theoretically investigated on the CCSD(T)//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and CH3OH + O2 have been identified as the main products. Using μVTST, a virtually pressure independent rate constant of k(CH3O + HO2) = 4.7 × 10-11 cm3 s-1 has been obtained, in good agreement with the experiment.

  16. Visible absorption spectrum of the CH3CO radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, B; Flad, Jonathan E; Gierczak, Tomasz; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2007-09-20

    The visible absorption spectrum of the acetyl radical, CH(3)CO, was measured between 490 and 660 nm at 298 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Gas-phase CH(3)CO radicals were produced using several methods including: (1) 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of acetone (CH(3)C(O)CH(3)), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, CH(3)C(O)CH(2)CH(3)), and biacetyl (CH(3)C(O)C(O)CH(3)), (2) Cl + CH(3)C(O)H --> CH(3)C(O) + HCl with Cl atoms produced via pulsed laser photolysis or in a discharge flow tube, and (3) OH + CH(3)C(O)H --> CH(3)CO + H(2)O with two different pulsed laser photolysis sources of OH radicals. The CH(3)CO absorption spectrum was assigned on the basis of the consistency of the spectra obtained from the different CH(3)CO sources and agreement of the measured rate coefficients for the reaction of the absorbing species with O(2) and O(3) with literature values for the CH(3)CO + O(2) + M and CH(3)CO + O(3) reactions. The CH(3)CO absorption spectrum between 490 and 660 nm has a broad peak centered near 535 nm and shows no discernible structure. The absorption cross section of CH(3)CO at 532 nm was measured to be (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(-19) cm(2) molecule(-1) (base e).

  17. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  18. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safe, potent, and pure yellow fever vaccine. Medical facilities of Federal agencies are authorized to obtain yellow fever vaccine without being designated as a yellow fever vaccination center by the Director..., storage, and administration of yellow fever vaccine. If a designated center fails to comply with such...

  19. Volatile components from the anal glands of the yellow mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-12-01

    Dec 1, 1988 ... sampling, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrome- try. The odour volatiles were ... tube and over the secretion at a flow rate of 15 cm3 min-1 .... behaviour of the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. (G. Cuvier).

  20. Is it time for a new yellow fever vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward B

    2010-11-29

    An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at higher risk of adverse events from the live vaccine, but could also have broader global health utility by lowering the risk-benefit threshold for assuring high levels of yellow fever vaccine coverage. If ongoing trials demonstrate favorable immunogenicity and safety compared to the current vaccine, the practical global health utility of an inactivated vaccine is likely to be determined mostly by cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of red and yellow tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ripe fruits of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) of red and yellow varieties were ... The nutrient compositions were determined using AOAC techniques. ... Conclusion: Moisture, fat and fibre values were similar in the samples.

  2. Yellow fever vectors' surveillance in three satellite communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of yellow fever have continued to occur in various parts of Nigeria. ... easily render themselves to vector and environmental management strategies. ... vectors, while locally adapted CDC (Centre for Disease Control) ovitraps were ...

  3. Study on silk yellowing induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-01-01

    The changes in the yellow color of silk threads with total dose of irradiation applied were described and studied by a colorimetric method and by monochrome photography. The change into a yellow color of the specimen in the course of irradiation was clearly detected in photographs using filters, 2B and SC 56 under light conditions at the wavelength of 366 nm. The b/L value measured by colorimetry in undegummed and degummed silk fibers sharply increased in the early stage of irradiation. Yellow color indices (b/L) of the specimen subjected to gamma-irradiation continued to increase and the yellow color of the silk threads became more pronounced above a total dose of irradiation of 21 Mrad. The b/L value of the undegummed silk fiber which had deen irradiated was about 2 times that of the degummed silk fiber. (author)

  4. EVALUATION OF COLOUR IN WHITE AND YELLOW TRIFOLIATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    2010-03-20

    Mar 20, 2010 ... 2Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate ... Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four.

  5. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Jik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides.

  6. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A; Kim, Byoung-Jik

    2015-01-01

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, 137 Cs and 7 Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides

  7. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M; Zeller, H

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  8. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Robert H.; Hernandez, Camellia L.; Petersen, Maureen M.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  9. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Robert H; Hernandez, Camellia L; Petersen, Maureen M

    2017-09-19

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  10. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  11. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  12. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  13. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  14. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH + H2 → CH2 + H, CH + H2 reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Miguel; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto

    2011-02-28

    The rate coefficients for the capture process CH + H(2)→ CH(3) and the reactions CH + H(2)→ CH(2) + H (abstraction), CH + H(2) (exchange) have been calculated in the 200-800 K temperature range, using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method and the most recent global potential energy surface. The reactions, which are of interest in combustion and in astrochemistry, proceed via the formation of long-lived CH(3) collision complexes, and the three H atoms become equivalent. QCT rate coefficients for capture are in quite good agreement with experiments. However, an important zero point energy (ZPE) leakage problem occurs in the QCT calculations for the abstraction, exchange and inelastic exit channels. To account for this issue, a pragmatic but accurate approach has been applied, leading to a good agreement with experimental abstraction rate coefficients. Exchange rate coefficients have also been calculated using this approach. Finally, calculations employing QCT capture/phase space theory (PST) models have been carried out, leading to similar values for the abstraction rate coefficients as the QCT and previous quantum mechanical capture/PST methods. This suggests that QCT capture/PST models are a good alternative to the QCT method for this and similar systems.

  15. Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CH(sub 3)Cl, CH(sub 2) C1(sub 2), CHC1(sub 3)and CH(sub 3)Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-J.; DeMore, W.

    1994-01-01

    Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3C1, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CH3Br have been measured by a relative rate technique in which the reaction rate of each compound was compared to that of HFC-152a (CH3CHF2)and for CH2Cl2, HFC-161 (CH3CH2F).

  16. Ultraviolet absorption spectra and kinetics of CH3S and CH2SH radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastasi, C.; Broomfield, M.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1991-01-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra of CH3S and CH2SH radicals have been measured between 215 and 380 nm using the pulse-radiolysis/kinetic-absorption method. One absorption band between 250 and 300 nm and one around 215 nm have been tentatively assigned to the CH2SH and CH3S radicals, respectively....... This spectrum has been used to measure the self-reaction rates of these radicals. Rate constants of 4 x 10(-11) and 7 x 10(-11) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 have been measured at 298 K for CH3S and CH2SH recombination, respectively. The possible reaction pathways are discussed....

  17. (CH4)-C-14 Measurements in Greenland Ice: Investigating Last Glacial Termination CH4 Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko, V. V.; Smith, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    by direct cosmogenic C-14 production in ice. C-14 of CO was measured to better understand this process and correct the sample (CH4)-C-14. Corrected results suggest that wetland sources were likely responsible for the majority of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal CH4 rise.......The cause of a large increase of atmospheric methane concentration during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt climatic transition (similar to 11,600 years ago) has been the subject of much debate. The carbon-14 (C-14) content of methane ((CH4)-C-14) should distinguish between wetland and clathrate...... contributions to this increase. We present measurements of (CH4)-C-14 in glacial ice, targeting this transition, performed by using ice samples obtained from an ablation site in west Greenland. Measured (CH4)-C-14 values were higher than predicted under any scenario. Sample (CH4)-C-14 appears to be elevated...

  18. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Blass, W.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    Methyl Bromide, CH 3 Br, is the major organobromine species in the lower atmosphere and is a primary source of bromine in the stratosphere. It has a lifetime of 1.3 years. The IR methyl bromide spectra in the atmospheric window region, 7--13μ, was determined using a well tested Coriolis resonance and ell-doubling (and ell-resonance) computational system. A radiative forcing value of 0.00493 W/m 2 /ppbv was obtained for CH 3 Br and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 278 times the forcing of C0 2 , on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Br. The results give GWPs for CH 3 Br of the order of 13 for an integration period of 20 years and 4 for an integration period of 100 years (assuming C0 2 = 1, following IPCC [1994]). While CH 3 Br has a GWP which is approximately 25 percent of the GWP of CH 4 , the current emission rates are too low to cause serious atmospheric greenhouse heating effects at this time

  19. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43% in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39% in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  20. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  1. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  2. Cow urine, Indian yellow, and art forgeries: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory Dale

    2017-07-01

    In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer. To highlight the importance of the proper identification of dyes and colorants, the authentication and art historical implications of previous literature reports that have misidentified Indian yellow on historic documents are more thoroughly discussed here from a forensic science point of view. The numerous modern pigments that are sold as imitation Indian yellow are addressed and analyzed, allowing the ready noninvasive detection of anachronistic colorants in attempted forgeries. Finally, this unusual pigment is positively identified for the first time using non-invasive dispersive Raman microspectroscopy on a historic object of uncertain date, a highly decorative manuscript from the Indian subcontinent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contrast between the mechanisms for dissociative electron attachment to CH3SCN and CH3NCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.

    2018-05-01

    The kinetics of thermal electron attachment to methyl thiocyanate (CH3SCN), methyl isothiocyanate (CH3NCS), and ethyl thiocyanate (C2H5SCN) were measured using flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatuses at temperatures between 300 and 1000 K. CH3SCN and C2H5SCN undergo inefficient dissociative attachment to yield primarily SCN- at 300 K (k = 2 × 10-10 cm3 s-1), with increasing efficiency as temperature increases. The increase is well described by activation energies of 0.17 eV (CH3SCN) and 0.14 eV (C2H5SCN). CN- product is formed at product but at a rate at 300 K that is below our detection threshold (k differentiating the two mechanisms. The kinetic modeling reproduces the CH3NCS data only if dissociation through the transient anion is considered.

  4. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamrin, M Thoyib; Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosemeter has been carried out. Dose range used was between 0.1 to 3.0 kGy. Measurement of dose rate against Fricke dosemeter as a standard dose meter From the irradiation of Fricke dosemeter with time variation of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 minute, it was obtained average dose rate of 955.57 Gy/hour, linear equation of dose was Y= 2.333+15.776 X with its correlation factor r = 0.9999. Measurement result using yellow perspex show that correlation between net optical density and radiation dose was not linear with its equation was ODc exp. [Bo + In(dose).Bi] Value of Bo = -0.215 and Bi=0.5020. From the experiment it was suggested that routine dosimeter (yellow perspex) should be calibrated formerly against standard dosemeters

  6. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  7. Application of isostatic gravity anomaly in the Yellow Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Qin, J.; Huang, W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Yellow Sea area, we used the Airy-Heiskanen model to calculate the isostatic gravity anomaly of this area. Based on the Bouguer gravity anomaly and water depth data of this area, we chose the calculating parameters as standard crustal thickness 30 km, crust-mantle density difference 0.6g/cm3and grid spacing 0.1°×0.1°. This study reveals that there are six faults and four isostatic negative anomalies in the study area. The isostatic anomalies in much of Yellow Sea areas give priority to those with positive anomalies. The isostatic anomalies in North Yellow Sea are higher than South Yellow Sea with Jiashan-Xiangshui fault as the boundary. In the north of the study area, isostatic anomalies are characterized by large areas of positive anomaly. The change is relatively slow, and the trends give priority to the trend NE or NEE. In the middle of the north Yellow Sea basin, there is a local negative anomaly, arranged as a string of beads in NE to discontinuous distribution. Negative anomaly range is small, basically corresponds to the region's former Cenozoic sedimentary basin position. To the south of Jiashan-Xiangshui fault and west of Yellow Sea eastern margin fault, including most of the south Yellow Sea and Jiangsu province, the isostatic anomalies are lower. And the positive and negative anomalies are alternative distribution, and negative anomaly trap in extensive development. The trends give priority to NE, NEE, both to the NW. On the basis of the characteristics of isostatic gravity anomalies, it is concluded that the Yellow Sea belongs to continental crustal isostatic area whose isostatic anomalies is smooth and slow. ReferencesHeiskanen, W. A., F. A. V. Meinesz, and S. A. Korff (1958), The Earth and Its Gravity Field, McGraw-Hill, New York. Meng, X. J., X. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Yang (2014), Geophysical survey in eastern China seas and the characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields, Marine Geoglogy

  8. Is Red Heavier Than Yellow Even for Blind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilari, Marco; de Heering, Adélaïde; Crollen, Virginie; Collignon, Olivier; Bottini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do.

  9. Nuclear Hyperfine Structure in the Donor – Acceptor Complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH)33N-B(CH3)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The donor-acceptor complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH3)3N-B(CH3)3 have been reinvestigated at high resolution by rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic jet. Nuclear hyperfine structure resulting from both nitrogen and boron has been resolved and quadrupole coupling constants have bee...

  10. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mière, Arnaud; Ramage, Karim; Vermeulen, Anne; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters , intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between ICARE, IPSL and OMP data centers and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. ChArMEx data, either produced or used by the project, are documented and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The website offers the usual but user-friendly functionalities: data catalog, user registration procedure, search tool to select and access data... The metadata (data description) are standardized, and comply with international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assignement procedure allows to automatically register the datasets, in order to make them easier to access, cite, reuse and verify. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 120 datasets, including more than 80 in situ datasets (2012, 2013 and 2014 summer campaigns, background monitoring station of Ersa...), 25 model output sets (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios...), a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean... Many in situ datasets

  11. Identifikasi Pepper vein yellows virus yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Yellow Vein Banding pada Tanaman Mentimun di Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing vein banding disease has been reported infecting cucurbit plants in Bali since 2014. Similar vein banding symptom on chilli pepper was observed previously, and early diagnosis indicated infection of Polerovirus. The objective of this research was to confirm the presence of Polerovirus infection on cucumber plant showing yellow vein banding symptom in Bali. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction – based detection method was conducted using specific primer pairs PeVYV-CP-F-BamH1/ PeVYV-CP-R-Pst1followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis.  Specific DNA fragments of ± 650 bp was successfully amplified from field samples.  Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the sequence has the highest similarity > 95% with Pepper vein yellow virus (PeVYV infecting chili pepper from Indonesia (Bali, and Rembang, Japan, and Greece.

  12. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  13. THE J = 1-0 TRANSITIONS OF 12CH+, 13CH+, AND 12CD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    2010-01-01

    A new set of laboratory experimental frequencies for the J = 1-0 rotational transition of 12 CH + , 13 CH + , and 12 CD + are obtained by using a liquid nitrogen cooled extended negative glow discharge in a gas mixture of CH 4 and He. These frequencies are found to be significantly different from those reported previously. The unexpectedly large Zeeman effect and the spin-rotation hyperfine interaction for a 1 Σ molecule are observed. The Zeeman effect and the hyperfine interaction appear to be distinctively different for each isotopic species. Theoretical considerations reveal the isotopic dependence of the magnitudes of these effects, and they also provide strong evidence for the identifications.

  14. Ab Initio Chemical Kinetics for the CH3 + O((3)P) Reaction and Related Isomerization-Decomposition of CH3O and CH2OH Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z F; Raghunath, P; Lin, M C

    2015-07-16

    The kinetics and mechanism of the CH3 + O reaction and related isomerization-decomposition of CH3O and CH2OH radicals have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital theory based on the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD/aug-cc-pVTZ, CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ, and G2M//B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) levels of theory. The predicted potential energy surface of the CH3 + O reaction shows that the CHO + H2 products can be directly generated from CH3O by the TS3 → LM1 → TS7 → LM2 → TS4 path, in which both LM1 and LM2 are very loose and TS7 is roaming-like. The result for the CH2O + H reaction shows that there are three low-energy barrier processes including CH2O + H → CHO + H2 via H-abstraction and CH2O + H → CH2OH and CH2O + H → CH3O by addition reactions. The predicted enthalpies of formation of the CH2OH and CH3O radicals at 0 K are in good agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, the rate constants for the forward and some key reverse reactions have been predicted at 200-3000 K under various pressures. Based on the new reaction pathway for CH3 + O, the rate constants for the CH2O + H and CHO + H2 reactions were predicted with the microcanonical variational transition-state/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (VTST/RRKM) theory. The predicted total and individual product branching ratios (i.e., CO versus CH2O) are in good agreement with experimental data. The rate constant for the hydrogen abstraction reaction of CH2O + H has been calculated by the canonical variational transition-state theory with quantum tunneling and small-curvature corrections to be k(CH2O + H → CHO + H2) = 2.28 × 10(-19) T(2.65) exp(-766.5/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the 200-3000 K temperature range. The rate constants for the addition giving CH3O and CH2OH and the decomposition of the two radicals have been calculated by the microcanonical RRKM theory with the time-dependent master equation solution of the multiple quantum well system in the 200-3000 K temperature range at 1 Torr to

  15. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  16. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  17. Genetic differentiation in Japanese flounder in the Yellow Sea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population structure of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow and East China Seas were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. A total of 390 reproducible bands were generated by 10 AFLP primer combinations in ...

  18. Amniogenesis in the African yellow bat, Scotophilus dinganii | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African yellow house bat, Scotophilus dinganii, was found to be seasonally monestrus, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns of the bicornuate uterus. Implantation was superficial, with amniogenesis initiated early during embryogenesis. The amnion in S. dinganii was a schizamnion, and it is deduced ...

  19. A review of United States yellow cake precipitation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, J.E.; Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The various process flowsheets used to produce concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. The choices of flowsheets are affected by ore alkalinity, uranium mineralization, and the impurities solubilized during leaching. The techniques used to precipitate yellow cake from concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. Consideration is given to precipitation chemistry, reagent requirements, and process equipment and costs for precipitation, dewatering, drying and calcining. (author)

  20. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  1. How Brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.

  2. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  3. Facing up to re-emergence of urban yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    1999-05-08

    Transmitted from person to person by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever was eliminated in the first half of this century, with the eradication of its mosquito vector from most of South America. However, reinfestation began in the 1970s is now almost complete, and vector control is considerably more difficult now than before. The threat of urban yellow fever is greatest in towns such as Santa Cruz, Bolivia, near the forest, but improved transport links increase the likelihood of spread by viremic people to nonendemic areas. Van der Stuyft et al. have reported the first instance of urban transmission of yellow fever in the Americas in 44 years. Since residents of the densely populated cities and much visited areas in coastal South America have never been vaccinated, an outbreak there would facilitate widespread dissemination of the disease, even to other continents. While urban yellow fever is a significant threat, carrying a case-fatality rate of about 20%, the constrained dynamics of transmission, early recognition of the striking clinical presentation, and efforts to control the infection should limit the impact of the disease. Laboratory-based surveillance, together with the prevention and control strategies outlined by van der Stuyft et al. are the key defensive measures against the future threat of urban epidemics.

  4. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will scale up improved yellow potato varieties that -yield 15% more than other varieties -are ... -have nearly 20% more iron and zinc than the most cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these ...

  5. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  6. Predicting Driver Behavior during the Yellow Interval Using Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a signalized intersection, drivers must make a stop/go decision at the onset of the yellow signal. Incorrect decisions would lead to red light running (RLR violations or crashes. This study aims to predict drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations during yellow intervals. Traffic data such as vehicle approaching speed, acceleration, distance to the intersection, and occurrence of RLR violations are gathered by a Vehicle Data Collection System (VDCS. An enhanced Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM is used to extract moving vehicles from target lanes, and the Kalman Filter (KF algorithm is utilized to acquire vehicle trajectories. The data collected from the VDCS are further analyzed by a sequential logit model, and the relationship between drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations is identified. The results indicate that the distance of vehicles to the stop line at the onset of the yellow signal is an important predictor for both drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations. In addition, vehicle approaching speed is a contributing factor for stop/go decisions. Furthermore, the accelerations of vehicles after the onset of the yellow signal are positively related to RLR violations. The findings of this study can be used to predict the probability of drivers’ RLR violations and improve traffic safety at signalized intersections.

  7. Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Yellow Ribbon Program and the student maintains satisfactory progress, conduct, and attendance according...) Based on student status (i.e. , undergraduate, graduate, doctoral), or (ii) For each subelement of the institution (i.e., college or professional school). The maximum amount specified for each subelement of the...

  9. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1977-01-01

    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  10. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  11. Fish protein fingerprint in whole muscle samples of yellow perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies have shown the impact of environmental and/or genetic factors on the growth and development of various fish species. However, the role of genes supporting the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for fish was to compare whole muscle proteomic profiles of large versus small growth yellow perch ...

  12. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules.

  13. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  14. Invisible Connections : Why Migrating Shorebirds Need the Yellow Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kam, Jan; Battley, Phil; McCaffery, Brian; Rogers, Danny; Hong, Jae-Sang; Moores, Nial; Yong-ki, Yu; Lewis, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Each year, invisible to the naked eye, millions of migrating shorebirds fly from Australasia towards the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea bordering China and Korea. Each flock is made up of individuals using whatever strategies they can muster to endure the flights, weather the storms and find safe

  15. Two barley yellow dwarf luteovirus serotypes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) serotypes PAV and RPV were identified from irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples from three provinces of Zambia by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Nine wheat cultivars were surveyed in 11 wheat ...

  16. breeding Red-and-yellow Barbets Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Table 1), but it was not possible to ascertain whether it was always the exact same pair breeding. Table 1. Breeding activity of Red-and-yellow Barbets from a single nest in south- eastern Sudan in 2005. Date. Brood No. Nesting activity. Fledging date. No. of Fledglings. Observed post-fledging. 11 Feb. 1 feeding young.

  17. Initial photoinduced dynamics of the photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Grondelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is the photoreceptor protein responsible for initiating the blue-light repellent response of the Halorhodospira halophila bacterium. Optical excitation of the intrinsic chromophore in PYP, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises

  18. Biology and biological control of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Wilson; Sharlene E. Sing; Gary L. Piper; Richard W. Hansen; Rosemarie De Clerck-Floate; Daniel K. MacKinnon; Carol Bell Randall

    2005-01-01

    Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) P. Mill. ssp. dalmatica (Fig. 1a), and yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (L.) P. Mill. (Fig. 1b), are exotic [see Glossary] weeds of rangeland, forests and cropland. Although several species of weedy toadflax have been intentionally or accidentally introduced to North America, these two species are by far the most common and...

  19. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  20. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  1. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  2. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the flood and sediment transport capacity of a river channel. It is based on the ...... Eng. 39 680–687 (in Chinese). Wu B S and Zhang Y F 2007 Law of along-course chang- ... load in the Lower Yellow River; Geomorphology 100(3–4). 366–376.

  3. Proline 68 enhances photoisomerization yield in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  4. Proline 68 Enhances Photoisomerization Yield in Photoactive Yellow Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  5. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184.1973 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  7. Chôra : Creation and Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2009-01-01

    Plato's dialogue the Timaeus describes not only the making of the cosmos (order), but also the condition of what is not order, neither for the human body nor for the universe. What is disorder in cosmogonic terms it is disease for the human body. Timaeus applies to the concept chôra in discussing...

  8. Tropospheric radiative forcing of CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-04-01

    We have evaluated the tropospheric radiative forcing of CH 4 in the 0-3000 cm -1 wavenumber range and compared this with prior published calculations. The atmospheric test cases involved perturbed methane scenarios in both a McClatchey mid latitude, summer, clear sky approximation, model atmosphere, as well as a globally and seasonally averaged model atmosphere containing a representative cloud distribution. The scenarios involved pure CH 4 radiative forcing and CH 4 plus a mixture of H 2 O, CO 2 , O 3 , and N 2 O. The IR radiative forcing was calculated using a correlated k-distribution transmission model. The major purposes of this paper are to first, use the correlated k-distribution model to calculate the tropospheric radiative forcing for CH 4 , as the only radiatively active gas, and in a mixture with H 2 O, CO 2 , O 3 , and N 2 O, for a McClatchey mid-latitude summer, clear-sky model atmosphere, and to compare the results to those obtained in the studies mentioned above. Second, we will calculate the tropospheric methane forcing in a globally and annually averaged atmosphere with and without a representative cloud distribution in order to validate the conjecture given in IPCC (1990) that the inclusion of clouds in the forcing calculations results in forcing values which are approximately 20 percent less than those obtained using clear sky approximations

  9. Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, K.-J.; Demore, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br have been measured by a relative rate technique in which the reaction rate of each compound was compared to that of HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) and (for CH2Cl2) HFC-161 (CH3CH2F). Using absolute rate constants for HFC-152a and HFC-161, which we have determined relative to those for CH4, CH3CCl3, and C2H6, temperature dependent rate constants of both compounds were derived. The derived rate constant for CH3Br is in good agreement with recent absolute measurements. However, for the chloromethanes all the rate constants are lower at atmospheric temperatures than previously reported, especially for CH2Cl2 where the present rate constant is about a factor of 1.6 below the JPL 92-20 value. The new rate constant appears to resolve a discrepancy between the observed atmospheric concentrations and those calculated from the previous rate constant and estimated release rates.

  10. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  11. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  12. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and falls within the scope of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - Forms to document observations or products that will be provided to the database in compliance with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - A search tool to browse the catalogue using thematic, geographic and/or temporal criteria. - Sorted lists of the datasets by thematic keywords, by measured parameters, by instruments or by platform type. - A shopping-cart web interface to order in situ data files. At present datasets from the background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica and from the 2012 ChArMEx pre-campaign are available. - A user-friendly access to satellite products

  13. Definice vnitřních zisků jako okrajových podmínek pro energetickou simulaci administrativních budov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duska, M; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Clánek zduraznuje význam volby vhodných okrajových podmínek pro správnost energetických simulacních výpoctu. Okrajové podmínky musí být vázány na úcel, pro který se simulacní výpocty provádí. Je predložen teoretický rozbor, metodologie a výsledky výpoctu ruzných okrajových podmínek stanovených z

  14. Yellow nail syndrome – report of a rare disorder | Ikuabe | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Yellow Nail Syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by the trail of yellow and thickened nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestation. We have no record of any case report of yellow nail syndrome in our setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of an 80 year old woman ...

  15. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  16. 29-34 Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rust pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines ...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... listing the color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine. The label shall bear a statement such as “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine).” The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling...

  18. Budoucnost benzinových dvoutaktních motorů

    OpenAIRE

    Kříž, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Práce se zabývá historickým vývojem dvoudobých benzínových motorů od samých počátků vzniku dvoudobého cyklu, mapuje technologický vývoj těchto motorů až do dnešní doby, kde je v druhé polovině pozornost věnována přímému srovnání motoru dvoudobého se čtyřdobým v oblasti ultralightových letounů. My thesis deals with the historical development of two-stroke petrol engines from the very establishment of a two-stroke cycle, mapping the technological development of these engines up to present da...

  19. Submillimeter laboratory identification of CH{sup +} and CH{sub 2}D{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, T. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Laboratory identification of two basic and important interstellar molecular ions is presented. The J = 1 - 0 rotational transition of {sup 12}CH{sup +} together with those of {sup 13}CH{sup +} and {sup 12}CD{sup +} was observed in the laboratory. The newly obtained frequencies were found to be different from those reported previously. Various experimental evidences firmly support the new measurements. In addition, the Zeeman effect and the spin-rotation hyperfine interaction enforce the laboratory identification with no ambiguity. Rotational lines of CH{sub 2}D{sup +} were observed in the submillimeter-wave region. This laboratory observation is consistent with a recent tentative identification of CH{sub 2}D{sup +} toward Ori IRc2.

  20. Ion yields of laser aligned CH3I and CH3Br from multiple orbitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Lanhai; Pan, Yun; Yang, Yujun; Luo, Sizuo; Lu, Chunjing; Zhao, Huifang; Li, Dongxu; Song, Lele; Stolte, Steven; Ding, Dajun; Roeterdink, Wim G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the alignment influence on ion yields of CH3I and CH3Br molecules in the laser intensity regime from 1013 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2. The hexapole state-selection technique combined with laser induced alignment has been employed to obtain aligned (〈P2(cosθ)〉=0.7) and anti-aligned

  1. Corona discharge experiments in admixtures of N2 and CH4: a laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G; Skalny, J D; Klas, M; Zahoran, M; Mason, N J; Vladoiu, R; Manole, M

    2009-01-01

    A positive corona discharge fed by a N 2 : CH 4 mixture (98 : 2) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature has been studied as a laboratory mimic of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. In situ measurements of UV and IR transmission spectra within the discharge have shown that the main chemical product is C 2 H 2 , produced by dissociation of CH 4 , with small but significant traces of ethane and HCN, all species that have been detected in Titan's atmosphere. A small amount (0.2%) of CH 4 was decomposed after 12 min of treatment requiring an average energy of 2.7 kWh g -1 . After 14 min the discharge was terminated due to the formation of a solid yellow deposit on the central wire electrode. Such a deposit is similar to that observed in other discharges and is believed to be an analogue of the aerosol and dust observed in Titan's atmosphere and is composed of chemical species commonly known as 'tholins'. We have also explored the electrical properties of the discharge. The admixture of methane into nitrogen caused an increase in the onset voltage of the discharge and consequently led to a reduction in the measured discharge current.

  2. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  3. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were no adverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. More research is needed on possible adverse effects of concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate to determine the potential of this method for more frequent use.

  4. LUCIFER - a Monte Carlo for high-pperpendicularto photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman, G.; Weigend, A.

    1987-01-01

    For high-p perpendicular to interactions, perturbatively calculated matrix elements for the QED and QCD Compton processes, the photon-gluon fusion process and prompt meson production through the higher twist mechanism are used. Low-p perpendicular to events are treated as ρ 0 -nucleon interactions using a simple VDM approach. The Lund string model is used for the fragmentation of colour charged partons into final state hadrons such that complete events are simulated which facilitates easy comparison with any experimental observable. (orig)

  5. Impact of genome assembly status on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET can potentially be used with any genome for genome wide profiling of protein-DNA interaction sites. Unfortunately, it is probable that most genome assemblies will never reach the quality of the human genome assembly. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET are practicable with genome sequences other than a few (e.g. human and mouse. Findings Here, we used in silico simulations to assess the impact of completeness or fragmentation of genome assemblies on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping. Conclusions Most currently published genome assemblies are suitable for mapping the short sequence tags produced by ChIP-Seq or ChIP-PET.

  6. Stanovení platinových kovů ve velkých městských aglomeracích

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Cílem této diplomové práce je vypracování aktuální literární rešerše, týkající se problematiky platinových kovů v životním prostředí, stanovení platiny a palladia na území městské částí Brno a Moskva. Zahrnuje chemické a fyzikální vlastnosti, výskyt a koloběh platinových v životním prostředí. Obsahuje také použité metody extrakce a stanovení platiny a palladia. The aim of this thesis is the actual elaboration literature search concerning the issue of platinum group metals in the environmen...

  7. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  8. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P

    2015-12-01

    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  10. Activitie of polyphenoloxidase in yellow and purple onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeliton Alves Calado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the onion may limit the shelf life of the bulbs, mainly by the biochemical transformations. The objective of this work is to determine and compare polyphenoloxidase activity (PPO in yellow and purple onions and their functional body. The raw material was purchased in the local market , where they were transported to the Food Analysis Laboratory of the, Center for Agro-Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal, being selected, cleaned, sorted, peeled processed and carried out chemical and physico- chemical analysis and determination of the enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO. The statistical design was completely randomized with two treatments (purple and yellow onion with six repetitions. The purple onion presented levels of soluble solids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, more significant than the white onion. Both onions showed enzymatic activity, without significant differences.

  11. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  12. The CH/π hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.

    2012-06-01

    The CH/π hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base π-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/π hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in α-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/π hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/π hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

  13. Designing Yellow Intervals for Rainy and Wet Roadway Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper quantifies and models the impact of wet pavement surface and rainy weather conditions on driver perception-reaction times (PRTs, deceleration levels, and traffic signal change interval durations. A total of 648 stop-run records were collected as part of the research effort for a 72 km/h (45 mi/h approach speed where participant drivers encountered a yellow indication initiation at different distances from the intersection. The participant drivers were randomly selected in different age groups (under 40 years old, 40 to 59 years old, and 60 years of age or older and genders (female and male. Using the gathered data, statistical models for driver PRT and deceleration levels were developed, considering roadway surface and environmental parameters, driver attributes (age and gender, roadway grade, approaching speed, and time and distance to the intersection at the onset of yellow. Inclement weather yellow timings were then developed and summarized in lookup tables as a function of different factors (driver age/gender, roadway grade, speed limit, precipitation level, and roadway surface condition to provide practical guidelines for the design of yellow signal timings in wet and rainy weather conditions. The results indicate that wet roadway surface conditions require a 5 percent increase in the change interval and that rainy conditions require a 10 percent or more increase in the duration of the change interval. These recommended change durations can also be integrated within the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII initiative to provide customizable driver warnings prior to a transition to a red indication.

  14. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and r...

  15. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  17. Computing energy levels of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F with a direct product basis and coordinates based on the methyl subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H.; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH3. Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable vibrational basis is used to build a Hamiltonian matrix. Ro-vibrational energies are computed using a re-started Arnoldi eigensolver. In the second approach, the coordinates are the spherical coordinates associated with four Radau vectors or three Radau vectors and a Jacobi vector, and the frame is an Eckart frame. Vibrational basis functions are products of contracted stretch and bend functions, and eigenvalues are computed with the Lanczos algorithm. For CH4, CHD3, and CH3D, we report the first J > 0 energy levels computed on the Wang-Carrington potential energy surface [X.-G. Wang and T. Carrington, J. Chem. Phys. 141(15), 154106 (2014)]. For CH3F, the potential energy surface of Zhao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 204302 (2016)] was used. All the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Impact of artefact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Samuel Carroll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium’s large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  19. Computing energy levels of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F with a direct product basis and coordinates based on the methyl subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-02-21

    Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH 4 , CHD 3 , CH 3 D, and CH 3 F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH 3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH 3 . Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH 3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable vibrational basis is used to build a Hamiltonian matrix. Ro-vibrational energies are computed using a re-started Arnoldi eigensolver. In the second approach, the coordinates are the spherical coordinates associated with four Radau vectors or three Radau vectors and a Jacobi vector, and the frame is an Eckart frame. Vibrational basis functions are products of contracted stretch and bend functions, and eigenvalues are computed with the Lanczos algorithm. For CH 4 , CHD 3 , and CH 3 D, we report the first J > 0 energy levels computed on the Wang-Carrington potential energy surface [X.-G. Wang and T. Carrington, J. Chem. Phys. 141(15), 154106 (2014)]. For CH 3 F, the potential energy surface of Zhao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 204302 (2016)] was used. All the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Conformational and spectroscopic study of xanthogen ethyl formates, ROC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3. Isolation of CH3CH2OC(O)SH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncal, Luciana C.; Cozzarín, Melina V.; Romano, Rosana M.

    2015-03-01

    ROC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3, with R = CH3sbnd , (CH3)2CHsbnd and CH3(CH2)2sbnd , were obtained through the reaction between potassium xanthate salts, ROC(S)SK, and ethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CH3. The liquid compounds were identified and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The conformations adopted by the molecules were studied by DFT methods. 6 conformers were theoretically predicted for R = CH3sbnd and (CH3)2CHsbnd , while the conformational flexibility of the n-propyl substituent increases the total number of feasible rotamers to 21. For the three molecules, the conformers can be associated in 3 groups, being the most stable the AS forms - the Cdbnd S double bond anti (A) with respect to the Csbnd S single bond and the Ssbnd C single bond syn (S) with respect to the Cdbnd O double bond - followed by AA and SS conformers. The vibrational spectra were interpreted in terms of the predicted conformational equilibrium, presenting the ν(Cdbnd O) spectral region signals corresponding to the three groups of conformers. A moderated pre-resonance Raman enhancement of the ν(Cdbnd S) vibrational mode of CH3(CH2)2OC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3 was detected, when the excitation radiation approaches the energy of a n → π∗ electronic transition associated with the Cdbnd S chromophore. UV-visible spectra in different solvents were measured and interpreted in terms of TD-DFT calculations. The unknown molecule CH3CH2OC(O)SH was isolated by the UV-visible photolysis of CH3OC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3 isolated in Ar matrix, and also obtained as a side-product of the reaction between potassium xanthate salts, ROC(S)SK, and ethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CH3.

  1. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. The phylogeny of yellow fever virus 17D vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Boschetti, Nicola; Herzog, Christian; Appelhans, Marc S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    In recent years the safety of the yellow fever live vaccine 17D came under scrutiny. The focus was on serious adverse events after vaccinations that resemble a wild type infection with yellow fever and whose reasons are still not known. Also the exact mechanism of attenuation of the vaccine remains unknown to this day. In this context, the standards of safety and surveillance in vaccine production and administration have been discussed. Therein embodied was the demand for improved documentation of the derivation of the seed virus used for yellow fever vaccine production. So far, there was just a historical genealogy available that is based on source area and passage level. However, there is a need for a documentation based on molecular information to get better insights into the mechanisms of pathology. In this work we sequenced the whole genome of different passages of the YFV-17D strain used by Crucell Switzerland AG for vaccine production. Using all other publically available 17D full genome sequences we compared the sequence variance of all vaccine strains and oppose a phylogenetic tree based on full genome sequences to the historical genealogy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  4. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  5. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  6. Narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ewald Rosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the paediatric age-group probably linked to the use of the Pandremix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can ‘trigger’ narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population.Here we describe the case of a 13 year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow-fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Polysomnography showed rapid sleep onset with rapid eye movement (REM latency of 47 minutes, significant sleep fragmentation and a mean sleep latency of 1.6 minutes with sleep onset REM in 4 out of 4 nap periods. Together with the clinical history, these findings are diagnostic of narcolepsy type 1. The envelope protein E of the yellow fever vaccine strain 17D has significant amino acid sequence overlap with both hypocretin and the hypocretin receptor 2 receptors in protein regions that are predicted to act as epitopes for antibody production. These findings raise the question whether the yellow fever vaccine strain may, through a potential molecular mimicry mechanism, be another infectious trigger for this neuro-immunological disorder.

  7. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycosylated yellow laccases of the basidiomycete Stropharia aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroch, Maurycy; Houghton, Catharine A; Moore, Jonathan K; Wilkinson, Mark C; Carnell, Andrew J; Bates, Andrew D; Iwanejko, Lesley A

    2014-05-10

    Here we describe the identification, purification and characterisation of glycosylated yellow laccase proteins from the basidiomycete fungus Stropharia aeruginosa. Biochemical characterisation of two yellow laccases, Yel1p and Yel3p, show that they are both secreted, monomeric, N-glycosylated proteins of molecular weight around 55kDa with substrate specificities typical of laccases, but lacking the absorption band at 612nm typical of the blue laccase proteins. Low coverage, high throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing in combination with inverse-PCR was used to identify cDNA sequences. One of the cDNA sequences has been assigned to the Yel1p protein on the basis of identity between the translated protein sequence and the peptide data from the purified protein, and the full length gene sequence has been obtained. Biochemical properties, substrate specificities and protein sequence data have been used to discuss the unusual spectroscopic properties of S. aeruginosa proteins in the context of recent theories about the differences between yellow and blue laccases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Helene; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 75 datasets, including 50 in situ datasets (2012 and 2013 campaigns, Ersa background monitoring station), 25 model outputs (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios), and a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean. Many in situ datasets have been inserted in a relational database, in order to enable more accurate data selection and download of different datasets in a shared format. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - A data catalogue that complies with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - Metadata forms to document

  10. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  11. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  12. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Gomez T, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive

  13. Diagnostika bariérových vlastností tenkých vrstev

    OpenAIRE

    Horák, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřena na charakterizaci vlastností tenkých SiOx vrstev připravených metodou plazmochemické depozice z plynné fáze (PECVD). Vrstvy byly charakterizovány s ohledem na budoucí možné použití pro ochranu muzejních archiválií proti korozi. Jako výchozí látka pro depozici byl použit kapalný hexamethyldisiloxan a testovacím substrátem pro charakterizaci vlastností vrstev byly polypropylénové fólie a křemíkové substráty. Pro korozní zkoušky pak byly zvoleny kovové plechy. P...

  14. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, sub -0.47 ) x 10(exp 13) e(-15813 +/- 587 K/T)/cubic cm.mol.s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  15. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3+O2+CH3O+O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, -0.47)) X 10(exp 13) exp(- 15813 +/- 587 K/T)cc/mol s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  16. Molecular and Ultrastructural Mechanisms Underlying Yellow Dwarf Symptom Formation in Wheat after Infection of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Wang, Xindong; Wang, Xifeng; Massart, Sebastien; Zhang, Zengyan

    2018-04-13

    Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection. TEM images indicated that chloroplasts in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601 leaf cells were fragmentized. Where thylakoids were not well developed, starch granules and plastoglobules were rare. Compared with mock-inoculated Zhong8601, chlorophyll content was markedly reduced, but the virus and H₂O₂ contents were significantly higher in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. The transcriptomic analyses revealed that chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast related transcripts, encoding chlorophyll a/b binding protein, glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator 2, and glutamyl-tRNA reductase 1, were down-regulated in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. Some phytohormone signaling-related transcripts, including abscisic acid (ABA) signaling factors (phospholipase D alpha 1 and calcineurin B-like protein 9) and nine ethylene response factors, were up-regulated. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes were transcriptionally regulated in BYDV-GAV infected Zhong8601, including three up-regulated transcripts encoding germin-like proteins (promoting ROS accumulation) and four down-regulated transcripts encoding peroxides (scavenging ROS). These results clearly suggest that the yellow dwarf symptom formation is mainly attributed to reduced chlorophyll content and fragmentized chloroplasts caused by down-regulation of the chlorophyll and chloroplast biosynthesis

  17. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (pmealworm were higher than those of the control (pmealworm concentrations (pmealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  18. Multiple yellow plaques assessed by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Shigenobu; Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Waxman, Sergio; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Seimiya, Koji; Takano, Masamichi; Uemura, Ryota; Sano, Junko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2008-03-01

    Multiple angioscopic yellow plaques are associated with diffuse atherosclerotic plaque, and may be prevalent in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), so in the present study the yellow plaques in the coronary arteries of patients with MI was evaluated using quantitative colorimetry, and compared with those of patients with stable angina (SA). In the recorded angioscopic images of 3 coronary vessels in 29 patients (15 patients with MI, 14 with SA), yellow plaques were determined as visually yellow regions with b* value >0 (yellow color intensity) measured by the quantitative colorimetric method. A total of 90 yellow plaques were identified (b* =19.35+/-8.3, 3.05-45.35). Yellow plaques were significantly more prevalent in 14 (93%) of 15 culprit lesions of MI as compared with 8 (57%) of 14 of SA (p=0.03). In non-culprit segments, yellow plaques were similarly prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI and 11 (79%) with SA (p=0.65). Overall, multiple (> or =2) yellow plaques were prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI, similar to the 10 (71%) with SA (p=0.38). The number of yellow plaques was significantly higher in patients with MI (3.8+/-1.9) than in those with SA (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.03). The present study suggests that patients with MI tend to have diffuse atherosclerotic plaque in their coronary arteries.

  19. Influence of Background Genome on Enzymatic Characteristics of Yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George L.; Pitot, Henry C.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.—Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended on the background genome.—The ratio of malic enzyme activity to citrate-cleavage enzyme activity, possibly related to the altered fat metabolism of yellow mice, was influenced by background genome as well as by the yellow genotype.——Significant deviations of enzyme activities from mid-parent values among F1 hybrids were associated with particular background genomes; the number of such deviations was larger among yellow mice than among non-yellows and this difference was greater among C3H F1 hybrids than among C57BL/6 F1 hybrids. PMID:4405752

  20. Bimolecular reaction of CH3 + CO in solid p-H2: Infrared absorption of acetyl radical (CH3CO) and CH3-CO complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2014-06-01

    We have recorded infrared spectra of acetyl radical (CH3CO) and CH3-CO complex in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2). Upon irradiation at 248 nm of CH3C(O)Cl/p-H2 matrices, CH3CO was identified as the major product; characteristic intense IR absorption features at 2990.3 (ν9), 2989.1 (ν1), 2915.6 (ν2), 1880.5 (ν3), 1419.9 (ν10), 1323.2 (ν5), 836.6 (ν7), and 468.1 (ν8) cm-1 were observed. When CD3C(O)Cl was used, lines of CD3CO at 2246.2 (ν9), 2244.0 (ν1), 1866.1 (ν3), 1046.7 (ν5), 1029.7 (ν4), 1027.5 (ν10), 889.1 (ν6), and 723.8 (ν7) cm-1 appeared. Previous studies characterized only three vibrational modes of CH3CO and one mode of CD3CO in solid Ar. In contrast, upon photolysis of a CH3I/CO/p-H2 matrix with light at 248 nm and subsequent annealing at 5.1 K before re-cooling to 3.2 K, the CH3-CO complex was observed with characteristic IR features at 3165.7, 3164.5, 2150.1, 1397.6, 1396.4, and 613.0 cm-1. The assignments are based on photolytic behavior, observed deuterium isotopic shifts, and a comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative IR intensities with those predicted with quantum-chemical calculations. This work clearly indicates that CH3CO can be readily produced from photolysis of CH3C(O)Cl because of the diminished cage effect in solid p-H2 but not from the reaction of CH3 + CO because of the reaction barrier. Even though CH3 has nascent kinetic energy greater than 87 kJ mol-1 and internal energy ˜42 kJ mol-1 upon photodissociation of CH3I at 248 nm, its energy was rapidly quenched so that it was unable to overcome the barrier height of ˜27 kJ mol-1 for the formation of CH3CO from the CH3 + CO reaction; a barrierless channel for formation of a CH3-CO complex was observed instead. This rapid quenching poses a limitation in production of free radicals via bimolecular reactions in p-H2.

  1. Red-yellow electroluminescence, yellow-green photoluminescence of novel N, O donor ligands-chelated zirconium (IV) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem, E-mail: shahroos@znu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasouti, Fahimeh [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, eight new zirconium complexes with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}btec), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen), were prepared and used as light emitting material in fabricated OLEDs. The structures of these complexes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H-NMR, CHN and ICP-AES. A yellow-green photoluminescence (PL) emission with a red shift compared to the PVK:PBD blend was observed. Devices with Zr complexes with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:PBD/zirconium complex/Al emitted a yellow-red light originating from the Zr complexes. We believe that electroplex occurring at PVK-Zr complex interface is responsible for the red emission in the EL of the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel photoluminescence zirconium (IV) complexes with hole transport ligands are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yellow-green photoluminescence emission is shown red shift rather than PVK:PBD blend. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the emission properties of OLED devices is explored by adding of {pi}-extended ligands such as Bphen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer El spectra are shown a red shift of the emission bands in respond to the addition of {Pi}-conjugated ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroplex emission at PVK-Zr complex is proposed.

  2. Atividade das glicosidases na presença de chá verde e de chá preto

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,L.L.S.; Souza,S.P.; Silva,M.C; Carvalho,G.A.; Santos,C.D.; Corrêa,A.D.; Abreu,C.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Várias plantas têm sido consideradas produtos terapêuticos, dentre elas destacam-se os chás verde e preto, popularmente utilizados para controle da hiperglicemia e obesidade. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o potencial inibitório sobre as enzimas α-amilase, α e β-glicosidases e o teor de compostos fenólicos do chá verde e do chá preto. O teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados foram de 80,8 ± 0,43 mg g-1 no chá preto e 32,0 ± 0,12 mg g-1 no chá verde. O chá verde e o chá pr...

  3. Methane Provenance Determined by CH2D2 and 13CH3D Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, I. E.; Giunta, T.; Warr, O.; Ash, J. L.; Ruffine, L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the provenance of naturally occurring methane gases is of major interest to energy companies and atmospheric climate modelers, among others. Bulk isotopic compositions and other geochemical tracers sometimes fail to provide definitive determinations of sources of methane due to complications from mixing and complicated chemical pathways of origin. Recent measurements of doubly-substituted isotopologues of methane, CH2D2 (UCLA) and 13CH3D (UCLA, CalTech, and MIT) have allowed for major improvements in sourcing natural methane gases. Early work has focused on formation temperatures obtained when the relative abundances of both doubly-substituted mass-18 species are consistent with internal equilibrium. When methane gases do not plot on the thermodynamic equilibrium curve in D12CH2D2 vs D13CH3D space, temperatures determined from D13CH3D values alone are usually spurious, even when appearing reasonable. We find that the equilibrium case is actually rare and almost exclusive to thermogenic gases produced at temperatures exceeding 100°C. All other relevant methane production processes appear to generate gases that are not in isotopologue-temperature equilibrium. When gases show departures from equilibrium as determined by the relationship between CH2D2 and 13CH3D abundances, data fall within empirically defined fields representing formation pathways. These fields are thus far consistent between different geological settings and and between lab experiments and natural samples. We have now defined fields for thermogenic gas production, microbial methanogenesis, low temperature abiotic (Sabatier) synthesis and higher temperature FTT synthesis. The majority of our natural methane data can be explained by mixing between end members originating within these production fields. Mixing can appear complex, resulting in both hyper-clumped and anti-clumped isotopologue abundances. In systems where mixtures dominate and end-members are difficult to sample, mixing models

  4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of plant transcription factors followed by sequencing (ChIP-SEQ) or hybridization to whole genome arrays (ChIP-CHIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Muiño, J.M.; Østerås, M.; Farinelli, L.; Krajewski, P.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to study interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA in vivo. For genome-wide de novo discovery of TF-binding sites, the DNA that is obtained in ChIP experiments needs to be processed for sequence identification. The sequences

  5. Isotope effects in pericyclic reactions, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbier, W.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A distinction is made between primary and secondary isotope effects, the primary ones being based on the relative large vibrational frequencies and ensuing large zeroprint energies for C-H vibrations whereas the secondary effects are observed in systems where the vibrational modes of the isotopically labelled site are perturbed during transformation from reactant to product. Both effects are utilised in the elucidation of mechanism in pericyclic processes. The main processes dealt with in this chapter are cycloadditions of all types and sigmatropic rearrangements

  6. Výpočet rovnovážných stavů ve vysokolegovaných chromových ocelích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unucka, P.; Foret, R.; Svoboda, Milan; Kroupa, Aleš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 290 (2003), s. 223-227 ISSN 1429-6055. [Mezinárodní symposium /18./ Struktura a vlastnosti konstrukčních materiálů a výrobků. Svratka, 25.11.2003-27.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : thermodynamic calculation * high-Cr steels * phase precipitation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Reactive collisions between CH+ and O-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Padellec, A.; Staicu-Casagrande, E.M.; Nzeyimana, T.; Naji, E.A.; Urbain, X.

    2006-01-01

    Integral cross sections were measured for two reactions occurring in CH + +O - collisions: the formation of the carbon monoxide cation CO + via a reactive ionization process and the formation of the (iso)formyl cation HCO + (HOC + ) via the associative ionization process. Both carbon monoxide and formyl cations are present in the interstellar medium, the latter one being quite abundant in dense clouds. Provided the oxygen anion would also be present in the interstellar environment, the large efficiency of the two reactive processes reported here would justify their inclusion in astrochemical models. The whole set of data was obtained by means of a merged-beam setup operating with keV beams

  8. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  9. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parallel factor ChIP provides essential internal control for quantitative differential ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Michael J; Cullen, Amy E; Markowetz, Florian; Holding, Andrew N

    2018-04-17

    A key challenge in quantitative ChIP combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the normalization of data in the presence of genome-wide changes in occupancy. Analysis-based normalization methods were developed for transcriptomic data and these are dependent on the underlying assumption that total transcription does not change between conditions. For genome-wide changes in transcription factor (TF) binding, these assumptions do not hold true. The challenges in normalization are confounded by experimental variability during sample preparation, processing and recovery. We present a novel normalization strategy utilizing an internal standard of unchanged peaks for reference. Our method can be readily applied to monitor genome-wide changes by ChIP-seq that are otherwise lost or misrepresented through analytical normalization. We compare our approach to normalization by total read depth and two alternative methods that utilize external experimental controls to study TF binding. We successfully resolve the key challenges in quantitative ChIP-seq analysis and demonstrate its application by monitoring the loss of Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER) binding upon fulvestrant treatment, ER binding in response to estrodiol, ER mediated change in H4K12 acetylation and profiling ER binding in patient-derived xenographs. This is supported by an adaptable pipeline to normalize and quantify differential TF binding genome-wide and generate metrics for differential binding at individual sites.

  11. ANALÝZA OXIDAČNÍCH PRODUKTŮ VYBRANÝCH BIO FLAVONOIDŮ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Degano, I.; Ramešová, Šárka; Kocábová, Jana; Fiedler, Jan; Tarábek, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 170-170 ISSN 0009-2770. [Sjezd chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : antioxidants * bio flavoides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  13. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  14. Dengue-yellow fever sera cross-reactivity; challenges for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton-Triviño, Natalia; Montaña, Diana; Castellanos, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Objective The Flavivirus genera share epitopes inducing cross-reactive antibodies leading to great difficulty in differentially diagnosing flaviviral infections. This work was aimed at evaluating the complexity of dengue and yellow fever serological differential diagnosis. Material and methods Dengue antibody capture ELISA and a yellow fever neutralisation test were carried out on 13 serum samples obtained from yellow fever patients, 20 acute serum samples from dengue patients and 19 voluntan...

  15. Existing and potential infection risk zones of yellow fever worldwide: a modelling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Freya M; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Marinho, Fatima; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Fullman, Nancy; Ray, Sarah E; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Background: Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity t...

  16. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  17. [Culicidae insect fauna from rural zone in Amazonas State with incidence of sylvatic yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Md, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Flávio Augusto Andrade; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2003-01-01

    After the occurrence of 14 sylvatic yellow fever cases in 10 cities in the State of Amazonas during 1996, an investigation into the presence of sylvatic yellow fever vectors was carried out. The material of larvae and adult insects was collected around residences and canopy trees within forests, using a light trap (CDC) and human bait. A total of 424 insects was collected. Thirty seven species were identified, some of which were sylvatic yellow fever vectors: Haemagogus janthinomys, Ha. leucocelaenus, Aedes fulvus.

  18. Yellow pages advertising by physicians. Are doctors providing the information consumers want most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D D; Abernethy, A M

    1996-01-01

    Yellow pages listing are the most widely used form of physician advertising. Every month, approximately 21.6 million adults in the United States refer to the yellow pages before obtaining medical care. Mobile consumers--approximately 17% of the U.S. population who move each year--are heavy users of yellow pages. Consumers desire information on a physician's experience, but it is included in less than 1% of all physician display ads.

  19. Breeding of new variety Yangfumai 4 with high resistance to wheat yellow mosaic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease,new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  20. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T F; Lazuick, J S; Ngah, R W; Mafiamba, P C; Quincke, G; Monath, T P

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low.

  1. Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yong-Zhu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

  2. Gamma irradiation of yellow and blue colorants in polystyrene packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolprasert, V.; Diel, Todd; Sadler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 10- and 20-kGy gamma irradiation was studied on chromophtal yellow 2RLTS (Yellow 110-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachloro-6-cyanobenzoic acid) and Irgalite Blue GBP (copper (II) phthalocyanine blue) colorants, which were added to polystyrene (PS) material used to package food prior to irradiation. Analytical results obtained suggest that irradiation did not generate any new chemicals in the PS polymer containing either yellow or blue colorant at a concentration of up to 1% (w/w). Both yellow and blue colorants are relatively stable to gamma irradiation

  3. 'Yellow lens' eyes of a stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiya, H

    1982-07-22

    Bright yellow lenses were found in the eyes of the stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger Ayres. The optical properties of the yellow lens and the retinal specializations in the eyes were examined. Absorption spectra of the yellow lens revealed two peaks at wavelengths 425 and 460 nm. The photoreceptors were all rods and were arranged in two superimposed layers. An astaxanthin-type retinal tapetum was observed in the pigment epithelium. Some chemical evidence is presented showing that the tapetal material is an astaxanthin ester. The ecological significance of the yellow lens is discussed in connection with that of Malacosteus' orbital light organ which has a reddish filter.

  4. InChIKey collision resistance: an experimental testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletnev Igor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InChIKey is a 27-character compacted (hashed version of InChI which is intended for Internet and database searching/indexing and is based on an SHA-256 hash of the InChI character string. The first block of InChIKey encodes molecular skeleton while the second block represents various kinds of isomerism (stereo, tautomeric, etc.. InChIKey is designed to be a nearly unique substitute for the parent InChI. However, a single InChIKey may occasionally map to two or more InChI strings (collision. The appearance of collision itself does not compromise the signature as collision-free hashing is impossible; the only viable approach is to set and keep a reasonable level of collision resistance which is sufficient for typical applications. We tested, in computational experiments, how well the real-life InChIKey collision resistance corresponds to the theoretical estimates expected by design. For this purpose, we analyzed the statistical characteristics of InChIKey for datasets of variable size in comparison to the theoretical statistical frequencies. For the relatively short second block, an exhaustive direct testing was performed. We computed and compared to theory the numbers of collisions for the stereoisomers of Spongistatin I (using the whole set of 67,108,864 isomers and its subsets. For the longer first block, we generated, using custom-made software, InChIKeys for more than 3 × 1010 chemical structures. The statistical behavior of this block was tested by comparison of experimental and theoretical frequencies for the various four-letter sequences which may appear in the first block body. From the results of our computational experiments we conclude that the observed characteristics of InChIKey collision resistance are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  5. An inactivated cell-culture vaccine against yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Fowler, Elizabeth; Johnson, Casey T; Balser, John; Morin, Merribeth J; Sisti, Maggie; Trent, Dennis W

    2011-04-07

    Yellow fever is a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever occurring in Africa and South America. A highly effective live vaccine (17D) is widely used for travelers to and residents of areas in which yellow fever is endemic, but the vaccine can cause serious adverse events, including viscerotropic disease, which is associated with a high rate of death. A safer, nonreplicating vaccine is needed. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 study of 60 healthy subjects between 18 and 49 years of age, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of XRX-001 purified whole-virus, β-propiolactone-inactivated yellow fever vaccine produced in Vero cell cultures and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. On two visits 21 days apart, subjects received intramuscular injections of vaccine that contained 0.48 μg or 4.8 μg of antigen. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at baseline and on days 21, 31, and 42. The vaccine induced the development of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of subjects receiving 4.8 μg of antigen in each injection and in 88% of subjects receiving 0.48 μg of antigen in each injection. Antibody levels increased by day 10 after the second injection, at which time levels were significantly higher with the 4.8-μg formulation than with the 0.48-μg formulation (geometric mean titer, 146 vs. 39; Pvaccine groups than in the placebo group: mild pain, tenderness, and (much less frequently) itching at the injection site. One case of urticaria was observed on day 3 after the second dose of 4.8 μg of vaccine. A two-dose regimen of the XRX-001 vaccine, containing inactivated yellow fever antigen with an alum adjuvant, induced neutralizing antibodies in a high percentage of subjects. XRX-001 has the potential to be a safer alternative to live attenuated 17D vaccine. (Funded by Xcellerex; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00995865.).

  6. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  7. Crystallization Kinetics of Precipitating Calcium from Yellow Phosphorus Slag Lixivium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, G. -B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization dynamic parameters of calcium sulphate were determined in the course of the precipitation conversion process of calcium in lixivium. The crystallization dynamic equations of calcium sulphate were achieved by multiple linear regression. The study results indicate that CaSO4 · 2 H2O crystal nucleation-growth kinetics equation in nitric acid leaching liquid of yellow phosphorus slag at room temperature is expressed by B0 = 2.904 · 1011 · G0.83 · MT 0.167.

  8. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  9. Modification of Yellow River Sediment Based Stabilized Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the microstructure and performance of stabilized earth bricks prepared from the Yellow River sediment. The sediment is modified by inorganic cementitious material, polymer bonding agent, and jute fibre. The results show that the sediment is preliminarily consolidated when the mixture ratio of activated sediment/cementitious binder/sand is 65/25/10. Compressive strength and softening coefficient of stabilized earth bricks is further improved by polymer bonding agent and jute fibre. SEM images and EDS spectral analysis indicate that there is indeed synergy among inorganic hydration products, polymer network and jute fibre to strengthen the sediment.

  10. Parasitic mycobiota of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycopopulation of yellow gentian growing in plantations was studied in 2008 and 2009. Fourteen species of fungi were registered at seed, out of which five were pathogenic. The most common species was Alternaria alternata (72-74 %. Species of the genus Fusarium (F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. equiseti were present in a small percentage (2-6 %. These species, as well as F. verticillioides, were isolated from root, and Fusarium sp. was isolated from the flowers. Alternaria alternate, Epicoccum purpurescens, Phoma sp. and Alternaria sp. were regularly present on the leaves and stems.

  11. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  12. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  13. What Does the Future Hold for Yellow Fever Virus? (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Klitting

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Yellow fever virus had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s and vertebrate host(s. Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015–2016 and Brazil (since late 2016, reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions about the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at individual, local and global levels.

  14. Impact of yellow fever on the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, O

    1999-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) has remained a disease of public health importance since it was first described in the fifteenth century. At different periods in human history, YF has caused untold hardship and indescribable misery among populations in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. It brought economic disaster in its wake, constituting a stumbling block to development. Yellow fever is an arboviral infection with three epidemiological transmission cycles between monkeys, mosquitoes, and humans. It is an acute infectious disease characterized by sudden onset, with two phases of development separated by a short period of remission. The clinical spectrum of YF varies from a very mild, nonspecific, febrile illness to a fulminating, sometimes fatal disease with pathognomonic features. In severe cases, jaundice and bleeding diathesis with hepatorenal involvement are common. The fatality rate of severe YF is 50% or higher. Despite landmark achievements in the understanding of the epidemiology of YF and the availability of a safe, efficacious vaccine, YF remains a major public health problem in both Africa and South America, where annually the disease affects an estimated 200,000 persons, causing an estimated 30,000 deaths. Since the 1980s epidemics of YF in Africa have affected predominantly children under the age of 15 years. The failure to control YF arises from a misapplication of public health strategies and insufficient political commitment by governments in YF endemic areas, especially in Africa, to control the disease.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  16. Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.E.; Bano, R.; Zayed, M.E.; Elshikh, M.S.; Khan, M.H.; Chaudhry, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene's structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat. (author)

  17. Synthesis of new environment-friendly yellow pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    New inorganic pigments based on amorphous cerium tungstate, Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 (M = Zr or Ti, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), were synthesized and their color properties were characterized from the viewpoint of possible ecological inorganic pigments. The Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 materials absorb the visible and the ultraviolet light under 500 nm efficiently, which is originated in the O 2p -Ce 4f and the O 2p -W 5d double charge transfer transitions, and, as a result, the pigments can show a brilliant yellow color. The optical absorption edge wavelength of these pigments depends on the Zr or Ti content, and the effective yellow hue was observed at x = 0.2 for both pigments. The color properties of the present pigments suggest that they have a potential to be applied as a satisfactory pigment for paints. Furthermore, these pigments can be prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. They are inert and safe and do not produce side effects in the human body because they are composed of non-toxic and safe elements

  18. Evaluasi Mutu Bunga Potong Krisan Yellow Fiji Menggunakan Pengolahan Citra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic and export market of chrysanthemum cut-flower require a prime and consistent cuality. Meanwhile, manual grading system based on human vision resulting in quality inconsistentcy. The objective of this study was to develop computer program for quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chysanthemum cut-flower using image processing. The cut-flowers were classified into different quality standards (AA,A.B.C based on the steam length and straightness, and flower diameter. Then results indicated a strong relationship between quality parameters extracted from the image and those obtained from direct meaurement for grade AA,A,B and C with R2=0.98, R2=0.97, R2=0.97, and R2=0.98 respectively for length of stem. Also with R2=0.90, R2=0.87, R2=88, and R2=88 respectively for diamter of flower. The validation of the computer program for the quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chrysanthemum cut-flower performed a hight a ccuracy of 100% for AA grade, 90% for A grade, 85% for B grade, and 100% for C grade.

  19. Effect of low salinity on the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YBM. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the lethal salinity (LC50 for the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae and identify histopathological alterations that could be used to diagnose structural changes in clam tissue. Clams in two size classes (adults and juveniles were placed in 10 L chambers and exposed to salinities of 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 g/L. There were triplicate chambers with seven clams each for each salinity. The LC50 values for a 48 h exposure were 6.5 g/L and 5.7 g/L for adults and juveniles, respectively. For a 96 h exposure, the LC50 values were 10.5 g/L for adults and 8.8 g/L for juveniles. The histological examination of yellow clams exposed to 10 g/L for 96 h showed intercellular oedema and necrotic foci in the epithelium of the digestive gland and occlusion of the lumen of the digestive gland. In conclusion, M. mactroides can be characterised as a moderately euryhaline species, tolerating salinities from 35 to 15 g/L.

  20. Induced Mutation in Yellow Lotus by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puripunyavanich, Vichai; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2006-01-01

    Rhizomes of American yellow lotus were irradiated at eht dosed of 0, 10, 20 and 30 Gy, 10 rhizomes per treatment. They were planted in nursery pots. Unirradiated rhizomes gave out new shoots within 3-4 days. The survival rates of the 10, 20 and 30 Gy irradiated rhizomes at one month after transplanted were 80%, 30% and 10%, respectively. The radiation dose that resulted in a 50% death rate (LD 5 0) was approximately 17 Gy. The surviving plant lets were transplanted and grown in pots as the Agricultural Occupation Promotion and Development Center in Chiangmai and Chiangrai for three years. Normally, American yellow lotus does not flower in Thailand. However, a mutant was found to bear flower in Thailand. The mutant flower appeared a little different from the wild-type flower. The tip of its petals was more rounded than the pointy wild-type tip. The mutant will be propagated for clonal production or for use as a par net in breeding crosses with Thai white and pink lotuses

  1. The yellow cake accident at the Ezeiza Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1987 several drums containing yellow cake fell from about six meters during the loading operation of a Boeing 747 T-100 cargo aircraft. As a result of the accident, about 50% of the 38 drums involved lost their lids and a fraction of the radioactive content was released on an area of about 200 meters squared. Small amounts of yellow cake were dispersed down wind until about 100 meters from the accident place. The shipment was prepared for transport in standard 200 liter steel drums fulfilling the applicable Transport Regulations and the accident was the consequence of an erroneous operation during the cargo associated with a mechanical failure of the cargo lift. In order to avoid human contamination, immediate action was taken by the airport emergency team and in the meantime, the specialized groups of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Fire Brigades, were convened to take care of the decontamination and radiological evaluation problems. This paper describes the accidental sequences, the accident scenery, the countermeasures taken, the recovery and decontamination actions, and finally, as a conclusion, a brief description of the toxic and radiological aspects of the accident's mode

  2. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  3. International travel between global urban centres vulnerable to yellow fever transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Shannon E; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Hay, Simon I; Creatore, Maria I; Khan, Kamran

    2018-05-01

    To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world. We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable for viral transmission. Using a global ecological model of dengue virus transmission, we predicted the suitability of cities in non-endemic areas for yellow fever transmission. We obtained information on national entry requirements for yellow fever vaccination at travellers' destination cities. In 2016, 45.2 million international air travellers departed from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world. Of 11.7 million travellers with destinations in 472 cities where yellow fever was not endemic but which were suitable for virus transmission, 7.7 million (65.7%) were not required to provide proof of vaccination upon arrival. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Peru and the United States of America had the highest volumes of travellers arriving from yellow fever-endemic areas and the largest populations living in cities suitable for yellow fever transmission. Each year millions of travellers depart from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world for cities in non-endemic areas that appear suitable for viral transmission without having to provide proof of vaccination. Rapid global changes in human mobility and urbanization make it vital for countries to re-examine their vaccination policies and practices to prevent urban yellow fever epidemics.

  4. Chédiak–Higashi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chédiak-Higashi syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive congenital immunodeficiency mainly characterized by a condition called oculo-cutaneous albinism. The affected subjects have light-colored hair, vision problems, blood clotting (coagulation abnormalities and in adulthood varying neurologic disorders. Recurrent infections, particularly viral infection with other disorders in childhood are usually life threatening. It has demonstrated mutations throughout the CHS1/LYST gene. The nature of the mutation can be a predictor of the severity of the disease. The current therapeutic options are: Antibiotics, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. This review will discuss the clinical and molecular aspects of this syndrome for better understanding of the factors that may cause abnormalities.

  5. Reactive collisions between CH+ and O-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Padellec, A.; Staicu-Casagrande, E. M.; Nzeyimana, T.; Naji, E. A.; Urbain, X.

    2006-04-01

    Integral cross sections were measured for two reactions occurring in CH++O- collisions: the formation of the carbon monoxide cation CO+ via a reactive ionization process and the formation of the (iso)formyl cation HCO+ (HOC+) via the associative ionization process. Both carbon monoxide and formyl cations are present in the interstellar medium, the latter one being quite abundant in dense clouds. Provided the oxygen anion would also be present in the interstellar environment, the large efficiency of the two reactive processes reported here would justify their inclusion in astrochemical models. The whole set of data was obtained by means of a merged-beam setup operating with keV beams.

  6. Analytical characterization of ch14.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallarakal, Abraham T; Michiel, Dennis; Yang, Xiaoyi; Saptharishi, Nirmala; Jiang, Hengguang; Giardina, Steve; Gilly, John; Mitra, George

    2012-01-01

    Ch14.18 is a mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody to the disialoganglioside (GD2) glycolipid. In the clinic, this antibody has been shown to be effective in the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma, either alone or in combination therapy. Extensive product characterization is a prerequisite to addressing the potential issues of product variability associated with process changes and manufacturing scale-up. Charge heterogeneity, glycosylation profile, molecular state and aggregation, interaction (affinity) with Fcγ receptors and functional or biological activities are a few of the critical characterization assays for assessing product comparability for this antibody. In this article, we describe the in-house development and qualification of imaged capillary isoelectric focusing to assess charge heterogeneity, analytical size exclusion chromatography with online static and dynamic light scattering (DLS), batch mode DLS for aggregate detection, biosensor (surface plasmon resonance)-based Fcγ receptor antibody interaction kinetics, N-glycoprofiling with PNGase F digestion, 2-aminobenzoic acid labeling and high performance liquid chromatography and N-glycan analysis using capillary electrophoresis. In addition, we studied selected biological activity assays, such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The consistency and reproducibility of the assays are established by comparing the intra-day and inter-day assay results. Applications of the methodologies to address stability or changes in product characteristics are also reported. The study results reveal that the ch14.18 clinical product formulated in phosphate-buffered saline at a concentration of 5 mg/ml and stored at 2–8°C is stable for more than five years. PMID:22327432

  7. Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W.; Natsuaki, Keiko T.

    2014-01-01

    Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Jap...

  8. In Silico Pooling of ChIP-seq Control Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A.; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples. PMID:25380244

  9. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3CHF2 (HFC-152a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taketani, Fumikazu; Nakayama, Tomoki; Takahashi, Kenshi

    2005-01-01

    Smog chamber/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopic techniques were used to study the atmospheric degradation of CH3CHF2. The kinetics and products of the Cl(2P(3/2)) (denoted Cl) atom- and the OH radical-initiated oxidation of CH3CHF2 in 700 Torr of ...

  10. Ir-catalyzed C-H silylations of phenyldeazapurines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabat, Nazarii; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Hocek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 49 (2015), s. 6860-6862 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-H silylation * deazapurines * iridium catalysis * C-H activations Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2015

  11. Evolution of the DINA-CH tokamak full discharge simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Dokouka, V.N.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Lukash, V.E.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Artaud, J.-F.; Baziuk, V.; Cavinato, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the approach taken to develop an open architecture full tokamak discharge simulator - DINA-CH - based on the DINA code and implemented under graphical programming control using Matlab-SIMULINK. The evolution path and present status are presented, with applications to ITER and TCV. The future evolution combining DINA-CH with Cronos, is discussed

  12. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  13. Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women 1

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.

  14. Photopic spectral sensitivities of the red and the yellow field of the pigeon retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The

  15. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A; Charrel, Rémi N; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C; Rodrigues, Cintia D S; Kümmerer, Beate M; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-11-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  16. Transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding - Brazil, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    In April, 2009, the state health department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was notified by the Cachoeira do Sul municipal health department of a case of meningoencephalitis requiring hospitalization in an infant whose mother recently had received yellow fever vaccine during a postpartum visit. The Field Epidemiology Training Program of the Secretariat of Surveillance in Health of the Brazilian Ministry of Health assisted state and municipal health departments with an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the infant acquired yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding. The mother reported 2 days of headache, malaise, and low fever occurring 5 days after receipt of yellow fever vaccine. The infant, who was exclusively breast-fed, was hospitalized at age 23 days with seizures requiring continuous infusion of intravenous anticonvulsants. The infant received antimicrobial and antiviral treatment for meningoencephalitis. The presence of 17DD yellow fever virus was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the infant's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); yellow fever--specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies also were present in serum and CSF. The infant recovered completely, was discharged after 24 days of hospitalization, and has had normal neurodevelopment and growth through age 6 months. The findings in this report provide documentation that yellow fever vaccine virus can be transmitted via breast-feeding. Administration of yellow fever vaccine to breast-feeding women should be avoided except in situations where exposure to yellow fever viruses cannot be avoided or postponed.

  17. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C.; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Rodrigues, Cintia D.S.; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  18. Development of PCR-RFP and DNA barcoding plastic markers for yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Boswell

    2013-01-01

    Yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax are problematic invasive plant species in North America. Yellow toadflax was introduced multiple times to the United States from Europe, beginning in the late 1600s. Dalmatian toadflax has similarly been repeatedly introduced to the United States, starting in 1874. Both species are known to inhabit disturbed areas, competing for...

  19. Finger jointing green southern yellow pine with a soy-based adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Roland E. Kreibicha; Petrus J. Steynberg; Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of laboratory tests for a soy-based adhesive to bond southern yellow pine using the finger-jointing method. There was some reason to suspect that finger jointing of southern yellow pine (SYP) with the honeymoon system using soy-based adhesive might prove more difficult than for western species. The Wood Handbook classes western species in...

  20. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  1. The applicability of fluoride volatility process to producing UF6 from yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang

    2005-01-01

    The schematic diagrams producing UF 6 from yellow cake are showed in this paper. The characteristics and process improvements of the fluoride volatility process are explained. The applicability of the fluoride volatility process to producing UF 6 from yellow cake is discussed. (authors)

  2. Genetics and physiology of the nuclearly inherited yellow foliar mutants in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant photosynthetic pigments are important in harvesting the light energy and transfer of energy during photosynthesis. There are several yellow foliar mutants discovered in soybean and chromosomal locations for about half of them have been deduced. Viable-yellow mutants are capable of surviving wi...

  3. Numerical modelling of ice floods in the Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin is located in the Inner Mongolia region at the Northern part of the Yellow River. Due to the special geographical conditions, the river flow direction is towards the North causing the Ning-Meng reach to freeze up every year in wintertime. Both during the

  4. Identification of insecticidal principals from cucumber seed oil against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is one of the most medically important mosquito species due to its ability to spread viruses of yellow fever, dengue fever and Zika in humans. In this study, the insecticidal activity of seventeen plant essential oils were evaluated to toxicity by topical a...

  5. Modelling the biological variance of the yellow aspect of Granny smith apple colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Konopacki, P.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The yellow aspect of colour is usually not considered for produce with a green-to-red or a green-to-yellow transition upon ripening. The magnitude of change is simply too small and, additionally, masked by a large variation. The colour of Granny Smith apples, harvested from three

  6. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  7. Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Izurieta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease.

  8. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Vengris, M.; van der Horst, M.A.; de Weerd, F.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the ``blue-light vision¿¿ of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast

  9. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Vengris, M.; Horst, M.A.; de Weerd, F.L.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the "blue-light vision" of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast

  10. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  11. Red-yellow marrow conversion: Its effect on the location of some solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of yellow marrow to red marrow caused by marrow infiltrating disorders or marrow stress disorders. (orig.)

  12. Status of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus and its impact in different progenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow leaf disease caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) a Polerovirus is an important disease for sugarcane industries worldwide. High yield losses up to 50% were reported in susceptible varieties. Most of the commercial cultivars in Florida are infected with SCYLV; therefore, there is a ...

  13. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  14. Acute neck pain caused by pseudogout attack of calcified cervical yellow ligament: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Abe, Toshiki; Abe, Eiji; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Noguchi, Hideaki; Konno, Norikazu; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-05-30

    Calcification of the yellow ligament sometimes compresses the spinal cord and can induce myelopathy. Usually, the calcification does not induce acute neck pain. We report a case of a patient with acute neck pain caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in a calcified cervical yellow ligament. A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented with acute neck pain. She had a moderately high fever (37.5 °C), and her neck pain was so severe that she could not move her neck in any direction. Computed tomography showed a high-density area between the C5 and C6 laminae suspicious for calcification of the yellow ligament. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging surrounding a low-signal region on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging with cord compression. There was a turbid, yellow fluid collection in the yellow ligament at the time of operation. Histologically, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found in the fluid, and she was diagnosed as having a pseudogout attack of the yellow ligament. Pseudogout attack of the cervical yellow ligament is rare, but this clinical entity should be added to the differential diagnosis of acute neck pain, especially when calcification of the yellow ligament exists.

  15. Intracellular renin disrupts chemical communication between heart cells. Pathophysiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmor eDe Mello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of intracellular renin on the process of chemical communication between cardiac cells was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the left ventricle of adult Wistar Kyoto rats. The enzyme together with Lucifer yellow CH was dialyzed into one cell of the pair using the whole cell clamp technique. The diffusion of the dye in the dialyzed and in non-dialyzed cell was followed by measuring the intensity of fluorescence in both cells as a function of time. The results indicated that; 1 under normal conditions, Lucifer Yellow flows from cell-to-cell through gap junctions; 2 the intracellular dialysis of renin (100nM disrupts chemical communication-an effect enhanced by simultaneous administration of angiotensinogen (100nM; 3 enalaprilat (10-9M administered to the cytosol together with renin reduced drastically the uncoupling action of the enzyme; 4 aliskiren (10-8M inhibited the effect of renin on chemical communication;5 the possible role of intracellular renin independently of angiotensin II (Ang II was evaluated including the increase of the inward calcium current elicited by the enzyme and the possible role of oxidative stress on the disruption of cell communication; 6 the possible harmful versus the beneficial effect of intracellular renin during myocardial infarction was discussed;7 the present results indicate that intracellular renin due to internalization or in situ synthesis, causes a severe impairment of chemical communication in the heart resulting in derangement of metabolic cooperation with serious consequences for heart function.

  16. Studium acidobazických a elektrolytických vlastností hyaluronanu v roztoku

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá studiem acidobazického a elektrolytického chování roztoků hyaluronanu při různé iontové síle. Acidobazické chování hyaluronanu bylo studováno pomocí acidobazických titrací, které byly prováděny dvěma různými způsoby, kyselou a zásaditou acidobazickou titrací. Z výsledků acidobazických titrací byly vyhodnocovány disociační konstanty při různé iontové síle při nulovém stupni disociace a při 50% stupni disociace. Výsledné disociační konstanty získané z kyselých acidobaz...

  17. New superhindered polydentate polyphosphine ligands P(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, PhP(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)2, P(CH2CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, and their ruthenium(II) chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Field, Leslie D; Bhadbhade, Mohan M

    2012-03-05

    The synthesis and characterization of the extremely hindered phosphine ligands, P(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(2)P(3)(tBu), 1), PhP(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2) (PhP(2)P(2)(tBu), 2), and P(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(3)P(3)(tBu), 3) are reported, along with the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium chloro complexes RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4), RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5), and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6). The bulky P(2)P(3)(tBu) (1) and P(3)P(3)(tBu) (3) ligands are the most sterically encumbered PP(3)-type ligands so far synthesized, and in all cases, only three phosphorus donors are able to bind to the metal center. Complexes RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6) were characterized by crystallography. Low temperature solution and solid state (31)P{(1)H} NMR were used to demonstrate that the structure of RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4) is probably analogous to that of RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) which had been structurally characterized.

  18. 21 CFR 201.20 - Declaration of presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 and/or FD&C Yellow No. 6 in certain drugs for human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eye, containing FD&C Yellow No. 5 as a color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine... “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine)”. The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling requirement that...

  19. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Estimating the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers against yellow fever in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Massad, E

    2018-04-17

    A yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola in 2016 with 884 laboratory confirmed cases and 373 deaths. Eleven unvaccinated Chinese nationals working in Angola were also infected and imported the disease to China, thereby presenting the first importation of yellow fever into Asia. In Angola, there are about 259,000 Chinese foreign workers. The fact that 11 unvaccinated Chinese workers acquired yellow fever suggests that many more Chinese workers in Angola were not vaccinated. We applied a previously developed model to back-calculate the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers in Angola in order to determine the extent of lack of vaccine coverage. Our models suggest that none of the 259,000 Chinese had been vaccinated, although yellow fever vaccination is mandated by the International Health Regulations. Governments around the world including China need to ensure that their citizens obtain YF vaccination when traveling to countries where such vaccines are required in order to prevent the international spread of yellow fever.

  1. Electrochemical sensor for hazardous food colourant quinoline yellow based on carbon nanotube-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Jianwei; Zhou, Yikai

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrochemical method using multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) film-modified electrode was developed for the detection of quinoline yellow. In pH 8 phosphate buffer, an irreversible oxidation peak at 0.71V was observed for quinoline yellow. Compared with the unmodified electrode, the MWNT film-modified electrode greatly increases the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow, showing notable enhancement effect. The effects of pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were studied on the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow. The linear range is from 0.75 to 20mgL(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.5mgL(-1). It was applied to the detection of quinoline yellow in commercial soft drinks, and the results consisted with the value that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New poleroviruses associated with yellowing symptoms in different vegetable crops in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotos, L; Maliogka, V I; Katis, N I

    2016-02-01

    Four poleroviral isolates from Greece, two from lettuce, one from spinach and one from watermelon showing yellowing symptoms, were molecularly characterized by analyzing the sequence of a large part of the genome spanning from the 3'-terminal part of the RdRp to the end of the CP gene. The sequences were analyzed for their similarity and phylogenetic relationships to other members of the genus Polerovirus as well as for evidence of recombination events. The results revealed the existence of two putatively new viruses: one from lettuce and one from spinach, provisionally named "lettuce yellows virus" and "spinach yellows virus", respectively. Also, a new recombinant virus infecting lettuce, herein named "lettuce mild yellows virus", and a watermelon isolate of pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) were identified. Our study highlights the existence of high genetic diversity within the genus Polerovirus, which could be associated with the emergence of new viral diseases in various crops worldwide.

  3. Yellow fever vaccine: an effective vaccine for travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10-14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2-8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO.

  4. Microsecond yellow laser for subfoveal leaks in central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambiya V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Ambiya, Abhilash Goud, Annie Mathai, Padmaja Kumari Rani, Jay Chhablani Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Center, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Purpose: To evaluate the role of navigated yellow microsecond laser in treating subfoveal leaks in nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Methods: This prospective study included ten eyes of ten consecutive patients with nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. All eyes were treated with 577 nm navigated yellow microsecond laser (5% duty cycle. Key inclusion criteria include a vision loss for a duration of minimum 3 months duration due to focal subfoveal leak on fluorescein angiography. Key exclusion criteria include prior treatment for CSC and any signs of chronic CSC. Comprehensive examination, in addition to low-contrast visual acuity assessment, microperimetry, autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography, was done at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rescue laser was performed as per predefined criteria at 3 months. Results: The average best-corrected visual acuity improved from 73.3±16.1 letters to 75.8±14.0 (P=0.69 at 3 months and 76.9±13.0 (P=0.59 at 6 months, but was not statistically significant. Low-contrast visual acuity assessment (logMAR improved from 0.41±0.32 to 0.35±0.42 (P=0.50 at 3 months and 0.28±0.33 (P=0.18 at 6 months. Average retinal sensitivity significantly improved from baseline 18.93±7.19 dB to 22.49±6.67 dB (P=0.01 at 3 months and 21.46±8.47 dB (P=0.04 at 6 months. Rescue laser was required only in one eye at 3 months; however, laser was required in three eyes at 6 months. Conclusion: Microsecond laser is a safe and effective modality for treating cases of nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. Keywords: CSC, central serous chorioretinopathy, Navilas®, navigated laser, microsecond yellow laser

  5. Využití separačních metod pro studium biologicky aktivních látek ve vodách

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Léčiva patří mezi biologicky aktivní látky, které se odlišují různými funkčními skupinami, fyzikálně-chemickými a biologickými vlastnostmi. Tyto chemické látky, v současnosti zařazované mezi „nové“ kontaminanty, se kumulují v různých složkách životního prostředí. Do životního prostředí se dostávají v průběhu jejich průmyslové výroby, dále v důsledku používání v léčebných zařízeních nebo v domácnostech. Protože se jedná o látky biologicky aktivní, mohou v různých složkách životního prostředí n...

  6. Thermochemistry and kinetics for 2-butanone-1-yl radical (CH2·C(═O)CH2CH3) reactions with O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbar, N; Bozzelli, J W; Bockhorn, H

    2014-01-09

    Thermochemistry of reactants, intermediates, transition state structures, and products along with kinetics on the association of CH2·C(═O)CH2CH3 (2-butanone-1-yl) with O2 and dissociation of the peroxy adduct isomers are studied. Thermochemical properties are determined using ab initio (G3MP2B3 and G3) composite methods along with density functional theory (B3LYP/6-311g(d,p)). Entropy and heat capacity contributions versus temperature are determined from structures, vibration frequencies, and internal rotor potentials. The CH2·C(═O)CH2CH3 radical + O2 association results in a chemically activated peroxy radical with 27 kcal mol(-1) excess of energy. The chemically activated adduct can react to stabilized peroxy or hydroperoxide alkyl radical adducts, further react to lactones plus hydroxyl radical, or form olefinic ketones and a hydroperoxy radical. Kinetic parameters are determined from the G3 composite methods derived thermochemical parameters, and quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) analysis to calculate k(E) with master equation analysis to evaluate falloff in the chemically activated and dissociation reactions. One new, not previously reported, peroxy chemistry reaction is presented. It has a low barrier path and involves a concerted reaction resulting in olefin formation, H2O elimination, and an alkoxy radical.

  7. Preferences by Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) and non-target flies for rectangles of various yellow colours and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sticky rectangle traps of various yellow colours and fluorescence made of cardboard were field tested against western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in paired trap preference experiments in Washington state, USA. Alpha Scents (proprietary paint), Fluorescent Yellow (aerosol ...

  8. ChIPWig: a random access-enabling lossless and lossy compression method for ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanmehr, Vida; Kim, Minji; Wang, Zhiying; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2018-03-15

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments are inexpensive and time-efficient, and result in massive datasets that introduce significant storage and maintenance challenges. To address the resulting Big Data problems, we propose a lossless and lossy compression framework specifically designed for ChIP-seq Wig data, termed ChIPWig. ChIPWig enables random access, summary statistics lookups and it is based on the asymptotic theory of optimal point density design for nonuniform quantizers. We tested the ChIPWig compressor on 10 ChIP-seq datasets generated by the ENCODE consortium. On average, lossless ChIPWig reduced the file sizes to merely 6% of the original, and offered 6-fold compression rate improvement compared to bigWig. The lossy feature further reduced file sizes 2-fold compared to the lossless mode, with little or no effects on peak calling and motif discovery using specialized NarrowPeaks methods. The compression and decompression speed rates are of the order of 0.2 sec/MB using general purpose computers. The source code and binaries are freely available for download at https://github.com/vidarmehr/ChIPWig-v2, implemented in C ++. milenkov@illinois.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. [Respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome: report of two cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Huang, H; Xu, K; Xu, Z J

    2018-03-12

    Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 patients with respiratory diseases associated with yellow nail syndrome. Their clinical and chest radiological data were collected. We searched PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases with the keywords "yellow nail syndrome, yellow nail and lung" in Chinese and English. And the relevant literatures, including 6 articles in Chinese and 81 articles in English, were reviewed. Results: Our 2 patients were male, one 60 years old and the other 76. Typical yellow nails were present in their fingers, and one of them also showed toe yellow nails. One patient was admitted for refractory respiratory infection and he was diagnosed with diffuse bronchiectasis. The respiratory symptoms could be relieved with antibiotics according to the results of sputum microbiological analysis. The other patient was admitted for cough and exertional dyspnea, and refractory pleural effusions were revealed bilaterally. He received repeated effusion drainage by thoracentesis, and Octreotide was tried recently. A total of 373 cases were reviewed in Chinese and English literatures. Pleural effusions (152 cases) and diffuse bronchiectasis (121 cases) were the most common reported respiratory manifestations. Lymphoedema was present in almost all cases with pleural effusion associated with yellow nail syndrome, and the effusion was usually exudative and lymphocyte predominant. Pleurodesis and decortication were effective for them. But, somatostatin analogues had been tried effectively for these patients recently. On the other hand, literatures showed that diffuse bronchiectasis in yellow nail syndrome was less severe than idiopathic diffuse bronchiectasis, and might benefit from long-term macrolide antibiotics. Conclusions: Yellow nail syndrome is a very rare disorder. Besides yellow nail, respiratory manifestations are the main clinical

  10. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  11. Geographic patterns and environmental factors associated with human yellow fever presence in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Patricia Najera; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Machado, Gustavo; Leonel, Deise Galan; Vilca, Luz Maria; Uriona, Sonia; Schneider, Maria Cristina

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists. The objective of this study was to identify spatial patterns and the relationship between key geographic and environmental factors with the distribution of yellow fever human cases in the Americas. An ecological study was carried out to analyze yellow fever human cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization from 2000 to 2014, aggregated by second administrative level subdivisions (counties). Presence of yellow fever by county was used as the outcome variable and eight geo-environmental factors were used as independent variables. Spatial analysis was performed to identify and examine natural settings per county. Subsequently, a multivariable logistic regression model was built. During the study period, 1,164 cases were reported in eight out of the 13 endemic countries. Nearly 83.8% of these cases were concentrated in three countries: Peru (37.4%), Brazil (28.1%) and Colombia (18.4%); and distributed in 57 states/provinces, specifically in 286 counties (3.4% of total counties). Yellow fever presence was significantly associated with altitude, rain, diversity of non-human primate hosts and temperature. A positive spatial autocorrelation revealed a clustered geographic pattern in 138/286 yellow fever positive counties (48.3%). A clustered geographic pattern of yellow fever was identified mostly along the Andes eastern foothills. This risk map could support health policies in endemic countries. Geo-environmental factors associated with presence

  12. Intrusion of low-salinity water into the Yellow Sea Interior in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Seok; Pang, Ig-Chan

    2014-12-01

    Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water.

  13. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  14. Wheat Rust Toolbox Related to New Initiatives on Yellow Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    ://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/rust/stem/rust-report/en/). The Wheat rust toolbox is one of several International research platforms hosted by Aarhus University, and it uses the same ICT framework and databases as EuroWheat (www.eurowheat.org) and EuroBlight (www.EuroBlight.net). The Wheat Rust Toolbox will also serve the Global Rust Reference Centre (GRRC) as well...... – 2009), and as soon as possible this will be expanded to cover all global yellow rust data available via the GRRC. The presentation will focus on experiences from the previous work on global databases and web based information systems, as well as propose ideas how the toolbox can be helpful regarding...

  15. Current Status and Future Prospects of Yellow Fever Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized for historically immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be life-long. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  16. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  17. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Thomas Adepoju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to research article titled “Effects of processing methods on nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products” (Adepoju et al., 2016 [1]. This article documented information on nutrient and antinutrient composition as well as nutrient retention of Dioscorea cayenensis products. Fresh Dioscorea cayenensis tubers obtained from Bodija market were prepared into raw sample and local delicacies and analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods [2]. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA, and level of significance set at p<0.05. Processing significantly improved macronutrients and energy content of yam products, and led to significant reduction in values of all antinutrient content of the products (p<0.05.

  18. A bacterial disease of yellow perch (Peres flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Nordstrom, P.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Heaton, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    On May 26, 1959, two of the authors' investigated a fish kill at Dailey Lake, Park County, Montana. They observed about a half-dozen live, weakly swimming yellow perch (Perca flavescens), in addition to thousand of dead perch along the shoreline. It was learned from local residents that mortalities had begun to appear some 2 weeks earlier. At that time the time the authorities had diagnosed the condition as a winterkill, since ice had only recently disappeared from the lake. Although a number of other species inhabit Dailey Lake, including rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), rainbow x cutthroat hybrids, only one other species was represented in the kill. This consisted of one black crappie.

  19. The RNA of turnip yellow mosaic virus exhibits icosahedral order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Steven B.; Lucas, Robert W.; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Difference electron density maps, based on structure factor amplitudes and experimental phases from crystals of wild-type turnip yellow mosaic virus and those of empty capsids prepared by freeze-thawing, show a large portion of the encapsidated RNA to have an icosahedral distribution. Four unique segments of base-paired, double-helical RNA, one to two turns in length, lie between 33-A and 101-A radius and are organized about either 2-fold or 5-fold icosahedral axes. In addition, single-stranded loops of RNA invade the pentameric and hexameric capsomeres where they contact the interior capsid surface. The remaining RNA, not seen in electron density maps, must serve as connecting links between these secondary structural elements and is likely icosahedrally disordered. The distribution of RNA observed crystallographically appears to be in agreement with models based on biochemical data and secondary structural analyses

  20. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods: All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results: All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died. Conclusion: Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published. Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF

  1. Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhencheng Tao

    Full Text Available Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea were studied from September 2006 to August 2007. Euphausia pacifica is a selective-feeding omnivore and grazing rates among different months were monitored using a Coulter Counter and batch culture feeding experiments. Euphausia pacifica mainly grazed microzooplankton in August and September, which resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a concentration. Oxygen consumption rate of E. pacifica was 38.7-42.5 μmol O2 g(-1 DW h(-1 in March, which was four times higher than the oxygen consumption rates in September and December. The vigorous metabolism of E. pacifica in March consumed 3.1% of body carbon daily, which is likely related to its high reproduction and grazing rate. Respiration and metabolism of E. pacifica in September and December were similar and were lower. O:N ratio of E. pacifica was the highest (17.3-23.8 in March when spawning activity occurred and when food was abundant. The energetic source of E. pacifica during September and December was mostly protein from eating a carnivorous diet, including such items as microzooplankton. Euphausia pacifica was found in cold water at the bottom of the Yellow Sea in summer and autumn and maintained a low consumption status. O:N ratios of E. pacifica in March, September, and December were negatively correlated with SSTs and no significant correlation was found between O:N ratios and chlorophyll a concentration. Seawater temperature is clearly the most important parameter influencing the metabolism of E. pacifica.

  2. Stereo chromatic contrast sensitivity model to blue-yellow gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Lin, Yancong; Liu, Yun

    2016-03-07

    As a fundamental metric of human visual system (HVS), contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is typically measured by sinusoidal gratings at the detection of thresholds for psychophysically defined cardinal channels: luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow. Chromatic CSF, which is a quick and valid index to measure human visual performance and various retinal diseases in two-dimensional (2D) space, can not be directly applied into the measurement of human stereo visual performance. And no existing perception model considers the influence of chromatic CSF of inclined planes on depth perception in three-dimensional (3D) space. The main aim of this research is to extend traditional chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics to 3D space and build a model applicable in 3D space, for example, strengthening stereo quality of 3D images. This research also attempts to build a vision model or method to check human visual characteristics of stereo blindness. In this paper, CRT screen was clockwise and anti-clockwise rotated respectively to form the inclined planes. Four inclined planes were selected to investigate human chromatic vision in 3D space and contrast threshold of each inclined plane was measured with 18 observers. Stimuli were isoluminant blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings. Horizontal spatial frequencies ranged from 0.05 to 5 c/d. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. According to the relationship between spatial frequency of inclined plane and horizontal spatial frequency, the chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space have been modeled based on the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can well predicted human chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space.

  3. Interim Canadian recommendations for the use of a fractional dose of yellow fever vaccine during a vaccine shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary This statement outlines interim recommendations intended for use during yellow fever vaccine shortages only. The recommendations differ from the standard recommendations for yellow fever vaccination in the Canadian Immunization Guide and in the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) Statement for Travellers and Yellow Fever. PMID:29770023

  4. Corona discharge experiments in admixtures of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}: a laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, G; Skalny, J D; Klas, M; Zahoran, M [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F-2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mason, N J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Vladoiu, R; Manole, M [Ovidius University Constanta, B - dul Mamaia 124, 900527 Constanta (Romania)], E-mail: horeszka@gmail.com

    2009-08-15

    A positive corona discharge fed by a N{sub 2} : CH{sub 4} mixture (98 : 2) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature has been studied as a laboratory mimic of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. In situ measurements of UV and IR transmission spectra within the discharge have shown that the main chemical product is C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, produced by dissociation of CH{sub 4}, with small but significant traces of ethane and HCN, all species that have been detected in Titan's atmosphere. A small amount (0.2%) of CH{sub 4} was decomposed after 12 min of treatment requiring an average energy of 2.7 kWh g{sup -1}. After 14 min the discharge was terminated due to the formation of a solid yellow deposit on the central wire electrode. Such a deposit is similar to that observed in other discharges and is believed to be an analogue of the aerosol and dust observed in Titan's atmosphere and is composed of chemical species commonly known as 'tholins'. We have also explored the electrical properties of the discharge. The admixture of methane into nitrogen caused an increase in the onset voltage of the discharge and consequently led to a reduction in the measured discharge current.

  5. Photodissociation and photoisomerization dynamics of CH2=CHCHO in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weiqiang; Yang Chunfan; Zhao Hongmei; Liu Kunhui; Su Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    By means of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, we have investigated the 193 nm photodissociation and photoisomerization dynamics of the prototype molecule of α,β-enones, acrolein (CH 2 =CHCHO) in CH 3 CN solution. The primary photolysis channels and absolute branching ratios are determined. The most probable reaction mechanisms are clarified by control experiments monitoring the product yields varied with the triplet quencher addition. The predominant channel is the 1,3-H migration yielding the rearrangement product CH 3 CH=C=O with a branching ratio of 0.78 and the less important channel is the α cleavage of C-H bond yielding radical fragments CH 2 =CHCO+H with a branching ratio of only 0.12. The 1,3-H migration is strongly suggested to correlate with the triplet 3 (ππ * ) state rather than the ground S 0 state and the α cleavage of C-H bond is more likely to proceed in the singlet S 1 1 (nπ * ) state. From the solution experiments we have not only acquired clues clarifying the previous controversial mechanisms, but also explored different photochemistry in solution. Compared to the gas phase photolysis which is dominated by photodissociation channels, the most important channel in solution is the photoisomerization of 1,3-H migration. The reason leading to the different photochemistry in solution is further ascribed to the solvent cage effect.

  6. Effects of Boreal Lake Wetlands on Atmospheric 13CH3D and 12CH2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Kohl, I. E.; Schauble, E. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we developed a theoretical model to investigate the potential use of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 as tools for tracking atmospheric methane budget. We used electronic structure methods to estimate kinetic isotope fractionations associated with the major sink reactions of CH4 in air (reactions with •OH and Cl•), and literature data with reconnaissance measurements of the relative abundances of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 to estimate the compositions of the largest atmospheric sources. Here we present new methane rare isotopologue data from boreal wetlands, comprising one of the most important sources, in order to evaluate the robustness of the model. Boreal wetlands (>55° N) account for more than half of the wetland area in the Northern hemisphere. We analyzed methane samples from high latitude lakes representing different geographical regions, geological and ecological contexts, methane fluxes, and isotopic signatures. Using clumped isotopes of CH4 we are able to determine the likely production mechanism for natural CH4 samples. So far, all of our analyzed samples except one plot in the microbial pure-culture methanogenesis field (Young et al. 2017) with ranges of -0.2‰ to +1.2‰ for Δ13CH3D, and -29.6‰ to -18.2‰ for Δ12CH2D2. These compositions are far from equilibrium. The one exception, from Lake Doughnut, Alaska, exhibits Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values of +5.2‰ and +18.7‰, respectively, which fall near ambient thermodynamic equilibrium values. This may be an effect of methanotrophy. Mean Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 for all lake samples are +1.7‰ and -15.4‰ respectively, compared to our original estimate of +6.1‰ and +21.2‰ for the wetland methane source based on an assumption of equilibrium. If we assume that these samples are representative of the overall wetland source, Δ13CH3D decreases by 0.8‰ and Δ12CH2D2 decreases by 0.6‰ in our model of bulk atmospheric methane. Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values of air (including •OH and Cl• sink

  7. Synthesis and thermolysis of Cp*(C5Me4CH2)TiR complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinstra, GA; Brinkmann, PHP; Teuben, JH; Luinstra, Gerrit A.

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of the chloride in Cp*FvTiCl with MR (Fv = C5Me4CH2; R = Me, CH2SiMe3, CH2CMe3, CH = CH2, M = Li; R = CH2Ph, M = K; R = C3H5, M = MgCl; R = Ph, M = Na . NaCl) gives Cp*FvTiR. NMR spectroscopic evidence points towards a series of structurally related compounds with a bent-sandwich

  8. Highly pure yellow light emission of perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots and their application for yellow light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuandan; Gong, Jinhui; Zhu, Yiyuan; Feng, Xingcan; Peng, Hong; Wang, Wei; He, Haiyang; Liu, Hu; Wang, Li

    2018-06-01

    High-quality all-inorganic perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots (QDs) with quantum yield of 50% were systematically studied as yellow light convertor for light emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel heat insulation structure was designed for the QD-converted yellow LEDs. In this structure, a silicone layer was set on top of the GaN LED chip to prevent directly heating of the QDs by the LED chip. Then the CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs were filled in the bowl-shaped silicone layer after ultrasonic dispersion treatment. Finally, an Al2O3 passivation layer was grown on the QDs layer by Atomic Layer Disposition at 40 °C. When x = 0.55, highly pure yellow LEDs with an emission peak at ∼570 nm and a full width at half maximum of 25 nm were achieved. The chromaticity coordinates of the QD-converted yellow LEDs (0.4920 ± 0.0017, 0.4988 ± 0.0053) showed almost no variation under driving current from 5 mA to 150 mA. During an operation period of 60 min, the emission wavelength of the yellow LEDs showed no distinct shift. Moreover, the luminous efficiency of the QD-converted yellow LEDs achieved 13.51 l m/W at 6 mA. These results demonstrated that CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs and the heat insulation structure are promising candidate for high purity yellow LEDs.

  9. Dissociative sticking of CH4 on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Holmblad, Peter Mikal; Chorkendorff, Ib

    1999-01-01

    In this study the CH4 dissociation probability on Ru(0001) is found for various translational and vibrational energies. The absolute sticking values are determined from King and Wells experiments and carbon uptake curves. The carbon amount is determined from the recombination signal of carbon...... with oxygen obtained after the beam exposure when heating in an oxygen atmosphere. The measured sticking coefficient of CH4 is strongly enhanced both by increasing the translational and the vibrational energy of the CH4 molecule. A model is applied to the data and an estimate of the thermal activation energy...

  10. Radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Tao; Pan, Changduo

    2016-02-07

    Heterocyclic compounds are widely present in natural products, pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules. Thus, organic and pharmaceutical chemists have been making extensive efforts to construct those heterocyclic frameworks through developing versatile and efficient synthetic strategies. The direct C-H functionalization via the radical pathway has emerged as a promising and dramatic approach towards heterocycles with high atom- and step-economy. Heterocyclic compounds such as coumarins, furans, benzofurans, xanthones, benzothiazoles, indoles, indolines, oxindoles, quinolines, isoquinolines, quinoxaline, and phenanthridines have been successfully synthesized by C-H functionalization through the radical pathway. In this review, recent advances on radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds are highlighted with discussions.

  11. Electrochemical Cobalt-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Nicolas; Meyer, Tjark H; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-06-19

    Carbon-heteroatom bonds represent omnipresent structural motifs of the vast majority of functionalized materials and bioactive compounds. C-H activation has emerged as arguably the most efficient strategy to construct C-Het bonds. Despite of major advances, these C-H transformations were largely dominated by precious transition metal catalysts, in combination with stoichiometric, toxic metal oxidants. Herein, we discuss the recent evolution of cobalt-catalyzed C-H activations that enable C-Het formations with electricity as the sole sustainable oxidant until May 2018. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.

  13. Bees’ Honey Attenuation of Metanil-Yellow-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees’ honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 bees’ honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees’ honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated the inflammatory markers. In addition, the elevated levels of AGE and the activated NF-κB in the metanil-yellow-treated animals were significantly attenuated. Moreover, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated as a result of bees’ honey administration. Furthermore, the histopathological examination of the liver showed that bees’ honey reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis in metanil-yellow-treated rats. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that bees’ honey has hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injuries induced by metanil-yellow in vivo, and the results suggested that the effect of bees’ honey against metanil yellow-induced liver damage is related to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties which attenuate the activation of NF-κB and its controlled genes like TNF-α and IL-1β.

  14. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  15. ANALÝZA OXIDAČNÍCH PRODUKTŮ VYBRANÝCH BIOFLAVONOIDŮ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Degano, I.; Ramešová, Šárka; Kocábová, Jana; Fiedler, Jan; Tarábek, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2016 (2016), s. 170-170 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR M200401201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : flavonoids * analysis * rhamnazine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Yellow flag scores in a compensable New Zealand cohort suffering acute low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Grimmer-Somers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Mathew Prior1, Jim Robertson21Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, City East Campus, North Tce, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Despite its high prevalence, most acute low back pain (ALBP is nonspecific, self-limiting with no definable pathology. Recurrence is prevalent, as is resultant chronicity. Psychosocial factors (yellow flags comprising depression and anxiety, negative pain beliefs, job dissatisfaction are associated with the development of chronic LBP.Methods: A national insurer (Accident Compensation Corporation, New Zealand [NZ], in conjunction with a NZ primary health organization, piloted a strategy for more effective management of patients with ALBP, by following the NZ ALBP Guideline. The guidelines recommend the use of a psychosocial screening instrument (Yellow Flags Screening Instrument, a derivative of Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. This instrument was recommended for administration on the second visit to a general medical practitioner (GP. This paper tests whether published cut-points of yellow flag scores to predict LBP claims length and costs were valid in this cohort.Results: Data was available for 902 claimants appropriately enrolled into the pilot. 25% claimants consulted the GP once only, and thus were not requested to provide a yellow flag score. Yellow flag scores were provided by 48% claimants who consumed two or more GP services. Approximately 60% LBP presentations resolved within five GP visits. Yellow flag scores were significantly and positively associated with treatment costs and service use, although the association was nonlinear. Claimants with moderate yellow flag scores were similarly likely to incur lengthy claims as claimants with at-risk scores.Discussion: Capturing data on psychosocial factors for compensable patients with ALBP has merit in predicting

  17. Identification of a monopartite begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic of Mentha longifolia in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-02-01

    Mentha is a very important crop grown and used extensively for many purposes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted viruses causing serious disease in many important plants exhibiting variable symptoms with significant economic loss globally. During farmers' field survey, yellow vein mosaic disease was observed in Mentha longifolia plants growing near tomato fields in Saudi Arabia. The causative agent was identified in 11 out of 19 samples using begomovirus-specific primers and the association of begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease in M. longifolia was confirmed. The full-length viral genome and betasatellite were amplified, cloned, and sequenced bidirectionally. The full DNA-A genome was found to have 2785 nucleotides with 1365 bp-associated betasatellite molecule. An attempt was made to amplify DNA-B, but none of the samples produced any positive amplicon of expected size which indicated the presence of monopartite begomovirus. The sequence identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis, based on full genome showed the highest identity (99.6%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and in phylogenetic analysis it formed a closed cluster with Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato and Corchorus crop in Saudi Arabia. The sequence analysis results of betasatellites showed the highest identity (98.9%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and phylogenetic analysis using betasatellites formed a close cluster with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and Corchorus crops, which has already been reported to cause yellow vein mosaic and leaf curl disease in many cultivated and weed crops growing in Saudi Arabia. The identified begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease in mentha could be a mutated strain of TYLCV and tentatively designated as TYLCV-Mentha isolate. Based on published data and latest information, this is the first report of identification of Tomato yellow leaf

  18. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing CH4 gas exchange in this lake. Preliminary results indicate that there are two regimes in wind speed that impact k - one at low wind speeds up to ~5 m s-1 and another at higher wind speeds (max ~10 m s-1). The differential wind speeds during night and day may compound the effect of convective mixing and cause the diurnal variation in observed fluxes.

  19. Association of IDDM and attenuated response of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase to yellow fever vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnevie-Nielsen, V; Larsen, M L; Frifelt, J J

    1989-01-01

    Basal and yellow fever vaccination-induced 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2',5'A) activity was determined in blood mononuclear cells (peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBLs]) from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and matched control subjects. The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine...... represented a primary stimulus in all subjects. First, basal 2',5'A activity increased severalfold in response to yellow fever vaccination. In IDDM subjects, this increase was significantly lower (P = .025). Second, the 2',5'A activity increased proportionately to the higher basal 2',5'A activity in IDDM...

  20. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  1. Bees' Honey Attenuation of Metanil-Yellow-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sayed, Ahmed Amir Radwan

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees' honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5?mg ? kg?1 ? day?1 bees' honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees' honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated th...

  2. Improvements on heap leaching process for a refractory uranium ore and yellow cake precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianke

    2013-01-01

    Some problems such as formed harden matrix, ore heap compaction, poor permeability, and agglomeration of absorption resin occur during extracting uranium from a refractory uranium ore by heap leaching process. After some measures were taken, i.e. spraying a new ore heap by low concentration acid, two or more ore heaps in series leaching, turning ores in ore heap, the permeability was improved, acid consumption was reduced. Through precipitate circulation and aging, the yellow cake slurry in amorphous or microlite form was transformed to crystal precipitate, thus uranium content in yellow cake was improved, and water content in yellow cake was lowered with good economic benefits. (author)

  3. A review of the green tides in the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangqing; Wang, Zongling; Zhang, Xuelei

    2016-08-01

    The recurrent green tide of Ulva prolifera caused serious ecological problems in the Yellow Sea and attached substantial scientific study. The bloom originated in the Subei Shoal area and drifted to the coast of Shandong Province during the period from May to July, driven by a series of physical processes. Here we reviewed advances in the understanding of green tides in the Yellow Sea and elucidate the developmental model of this phenomenon. This knowledge will help resource managers to take reasonable measures to mitigate the impacts to the Yellow Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  5. A new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Zeng Yijun; Li Shangyuan; Kong Guiying

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation, thus solving a series of problems for precipitating uranium with traditional double precipitation. The new technique can not only remove ferric ions and sulfate radicals but also make solid-liquid separation easy, utilize effectively the sulfuric acid produced in ferric ions precipitation process, and increase uranium concentration of leaching liquor. To take it as producing yellow cake will save investment, simplify operation, and cut down the consumption of raw materials and energies. It is more competitive than ion-exchange or solvent extraction in the process of extracting-purifying and preparing yellow cake

  6. Yellow nail syndrome, pincer nails, colon cancer and polyps in a 76 year-old-woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The yellow nail syndrome is a scarcely described condition characterized by dystrophic yellowish nails, respiratory disturbances and lymphedema; while the pincer nail deformity is characterized by thickening and excessive transverse curvature of the nail plate. The objective of this case study is to report a 76-year-old Japanese descent woman with yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails, intestinal polyps, and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. Both the yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails may develop in association with malignancies, either by chance or by some etiopathogenic mechanism not well-known.

  7. Congenital yellow nail syndrome: a case report and its relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Arti; Al-Essa, Fahad H; El-Shafei, Wael M; Alsaleh, Qasem A

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by a triad of nail dystrophy, lymphedema, and pleural effusion. It is rare in children and congenital occurrence of YNS has been very rarely described. We report a 2-year-old Arab boy having congenital yellow nail syndrome with mild facial dysmorphism and bilateral conjunctival pigmentation born to consanguineous parents. One of his older siblings had died of nonimmune fetal hydrops (NIFH). The case supports the genetic basis of yellow nail syndrome with a possible relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Evaluation of Yellow vs. Blue Color Contrast Sensitivity pre and Post LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heydarian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: contrast sensitivity is one of the most important psychophysical tests that may be used for the evaluation of refractive state of eye and retinal image quality. Yellow vs. blue color contrast sensitivity may be more suitable in this regard. Materials and Methods: thirty myopic eyes were considered in this study. Yellow vs. blue color contrast sensitivity was evaluated under the same environment and conditions in these individuals pre and post LASIK. Results: The comparison of yellow vs. blue color contrast sensitivity with glasses pr e and post LASIK shows a significant improvement (p

  9. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  10. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  11. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV).

  12. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  13. Raman spectroscopy measurement of CH4 gas and CH4 dissolved in water for laser remote sensing in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Fujita, Masayuki

    2018-04-01

    We examined the applicability of Raman spectroscopy as a laser remote sensing tool for monitoring CH4 in water. The Raman technique has already been used successfully for measurements of CO2 gas in water. In this paper, considering the spectral transmittance of water, third harmonics of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm (UV region) was used for detection of CH4 Raman signals. The Raman signal at 2892 cm-1 from CH4 dissolved in water was detected at a tail of water Raman signal.

  14. Fragmentation characteristics of the unstable [CH3 CO][radical sign] radicals generated by neutralization of [CH3CO]+ cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, C. E. C. A.; Holmes, J. L.

    1991-03-01

    The stability and fragmentation characteristics of [CH3 CO][radical sign] radicals, generated by vertical charge exchange between acetyl cations and permanent gases or metal vapours (He, Xe, NO, Cd, Na and K), were examined mass spectrometrically. Two dissociation reactions were observed, the losses of CH[radical sign]3 and H[radical sign]. The H[radical sign] loss reaction, the higher energy dissociation, became of greater importance as the exothermicity of the charge exchange was increased. Based on the analysis of the kinetic energy releases it was concluded that these decompositions arose from the population of two excited states of the [CH3 CO][radical sign] radical.

  15. Polymorphism Analysis of Ch1 and Ch2 Genes in the Siberian Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sartore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cats are usually spreaders of allergens that are critical for sensitive people; the Siberian cat is a breed supposed to be low level allergenic, according to some breeders’ statements. The sequence of the two genes, namely Ch1 and Ch2, that code for the allergen Fel d 1, the major allergen responsible for outbreaks of allergy symptoms, is not yet known in the Siberian cat, and finding this was the aim of our investigation. Notably, our work is the first survey of the genetic structure of these genes in Siberian cats. The comparison of the sequences of Siberian cats, non-Siberian cats, and sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a considerable number of mutations; some of those detected in the Siberian cat, due to their position in exon regions, could affect the Fel d 1 allergenic properties. Therefore, further investigations are recommended to assess if the identified mutations can be responsible for a reduced-allergen synthesis and can be used as markers for selection of low level allergenic cats.

  16. Probiotika v potravinových výrobcích

    OpenAIRE

    Silná, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Probiotika jsou živé mikroorganismy, které mají pozitivní zdravotní účinky na konzumenta, pokud jsou přidána v adekvátním množství do potraviny. Nejznámnější probiotika jsou bakterie mléčného kvašení a kvasinka Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Teoretická část bakalářské práce byla zaměřena na využití probiotických mikroorganismů v potravinářství. V experimentální části bakalářské práce byly připraveny hrubé lyzáty ze třech potravinářských výrobků a metodou PCR byla dokázána přítomnost...

  17. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...... for the development of allylic C-H alkylation into a widely applicable methodology, thus providing a means to enhance synthetic efficiency in these reactions....

  18. Kinetic isotope effects in the gas phase reactions of OH and Cl with CH3Cl, CD3Cl, and 13CH3Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CH3Cl, 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH radicals and Cl atoms were studied in relative rate experiments at 298±2 K and 1013±10 mbar. The reactions were carried out in a smog chamber using long path FTIR detection and the spectroscopic data analyzed employing a non-linear least squares spectral fitting method using measured high-resolution infrared spectra as well as absorption cross sections from the HITRAN database. The reaction rates of 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH and Cl were determined relative to CH3Cl as: kOH+CH3ClkOH+CH3Cl/kOH+13CH3Cl}kOH+13CH3Cl=1.059±0.008, kOH+CH3ClkOH+CH3Cl/kOH+CD3ClkOH+CD3Cl=3.9±0.4, kCl+CH3ClkCl+CH3Cl/kCl+13CH3ClkCl+13CH3Cl =1.070±0.010 and kCl+CH3ClkCl+CH3Cl/kCl+CD3ClkCl+CD3Cl=4.91±0.07. The uncertainties given are 2σ from the statistical analyses and do not include possible systematic errors. The unexpectedly large 13C kinetic isotope effect in the OH reaction of CH3Cl has important implications for the global emission inventory of CH3Cl.

  19. δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperlich, Peter

    Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2) measure......Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2......) measurements of δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples as is required when δ13C-CH4 records that are measured in several laboratories are merged for analysis. Both the referencing and measurement techniques have been compared to further laboratories which proofed the accuracy of the analytical systems. The second part...

  20. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  1. Recent Developments in C-H Activation for Materials Science in the Center for Selective C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Kang, Lauren J; Parker, Timothy C; Blakey, Simon B; Luscombe, Christine K; Marder, Seth R

    2018-04-16

    Abstract : Organic electronics is a rapidly growing field driven in large part by the synthesis of ∏-conjugated molecules and polymers. Traditional aryl cross-coupling reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki have been used extensively in the synthesis of ∏-conjugated molecules and polymers, but the synthesis of intermediates necessary for traditional cross-couplings can include multiple steps with toxic and hazardous reagents. Direct arylation through C-H bond activation has the potential to reduce the number of steps and hazards while being more atom-economical. Within the Center for Selective C-H Functionalization (CCHF), we have been developing C-H activation methodology for the synthesis of ∏-conjugated materials of interest, including direct arylation of difficult-to-functionalize electron acceptor intermediates and living polymerization of ∏-conjugated polymers through C-H activation.

  2. Chemical reaction surface vibrational frequencies evaluated in curvilinear internal coordinates: Application to H + CH(4) H(2) + CH(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Simon T; Clary, David C

    2009-01-14

    We consider the general problem of vibrational analysis at nonglobally optimized points on a reduced dimensional reaction surface. We discuss the importance of the use of curvilinear internal coordinates to describe molecular motion and derive a curvilinear projection operator to remove the contribution of nonzero gradients from the Hessian matrix. Our projection scheme is tested in the context of a two-dimensional quantum scattering calculation for the reaction H + CH(4) --> H(2) + CH(3) and its reverse H(2) + CH(3) --> H + CH(4). Using zero-point energies calculated via rectilinear and curvilinear projections we construct two two-dimensional, adiabatically corrected, ab initio reaction surfaces for this system. It is shown that the use of curvilinear coordinates removes unphysical imaginary frequencies observed with rectilinear projection and leads to significantly improved thermal rate constants for both the forward and reverse reactions.

  3. Side chain mobility as monitored by CH-CH cross correlation: The example of cytochrome b5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Felli, Isabella C.; Hajieva, Parvana; Viezzoli, Maria Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The mobility of βCH 2 moieties in oxidized and reduced cytochrome b 5 was studied by analyzing the 13 C relaxation of the J-split components, in terms of C-H dipole-C-H dipole cross correlation rates. A 2D 13 C- 1 H experiment is proposed to measure these rates that provide the internal effective reorientation correlation time for each CH 2 moiety. It is found that higher mobility is present in the α helices forming the heme pocket. On the contrary, the β strands, which form the hydrophobic core of the molecule, have the lowest mobility. The general pattern is the same for the oxidized and reduced species, indicating that any oxidation-dependent property detected for backbone NH moieties does not affect the CH 2 mobility

  4. „Banalita“ dobra a strukturální hřích

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Mašek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the book Lucifer Effect (2007 written by the American social psychologist Philip Zimbardo, the study explores his central idea that human character can be easily manipulated and corrupted by force of ‘total situations’ and ‘systems’ and that ‘banal’ good and ‘banal’ evil are closely interlinked. Zimbardo’s position is confronted with the Catholic teaching of the ‘social’ and ‘structural sin’ and followed up by a broader philosophical reflection on the phenomenon of structural sin in ‘modern’ and ‘postmodern’ historical contexts. The idea of structural sin is developed into a hermeneutically interpreted category of a destructive ‘existential movement’ on the boundary of personal and institutionally mediated relationships.

  5. Multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escott S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Escott, Ahmad B Tarabishy, Frederick H DavidorfHavener Eye Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The paper describes the first reported case of multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis-A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. A 33-year-old male developed sudden onset of flashing lights and floaters in his right eye 3 weeks following hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. Fundus examination and angiography confirmed the presence of multiple peripheral chorioretinal lesions. These lesions demonstrated characteristic morphologic changes over a period of 8 weeks which were consistent with a diagnosis of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis. Vaccine-induced intraocular inflammation has been described infrequently. We demonstrate the first case of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous administration of hepatitis A, yellow fever, and typhoid immunizations.Keywords: multifocal choroiditis, vaccination, hepatitis A, typhoid, yellow fever

  6. 78 FR 24471 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... patterned with dark spots (Jennings and Hayes 1994, p. 74; Stebbins 2003, p. 233). These spots may be large...). Mountain yellow-legged frogs have smoother skin, generally with heavier spotting and mottling dorsally...

  7. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  8. Yellow fever vaccination during treatment with infliximab in a patient with ulcerative colitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüddel, J; Schleenvoigt, B T; Schüler, E; Schmidt, C; Pletz, M W; Stallmach, A

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 59-year-old patient who accidentally underwent live vaccination against yellow fever during continuous treatment with the TNF-α-antibody (AB) infliximab for ulcerative colitis. The clinical course showed fever of short duration and elevation of liver enzymes without further clinical complications. Yellow fever viremia was not detectable and protective antibodies were developed. A primary vaccination against yellow fever under infliximab has not been reported in the literature before, although vaccination is an important topic in IBD. Live vaccinations, like Stamaril(®) against yellow fever, are contraindicated during TNF-α-AB treatment. Treatment regimens containing TNF-α-AB are of growing importance, not only in gastroenterology, but also in rheumatology and dermatology. We discuss this topic by presenting our case and reviewing the current literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  10. Water Quality Evaluation of the Yellow River Basin Based on Gray Clustering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. Q.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Evaluating the water quality of 12 monitoring sections in the Yellow River Basin comprehensively by grey clustering method based on the water quality monitoring data from the Ministry of environmental protection of China in May 2016 and the environmental quality standard of surface water. The results can reflect the water quality of the Yellow River Basin objectively. Furthermore, the evaluation results are basically the same when compared with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results also show that the overall water quality of the Yellow River Basin is good and coincident with the actual situation of the Yellow River basin. Overall, gray clustering method for water quality evaluation is reasonable and feasible and it is also convenient to calculate.

  11. Molecular analysis of yellow fever virus 17DD vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Post

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation produces most of the yellow fever (YF vaccine prepared world wide. As part of a broader approach to determine the genetic variability in YF l7D seeds and vaccines and its relevance to viral attenuation the 17DD virus was purifed directly from chick embryo homogenates which is the source of virus used for vaccination of millions of people in Brazil and other countries for half a century. Neutralization and hemagglutination tests showed that the purified virus is similar to the original stock. Furthermore, radioimmune precipitation of 35S-methionine-labeled viral proteins using mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluid revealed identical patterns for the purified 17DD virus and the YF l7D-204 strain except for the 17DD E protein which migrated slower on SDS-PAGE. This difference is likely to be due to N-linked glycosylation. Finally, comparison by northern blot nybridization of virion RNAs of purified 17DD with two other strains of YF virus only fenome-sized molecules for all three viruses. These observations suggest that vaccine phenotype is primarily associated with the accumulation of mutations.

  12. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Yellow fever vaccination status and safety in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facincani, Tila; Guimarães, Maia Nogueira Crown; De Sousa Dos Santos, Sigrid

    2016-07-01

    The adverse effects of yellow fever (YF) vaccine in dialysis patients are not well known. There is concern about the risks and benefits of the vaccine in immunocompromised patients living in endemic areas, particularly given the risk of resurgence of urban YF with the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The purpose of this study was to assess the coverage and safety of YF vaccine in chronic dialysis patients. A cross-sectional study of 130 chronic dialysis patients was performed. Data were collected on clinical characteristics and YF vaccine status. Patients not vaccinated against YF or without a booster vaccination within the last 10 years were referred to receive the vaccine, and adverse effects were monitored. Previous vaccination was verified in 44 patients within the last 10 years and in 26 patients at more than 10 years ago, with no mention of adverse effects. Thirty-six patients had never been vaccinated and 24 had an unknown vaccination status. Of the total 86 patients referred for immunization, 45 actually received the YF vaccine, with 24.4% experiencing mild local adverse effects and 4.4% experiencing fever. No serious adverse effects attributable to YF vaccine were observed (anaphylaxis, neurological or viscerotropic disease). YF vaccine coverage among hemodialysis patients is low, and the vaccine appeared to be safe in this population with a small sample size. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Diallo, Mawlouth; Janusz, Kristen B; Manengu, Casimir; Lewis, Rosamund F; Perea, William; Yactayo, Sergio; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-10-01

    Starting in 2008, the Central African Republic (CAR) experienced an unprecedented number of reported yellow fever (YF) cases. A risk assessment of YF virus (YFV) activity was conducted to estimate potential disease risk and vaccine needs. A multistage cluster sampling design was used to sample humans, non-human primates, and mosquitoes in distinct ecologic zones. Humans and non-human primates were tested for YFV-specific antibodies; mosquitoes were tested for YFV RNA. Overall, 13.3% (125/938) of humans were found to have naturally-acquired YFV antibodies. Antibody levels were higher in zones in the southern and south central regions of CAR. All sampled non-human primates (n=56) were known YFV reservoirs; one tested positive for YFV antibodies. Several known YF vectors were identified including Aedes africanus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. luteocephalus, and Ae. simpsoni. Several more urban locations were found to have elevated Breateau and Container indices for Ae. aegypti. A country-wide assessment of YF risk found YFV to be endemic in CAR. The potential for future YF cases and outbreaks, however, varied by ecologic zone. Improved vaccination coverage through mass campaign and childhood immunization was recommended to mitigate the YF risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Importation of yellow fever into China: assessing travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Leong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Rapid increase in trade and a growing air passenger market encourages high travel volume between the regions associated with increasing risks of such importations including China. Eleven Chinese workers infected during the 2016 yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Angola imported YF into China highlighting the potential for spread into Asia. Using outbound and inbound travel data, we assessed travel patterns from and to YF endemic countries in relation to China. Among YF endemic countries, Angola has the second highest number of travellers into China and also receives the second highest number of Chinese visitors. We estimated that China needs around half a million YF vaccine doses to cover their population travelling to YF endemic countries. The recent importation cases into China also unmasked the low YF vaccination coverage among Chinese travellers and workers to Angola, indicating the need to ensure better adherence to the International Health Regulations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017.. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON YELLOW FEVER IN NORTHERN PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Kligler, I J

    1921-01-31

    Fourteen typical cases of yellow fever were studied in northern Peru during an epidemic occurring in 1920, nine in Payta in March and April, and five in Morropon and Piura in April and May. The method of investigation was similar to that previously employed, but as the laboratory facilities were very meager certain changes were required. Although in Payta the work was handicapped by the lack of electric light, the scarcity of water and animal food, the unsuitability of the guinea pigs for inoculation, and the changes in culture media due to age, the results obtained under these adverse conditions were by no means negative. While in no instance was there a typical infection produced in animals, either by direct inoculation of blood or with culture materials, yet certain guinea pigs in each series showed temporary febrile reactions or definite hemorrhagic lesions of the lungs indicative of a mild leptospira infection. Direct search for Leptospira icteroides in the blood of patients or in culture materials was not made because the dark-field microscope could not be used. Subsequently, at Piura, the laboratory facilities were vastly, improved, the use of the dark-field microscope was made possible by means of a storage battery, and a fresh stock of young healthy guinea pigs was received from New York, and fresh rabbit serum obtained in Piura. In the study of the materials obtained from five cases of yellow fever in Morropon all these added facilities were taken advantage of, with the result that the outcome was positive and convincing. Cultures from the five cases were examined after 11, 12, and 13 days, and in those from three cases living leptospiras were found. By inoculation into suitable guinea pigs of culture material from these five cases, irrespective of whether or not leptospiras were detected under the dark-field microscope, a typical Leptospira icteroides infection was produced from four of the five cases. In one of these no leptospira had been detected in

  17. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  18. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  19. Conservation period extension of sweet yellow maize by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.; Narvaiz, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with fresh sweet yellow maize which was peeled and wrapped in PVC ('resinite'). Two lots were irradiated in the semi-industrial 60 Co facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with doses of 0.5 and 1.2kGy, respectively. A non irradiated lot was kept as control. Samples were stored at 3±2 deg C and 94±5%RH for 30 days. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis were performed. Fungal and bacterial load were reduced in one half and one decades, respectively, with the application of 0.5 and 1.2kGy. The reduction obtained was slightly increased along storage. Insects were already inactivated with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Weight loss increased linearly with storage time, being always less than 2%, without significant differences between control and irradiated samples. Carotene and reducing sugar contents diminished along storage, practically without differences between control and irradiated samples. Irradiation almost duplicated the time during which commercial quality was very good, without deleterious effects on the evaluated organoleptic attributes: external appearance and manual texture, in raw state, and flavour and chewing texture, in cooked state. (Author)

  20. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control, EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product.

  1. Polyamine biosynthesis and the replication of turnip yellow mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By seven days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly-emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. These protoplasts contain 1-2 x 10 6 virions per cell and continue to produce virus in culture for at least 48 hours. [ 14 C]-Spermidine (10 μM) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hours. However, the spermidine content of the cell was only marginally affected, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous [ 14 C]-spermidine was also readily incorporated into the nucleic acid-containing component of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. Thus, newly-formed virions contained predominantly newly-synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) led to incorporation of pre-existing spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly-formed virions. The latter results were tested and confirmed in a second cellular system, consisting of health protoplasts infected with TYMC in vitro

  2. Multiple paternity in the cultured yellow pond turtles (Mauremys mutica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Wei; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2017-08-01

    As a result of hunting and habitat loss, wild populations of the yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, are decreasing. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers M. mutica to be an endangered species. All studied freshwater turtles have polyandrous mating with multiple paternity. To survey the mating strategies of M. mutica, 1year's genetic data of parents and all offspring in an artificially captive population were analyzed. Two groups of multiplex PCR containing 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the paternity of 302 hatchlings from 132 parents and from 159 clutches. The genetic data indicated that multiple paternity is rare in M. mutica, occurring in only seven of 138 clutches. Although the frequency of multiple paternity was only 5.07%, results of the present research indicate that M. mutica has a polyandrous mating system. In the breeding season, the successive clutches of 34 females each had the same paternity as the previous clutches. It was observed that four males (f85, f58, f87, and f76) had more than 20 offspring each, totaling 99 and representing 32.78% of all offspring. This finding implies that paternity is competitive in this artificially captive population and might bias the genetic diversity of the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Equilibrium Analysis of a Yellow Fever Dynamical Model with Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martorano Raimundo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies.

  4. Síndrome da unha amarela Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maciel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da unha amarela é uma entidade clínica rara caracterizada por três achados principais: alterações distróficas e de coloração das unhas, linfedema e derrame pleural. Bronquiectasias e rinossinusite crônica têm sido freqüentemente associadas. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com os achados completos da síndrome, com derrame pleural bilateral e que estava em tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar havia nove meses. Na sua história familiar havia a descrição de dois casos semelhantes, em irmã e irmão.Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by three main features: discoloration of the nails, together with dystrophic alterations; lymphedema; and pleural effusion. It is often accompanied by bronchiectasis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Herein, we report a case of the complete syndrome with bilateral pleural effusion in a patient under treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis for nine months. There was a family history of two similar cases in siblings.

  5. Glycine Insertion Makes Yellow Fluorescent Protein Sensitive to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Imada, Katsumi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takamitsu J.; Kinoshita, Miki; Fujita, Hideaki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent protein-based indicators for intracellular environment conditions such as pH and ion concentrations are commonly used to study the status and dynamics of living cells. Despite being an important factor in many biological processes, the development of an indicator for the physicochemical state of water, such as pressure, viscosity and temperature, however, has been neglected. We here found a novel mutation that dramatically enhances the pressure dependency of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) by inserting several glycines into it. The crystal structure of the mutant showed that the tyrosine near the chromophore flipped toward the outside of the β-can structure, resulting in the entry of a few water molecules near the chromophore. In response to changes in hydrostatic pressure, a spectrum shift and an intensity change of the fluorescence were observed. By measuring the fluorescence of the YFP mutant, we succeeded in measuring the intracellular pressure change in living cell. This study shows a new strategy of design to engineer fluorescent protein indicators to sense hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24014139

  6. Removal of Acid Yellow 17 Dye by Fenton Oxidation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jehangeer; Sayed, Murtaza; Ali, Fayaz; Khan, Hasan Mahmood

    2018-05-01

    In the present research work the degradation of acid yellow 17 (AY 17) by H2O2/Fe2+ was investigated. The effect of various conditions such as pH value, temperature, conc. of H2O2, Fe2+, conc. of AY 17 were studied. Additionally the scavenging effects of various anions such as Cl-, SO42-, CO32- and HCO3-, on percent degradation of AY 17 were examined. It was found that these anions decrease percent degradation as well as rate of degradation reaction. The optimum conditions were determined as [AY 17]=[Fe2+]=0.06 mM [H2O2]=0.9 mM, and pH 3.0 for 60 min of reaction time. It was found that at optimum conditions 89% degradation of AY17 was achieved. The degradation kinetics of AY17 followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Thermodynamic studies under natural conditions showed positive value of ΔH (enthalpy) which indicates the degradation process is endothermic.

  7. Effect of human activities on overall trend of sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiongxin, Xu

    2004-05-01

    The Yellow River has been intensively affected by human activities, particularly in the past 50 years, including soil-water conservation in the upper and middle drainage basin, flood protection in the lower reaches, and flow regulation and water diversion in the whole drainage basin. All these changes may impact sedimentation process of the lower Yellow River in different ways. Assessing these impacts comprehensively is important for more effective environmental management of the drainage basin. Based on the data of annual river flow, sediment load, and channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River between 1950 and 1997, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the overall trend of channel sedimentation rate at a time scale of 50 years, and its formative cause. It was found in this study that erosion control measures and water diversion have counteractive impacts on sedimentation rate in the lower Yellow River. Although both annual river flow and sediment decreased, there was no change in channel sedimentation rate. A regression analysis indicated that the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River decreased with the sediment input to the lower Yellow River but increased with the river flow input. In the past 30-40 years, the basin-wide practice of erosion and sediment control measures resulted in a decline in sediment supply to the Yellow River; at the same time, the human development of water resources that required river flow regulation and water diversion caused great reduction in river flow. The former may reduce the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, but the reduction of river flow increased the sedimentation. When their effects counterbalanced each other, the overall trend of channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River remained unchanged. This fact may help us to better understand the positive and negative effects of human activities in the Yellow River basin and to pay more attention to the negative effect of the development of water resources. The

  8. Electrical Resistance of Ag-TS-S(CH2)(n-1)CH3//Ga2O3/EGaln Tunneling Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cademartiri, Ludovico; Thuo, Martin M.; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Reus, William F.; Tricard, Simon; Barber, Jabulani R.; Sodhi, Rana N. S.; Brodersen, Peter; Kim, Choongik; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Tunneling junctions having the structure Ag-TS-S(CH2)(n-1)CH3//Ga2O3/EGaIn allow physical-organic studies of charge transport across self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In ambient conditions, the surface of the liquid metal electrode (EGaIn, 75.5 wt % Ga, 24.5 wt % In, mp 15.7 degrees C) oxidizes and

  9. Identification of three genotypes of sugarcane yellow leaf virus causing yellow leaf disease from India and their molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

    2008-12-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) that causes yellow leaf disease (YLD) in sugarcane (recently reported in India) belongs to Polerovirus. Detailed studies were conducted to characterize the virus based on partial open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 and complete ORFs 3 and 4 sequences in their genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on 48 sugarcane leaf samples to detect the virus using a specific set of primers. Of the 48 samples, 36 samples (field samples with and without foliar symptoms) including 10 meristem culture derived plants were found to be positive to SCYLV infection. Additionally, an aphid colony collected from symptomatic sugarcane in the field was also found to be SCYLV positive. The amplicons from 22 samples were cloned, sequenced and acronymed as SCYLV-CB isolates. The nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence comparison showed a significant variation between SCYLV-CB and the database sequences at nt (3.7-5.1%) and aa (3.2-5.3%) sequence level in the CP coding region. However, the database sequences comprising isolates of three reported genotypes, viz., BRA, PER and REU, were observed with least nt and aa sequence dissimilarities (0.0-1.6%). The phylogenetic analyses of the overlapping ORFs (ORF 3 and ORF 4) of SCYLV encoding CP and MP determined in this study and additional sequences of 26 other isolates including an Indian isolate (SCYLV-IND) available from GenBank were distributed in four phylogenetic clusters. The SCYLV-CB isolates from this study lineated in two clusters (C1 and C2) and all the other isolates from the worldwide locations into another two clusters (C3 and C4). The sequence variation of the isolates in this study with the database isolates, even in the least variable region of the SCYLV genome, showed that the population existing in India is significantly different from rest of the world. Further, comparison of partial sequences encoding for ORFs 1 and 2 revealed that YLD in sugarcane in

  10. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Y; Heise, K P

    1998-01-01

    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  11. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, FM; Moyes, CL; Pigott, DM; Marinho, F; Deshpande, A; Longbottom, J; Browne, AJ; Kraemer, MUG; O’Reilly, KM; Hombach, J; Yactayo, S; de Araújo, VEM; da Nόbrega, AA; Mosser, JF; Stanaway, JD

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background: Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. Methods: ...

  12. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Nomo, Emmanuel; Mawo, Jeanne; Ofal, James; Mimbouga, Julienne; Ticha, Johnson; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods ...

  13. Effect of calcium cyanamide on growth and nutrition of plan fed yellow-poplar seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; G.W. Wendel; G.W. Wendel

    1973-01-01

    Calcium cyanamide, a nitrogenous fertilizer that also acts as an herbicide, was evaluated over a 3-year period for use in establishing planted yellow-poplar on an old-field site. Results of this study show that first and second year growth of yellow-poplar can be increased by nbroadcasting CaCN2 around the seedlings. When applied at rates of 400 to 500 pounds of...

  14. The processing of used cooking oil (yellow grease) using combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnelly, C. M.; Sofyana; Amalia, D.; Sarah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Yellow grease is used cooking oil whose quality has degraded due to the oxidation, polymerization, or hydrolysis process. In previous studies, yellow grease refining had been conducted either by adsorption or by using membrane. In this study, adsorption process using adsorbent from bagasse activated with H3PO4 12.5%, and ultrafiltration using Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane were combined. In adsorption stage, several variation of bagasse mass was fed into 200 ml of yellow grease and stirred for 60 minutes at 60 rpm. Yellow grease produced from adsorption with best condition was then processed using ultrafiltration membran that is PES membran with concentration by 15 wt % with transmembrane pressure variation by 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; and 2.5 Bar. Analysis of yellow grease characteristics before refined showed its acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content respectively by 2.68 mgKOH/Kg; 5.97 Meq/Kg; 51,48; and 1.29%. Characteristics of yellow grease after adsorption at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 2.55 mgKOH/Kg; 4.19 Meq/Kg; 40,02; and 0.27%. Characteristics of yellow grease after ultrafiltration at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 1.12 mgKOH/Kg; 1.8 Meq/Kg; 41,36; and 0.02%. Combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration processes for yellow grease processing showed decreasing value on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, and water content that conforms to the SNI quality standard, but has not been able to increase the iodine number.

  15. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Knoester, Marjolein; van den Berg, Aad P; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Oude Velthuis, Bob; Pas, Suzan D; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Vreden, Stephen Gs; van der Werf, Tjip S; Reusken, Chantal Bem; Bierman, Wouter Fw

    2017-03-16

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Relating Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) occupancy to habitat and landscape features in the context of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) is a focal species of concern associated with shallowly flooded emergent wetlands, most commonly sedge (Carex spp.) meadows. Their populations are believed to be limited by loss or degradation of wetland habitat due to drainage, altered hydrology, and fire suppression, factors that have often resulted in encroachment of shrubs into sedge meadows and change in vegetative cover. Nocturnal call-playback surveys for Yellow Rails were conducted over 3 years at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Effects of habitat structure and landscape variables on the probability of use by Yellow Rails were assessed at two scales, representing a range of home range sizes, using generalized linear mixed models. At the 163-m (8-ha) scale, year with quadratic models of maximum and mean water depths best explained the data. At the 300-m (28-ha) scale, the best model contained year and time since last fire (≤ 1, 2–5, and > 10 years). The probability of use by Yellow Rails was 0.285 ± 0.132 (SE) for points burned 2-5 years ago, 0.253 ± 0.097 for points burned ≤ 1 year ago, and 0.028 ± 0.019 for points burned > 10 years ago. Habitat differences relative to fire history and comparisons between sites with and without Yellow Rails indicated that Yellow Rails used areas with the deepest litter and highest ground cover, and relatively low shrub cover and heights, as well as landscapes having greater sedge-grass cover and less lowland woody or upland cover types. Burning every 2-5 years appears to provide the litter, ground-level cover, and woody conditions attractive to Yellow Rails. Managers seeking to restore and sustain these wetland systems would benefit from further investigations into how flooding and fire create habitat conditions attractive to breeding Yellow Rails

  18. Study of the behaviour of the yellow cake dissolution in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mansur, E. de.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the solubility of the yellow cake produced in a Brazilian uranium mill to permit classification of the inhaled material and to aid bioassay interpretation. The powder was taken from 6 different lots of yellow cake produced during 10 weeks mill operation period. Dissolution fractions and half-times were obtained using simulated lung fluid in a shaker bath at 37 0 C for 30 days. Uranium concentration were determined by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  19. Changes in tree density do not influence epicormic branching of yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1977-01-01

    Epicormic branching was studied in a West Virginia yellow-poplar stand thinned to various tree density levels. Study trees in the 55- to 60-year-old second-growth stand were primarily codominant in crown class with 32 to 48 feet of log height. Eight-year study results indicated that yellow-poplar trees in this age class and locale could be thinned without serious loss...

  20. Incoherent Manipulation of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Photocycle with Dispersed Pump-Dump-Probe Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Delmar S.; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Vengris, Mikas; van der Horst, Michael A.; de Weerd, Frank L.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the ``blue-light vision¿¿ of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, where the photocycle can be started and interrupted with appropriately tuned and timed laser pulses. This ``incoherent¿¿ manipulation of the photocycle allows for the d...

  1. Susceptibility of Koi and Yellow Perch to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by experimental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alexander D.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a novirhabdoviral pathogen that originated in western North America among anadromous Pacific salmonids. Severe disease epidemics in the late 1970s resulting from IHNV's invasion into farmed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in North America, Asia, and Europe emphasized IHNV's ability to adapt to new hosts under varying rearing conditions. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio (hereafter, “Koi”) are aquaculture-reared fish that are highly valued in sport fisheries and the ornamental fish trade, respectively, but it is unknown whether these fish species are vulnerable to IHNV infection. In this study, we exposed Yellow Perch, Koi, and steelhead (anadromous Rainbow Trout) to IHNV by intraperitoneal injection (106 PFU/fish) and by immersion (5.7×105 PFU/mL) for 7 h, and monitored fish for 28 d. The extended immersion exposure and high virus concentrations used in the challenges were to determine if the tested fish had any level of susceptibility. After experimental exposure, Yellow Perch and Koi experienced low mortality (35%). Virus was found in dead fish of all species tested and in surviving Yellow Perch by plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), with a higher prevalence in Yellow Perch than Koi. Infectious virus was also detected in Yellow Perch out to 5 d after bath challenge. These findings indicate that Yellow Perch and Koi are highly resistant to IHNV disease under the conditions tested, but Yellow Perch are susceptible to infection and may serve as possible virus carriers.

  2. Sources of resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in wheat-alien introgressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food and the main source of caloric intake in most developing countries, and thereby an important source in order to maintain food security for the growing populations in those countries. Stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, and yellow rust P. striiformis f. sp. tritici of wheat continues to cause severe damage locally and globally, thereby contributing to food insecurity. In this paper biology and taxonomy of stem rust and yellow rust, breeding for resistance, util...

  3. ChIPnorm: a statistical method for normalizing and identifying differential regions in histone modification ChIP-seq libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nishanth Ulhas; Sahu, Avinash Das; Bucher, Philipp; Moret, Bernard M E

    2012-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-seq has made possible the study of histone modifications. A problem of particular interest is the identification of regions of the genome where different cell types from the same organism exhibit different patterns of histone enrichment. This problem turns out to be surprisingly difficult, even in simple pairwise comparisons, because of the significant level of noise in ChIP-seq data. In this paper we propose a two-stage statistical method, called ChIPnorm, to normalize ChIP-seq data, and to find differential regions in the genome, given two libraries of histone modifications of different cell types. We show that the ChIPnorm method removes most of the noise and bias in the data and outperforms other normalization methods. We correlate the histone marks with gene expression data and confirm that histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 act as respectively a repressor and an activator of genes. Compared to what was previously reported in the literature, we find that a substantially higher fraction of bivalent marks in ES cells for H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 move into a K27-only state. We find that most of the promoter regions in protein-coding genes have differential histone-modification sites. The software for this work can be downloaded from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html.

  4. Photolysis of CH3CHO at 248 nm: Evidence of triple fragmentation from primary quantum yield of CH3 and HCO radicals and H atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morajkar, Pranay; Bossolasco, Adriana; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2014-06-01

    Radical quantum yields have been measured following the 248 nm photolysis of acetaldehyde, CH3CHO. HCO radical and H atom yields have been quantified by time resolved continuous wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the near infrared following their conversion to HO2 radicals by reaction with O2. The CH3 radical yield has been determined using the same technique following their conversion into CH3O2. Absolute yields have been deduced for HCO radicals and H atoms through fitting of time resolved HO2 profiles, obtained under various O2 concentrations, to a complex model, while the CH3 yield has been determined relative to the CH3 yield from 248 nm photolysis of CH3I. Time resolved HO2 profiles under very low O2 concentrations suggest that another unknown HO2 forming reaction path exists in this reaction system besides the conversion of HCO radicals and H atoms by reaction with O2. HO2 profiles can be well reproduced under a large range of experimental conditions with the following quantum yields: CH3CHO + hν248nm → CH3CHO*, CH3CHO* → CH3 + HCO ϕ1a = 0.125 ± 0.03, CH3CHO* → CH3 + H + CO ϕ1e = 0.205 ± 0.04, CH3CHO*{to 2pc{rArrfill}}limits^{o2}CH3CO + HO2 ϕ1f = 0.07 ± 0.01. The CH3O2 quantum yield has been determined in separate experiments as φ_{CH3} = 0.33 ± 0.03 and is in excellent agreement with the CH3 yields derived from the HO2 measurements considering that the triple fragmentation (R1e) is an important reaction path in the 248 nm photolysis of CH3CHO. From arithmetic considerations taking into account the HO2 and CH3 measurements we deduce a remaining quantum yield for the molecular pathway: CH3CHO* → CH4 + CO ϕ1b = 0.6. All experiments can be consistently explained with absence of the formerly considered pathway: CH3CHO* → CH3CO + H ϕ1c = 0.

  5. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  7. Betalains in red and yellow varieties of the Andean tuber crop ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Johan; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Sansom, Catherine E; Perry, Nigel B

    2008-09-10

    The betalain pigments in ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus), a tuberous crop native to the Andes, have been investigated for the first time using LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS(2) analyses. Five red, yellow, and red-spotted accessions introduced into New Zealand as a new food crop plus two red tetraploid lines were investigated. Thirty-two different betalains were identified. Both the yellow and red tubers were rich in yellow betaxanthins, and the most prominent among the 20 identified were histidine-betaxanthin, arginine-betaxanthin and glutamine-betaxanthin. Arginine-betaxanthin has been reported to occur naturally only once before and was found in yellow ulluco but not in the red tubers. Twelve betacyanins were found in red tubers, with roughly 50% of this content being betanin/isobetanin. Betacyanin levels were up to 70 microg/g fresh weight in red tubers, but were below quantifiable levels in yellow tubers. Betaxanthin levels were up to 50 microg/g fresh weight in yellow tubers. Interference by betacyanins in measuring levels of betaxanthins by visible spectrophotometry is discussed. Low concentrations of betalains were detected in leaves, whereas stems contained total levels similar to the tubers, with dopamine-betaxanthin and betanin being the major pigments. This is the first report describing both the betacyanin and betaxanthin patterns in a plant from the Basellaceae family.

  8. Magnetic and structural properties of yellow europium oxide compound and Eu(OH)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Valladares, Luis de los Santos; Avalos Quispe, O.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.

    2015-01-01

    A new material based on a yellow europium oxide compound was prepared from europium oxide in a high vacuum environment. The structural and magnetic properties of the material were investigated. Owing to the absence of a crystal structure, the material exhibited a disordered magnetic behavior. In a reaction with deionized (DI) water without applied heat, the compound assumed a white color as soon as the DI water reached the powder, and the structure became polycrystalline Eu(OH) 3 . The magnetic properties, such as the thermal hysteresis, disappeared after the reaction with DI water, and the magnetic susceptibility of the yellow oxide compound weakened. The magnetic properties of Eu(OH) 3 were also examined. Although Eu 3+ is present in Eu(OH) 3 , a high magnetic moment due to the crystal field effect was observed. - Graphical abstract: (top left) Optical image of the yellow europium oxide compound. (top right) Optical image of the product of DI water and yellow europium oxide. (bottom) Magnetization curves as a function of temperature measured in various magnetic field. - Highlights: • We prepared a new material based on a yellow europium oxide compound from europium oxide. • We characterized the magnetic properties of the material which exhibits a disordered magnetic behavior such as thermal hysteresis. • The compound turned white (Eu(OH) 3 ) as soon as the DI water reached the powder. • The thermal hysteresis disappeared after the reaction with DI water and the magnetic susceptibility of the yellow oxide compound weakened

  9. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. The use of colour name yellow in English and Serbian phraseologisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Jelena R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows in what ways the colour name yellow is associated with extra-linguistic reality in the English language. In Serbian translations, we can see many similarities, but also the absolute impossibility of finding either formal or partial correspondents considering metaphorical phraseologisms, or pure idioms, such as for example, those in which this colour is associated with jealousy (He wears yellow stockings or cowardice (He's yellow. The most similar comparisons are those with the sunshine and gold, but there are those that, when translated into Serbian, sound strange, such as yellow as marigold or yellow as a crow's foot. Similarly, it would be strange to use this colour name describing a face (or a whole person looking unhealthy, where in Serbian we use comparison 'yellow as wax'. Metonymically, the colour transfers and labels the whole group of people who supposedly have such a colour, as can be seen from examples high yellow, yellow peril, yellow line. In the Serbian language, people from Asia are also sometimes called the 'yellow', and in Serbian, as well as in the English language, this term has derogatory meaning, but the English language is a bit richer in these phraseologisms, perhaps because people from this continent started to settle in the territory of English-speaking countries earlier than in our country. In the English language, people are qualified by the phraseologisms yellow admiral and yellow dog as well, and those are also pure idioms: it is only possible to translate them into the Serbian language by semantic correspondents - nickname for those who were promoted from captain to admiral and smuggler of alcoholic beverages (or, in another sememe 'the one who is in opposition to the Union of merchants or trade unions'. Common to both languages is the use of this colour name for descriptions of old things (or people, as can be seen from the phraseologisms 'the sere and yellow leaf', 'the paper yellowed with age' and

  11. SEARCHING FOR NEW YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STARS: POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF StHα63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O. [Unidad de Astronomía, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Per (Peru); Pereira, C. B.; Alvarez-Candal, A. [Observatório Nacional/MCTI, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F., E-mail: nobar.baella@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: alvarez@on.br, E-mail: lfm@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía- CSIC, C/Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets for probing whether mass transfer has happened in their binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars that were selected by their positions in the 2MASS (J − H) versus (H − K{sub s}) diagram and which were included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHα63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]{sub 1}–[TiO]{sub 2} diagram, which indicates a K4–K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (∼10{sup 8.4} cm{sup −3}) and several emission-line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3–W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and therefore can be used as an additional tool for selecting candidate yellow symbiotic stars.

  12. Vývoj kompozitních maltových a cementových směsí

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavinková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Předkládaná diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem složení a studiem vlastností ternárního pojivého systému na bázi účelového vzniku ettringitu, následně užitého k přípravě samonivelačních podlahových hmot typu potěr a stěrka. U navržených skladeb daných směsí je posléze zaměřena pozornost na optimalizaci dávkování dvou druhů plastifikační přísady s následným posouzením jejich vlivu na technologické vlastnosti těchto hmot. This diploma thesis deals with the design of composition and the study o...

  13. CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4: Infrared spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, Timothy J.; Pivesso, Bruno Pasquini; Lira, Alane Moura; Anderson, James E.; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen; Andersen, Niels Højmark; Hodnebrog, Øivind

    2016-01-01

    Infrared spectra for the title compounds were measured experimentally in 700 Torr of air at 295 K and systematically modeled in B3LYP, M06-2X and MP2 calculations employing various basis sets. Calibrated infrared spectra over the wavenumber range 600–3500 cm"−"1 are reported and combined with literature data to provide spectra for use in experimental studies and radiative transfer calculations. Integrated absorption cross sections are (units of cm"−"1 molecule"−"1): CH_3Cl, 660–780 cm"−"1, (3.89±0.19)×10"−"1"8; CH_2Cl_2, 650–800 cm"−"1, (2.16±0.11)×10"−"1"7; CHCl_3, 720–810 cm"−"1, (4.08±0.20)×10"−"1"7; and CCl_4, 730–825 cm"−"1, (6.30±0.31)×10"−"1"7. CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 have radiative efficiencies of 0.004, 0.028, 0.070, and 0.174 W m"−"2 ppb"−"1 and global warming potentials (100 year horizon) of 5, 8, 15, and 1775, respectively. Quantum chemistry calculations generally predict larger band intensities than the experimental values. The best agreement with experiments is obtained in MP2(Full) calculations employing basis sets of at least triple-zeta quality augmented by diffuse functions. The B3LYP functional is found ill-suited for calculating vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of halocarbons. - Highlights: • Infrared spectra reported for CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4. • REs of CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 are 0.004, 0.028, 0.070, and 0.174 W m"−"2 ppb"−"1, respectively. • GWPs of CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 are 5, 8, 15, and 1775, respectively.

  14. Exploring the crystallization landscape of cadmium bis(N-hydroxyethyl, N-isopropyldithiocarbamate), Cd[S2CN(iPr)CH2CH2OH]2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yee Seng; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R.T.; Sunway Univ., Bandar Sunway

    2016-01-01

    Crystallization of Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 from ethanol yields the coordination polymer [{Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 }.EtOH] ∞ (1) within 3 h. When the solution is allowed to stand for another hour, the needles begin to dissolve and prisms emerge of the supramolecular isomer (SI), binuclear {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 .2EtOH (2). These have been fully characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography. Polymeric 1 has 2-fold symmetry and features dithiocarbamate ligands coordinating two octahedral Cd atoms in a μ 2 κ 2 -tridentate mode. Binuclear 2 is centrosymmetric with two ligands being μ 2 κ 2 -tridentate as for 1 but the other two being κ 2 -chelating leading to square pyramidal geometries. The conversion of the kinetic crystallization product, 1, to thermodynamic 2 is irreversible but transformations mediated by recrystallization (ethanol and acetonitrile) to related literature SI species, namely coordination polymer [{Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 3 .MeCN] ∞ and binuclear {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 .2H 2 O.2MeCN, are demonstrated, some of which are reversible. Three other crystallization outcomes are described whereby crystal structures were obtained for the 1:2 co-crystal {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 :2[3-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione] (3), the salt co-crystal [iPrNH 2 (CH 2 CH 2 OH)] 4 [SO 4 ] 2 {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 (4) and the salt [iPrNH 2 (CH 2 CH 2 OH)]{Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 3 } (5). These arise as a result of decomposition/oxidation of the dithiocarbamate ligands. In each of 3 and 4 the binuclear {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 SI, as in 2, is observed strongly suggesting a thermodynamic preference for this form.

  15. Relative rate study of the kinetic isotope effect in the 13CH3D + Cl reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Lars Magnus Torvald; Forecast, Roslyn; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The 13CH3D/12CH4kinetic isotope effect, α13CH3D, of CH4 + Cl is determined for the first time, using the relative rate technique and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. α13CH3D is found to be 1.60 ± 0.04. In addition, a quantum chemistry/transition state theory model with tunneling...

  16. The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H-2, CH4 and CH4/H-2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; Darmeveil, Harry; Levinsky, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Autoignition delay times of stoichiometric and fuel-lean (phi = 0.5) H-2, H-2/CO, CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/H-2 and CH4/CO/H-2 mixtures have been measured in an Rapid Compression Machine at pressures ranging from 20 to 80 bar and in the temperature range 900-1100K. The effects of CO addition on the ignition

  17. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People's Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity.

  18. Dissection of antibody specificities induced by yellow fever vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vratskikh

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever (YF vaccine has an excellent record of efficacy and one dose provides long-lasting immunity, which in many cases may last a lifetime. Vaccination stimulates strong innate and adaptive immune responses, and neutralizing antibodies are considered to be the major effectors that correlate with protection from disease. Similar to other flaviviruses, such antibodies are primarily induced by the viral envelope protein E, which consists of three distinct domains (DI, II, and III and is presented at the surface of mature flavivirions in an icosahedral arrangement. In general, the dominance and individual variation of antibodies to different domains of viral surface proteins and their impact on neutralizing activity are aspects of humoral immunity that are not well understood. To gain insight into these phenomena, we established a platform of immunoassays using recombinant proteins and protein domains that allowed us to dissect and quantify fine specificities of the polyclonal antibody response after YF vaccination in a panel of 51 vaccinees as well as determine their contribution to virus neutralization by serum depletion analyses. Our data revealed a high degree of individual variation in antibody specificities present in post-vaccination sera and differences in the contribution of different antibody subsets to virus neutralization. Irrespective of individual variation, a substantial proportion of neutralizing activity appeared to be due to antibodies directed to complex quaternary epitopes displayed on the virion surface only but not on monomeric E. On the other hand, DIII-specific antibodies (presumed to have the highest neutralizing activity as well as broadly flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies were absent or present at very low titers. These data provide new information on the fine specificity as well as variability of antibody responses after YF vaccination that are consistent with a strong influence of individual

  19. Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination, 2007-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Rabe, Ingrid B; Miller, Elaine R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2016-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccines have been available since the 1930s and are generally considered safe and effective. However, rare reports of serious adverse events (SAE) following vaccination have prompted the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices to periodically expand the list of conditions considered contraindications and precautions to vaccination. We describe adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2007 through 2013 and calculate age- and sex-specific reporting rates of all SAE, anaphylaxis, YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND) and YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). There were 938 adverse events following YF vaccination reported to VAERS from 2007 through 2013. Of these, 84 (9%) were classified as SAEs for a rate of 3.8 per 100 000 doses distributed. Reporting rates of SAEs increased with increasing age with a rate of 6.5 per 100 000 in persons aged 60-69 years and 10.3 for ≥70 years. The reporting rate for anaphylaxis was 1.3 per 100 000 doses distributed and was highest in persons ≤18 years (2.7 per 100 000). Reporting rates of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD were 0.8 and 0.3 per 100 000 doses distributed, respectively; both rates increased with increasing age. These findings reinforce the generally acceptable safety profile of YF vaccine, but highlight the importance of continued physician and traveller education regarding the risks and benefits of YF vaccination, particularly for older travellers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  20. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Maciel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated yellow fever (YF virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE, aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  1. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  2. Molecular characterization of the 17D-204 yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Maud; Gazaignes, Sandrine; Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Garnier, Fabienne; Korimbocus, Jehanara; Colin de Verdière, Nathalie; LeGoff, Jerome; Roques, Pierre; Simon, François

    2015-10-05

    The worldwide use of yellow fever (YF) live attenuated vaccines came recently under close scrutiny as rare but serious adverse events have been reported. The population identified at major risk for these safety issues were extreme ages and immunocompromised subjects. Study NCT01426243 conducted by the French National Agency for AIDS research is an ongoing interventional study to evaluate the safety of the vaccine and the specific immune responses in HIV-infected patients following 17D-204 vaccination. As a preliminary study, we characterized the molecular diversity from E gene of the single 17D-204 vaccine batch used in this clinical study. Eight vials of lyophilized 17D-204 vaccine (Stamaril, Sanofi-Pasteur, Lyon, France) of the E5499 batch were reconstituted for viral quantification, cloning and sequencing of C/prM/E region. The average rate of virions per vial was 8.68 ± 0.07 log₁₀ genome equivalents with a low coefficient of variation (0.81%). 246 sequences of the C/prM/E region (29-33 per vials) were generated and analyzed for the eight vials, 25 (10%) being defective and excluded from analyses. 95% of sequences had at least one nucleotide mutation. The mutations were observed on 662 variant sites distributed through all over the 1995 nucleotides sequence and were mainly non-synonymous (66%). Genome variability between vaccine vials was highly homogeneous with a nucleotide distance ranging from 0.29% to 0.41%. Average p-distances observed for each vial were also homogeneous, ranging from 0.15% to 0.31%. This study showed a homogenous YF virus RNA quantity in vaccine vials within a single lot and a low clonal diversity inter and intra vaccine vials. These results are consistent with a recent study showing that the main mechanism of attenuation resulted in the loss of diversity in the YF virus quasi-species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Conclusion Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity. PMID:27784992

  4. A DNA Vaccine against Yellow Fever Virus: Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  5. Functional requirements of the yellow fever virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Chinmay G; Jones, Christopher T; Chang, Yu-hsuan; Warrier, Ranjit; Kuhn, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    Although it is known that the flavivirus capsid protein is essential for genome packaging and formation of infectious particles, the minimal requirements of the dimeric capsid protein for virus assembly/disassembly have not been characterized. By use of a trans-packaging system that involved packaging a yellow fever virus (YFV) replicon into pseudo-infectious particles by supplying the YFV structural proteins using a Sindbis virus helper construct, the functional elements within the YFV capsid protein (YFC) were characterized. Various N- and C-terminal truncations, internal deletions, and point mutations of YFC were analyzed for their ability to package the YFV replicon. Consistent with previous reports on the tick-borne encephalitis virus capsid protein, YFC demonstrates remarkable functional flexibility. Nearly 40 residues of YFC could be removed from the N terminus while the ability to package replicon RNA was retained. Additionally, YFC containing a deletion of approximately 27 residues of the C terminus, including a complete deletion of C-terminal helix 4, was functional. Internal deletions encompassing the internal hydrophobic sequence in YFC were, in general, tolerated to a lesser extent. Site-directed mutagenesis of helix 4 residues predicted to be involved in intermonomeric interactions were also analyzed, and although single mutations did not affect packaging, a YFC with the double mutation of leucine 81 and valine 88 was nonfunctional. The effects of mutations in YFC on the viability of YFV infection were also analyzed, and these results were similar to those obtained using the replicon packaging system, thus underscoring the flexibility of YFC with respect to the requirements for its functioning.

  6. A Runaway Yellow Supergiant Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia I.; Skiff, Brian; Georgy, Cyril

    2018-05-01

    We recently discovered a yellow supergiant (YSG) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with a heliocentric radial velocity of ∼300 km s‑1, which is much larger than expected for a star at its location in the SMC. This is the first runaway YSG ever discovered and only the second evolved runaway star discovered in a galaxy other than the Milky Way. We classify the star as G5-8 I and use de-reddened broad-band colors with model atmospheres to determine an effective temperature of 4700 ± 250 K, consistent with what is expected from its spectral type. The star’s luminosity is then log L/L ⊙ ∼ 4.2 ± 0.1, consistent with it being a ∼30 Myr 9 M ⊙ star according to the Geneva evolution models. The star is currently located in the outer portion of the SMC’s body, but if the star’s transverse peculiar velocity is similar to its peculiar radial velocity, in 10 Myr the star would have moved 1.°6 across the disk of the SMC and could easily have been born in one of the SMC’s star-forming regions. Based on its large radial velocity, we suggest it originated in a binary system where the primary exploded as a supernovae, thus flinging the runaway star out into space. Such stars may provide an important mechanism for the dispersal of heavier elements in galaxies given the large percentage of massive stars that are runaways. In the future, we hope to look into additional evolved runaway stars that were discovered as part of our other past surveys. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Production of yellow-green fluorescent pigment by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Almeida da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A medium was prepared from brewery waste yeast with and without mineral salts to study growth and yellow-green fluorescent pigment production (YGFP by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The King's medium used for detection of siderophore production were expressively weaker inductors of YGFP formation when compared to FYE medium. Although FYE and CYE could be used for growth of P. fluorescens, only FYE was an attractive medium for detection of YGFP strain producers.Diversos microrganismos secretam substâncias com alta afinidade por ferro. Estas moléculas, sideróforos, transportam ferro para o interior das células. Como a produção destas moléculas depende da composição do meio, foi avaliada a influência do extrato de levedura (FYE, proveniente de resíduo de cervejaria, com e sem adição de sais minerais, sobre o crescimento de Pseudomonas fluorescens e sobre a formação de pigmento fluorescente verde-amarelado (YGFP. Observou-se que (i FYE com sacarose (G7 e o extrato de levedura comercial (CYE possuem um pico bem definido próximo a 260 nm; (ii FYE, mas não CYE, promove alta formação de YGFP. Os meios de King's, usados para detectar a formação de sideróforo, se comportaram como indutores expressivamente mais fracos de YGFP que o meio FYE. Embora FYE e CYE possam ser usados para o crescimento de P. fluorescens, apenas FYE pode ser usado como meio para a detecção de linhagens formadoras de YGFP.

  8. Analysis of the laser photoelectron spectrum of CH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, P.R.; Sears, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have simulated the photoelectron spectrum of CH - 2 using the model described previously [Sears and Bunker, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5265 (1983)]. The optimization of the fit of the simulated spectrum to the recently observed spectrum of Lineberger and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 1048 (1984) and preceding paper] has enabled us to determine the rotation-bending energy levels of triplet CH 2 over an energy range of more than 1 eV. It has also enabled us to determine that the rotational temperature of the CH - 2 in the experiment is 220 K and that, for v 2 = 1, the vibrational temperature is 680 K. For CH - 2 we determine that a/sub e/ = 103 0 and that ν 2 = 1230 cm -1 . The singlet--triplet splitting in methylene is determined to be 3150 +- 30 cm -1 (0.3905 +- 0.004 eV, 9.01 +- 0.09 kcal/mol) from the photoelectron spectrum, in excellent agreement with the more accurate value previously obtained from LMR spectroscopy [McKellar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5251 (1983)] of 3165 +- 20 cm -1 (0.3924 +- 0.0025 eV, 9.05 +- 0.06 kcal/mol), and the electron affinity of triplet CH 2 is determined to be 0.652 +- 0.006 eV

  9. Modeling ChIP sequencing in silico with applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong D Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq is a new method for genomewide mapping of protein binding sites on DNA. It has generated much excitement in functional genomics. To score data and determine adequate sequencing depth, both the genomic background and the binding sites must be properly modeled. To develop a computational foundation to tackle these issues, we first performed a study to characterize the observed statistical nature of this new type of high-throughput data. By linking sequence tags into clusters, we show that there are two components to the distribution of tag counts observed in a number of recent experiments: an initial power-law distribution and a subsequent long right tail. Then we develop in silico ChIP-seq, a computational method to simulate the experimental outcome by placing tags onto the genome according to particular assumed distributions for the actual binding sites and for the background genomic sequence. In contrast to current assumptions, our results show that both the background and the binding sites need to have a markedly nonuniform distribution in order to correctly model the observed ChIP-seq data, with, for instance, the background tag counts modeled by a gamma distribution. On the basis of these results, we extend an existing scoring approach by using a more realistic genomic-background model. This enables us to identify transcription-factor binding sites in ChIP-seq data in a statistically rigorous fashion.

  10. Study of dynamical properties in β-Tcp/Ch layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.

    2015-01-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-Tcp/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316l stainless steel (316l Ss) substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-Tcp was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed the root-mean squares hardness of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nano indentation test, indicating that the increase if chitosan percentage is directly related to increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. (Author)

  11. Study of dynamical properties in β-Tcp/Ch layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, J. C. [Universidad del Valle, Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali, Valle del Cauca (Colombia); Aperador, W., E-mail: jacaicedoangulo1@gmail.com [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Ingenieria, 80 Entrada A La KR11 No. 101, Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-Tcp/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316l stainless steel (316l Ss) substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-Tcp was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed the root-mean squares hardness of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nano indentation test, indicating that the increase if chitosan percentage is directly related to increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. (Author)

  12. A Single 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination Provides Lifelong Immunity; Characterization of Yellow-Fever-Specific Neutralizing Antibody and T-Cell Responses after Vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, Rosanne W.; Jonker, Emile F. F.; van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; de Visser, Adriëtte W.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Goorhuis, Abraham; Visser, Leo G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; de Bree, Godelieve J.

    2016-01-01

    Prompted by recent amendments of Yellow Fever (YF) vaccination guidelines from boost to single vaccination strategy and the paucity of clinical data to support this adjustment, we used the profile of the YF-specific CD8+ T-cell subset profiles after primary vaccination and neutralizing antibodies as

  13. Cavity ring down spectroscopy of CH, CH2, HCO, and H2CO in a premixed flat flame at both atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evertsen, R.; Staicu, A.D.; Oijen, van J.A.; Dam, N.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Meulen, ter J.J.; Cheauveau, C.; Vovelle, C.

    2003-01-01

    Density distributions of CH, CH2, HCO and H2CO have been measured in a premixed CH4/air flat flame by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). At atmospheric pressure problems are encountered due to the narrow spatial distribution of these species. Rotational flame Temperatures have been derived from

  14. On the use of satellite-derived CH4 : CO2 columns in a joint inversion of CH4 and CO2 fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for assimilating total column CH4 : CO2 ratio measurements from satellites for inverse modeling of CH4 and CO2 fluxes using the variational approach. Unlike conventional approaches, in which retrieved CH4 : CO2 are multiplied by model-derived total column CO2 and only the

  15. [Spatial heterogeneity in body condition of small yellow croaker in Yellow Sea and East China Sea based on mixed-effects model and quantile regression analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-Lei; Yuan, Xing-Wei; Yan, Li-Ping; Yang, Lin-Lin; Cheng, Jia-Hua

    2013-09-01

    By using the 2008-2010 investigation data about the body condition of small yellow croaker in the offshore waters of southern Yellow Sea (SYS), open waters of northern East China Sea (NECS), and offshore waters of middle East China Sea (MECS), this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of body length-body mass of juvenile and adult small yellow croakers by the statistical approaches of mean regression model and quantile regression model. The results showed that the residual standard errors from the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the linear mixed-effects model were similar, and those from the simple linear regression were the highest. For the juvenile small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in SYS and NECS estimated by the mixed-effects mean regression model was higher than the overall average mass across the three regions, while the mean body mass in MECS was below the overall average. For the adult small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in NECS was higher than the overall average, while the mean body mass in SYS and MECS was below the overall average. The results from quantile regression indicated the substantial differences in the allometric relationships of juvenile small yellow croakers between SYS, NECS, and MECS, with the estimated mean exponent of the allometric relationship in SYS being 2.85, and the interquartile range being from 2.63 to 2.96, which indicated the heterogeneity of body form. The results from ANCOVA showed that the allometric body length-body mass relationships were significantly different between the 25th and 75th percentile exponent values (F=6.38, df=1737, P<0.01) and the 25th percentile and median exponent values (F=2.35, df=1737, P=0.039). The relationship was marginally different between the median and 75th percentile exponent values (F=2.21, df=1737, P=0.051). The estimated body length-body mass exponent of adult small yellow croakers in SYS was 3.01 (10th and 95th percentiles = 2.77 and 3.1, respectively). The

  16. Linking rhizospheric CH4 oxidation and net CH4 emissions in an arctic wetland based on 13CH4 labeling of mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Skov; Michelsen, Anders; Ambus, Per

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Poorly drained arctic ecosystems are potential large emitters of methane (CH4) due to their high soil organic carbon content and low oxygen availability. In wetlands, aerenchymatous plants transport CH4 from the soil to the atmosphere, but concurrently transport O2 to the rhizosphere, which...... may lead to oxidation of CH4. The importance of the latter process is largely unknown for arctic plant species and ecosystems. Here, we aim to quantify the subsurface oxidation of CH4 in a waterlogged arctic ecosystem dominated by Carex aquatilis ssp. stans and Eriophorum angustifolium, and evaluate...... during three weeks after addition of 13C-enriched CH4 below the mesocosm. Results: Most of the recovered 13C label (>98 %) escaped the ecosystem as CH4, while less than 2 % was oxidized to 13CO2. Conclusions: It is concluded that aerenchymatous plants control the overall CH4 emissions but, as a transport...

  17. Evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Center, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To review the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines. Literature search: The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE; EMBASE; BIOSIS Previews; Global Health; CAB Abstracts; and the Lilacs Database of Latin American and Caribbean literature were searched for individual studies and systematic reviews through January 1, 2015. Results: Six yellow fever vaccines are currently produced, and they are effective against all seven yellow fever virus strains. There is a 99.2% homology of the genome sequences of the six current vaccines. Four systematic reviews identified very small numbers of serious adverse events. A systematic review (updated of all published cases identified 133 serious adverse events that met the Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylactic, 42 neurologic (one death, 57 viscerotropic (25 deaths, and two of both neurologic and viscerotropic SAEs. The Sanofi Pasteur Global Pharmacovigilance database reported 276 million doses of Stamaril™ distributed worldwide and identified 12 reports of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD, 24 of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND, and 33 reports of anaphylaxis (many already published. The Biomanguinhos manufacturer's database reported 110 million doses distributed worldwide between 1999 and 2009, and the rate of YEL-AND was estimated at 0.084/100,000 doses distributed and YEL-AVD at 0.02/100,000 doses distributed. Conclusion: Reports of serious adverse events are mostly from travelers from developed countries, and there is likely serious underreporting for developing countries. On the basis of the published reports, the yellow fever vaccines are

  18. Advice on malaria and yellow fever prevention provided at travel agencies in Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Garcia-Jasso, Carlos A; Springer, Chelsea A; Lane, Jenna K; Su, Bonny S; Hidalgo, Idania S; Goodrich, Mary R; Deichsel, Emily L; White, A C; Cabada, Miguel M

    2015-01-01

    Travelers receive medical advice from a variety of sources, including travel agencies. The aim of this study is to describe the quality of pre-travel advice provided by travel agencies in Cuzco to travelers interested in visiting malaria and yellow fever endemic areas. Trained medical students posed as tourists and visited travel agencies in Cuzco requesting travel advice for a trip to the southern Amazon of Peru, recording advice regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever. A total of 163 registered travel agencies were included in the study. The mean proposed tour duration was 6.8 days (±1.4 days) with a median time to departure of 3 days and a median tour cost of 805 US dollars (USD) [interquartile range (IQR) 580-1,095]. Overall, 45% employees failed to mention the risk for any illness. Eighteen percent of the employees acknowledged risk of malaria and 53% risk of yellow fever. However, 36% denied malaria risk and 2% denied risk of yellow fever in the region. The price of tours from travel agencies that did not mention any health risk was significantly lower [1,009.6 ± 500.5 vs 783.9 ± 402 USD, t (152) = 3, p yellow fever (100%) were able to provide at least one recommendation for prevention. However, advice was not always accurate or spontaneously volunteered. Only 7% of the employees provided both correct scheduling and location information for administration of the yellow fever vaccine. The majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  19. Production of yellow cake from rock phosphate deposits and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumrawi, N. S.

    2002-05-01

    This study was carried out mainly to produce uranium trioxide (UO 3 ), with the standard of commercial specifications from rock phosphate deposits in eastern part of Nuba mountains, south Kurdufan state. A simplified hydrometallurgical procedure has been adopted for production of yellow cake from the ore. Elemental analysis has shown that the ore is rich in Ca and deficient in elements of potential interest such as Fe, Cu and Zn. Uranium content in ore, phosphoric acid and purified yellow cake (UO 3 ) obtained with different precipitants was analyzed using alpha-spectrometry. On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in ore corresponds to 82 ± 24 ppm (0.10%). From the data of pregnant liquor, it was observed that the addition of KCIO 3 as an oxidant improves the dissolution of uranium from the ore by almost 20%. Data has also indicated that the yellow cake purified by hydrogen peroxide has higher concentration of uranium by 44.5% over the one purified by TBP extraction. Undesirable impurities in yellow cake as dictated by the function to which it is intended for were analyzed and compared with international standard specifications set for commercial products. Uranium as U 3 O 8 was found to be 53% in yellow cake initially obtained as ammonium diuranate and purified by hydrogen peroxide and 38% in one, which is purified by TBP extraction. With the exception of Cr concentration, the values of the other critical impurities ( V, Mn, Co, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb, Fe, Cl, Br, I) in UO 3 precipitated by hydrogen peroxide are either typical or lower than those internationally specified as standards for commercial products. Among the impurities considered Cd, Th and Mo were undetectable. The most salient point to be mentioned here regarding impurities is that Cd, which is most undesirable in yellow cake because of its high neutron absorption cross section, was undetectable in both types of yellow cakes ( i.e. purified by TBP extraction and by hydrogen peroxide). (Author)

  20. Changing oxidoreduction potential to improve water-soluble yellow pigment production with Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tan, Hailing; Lu, Fangju; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-11-21

    Monascus pigments are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their safety to human health. Our previous study found that glucose concentration induced extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) changes could influence extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 in submerged fermentation. In this study, H 2 O 2 and dithiothreitol (DTT) were used to change the oxidoreduction potential for investigating the effects of oxidative or reductive substances on Monascus yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910. The extracellular ORP could be controlled by H 2 O 2 and DTT. Both cell growth and extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production were enhanced under H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative (HIO) conditions and were inhibited under dithiothreitol-induced reductive conditions. By optimizing the amount of H 2 O 2 added and the timing of the addition, the yield of extracellular water-soluble yellow pigments significantly increased and reached a maximum of 209 AU, when 10 mM H 2 O 2 was added on the 3rd day of fermentation with M. ruber CGMCC 10910. Under HIO conditions, the ratio of NADH/NAD+ was much lower than that in the control group, and the expression levels of relative pigment biosynthesis genes were up-regulated; moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased while 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was inhibited. Oxidative conditions induced by H 2 O 2 increased water-soluble yellow pigment accumulation via up-regulation of the expression levels of relative genes and by increasing the precursors of pigment biosynthesis through redirection of metabolic flux. In contrast, reductive conditions induced by dithiothreitol inhibited yellow pigment accumulation. This experiment provides a potential strategy for improving the production of Monascus yellow pigments.