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Sample records for lrapp vertical array

  1. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  2. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa

    2010-04-29

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  3. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa; Lee, Seokwoo; Lee, Seung S

    2010-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  4. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.; Fasenfest, Benjamin J.; Behymer, Elaine M.

    2014-07-15

    Tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides are presented. Resonances can be observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides can satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors of over 10.sup.3 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  5. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for microelectrode arrays applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Smirnov, J R; Jover, Eric; Amade, Roger; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Bertran, Enric

    2012-09-01

    In this work a methodology to fabricate carbon nanotube based electrodes using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been explored and defined. The final integrated microelectrode based devices should present specific properties that make them suitable for microelectrode arrays applications. The methodology studied has been focused on the preparation of highly regular and dense vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) mat compatible with the standard lithography used for microelectrode arrays technology.

  6. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-02

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries.

  7. Modelling clustering of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Clemens F; Filippov, Alexander E; Heinlein, Thorsten; Schneider, Jörg J; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-08-06

    Previous research demonstrated that arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) exhibit strong frictional properties. Experiments indicated a strong decrease of the friction coefficient from the first to the second sliding cycle in repetitive measurements on the same VACNT spot, but stable values in consecutive cycles. VACNTs form clusters under shear applied during friction tests, and self-organization stabilizes the mechanical properties of the arrays. With increasing load in the range between 300 µN and 4 mN applied normally to the array surface during friction tests the size of the clusters increases, while the coefficient of friction decreases. To better understand the experimentally obtained results, we formulated and numerically studied a minimalistic model, which reproduces the main features of the system with a minimum of adjustable parameters. We calculate the van der Waals forces between the spherical friction probe and bunches of the arrays using the well-known Morse potential function to predict the number of clusters, their size, instantaneous and mean friction forces and the behaviour of the VACNTs during consecutive sliding cycles and at different normal loads. The data obtained by the model calculations coincide very well with the experimental data and can help in adapting VACNT arrays for biomimetic applications.

  8. Vertically integrated nanogenerator based on ZnO nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Aifang; Li, Hongyu; Tang, Haoying; Liu, Tengjiao; Jiang, Peng [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No.11, Beiyitiao Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No.11, Beiyitiao Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We report a technique to construct a vertically integrated nanogenerator (VI-NG) based on ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays. The VI-NG consists of nine single NGs connected mixed parallel and serial by a layer-by-layer stacking. For the single layer NG, the peak output voltage and current are 0.045 V and 2.5 nA, respectively. The VI-NG produces an output power density of 2.8 nW/cm{sup 2} with a peak output voltage of 0.15 V and output current of 7.2 nA. The vertical integration of the multi-NG provides a feasible technique for effectively converting mechanical energies to electricity from environment. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Vertically aligned zinc selenide nanoribbon arrays: microstructure and field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lijuan; Pang Qi; Cai Yuan; Wang Ning; Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong; Yang Shihe

    2007-01-01

    Uniform ZnSe precursor (ZnSe : 0.38en, en = ethylenediamine) nanoribbon arrays are grown vertically on Zn foils in ethylenediamine (en) using a solvothermal method. After the annealing treatment in N 2 , the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays can be obtained without an obvious morphology change and the crystallinity of ribbons is greatly improved. The microstructures of both individual ZnSe precursor and ZnSe nanoribbons are investigated. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of ∼0.1 μ A cm -2 from the ZnSe nanoribbons is 5.0 V μm -1 and the field enhancement factors are determined to be ∼1382

  10. Copper-encapsulated vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Kelly L; Chapla, Rachel; Carroll, Murphy; Nowak, Joshua; McCord, Marian; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-11-13

    A new procedure is described for the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) that are decorated, and even completely encapsulated, by a dense network of copper nanoparticles. The process involves the conformal deposition of pyrolytic carbon (Py-C) to stabilize the aligned carbon-nanotube structure during processing. The stabilized arrays are mildly functionalized using oxygen plasma treatment to improve wettability, and they are then infiltrated with an aqueous, supersaturated Cu salt solution. Once dried, the salt forms a stabilizing crystal network throughout the array. After calcination and H2 reduction, Cu nanoparticles are left decorating the CNT surfaces. Studies were carried out to determine the optimal processing parameters to maximize Cu content in the composite. These included the duration of Py-C deposition and system process pressure as well as the implementation of subsequent and multiple Cu salt solution infiltrations. The optimized procedure yielded a nanoscale hybrid material where the anisotropic alignment from the VACNT array was preserved, and the mass of the stabilized arrays was increased by over 24-fold because of the addition of Cu. The procedure has been adapted for other Cu salts and can also be used for other metal salts altogether, including Ni, Co, Fe, and Ag. The resulting composite is ideally suited for application in thermal management devices because of its low density, mechanical integrity, and potentially high thermal conductivity. Additionally, further processing of the material via pressing and sintering can yield consolidated, dense bulk composites.

  11. Computational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremseth, J.; Duraisamy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Canonical problems involving single, pairs, and arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated numerically with the objective of understanding the underlying flow structures and their implications on energy production. Experimental studies by Dabiri (J Renew Sustain Energy 3, 2011) suggest that VAWTs demand less stringent spacing requirements than their horizontal axis counterparts and additional benefits may be obtained by optimizing the placement and rotational direction of VAWTs. The flowfield of pairs of co-/counter-rotating VAWTs shows some similarities with pairs of cylinders in terms of wake structure and vortex shedding. When multiple VAWTs are placed in a column, the extent of the wake is seen to spread further downstream, irrespective of the direction of rotation of individual turbines. However, the aerodynamic interference between turbines gives rise to regions of excess momentum between the turbines which lead to significant power augmentations. Studies of VAWTs arranged in multiple columns show that the downstream columns can actually be more efficient than the leading column, a proposition that could lead to radical improvements in wind farm productivity.

  12. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  13. Copper vertical micro dendrite fin arrays and their superior boiling heat transfer capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiao; Lyu, Shu-Shen; Luo, Jia-Li; Luo, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Yuan-Xiang; Heng, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Mo, Dong-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Micro pin fin arrays have been widely used in electronic cooling, micro reactors, catalyst support, and wettability modification and so on, and a facile way to produce better micro pin fin arrays is demanded. Herein, a simple electrochemical method has been developed to fabricate copper vertical micro dendrite fin arrays (Cu-VMDFA) with controllable shapes, number density and height. High copper sulphate concentration is one key point to make the dendrite stand vertically. Besides, the applied current should rise at an appropriate rate to ensure the copper dendrite can grow vertically on its own. The Cu-VMDFA can significantly enhance the heat transfer coefficient by approximately twice compared to the plain copper surface. The Cu-VMDFA may be widely used in boiling heat transfer areas such as nuclear power plants, electronic cooling, heat exchangers, and so on.

  14. A nanoradio utilizing the mechanical resonance of a vertically aligned nanopillar array

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Seung S.

    2014-01-01

    A nanoradio based on the mechanical resonance of a nanomaterial has promising applications in terms of size reduction of an antenna and integrity of all components of a radio except a speaker. In this letter, a nanopillar array radio utilizing the mechanical resonance of a vertically aligned nanopillar array is realized by a reliable top-down method. By exploiting the field emission phenomenon, it was found that the nanopillar array functions as a radio with a demodulator without any electrical circuitry. The array of vertically aligned nanopillars increases the demodulated current and signal to noise ratio, and this fabrication method makes manipulation and positioning of nanostructures possible intrinsically for industrial applications. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet

  16. Real-time imaging of vertically aligned carbon nanotube array growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puretzky, A A; Eres, G; Rouleau, C M; Ivanov, I N; Geohegan, D B

    2008-01-01

    In situ time-lapse photography and laser irradiation are applied to understand unusual coordinated growth kinetics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays including pauses in growth, retraction, and local equilibration in length. A model is presented which explains the measured kinetics and determines the conditions for diffusion-limited growth. Laser irradiation of the growing nanotube arrays is first used to prove that the nanotubes grow from catalyst particles at their bases, and then increase their growth rate and terminal lengths

  17. Photocatalytic methane decomposition over vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by the one-step anodic oxidation technique (on non-conductive supports such as Pyrex) and their photocatalytic performance for methane decomposition in a single-pass micro-fabricated reactor under UV light....

  18. Homogeneous vertical ZnO nanorod arrays with high conductivity on an in situ Gd nanolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.; Singaravelu, Venkatesh; Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala; Roqan, Iman S.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel, one-step, catalyst-free method for the production of size-controlled vertical highly conductive ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays with highly desirable characteristics by pulsed laser deposition using a Gd-doped ZnO target. Our study

  19. Vertical coupling effects in arrays of InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, S. [Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Firenze (Italy); Colocci, M.; Vinattieri, A.; Gucciardi, P.G. [Dipt. di Fisica, INFM, and LENS, Firenze (Italy); Bogani, F. [Dipt. di Energetica and INFM, Firenze (Italy); Franchi, S.; Frigeri, P.; Lazzarini, L.; Salviati, G. [CNR-MASPEC, Fontanini, Parma (Italy)

    2001-03-08

    We show that either a blueshift or a redshift of the fundamental transition energy can be observed in vertical arrays of InAs/GaAs quantum dots, depending on the spacer thicknesses, and explained by including strain, indium segregation, and Coulomb effects. (orig.)

  20. Vertical nanowire arrays as a versatile platform for protein detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Katrine R.; Frederiksen, Rune S.; Liu, Yi-Chi

    2013-01-01

    solutions. Here we show that vertical arrays of nanowires (NWs) can overcome several bottlenecks of using nanoarrays for extraction and analysis of proteins. The high aspect ratio of the NWs results in a large surface area available for protein immobilization and renders passivation of the surface between...

  1. Wafer-Scale High-Throughput Ordered Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo; Guo, Rui; Yuan, Dajun; Das, Suman; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    -synthesized morphology. The development of textured ZnO seed layers for replacing single crystalline GaN and ZnO substrates extends the large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on substrates of other materials, such as polymers, Si, and glass

  2. A top-down approach to fabrication of high quality vertical heterostructure nanowire arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Minghua; Ding, K.; Hill, M.T.; Ning, C.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating nanowires with unprecedented complexity and optical quality by taking advantage of a nanoscale self-masking effect. We realized vertical arrays of nanowires of 20-40 nm in diameter with 16 segments of complex longitudinal InGaAsP/InP

  3. Diffusion of dilute gas in arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned, high-aspect-ratio cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szmyt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we modelled the diffusive transport of a dilute gas along arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned nanocylinders (nanotubes or nanowires as opposed to gas diffusion in long pores, which is described by the well-known Knudsen theory. Analytical expressions for (i the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays, (ii the time between collisions of molecules with the nanocylinder walls (mean time of flight, (iii the surface impingement rate, and (iv the Knudsen number of such a system were rigidly derived based on a random-walk model of a molecule that undergoes memoryless, diffusive reflections from nanocylinder walls assuming the molecular regime of gas transport. It can be specifically shown that the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays is inversely proportional to the areal density of cylinders and their mean diameter. An example calculation of a diffusion coefficient is delivered for a system of titanium isopropoxide molecules diffusing between vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Our findings are important for the correct modelling and optimisation of gas-based deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition or chemical vapour deposition, frequently used for surface functionalisation of high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays in solar cells and energy storage applications. Furthermore, gas sensing devices with high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays and the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes need the fundamental understanding and precise modelling of gas transport to optimise such processes.

  4. Synthesis of vertical arrays of ultra long ZnO nanowires on noncrystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bong Jun; Lee, Kyung Moon; Shin, Hae-Young; Kim, Jinwoong; Liu, Jinzhang; Yoon, Seokhyun; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y.H.; Park, Ji-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Arrays of vertical ultra-long ZnO nanowires with lengths upto 300 μm. ► Controls of lengths and diameters of vertical arrays of ZnO nanowires on SiO 2 substrates. ► Luminescent and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires prepared with different growth conditions. - Abstract: Vertically aligned arrays of ultralong ZnO nanowires were synthesized on SiO 2 substrates with carbothermal vapor phase transport method with Au seeding layer. High density of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with lengths from a few to ∼300 μm could be grown by controlling growth conditions. Supply of high concentration of Zn vapor and control of the ratio between Zn vapor and oxygen are found to have the most significant effects on the growth of long ZnO nanowires in the vapor–solid growth mechanism. The nanowires are of high crystalline quality as confirmed by various structural, compositional, and luminescent measurements. Luminescent and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires with different growth conditions were also investigated.

  5. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  6. Surface-conduction electron-emitter characteristics and fabrication based on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Yi-Ting [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Li, Kuan-Wei [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Honda, Shin-ichi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi, E-mail: kylee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The pattern design provides a new structure of surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED). Delta-star shaped vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays with 20o tips can simultaneously provide three emitters to bombard the sides of equilateral triangles pattern of VACNT, which produces numerous secondary electrons and enhance the SED efficiency. - Highlights: • The carbon nanotube (CNT) has replaced palladium oxide (PdO) as the electrode material for surface-conduction electron-emitter (SCE) applications. • The vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays with 20° tips of the delta-star arrangement are used as cathodes that easily emit electrons. The cathode pattern simultaneously provides three emitters to bombard the sides of equilateral triangles pattern of VACNT. • The VACNT arrays were covered with magnesium oxide (MgO) nanostructures to promote the surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) efficiency (η). • The η was stably maintained in the 75–85% range. The proposed design provides a facile new method for developing SED applications. - Abstract: The carbon nanotube (CNT) has replaced palladium oxide (PdO) as the electrode material for surface-conduction electron-emitter (SCE) applications. Vertically aligned CNT arrays with a delta-star arrangement were patterned and synthesized onto a quartz substrate using photolithography and thermal chemical vapor deposition. Delta-star shaped VACNT arrays with 20° tips are used as cathodes that easily emit electrons because of their high electrical field gradient. In order to improve the field emission and secondary electrons (SEs) in SCE applications, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanostructures were coated onto the VACNT arrays to promote the surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) efficiency (η). According to the definition of η in SCE applications, in this study, the η was stably maintained in the 75–85% range. The proposed design provides a facile new method for

  7. Conformal atomic layer deposition of alumina on millimeter tall, vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Kelly L; Carroll, Murphy; Padbury, Richard; McCord, Marian; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2014-11-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to coat high aspect ratio and high surface area substrates with conformal and precisely controlled thin films. Vertically aligned arrays of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with lengths up to 1.5 mm were conformally coated with alumina from base to tip. The nucleation and growth behaviors of Al2O3 ALD precursors on the MWCNTs were studied as a function of CNT surface chemistry. CNT surfaces were modified through a series of post-treatments including pyrolytic carbon deposition, high temperature thermal annealing, and oxygen plasma functionalization. Conformal coatings were achieved where post-treatments resulted in increased defect density as well as the extent of functionalization, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric analysis, it was determined that MWCNTs treated with pyrolytic carbon and plasma functionalization prior to ALD coating were more stable to thermal oxidation than pristine ALD coated samples. Functionalized and ALD coated arrays had a compressive modulus more than two times higher than a pristine array coated for the same number of cycles. Cross-sectional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that Al2O3 could be uniformly deposited through the entire thickness of the vertically aligned MWCNT array by manipulating sample orientation and mounting techniques. Following the ALD coating, the MWCNT arrays demonstrated hydrophilic wetting behavior and also exhibited foam-like recovery following compressive strain.

  8. Surface-restrained growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays with excellent thermal transport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Linquan; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jincheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Chaoqun; Tai, Kaiping; Cong, Hongtao; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-22

    A vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array is a promising candidate for a high-performance thermal interface material in high-power microprocessors due to its excellent thermal transport property. However, its rough and entangled free tips always cause poor interfacial contact, which results in serious contact resistance dominating the total thermal resistance. Here, we employed a thin carbon cover to restrain the disorderly growth of the free tips of a VACNT array. As a result, all the free tips are seamlessly connected by this thin carbon cover and the top surface of the array is smoothed. This unique structure guarantees the participation of all the carbon nanotubes in the array in the heat transport. Consequently the VACNT array grown on a Cu substrate shows a record low thermal resistance of 0.8 mm 2 K W -1 including the two-sided contact resistances, which is 4 times lower than the best result previously reported. Remarkably, the VACNT array can be easily peeled away from the Cu substrate and act as a thermal pad with excellent flexibility, adhesive ability and heat transport capability. As a result the CNT array with a thin carbon cover shows great potential for use as a high-performance flexible thermal interface material.

  9. Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays Using Bilayered Metal Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    12] J. P. Liu, C. X. Guo, C. M. Li et al., “Carbon-decorated ZnO nanowire array: a novel platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and...cited. Vertically aligned, high-density ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown for the first time on c-plane sapphire using binary alloys of Ni/Au or Cu/Au as...deleterious to the ZnO NW array growth. Significant improvement of the Au adhesion on the substrate was noted, opening the potential for direct

  10. Deformations and Rotational Ground Motions Inferred from Downhole Vertical Array Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, V.

    2017-12-01

    Only few direct reliable measurements of rotational component of strong earthquake ground motions are obtained so far. In the meantime, high quality data recorded at downhole vertical arrays during a number of earthquakes provide an opportunity to calculate deformations based on the differences in ground motions recorded simultaneously at different depths. More than twenty high resolution strong motion downhole vertical arrays were installed in California with primary goal to study site response of different geologic structures to strong motion. Deformation or simple shear strain with the rate γ is the combination of pure shear strain with the rate γ/2 and rotation with the rate of α=γ/2. Deformations and rotations were inferred from downhole array records of the Mw 6.0 Parkfield 2004, the Mw 7.2 Sierra El Mayor (Mexico) 2010, the Mw 6.5 Ferndale area in N. California 2010 and the two smaller earthquakes in California. Highest amplitude of rotation of 0.60E-03 rad was observed at the Eureka array corresponding to ground velocity of 35 cm/s, and highest rotation rate of 0.55E-02 rad/s associated with the S-wave was observed at a close epicentral distance of 4.3 km from the ML 4.2 event in Southern California at the La Cienega array. Large magnitude Sierra El Mayor earthquake produced long duration rotational motions of up to 1.5E-04 rad and 2.05E-03 rad/s associated with shear and surface waves at the El Centro array at closest fault distance of 33.4km. Rotational motions of such levels, especially tilting can have significant effect on structures. High dynamic range well synchronized and properly oriented instrumentation is necessary for reliable calculation of rotations from vertical array data. Data from the dense Treasure Island array near San Francisco demonstrate consistent change of shape of rotational motion with depth and material. In the frequency range of 1-15 Hz Fourier amplitude spectrum of vertical ground velocity is similar to the scaled tilt

  11. Uniform, dense arrays of vertically aligned, large-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2012-04-04

    Precisely controlled reactive chemical vapor synthesis of highly uniform, dense arrays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using tailored trilayered Fe/Al(2)O(3)/SiO(2) catalyst is demonstrated. More than 90% population of thick nanotubes (>3 nm in diameter) can be produced by tailoring the thickness and microstructure of the secondary catalyst supporting SiO(2) layer, which is commonly overlooked. The proposed model based on the atomic force microanalysis suggests that this tailoring leads to uniform and dense arrays of relatively large Fe catalyst nanoparticles on which the thick SWCNTs nucleate, while small nanotubes and amorphous carbon are effectively etched away. Our results resolve a persistent issue of selective (while avoiding multiwalled nanotubes and other carbon nanostructures) synthesis of thick vertically aligned SWCNTs whose easily switchable thickness-dependent electronic properties enable advanced applications in nanoelectronic, energy, drug delivery, and membrane technologies.

  12. Extremely Black Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhe; Wang, Huimin; Jian, Muqiang; Li, Yanshen; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Mingchao; Wang, Chunya; Wang, Qi; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-08-30

    The unique structure of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array makes it behave most similarly to a blackbody. It is reported that the optical absorptivity of an extremely black VACNT array is about 0.98-0.99 over a large spectral range of 200 nm-200 μm, inspiring us to explore the performance of VACNT arrays in solar energy harvesting. In this work, we report the highly efficient steam generation simply by laminating a layer of VACNT array on the surface of water to harvest solar energy. It is found that under solar illumination the temperature of upper water can significantly increase with obvious water steam generated, indicating the efficient solar energy harvesting and local temperature rise by the thin layer of VACNTs. We found that the evaporation rate of water assisted by VACNT arrays is 10 times that of bare water, which is the highest ratio for solar-thermal-steam generation ever reported. Remarkably, the solar thermal conversion efficiency reached 90%. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the strong optical absorption and local temperature rise induced by the VACNT layer, as well as the ultrafast water transport through the VACNT layer due to the frictionless wall of CNTs. Based on the above, we further demonstrated the application of VACNT arrays in solar-driven desalination.

  13. Enhanced field emission properties of vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guohai; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Cheol Jin; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube (VA-DWCNT) arrays were synthesized by point-arc microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Cr/n-Si and SiO 2 /n-Si substrates. The outer tube diameters of VA-DWCNTs are in the range of 2.5-3.8 nm, and the average interlayer spacing is approximately 0.42 nm. The field emission properties of these VA-DWCNTs were studied. It was found that a VA-DWCNT array grown on a Cr/n-Si substrate had better field emission properties as compared with a VA-DWCNT array grown on a SiO 2 /n-Si substrate and randomly oriented DWCNTs, showing a turn-on field of about 0.85 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 0.1 μA cm -2 and a threshold field of 1.67 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 1.0 mA cm -2 . The better field emission performance of the VA-DWCNT array was mainly attributed to the vertical alignment of DWCNTs on the Cr/n-Si substrate and the low contact resistance between CNTs and the Cr/n-Si substrate

  14. On measurement of acoustic pulse arrival angles using a vertical array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a recently developed method to analyze the angular structure of pulsed acoustic fields in an underwater sound channel. The method is based on the Husimi transform that allows us to approximately link a wave field with the corresponding ray arrivals. The advantage of the method lies in the possibility of its practical realization by a vertical hydrophone array crossing only a small part of the oceanic depth. The main aim of the present work is to find the optimal parameter values of the array that ensure good angular accuracy and sufficient reliability of the algorithm to calculate the arrival angles. Broadband pulses with central frequencies of 80 and 240 Hz are considered. It is shown that an array with a length of several hundred meters allows measuring the angular spectrum with an accuracy of up to 1 degree. The angular resolution is lowered with an increase of the sound wavelength due to the fundamental limitations imposed by the uncertainty relation.

  15. On the possiblity of using vertically pointing Central Laser Facilities to calibrate the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaug, Markus

    2014-01-01

    A Central Laser Facility is a system composed of a laser placed at a certain distance from a light-detector array, emitting fast light pulses, typically in the vertical direction, with the aim to calibrate that array. During calibration runs, all detectors are pointed towards the same portion of the laser beam at a given altitude. Central Laser Facilities are used for various currently operating ultra-high-energy cosmic ray and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays. In view of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array, a similar device could provide a fast calibration of the whole installation at different wavelengths. The relative precision (i.e. each individual telescope with respect to the rest of the array is expected) to be better than 5%, while an absolute calibration should reach a precisions of 6–11%, if certain design requirements are met. Additionally, a preciser monitoring of the sensitivity of each telescope can be made on time-scales of days to years

  16. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO(2), CH(4), H(2), NH(3), CO and NO(2) has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO(2) presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO(2) gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO(2) concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO(2) gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 microm and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal-modified CNT-chemoresistor array

  17. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  18. Effects of interfaces on nano-friction of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Kim, K.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Sliding friction properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (VAMWNT) arrays have been investigated in current study in a quantitative manner. The VAMWNT arrays have been fabricated on an anodic aluminum oxide template by chemical vapor deposition at 650 deg. C. Friction force was measured in air by a modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever-bead assembly with 15 μm diameter borosilicate sphere attached to the end of the regular AFM cantilever. Quantitative measurements were achieved by using a novel in situ calibration methods recently developed based on diamagnetic levitation [Q. Li, K.-S. Kim, A. Rydberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 (2006) 065105-1-13]. The effects of different interfaces were studied using both cantilever-bead assembly coated with and without Al thin layer coatings. A reverse stick-slip behavior was observed in the current system as compared to the normal stick-slip behavior found in the literature

  19. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array (VANTA Biosensor for MEMS Lab-on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke JOSEPH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the fabrication, functionalization and characterization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VANTAs for biological sensor applications. This structure is created using a standard MEMS process and chemical vapor deposition (CVD multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT post-processing. The device is well suited for full integration into microfluidic lab-on-a-chip solutions. Included is a spectroscopic characterization of the galvanostatic impedance of the device, as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the pre- and post- functionalized device. Interferometric 3D profiling and X-ray spectroscopy were also used to check process assumptions. The work presented validates that this approach is an ideal candidate for low-cost, high-throughput manufacturing of biochemical sensors. Unlike previously published work [1, 2] using SWNT, the use of MWNT arrays allows functionalization over the entirety of the nanotubes. This approach maintains low baseline impedance and increases the surface area leveraging inherent benefits of the VANTA.

  20. Thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Growth conditions and tube inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Pham, Quang N.; Saltonstall, Christopher B.; Norris, Pamela M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4746 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    The thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VACNTAs) grown on silicon dioxide substrates via chemical vapor deposition is measured using a 3ω technique. For each sample, the VACNTA layer and substrate are pressed to a heating line at varying pressures to extract the sample's thermophysical properties. The nanotubes' structure is observed via transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of hydrogen and water vapor in the fabrication process is tuned to observe the effect on measured thermal properties. The presence of iron catalyst particles within the individual nanotubes prevents the array from achieving the overall thermal conductivity anticipated based on reported measurements of individual nanotubes and the packing density.

  1. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunov, Vladimir; Prudnikava, Alena; Bushuk, Serguei; Filatov, Serguei; Shulitski, Boris; Tay, Beng Kang; Shaman, Yury; Basaev, Alexander

    2013-09-03

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed.

  2. Cell membrane conformation at vertical nanowire array interface revealed by fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthing, Trine; Bonde, Sara; Rostgaard, Katrine R; Martinez, Karen L; Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Sørensen, Claus B; Nygård, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The perspectives offered by vertical arrays of nanowires for biosensing applications in living cells depend on the access of individual nanowires to the cell interior. Recent results on electrical access and molecular delivery suggest that direct access is not always obtained. Here, we present a generic approach to directly visualize the membrane conformation of living cells interfaced with nanowire arrays, with single nanowire resolution. The method combines confocal z-stack imaging with an optimized cell membrane labelling strategy which was applied to HEK293 cells interfaced with 2–11 μm long and 3–7 μm spaced nanowires with various surface coatings (bare, aminosilane-coated or polyethyleneimine-coated indium arsenide). We demonstrate that, for all commonly used nanowire lengths, spacings and surface coatings, nanowires generally remain enclosed in a membrane compartment, and are thereby not in direct contact with the cell interior. (paper)

  3. Porosimetry and packing morphology of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays via impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Heena K; Lu, Yuan; Stein, Itai; Cho, H Jeremy; Suss, Matthew; Laoui, Tahar; Thompson, Carl; Wardle, Brian; Wang, Evelyn

    2016-12-13

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional nanostructure arrays are promising in many applications such as electrochemical systems, solar cells, and electronics, taking advantage of high surface area per unit volume, nanometer length scale packing, and alignment leading to high conductivity. However, many devices need to optimize arrays for device performance by selecting an appropriate morphology. Developing a simple, non-invasive tool for understanding the role of pore volume distribution and interspacing would aid in the optimization of nanostructure morphologies in electrodes. In this work, we combined electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with capacitance measurements and porous electrode theory to conduct in situ porosimetry of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) non-destructively. We utilized the EIS measurements with a pore size distribution model to quantify the average and dispersion of inter-CNT spacing (Γ), stochastically, in carpets that were mechanically densified from 1.7 × 1010 tubes/cm2 to 4.5 × 1011 tubes/cm2. Our analysis predicts that the inter-CNT spacing ranges from over 100 ± 50 nm in sparse carpets to sub 10 ± 5 nm in packed carpets. Our results suggest that waviness of CNTs leads to variations in the inter-CNT spacing, which can be significant in sparse carpets. This methodology can be used to predict the performance of many nanostructured devices, including supercapacitors, batteries, solar cells, and semiconductor electronics. Copyright 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Wafer-Scale High-Throughput Ordered Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Yaguang

    2010-09-08

    This article presents an effective approach for patterned growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with high throughput and low cost at wafer scale without using cleanroom technology. Periodic hole patterns are generated using laser interference lithography on substrates coated with the photoresist SU-8. ZnO NWs are selectively grown through the holes via a low-temperature hydrothermal method without using a catalyst and with a superior control over orientation, location/density, and as-synthesized morphology. The development of textured ZnO seed layers for replacing single crystalline GaN and ZnO substrates extends the large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on substrates of other materials, such as polymers, Si, and glass. This combined approach demonstrates a novel method of manufacturing large-scale patterned one-dimensional nanostructures on various substrates for applications in energy harvesting, sensing, optoelectronics, and electronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Turbulent natural convection in an enclosure formed by an array of vertical cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.; Stoots, C.M.; Christenson, W.A.; O'Brien, J.E.; Larson, T.K.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-04-01

    A number of situations can be hypothesized to occur in an advanced or special purpose nuclear reactor such that the core is filled with a gas but there is no forced flow to remove the thermal energy evolved. Typically, the dimensions are so large that the magnitudes of the governing parameters indicate that the flow regime is probably turbulent. The generic situation considered in the present work is natural convection between heated, slender, vertical, circular cylinders and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. Experiments were conducted by resistively heating a vertical circular cylinder of length-to-diameter ratio of about 160 centered inside a concentric perforated tube which was, in turn, surrounded by three larger diameter tubes cooled internally with water flow. The medium was air. In order to deduce the contribution due to thermal radiation, thermal emissivities of the tubes were determined in-situ during the experiment and the emissivities of samples of the surfaces involved were measured separately. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on tube diameter and properties evaluated at the cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10 4 to 9.2 x 10 5 . Results indicate that the convective heat transfer parameters for the perforated tube are about fifteen per cent higher than for the smooth bare tube centered in the same position relative to the array. The Nusselt number for convective heat transfer across the annulus-between the heated test section and the perforated tube corresponded to parallel laminar flow. Data with water films flowing down the outside surfaces of the cooling tubes demonstrated no significant change in the convective heat transfer parameters deduced

  6. Thermal wave interference with high-power VCSEL arrays for locating vertically oriented subsurface defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Erik; Kreutzbruck, Marc; Studemund, Taarna; Ziegler, Mathias

    2018-04-01

    Among the photothermal methods, full-field thermal imaging is used to characterize materials, to determine thicknesses of layers, or to find inhomogeneities such as voids or cracks. The use of classical light sources such as flash lamps (impulse heating) or halogen lamps (modulated heating) led to a variety of nondestructive testing methods, in particular, lock-in and flash-thermography. In vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), laser light is emitted perpendicularly to the surface with a symmetrical beam profile. Due to the vertical structure, they can be arranged in large arrays of many thousands of individual lasers, which allows power scaling into the kilowatt range. Recently, a high-power yet very compact version of such a VCSEL-array became available that offers both the fast timing behavior of a laser as well as the large illumination area of a lamp. Moreover, it allows a spatial and temporal control of the heating because individual parts of the array can be controlled arbitrarily in frequency, amplitude, and phase. In conjunction with a fast infrared camera, such structured heating opens up a field of novel thermal imaging and testing methods. As a first demonstration of this approach, we chose a testing problem very challenging to conventional thermal infrared testing: The detection of very thin subsurface defects perpendicularly oriented to the surface of metallic samples. First, we generate destructively interfering thermal wave fields, which are then affected by the presence of defects within their reach. It turned out that this technique allows highly sensitive detection of subsurface defects down to depths in excess of the usual thermographic rule of thumb, with no need for a reference or surface preparation.

  7. Test results of CPT-deployed vertical electrode arrays at the DOE Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.; Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.L.; Morey, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Field studies were conducted at the DOE Hanford Site to test cone penetrometer installation of vertical electrode arrays (VEA) for use with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Most VEA installation methods in current use are not economic for environmental applications. The cone penetrometer technology (CPT) can provide an economic and relatively non-intrusive installation method. However, a VEA with deployable and properly functioning electrodes was required. Results of the design, installation and testing of CPT VEAs are reported in this paper. Several designs were developed and bench tested for use with the CPT. After initial field installation studies, one design was chosen for further testing at the DOE Hanford Site. Four VEAs were each pushed to 100 feet in 4 days. To test the CPT VEAs, an infiltration experiment was conducted with cross VEA tomographic data collected for three vertical planes. These data were processed using the electrical resistivity tomography code developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Tomographic images for each vertical plane tracked the subsurface resistivity changes associated with the migrating fluid. It is concluded from these test results that the CPT is a viable method for installing VEAs. The VEAs were rapidly and economically installed to the maximum depth required, data of adequate quality were obtained and tomographic images from the infiltration experiment verified that the CPT VEAs provide viable ERT data

  8. Growth of vertically aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes for high field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Lim, S.H.; Guilley, A.J.; Cojocaru, C.S.; Bouree, J.E.; Vila, L.; Ryu, J.H.; Park, K.C.; Jang, J.

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been grown on Ni-coated silicon substrates, by using either direct current diode or triode plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low temperature (around 620 deg. C). Acetylene gas has been used as the carbon source while ammonia and hydrogen have been used for etching. However densely packed (∼ 10 9 cm -2 ) CNTs were obtained when the pressure was ∼ 100 Pa. The alignment of nanotubes is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition in order to get an efficient electron emission: the growth of nanotubes should be controlled along regular arrays, in order to minimize the electrostatic interactions between them. So a three dimensional numerical simulation has been developed to calculate the local electric field in the vicinity of the tips for a finite square array of nanotubes and thus to calculate the maximum of the electron emission current density as a function of the spacing between nanotubes. Finally the triode plasma-enhanced process combined with pre-patterned catalyst films (using different lithography techniques) has been chosen in order to grow regular arrays of aligned CNTs with different pitches in the micrometer range. The comparison between the experimental and the simulation data permits to define the most efficient CNT-based electron field emitters

  9. Optical properties of ordered vertical arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes from FDTD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hua; Ruan, Xiulin; Fisher, Timothy S

    2010-03-15

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model thermal radiative properties of vertical arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Individual CNTs are treated as solid circular cylinders with an effective dielectric tensor. Consistent with experiments, the results confirm that CNT arrays are highly absorptive. Compared with the commonly used Maxwell-Garnett theory, the FDTD calculations generally predict larger reflectance and absorbance, and smaller transmittance, which are attributed to the diffraction and scattering within the cylinder array structure. The effects of volume fraction, tube length, tube distance, and incident angle on radiative properties are investigated systematically. Low volume fraction and long tubes are more favorable to achieve low reflectance and high absorbance. For a fixed volume fraction and finite tube length, larger periodicity results in larger reflectance and absorbance. The angular dependence studies reveal an optimum incident angle at which the reflectance can be minimized. The results also suggest that an even darker material could be achieved by using CNTs with good alignment on the top surface.

  10. High-power, format-flexible, 885-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chad; Talantov, Fedor; Garrett, Henry; Berdin, Glen; Cardellino, Terri; Millenheft, David; Geske, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    High-power, format flexible, 885 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays have been developed for solid-state pumping and illumination applications. In this approach, a common VCSEL size format was designed to enable tiling into flexible formats and operating configurations. The fabrication of a common chip size on ceramic submount enables low-cost volume manufacturing of high-power VCSEL arrays. This base VCSEL chip was designed to be 5x3.33 mm2, and produced up to 50 Watts of peak continuous wave (CW) power. To scale to higher powers, multiple chips can be tiled into a combination of series or parallel configurations tailored to the application driver conditions. In actively cooled CW operation, the VCSEL array chips were packaged onto a single water channel cooler, and we have demonstrated 0.5x1, 1x1, and 1x3 cm2 formats, producing 150, 250, and 500 Watts of peak power, respectively, in under 130 A operating current. In QCW operation, the 1x3 cm2 VCSEL module, which contains 18 VCSEL array chips packaged on a single water cooler, produced over 1.3 kW of peak power. In passively cooled packages, multiple chip configurations have been developed for illumination applications, producing over 300 Watts of peak power in QCW operating conditions. These VCSEL chips use a substrate-removed structure to allow for efficient thermal heatsinking to enable high-power operation. This scalable, format flexible VCSEL architecture can be applied to wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1100 nm, and can be used to tailor emission spectral widths and build high-power hyperspectral sources.

  11. Combined natural convection heat and mass transfer from vertical fin arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, A.; Narasimham, G.S.V.L.; Krishna Murthy, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Natural convection transport processes play an important role in many applications like ice-storage air-conditioning. A mathematical formulation of natural convection heat and mass transfer over a shrouded vertical fin array is developed. The base plate is maintained at a temperature below the dew point of the surrounding moist air. Hence there occurs condensation of moisture on the base plate, while the fins may be partially or fully wet. A numerical study is performed by varying the parameters of the problem. The local and average Nusselt numbers decrease in streamwise direction and tend to approach fully developed values for sufficiently large values of the fin length. The results show that beyond a certain streamwise distance, further fin length does not improve the sensible and latent heat transfer performance, and that if dry fin analysis is used under moisture condensation conditions, the overall heat transfer will be underestimated by about 50% even at low buoyancy ratios

  12. A top-down approach to fabrication of high quality vertical heterostructure nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Minghua; Ding, Kang; Hill, Martin T; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating nanowires with unprecedented complexity and optical quality by taking advantage of a nanoscale self-masking effect. We realized vertical arrays of nanowires of 20-40 nm in diameter with 16 segments of complex longitudinal InGaAsP/InP structures. The unprecedented high quality of etched wires is evidenced by the narrowest photoluminescence linewidth ever produced in similar wavelengths, indistinguishable from that of the corresponding wafer. This top-down, mask-free, large scale approach is compatible with the established device fabrication processes and could serve as an important alternative to the bottom-up approach, significantly expanding ranges and varieties of applications of nanowire technology.

  13. Stress Distribution in Layered Elastic Creeping Array with a Vertical Cylindrical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyleva Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction should be taking into account the influence of time factor on the stability of the structures. In the paper hereditary creep and homogenization theories are used to determine stresses in the layered elastic creeping array with a vertical shaft. Volterra correspondence principle was applied. As a result, the reduction of a time-dependent elastic creeping problem to a corresponding elastic problem became possible. The method proposes a way to determine average (effective elastic creeping properties and homogenized stress field from known properties of the layers’ components. Creep kernels are of a convolution type and are taken in the exponential form. The problem of heterogeneous elastic creeping environment is reduced to a problem of homogeneous transversely isotropic medium. Different boundary conditions on the cylindrical shaft’s surface were considered. An analytical solution was obtained. These explicit expressions can be useful for the necessary calculations in the construction practice.

  14. Exploring arrays of vertical one-dimensional nanostructures for cellular investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonde, Sara; Buch-Månson, Nina; Rostgaard, Katrine R; Andersen, Tor Kristian; Berthing, Trine; Martinez, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    The endeavor of exploiting arrays of vertical one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs) for cellular applications has recently been experiencing a pronounced surge of activity. The interest is rooted in the intrinsic properties of high-aspect-ratio NSs. With a height comparable to a mammalian cell, and a diameter 100–1000 times smaller, NSs should intuitively reach far into a cell and, due to their small diameter, do so without compromising cell health. Single NSs would thus be expedient for measuring and modifying cell response. Further organization of these structures into arrays can provide up-scaled and detailed spatiotemporal information on cell activity, an achievement that would entail a massive leap forward in disease understanding and drug discovery. Numerous proofs-of-principle published recently have expanded the large toolbox that is currently being established in this rapidly advancing field of research. Encouragingly, despite the diversity of NS platforms and experimental conditions used thus far, general trends and conclusions from combining cells with NSs are beginning to crystallize. This review covers the broad spectrum of NS materials and dimensions used; the observed cellular responses with specific focus on adhesion, morphology, viability, proliferation, and migration; compares the different approaches used in the field to provide NSs with the often crucial cytosolic access; covers the progress toward biological applications; and finally, envisions the future of this technology. By maintaining the impressive rate and quality of recent progress, it is conceivable that the use of vertical 1D NSs may soon be established as a superior choice over other current techniques, with all the further benefits that may entail. (topical review)

  15. Homogeneous vertical ZnO nanorod arrays with high conductivity on an in situ Gd nanolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.

    2015-10-30

    We demonstrate a novel, one-step, catalyst-free method for the production of size-controlled vertical highly conductive ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays with highly desirable characteristics by pulsed laser deposition using a Gd-doped ZnO target. Our study shows that an in situ transparent and conductive Gd nanolayer (with a uniform thickness of ∼1 nm) at the interface between a lattice-matched (11-20) a-sapphire substrate and ZnO is formed during the deposition. This nanolayer significantly induces a relaxation mechanism that controls the dislocation distribution along the growth direction; which consequently improves the formation of homogeneous vertically aligned ZnO NRs. We demonstrate that both the lattice orientation of the substrate and the Gd characteristics are important in enhancing the NR synthesis, and we report precise control of the NR density by changing the oxygen partial pressure. We show that these NRs possess high optical and electrical quality, with a mobility of 177 cm2 (V s)-1, which is comparable to the best-reported mobility of ZnO NRs. Therefore, this new and simple method has significant potential for improving the performance of materials used in a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  16. Fabrication of vertically aligned Pd nanowire array in AAO template by electrodeposition using neutral electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüzer Hayrettin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A vertically aligned Pd nanowire array was successfully fabricated on an Au/Ti substrate using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by a direct voltage electrodeposition method at room temperature using diluted neutral electrolyte. The fabrication of Pd nanowires was controlled by analyzing the current–time transient during electrodeposition using potentiostat. The AAO template and the Pd nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX methods and X-Ray diffraction (XRD. It was observed that the Pd nanowire array was standing freely on an Au-coated Ti substrate after removing the AAO template in a relatively large area of about 5 cm2, approximately 50 nm in diameter and 2.5 μm in length with a high aspect ratio. The nucleation rate and the number of atoms in the critical nucleus were determined from the analysis of current transients. Pd nuclei density was calculated as 3.55 × 108 cm−2. Usage of diluted neutral electrolyte enables slower growing of Pd nanowires owing to increase in the electrodeposition potential and thus obtained Pd nanowires have higher crystallinity with lower dislocations. In fact, this high crystallinity of Pd nanowires provides them positive effect for sensor performances especially.

  17. Synthesis and Investigation of Millimeter-Scale Vertically Aligned Boron Nitride Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Roland; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Jing, Lin; Tan, Dunlin; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have shown potential in a wide range of applications due to their superior properties such as exceptionally high mechanical strength, excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. However, previously reported methods to date only produced BNNTs with limited length/density and insufficient yield at high temperatures. Here we present a facile and effective two-step synthesis route involving template-assisted chemical vapor deposition at a relatively low temperature of 900 degree C and subsequent annealing process to fabricate vertically aligned (VA) BN coated carbon nanotube (VA-BN/CNT) and VA-BNNT arrays. By using this method, we achieve the longest VA-BN/CNTs and VA-BNNTs to date with lengths of over millimeters (exceeding two orders of magnitude longer than the previously reported length of VA-BNNTs). In addition, the morphology, chemical composition and microstructure of the resulting products, as well as the mechanism of coating process are systematically investigated. This versatile BN coating technique and the synthesis of millimeter-scale BN/CNT and BNNT arrays pave a way for new applications especially where the aligned geometry of the NTs is essential such as for field-emission, interconnects and thermal management.

  18. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays as Efficient Supports for Faradaic Capacitive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoye, Moses; Holleran, Mary-Kate; Roberts, Katherine; Pesika, Noshir

    Supercapacitors are notable for their ability to deliver energy at higher power (compared to batteries) and store energy at higher density (compared to capacitors) as well as exhibit a long cycle life. In our efforts to further the development of supercapacitors, our focus is on using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) as supports for faradaic capacitive electrode materials. The objective is to develop electrodes functioning in an inexpensive aqueous environment with small potential windows, that store energy at a higher density than carbon materials alone. We describe the different approaches explored to overcome the challenges of non-uniform deposition, poor wetting and array collapse. Materials that are electrochemically anchored to VACNT supports include NiCo2O4, VOx, Fe2O3 and Co-Mn mixed oxides. In each case, the specific capacitance obtained using the VACNT arrays as supports is significantly more than that obtained by direct deposition onto current collectors or by using VACNT alone. The ease of VACNT growth and the degree of coating control achievable using electrodeposition means there is much potential in exploring them as supports for capacitive electrode materials.

  19. A novel vertical fan-out platform based on an array of curved anodic alumina nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Yi; Lai, Ming-Yu; Tsai, Kun-Tong; Chang, Hsuan-Hao; Wang, Yuh-Lin; He, Jr-Hau; Shiue, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam lithography and a two-step anodization have been combined to fabricate a vertical fan-out platform containing an array of unique probes. Each probe comprises three anodic alumina nanochannels with a fan-out arrangement. The lithography is used to pattern an aluminum sheet with a custom-designed array of triangular ‘cells’ whose apexes are composed of nanoholes. The nanoholes grow into straight nanochannels under proper voltage in the first-step anodization. The second step uses a doubled voltage to induce lateral repulsion among the nanochannels’ growth fronts originating in the same cell. Therefore, the fronts fan out. The repulsion roots in the inter-front distance being shorter than the naturally favoured length, which increases with anodization voltage. The fan-out evolution continues until the growth fronts originating in all the cells evolve into a close-packed two-dimensional hexagonal lattice whose spacing is identical to the favoured one. The chemical and physical mechanisms behind the fan-out fabrication are discussed. This novel fan-out platform facilitates probing and handling of many signals from different areas on a sample’s surface and is therefore promising for applications in detection and manipulation at the nanoscale level. (paper)

  20. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  1. Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  2. Nanofabrication of Arrays of Silicon Field Emitters with Vertical Silicon Nanowire Current Limiters and Self-Aligned Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    limiters, MEMS, NEMS, field emission, cold cathodes (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction Dense arrays of silicon... attention has been given to densely packed, highly ordered, top-down fabricated, single crystal vertical silicon nanowire devices that are embedded

  3. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Laser-assisted simultaneous transfer and patterning of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on polymer substrates for flexible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications.

  5. Turbulent natural convection between a perforated vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.; Stoots, C.M.; Christenson, W.A.; O'Brien, J.E.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of situations can be hypothesized to occur in an advanced or special purpose nuclear reactor such that the core is filled with a gas but there is no forced flow to remove the thermal energy evolved. Experiments were conducted by resistively hearing a vertical circular cylinder of length-to-diameter ratio of about 160 centered inside a concentric perforated tube which was, in turn, surrounded by three larger diameter tubes cooled internally with water flow. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6; and the Rayleigh number, based on tube diameter and properties evaluated at the cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10 4 to 9.2 x 10 5 . Results indicate that the convective heat transfer parameters for the perforated tube are about fifteen per cent higher than for the smooth bare tube centered in the same position relative to the array. The Nusselt number for convective heat transfer across the annulus between the heated test section and the perforated tube corresponded to parallel laminar flow

  6. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays in Rose Bengal-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Solid State Physics, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2007-05-23

    We fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using vertically oriented, high density, and crystalline array of ZnO nanowires, which can be a suitable alternative to titanium dioxide nanoparticle films. The vertical nanowires provide fast routes or channels for electron transport to the substrate electrode. As an alternative to conventional ruthenium complex, we introduce Rose Bengal dye, which acts as a photosensitizer in the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye energetically matches the ZnO with usual KI-I{sub 2} redox couple for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. (author)

  7. Surface analysis and mechanical behaviour mapping of vertically aligned CNT forest array through nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumoulos, Elias P.; Charitidis, C.A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Structure and wall numbers are identified through TEM. • Static contact angle measurements revealed a super-hydrophobic behavior. • Hysteresis was observed (loading–unloading) due to the local stress distribution. • Hardness and modulus mapping for a grid of 70 μm{sup 2} is conducted. • Resistance is clearly divided in 2 regions (MWCNT and MWCNT – MWCNT) interface. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) based architectures have increased the scientific interest owning to their exceptional performance rendering them promising candidates for advanced industrial applications in the nanotechnology field. Despite individual CNTs being considered as one of the most known strong materials, much less is known about other CNT forms, such as CNT arrays, in terms of their mechanical performance (integrity). In this work, thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is employed to produce vertically aligned multiwall (VA-MW) CNT carpets. Their structural properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while their hydrophobic behavior was investigated via contact angle measurements. The resistance to indentation deformation of VA-MWCNT carpets was investigated through nanoindentation technique. The synthesized VA-MWCNTs carpets consisted of well-aligned MWCNTs. Static contact angle measurements were performed with water and glycerol, revealing a rather super-hydrophobic behavior. The structural analysis, hydrophobic behavior and indentation response of VA-MWCNTs carpets synthesized via CVD method are clearly demonstrated. Additionally, cycle indentation load-depth curve was applied and hysteresis loops were observed in the indenter loading–unloading cycle due to the local stress distribution. Hardness (as resistance to applied load) and modulus mapping, at 200 nm of displacement for a grid of 70 μm{sup 2} is presented. Through trajection, the resistance is clearly divided in 2

  8. Determination of the effective Young's modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: a simple nanotube-based varactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Niklas; Eriksson, Anders; Ek-Weis, Johan; Campbell, Eleanor E B; Idda, Tonio

    2009-01-01

    The electromechanical properties of arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were studied in a parallel plate capacitor geometry. The electrostatic actuation was visualized using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and highly reproducible behaviour was achieved for actuation voltages below the pull-in voltage. The walls of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes behave as solid cohesive units. The effective Young's modulus for the carbon nanotube arrays was determined by comparing the actuation results with the results of electrostatic simulations and was found to be exceptionally low, of the order of 1-10 MPa. The capacitance change and Q-factor were determined by measuring the frequency dependence of the radio-frequency transmission. Capacitance changes of over 20% and Q-factors in the range 100-10 were achieved for a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz.

  9. Self-assembled vertically aligned Au nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Cannabinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Sarah; Fraser, Jeff; Poirier, Shawn; Hulse, John; Tay, Li-Lin

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0 nM and 50 mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection. This is the first demonstration of the SERS analysis of cannabinol. This approach demonstrates a cost-effective, high-yield and simple fabrication route to SERS sensors with application in the screening for the cannabinoids.

  10. Angular dependent anisotropic terahertz response of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays with spatial dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yixuan; Yiwen, E.; Xu, Xinlong; Li, Weilong; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Lipeng; Bai, Jintao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Wang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Spatial dispersion effect of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the terahertz (THz) region has significance for both theoretical and applied consideration due to the unique intrinsically anisotropic physical properties of CNTs. Herein, we report the angular dependent reflection of p-polarized THz wave from vertically aligned multi-walled CNT arrays in both experiment and theory. The spectra indicate that the reflection depends on the film thickness of vertically aligned CNTs, the incident angle, and the frequency. The calculation model is based on the spatial dispersion effect of aligned CNTs and performed with effective impedance method and the Maxwell-Garnett approximation. The results fit well with the experiment when the thickness of CNT film is thin, which reveals a coherent superposition mechanism of the CNT surface reflection and CNTs/Si interface reflection. For thick CNT films, the CNTs/Si interface response determines the reflection at small incident angles, while the CNTs surface effect dominates at large incident angles. This work investigates the spatial dispersion effect of vertically aligned CNT arrays in the THz region, and paves a way for potential anisotropic THz applications based on CNTs with oblique incidence requirements.

  11. Embedded arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotube carpets and methods for making them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Jong; Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2015-06-30

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a system and method for supporting a carbon nanotube array that involve an entangled carbon nanotube mat integral with the array, where the mat is embedded in an embedding material. The embedding material may be depositable on a carbon nanotube. A depositable material may be metallic or nonmetallic. The embedding material may be an adhesive material. The adhesive material may optionally be mixed with a metal powder. The embedding material may be supported by a substrate or self-supportive. The embedding material may be conductive or nonconductive. The system and method provide superior mechanical and, when applicable, electrical, contact between the carbon nanotubes in the array and the embedding material. The optional use of a conductive material for the embedding material provides a mechanism useful for integration of carbon nanotube arrays into electronic devices.

  12. Evaluation of near-surface attenuation of S-waves based on PS logging and vertical array seismic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Genyu

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the lessons learned from the experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP due to the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu Oki Earthquake, it has become clear that a rational method of near-surface attenuation characteristics covering a depth range from engineering bedrock to seismic bedrock urgently needs to be established. JNES performed PS logging and vertical array seismic ground motion observation at a soil ground site (SODB 1. site), sedimentary rock site, and an igneous rock site (SODB 2. site), and proposed an evaluation method of attenuation characteristics (site characteristics) for the deep underground. (author)

  13. Electrochemically synthesized visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped TiO2 nanotube array films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Rajini P.; Mathews, Tom; Ajikumar, P.K.; Krishna, D. Nandagopala; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Single step electrochemical synthesis of N-doped TiO 2 nanotube array films. ► Effective substitutional N-doping achieved. ► Different N-concentrations were achieved by varying the N-precursor concentration in the electrolyte. ► Visible light absorption observed at high N-doping. -- Abstract: Visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped anatase nanotube array thin films were synthesized by anodizing Ti foils in ethylene glycol + NH 4 F + water mixture containing urea as nitrogen source. Different nitrogen concentrations were achieved by varying the urea content in the electrolyte. The structure, morphology, composition and optical band gap of the nanotube arrays were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The substitution of O 2− ions by N 3− ions in the anion sublattice as well as the formulae of the doped samples was confirmed from the results of XPS. The optical band gap of the nanotube arrays was found to decrease with N-concentration. The sample with the highest concentration corresponding to the formula TiO 1.83 N 0.14 showed two regions in the Tauc's plot indicating the presence of interband states.

  14. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  15. Nanomanipulation of 2 inch wafer fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Carlson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are typically defined by electron beam lithography (EBL), and hence limited to small areas due to the low throughput. To obtain wafer‐scale fabrication we propose large area thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A 2‐inch stamp master is defined using EBL for subsequent......, efficient production of wafer‐scale/larger arrays of CNTs has been achieved. The CNTs have been deposited by wafer‐scale plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of C2H2/NH3. Substrates containing such nanotubes have been used to automate nanorobotic manipulation sequences of individual CNTs...

  16. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  17. Relaxing the electrostatic screening effect by patterning vertically-aligned silicon nanowire arrays into bundles for field emission application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Yung-Jr, E-mail: yungjrhung@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, San-Liang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Beng, Looi Choon [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Jui [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    Top-down fabrication strategies are proposed and demonstrated to realize arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire bundles and bundle arrays of carbon nanotube–silicon nanowire (CNT–SiNW) heterojunctions, aiming for releasing the electrostatic screening effect and improving the field emission characteristics. The trade-off between the reduction in the electrostatic screening effect and the decrease of emission sites leads to an optimal SiNW bundle arrangement which enables the lowest turn-on electric field of 1.4 V/μm and highest emission current density of 191 μA/cm{sup 2} among all testing SiNW samples. Benefiting from the superior thermal and electrical properties of CNTs and the flexible patterning technologies available for SiNWs, bundle arrays of CNT–SiNW heterojunctions show improved and highly-uniform field emission with a lower turn-on electric field of 0.9 V/μm and higher emission current density of 5.86 mA/cm{sup 2}. The application of these materials and their corresponding fabrication approaches is not limited to the field emission but can be used for a variety of emerging fields like nanoelectronics, lithium-ion batteries, and solar cells. - Highlights: • Aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) bundle arrays are realized with top-down methods. • Growing carbon nanotubes atop SiNW bundle arrays enable uniform field emission. • A turn-on field of 0.9 V/μm and an emission current of > 5 mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved.

  18. Stable field emission from arrays of vertically aligned free-standing metallic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xavier, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Ferain, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a fully elaborated process to grow arrays of metallic nanowires with controlled geometry and density, based on electrochemical filling of nanopores in track-etched templates. Nanowire growth is performed at room temperature, atmospheric pressure and is compatible with low cost...

  19. The Surface Interface Characteristics of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube and Graphitic Carbon Fiber Arrays Grown by Thermal and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nano-arrays for sensors and devices requires the growth of arrays with the proper characteristics. One such application is the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCFs) for the chemical attachment of probe molecules. The effectiveness of such an array is dependent not only upon the effectiveness of the probe and the interface between that probe and the array, but also the array and the underlaying substrate. If that array is a growth of vertically aligned CNTs or GCFs then the attachment of that array to the surface is of the utmost importance. This attachment provides the mechanical stability and durability of the array, as well as, the electrical properties of that array. If the detection is to be acquired through an electrical measurement, then the appropriate resistance between the array and the surface need to be fabricated into the device. I will present data on CNTs and GCFs grown from both thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The focus will be on the characteristics of the metal film from which the CNTs and GCFs are grown and the changes that occur due to changes within the growth process.

  20. Synthesis of vertical MnO_2 wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The three-dimensional nanocomposites based on vertical MnO_2 array on hemp-derived carbon (HDC) were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The 3D v-MnO_2/HDC nanocomposites showed well-defined porous nature with a high specific surface area of 382.3 m"2 g"−"1. • PET glycolysis was performed using the 3D v-MnO_2/HDC nanocomposites as a catalyst, leading to efficient catalytic performance. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO_2 wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO_2 wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO_2 wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Efficacy of Hummel (Modified Schlumberger Arrays of Vertical Electrical Sounding in Groundwater Exploration: Case Study of Parts of Ibadan Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal Oladunjoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the interpretation results of the Vertical Electrical Sounding data acquired using the conventional Schlumberger and modified Schlumberger arrays with a view to assessing the effectiveness of the modified Schlumberger arrays of vertical electrical sounding as an alternative to the conventional Schlumberger array at sites with space constraint during groundwater exploration. A total of thirty-seven (37 sounding locations were occupied and one hundred (100 sounding data for both conventional Schlumberger and modified Schlumberger arrays were collected across different rock units within Ibadan metropolis, south-western Nigeria, with electrode spacing (AB/2 ranging from 1 to 75 m. The field data were interpreted qualitatively by curve matching and computer iterative methods. Also, statistical analysis of subsurface units and the coefficient of correlation “R” of the statistical plots of the field data shows the relationship between the different arrays. The raw data plot of the different arrays shows significant similarities while statistical analysis of the geo-electric parameters obtained from the different arrays across varied lithologic units show that strong relationships exist between the different field methods. The coefficient of correlation R with values ranging from 0.7 to 0.99 implies that a good similarity exists between the different field methods employed in this study. Hence, modified Schlumberger arrays can be said to be a good alternative to the conventional Schlumberger array for groundwater exploration especially in urban settings where space constraint is a major challenge.

  3. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo

    2012-09-18

    A vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta3N5 nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    A vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta3N5 nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene oxide) in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiadong; Zhou, Shenglin; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2018-03-27

    We investigate the effect of the presence of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the orientation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) lamellae and PEO crystallinity. The high alignment of carbon nanotubes acting as templates probably governs the orientation of PEO lamellae. This templating effect might result in the lamella planes of PEO crystals oriented along a direction parallel to the long axis of the nanotubes. The presence of aligned carbon nanotubes also gives rise to the decreases in PEO crystallinity, crystallization temperature, and melting temperature due to the perturbation of carbon nanotubes to the crystallization of PEO. These effects have significant implications for controlling the orientation of PEO lamellae and decreasing the crystallinity of PEO and thickness of PEO lamellae, which have significant impacts on ion transport in PEO/CNT composite and the capacitive performance of PEO/CNT composite. Both the decreased PEO crystallinity and the orientation of PEO lamellae along the long axes of vertically aligned CNTs give rise to the decrease in the charge transfer resistance, which is associated with the improvements in the ion transport and capacitive performance of PEO/CNT composite.

  6. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality.

  7. Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pengfei; McKendry, Jonathan J D; Gu, Erdan; Chen, Zhizhong; Sun, Yongjian; Zhang, Guoyi; Dawson, Martin D; Liu, Ran

    2016-01-11

    Flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode (micro-LED) arrays have been fabricated and characterized for potential applications in flexible micro-displays and visible light communication. The LED epitaxial layers were transferred from initial sapphire substrates to flexible AuSn substrates by metal bonding and laser lift off techniques. The current versus voltage characteristics of flexible micro-LEDs degraded after bending the devices, but the electroluminescence spectra show little shift even under a very small bending radius 3 mm. The high thermal conductivity of flexible metal substrates enables high thermal saturation current density and high light output power of the flexible micro-LEDs, benefiting the potential applications in flexible high-brightness micro-displays and high-speed visible light communication. We have achieved ~40 MHz modulation bandwidth and 120 Mbit/s data transmission speed for a typical flexible micro-LED.

  8. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.

  9. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Du Won; Jin Kim, Ju; Jung, Jongjin; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Jeong-O; Hwa Kim, Gook; Don Jung, Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV–ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions. (paper)

  10. A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array for perfectly vertical light coupling between optical fibers and waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Akio; Eto, Yohei; Kikuta, Hisao

    2017-12-01

    A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array was designed and fabricated for perfectly vertical light coupling between a single-mode optical fiber and a silicon waveguide on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating coupler with an efficiency of 53% was computationally designed at a 1.1-µm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. The grating coupler and silicon waveguide were fabricated on the SOI substrate with a 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer by a single full-etch process. The measured coupling efficiency was 24% for TE-polarized light at 1528 nm wavelength, which was 0.69 times of the calculated coupling efficiency for the 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer.

  11. A three-dimensional microelectrode array composed of vertically aligned ultra-dense carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, C.; Yadav, S.; Joshi, R.; Schneider, J. J.; Thielemann, C.

    2015-07-01

    Electrodes based on carbon nanotubes are a promising approach to manufacture highly sensitive sensors with a low limit of signal detection and a high signal-to-noise ratio. This is achieved by dramatically increasing the electrochemical active surface area without increasing the overall geometrical dimensions. Typically, carbon nanotube electrodes are nearly planar and composed of randomly distributed carbon nanotube networks having a limited surface gain for a specific geometrical surface area. To overcome this limitation, we have introduced vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) networks as electrodes, which are arranged in a microelectrode pattern of 60 single electrodes. Each microelectrode features a very high aspect ratio of more than 300 and thus a dramatically increased surface area. These microelectrodes composed of VACNT networks display dramatically decreased impedance over the entire frequency range compared to planar microelectrodes caused by the enormous capacity increase. This is experimentally verified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Growth kinetics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays in clean oxygen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Jung Bin; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Chernov, Alexander A; Noy, Aleksandr

    2011-12-27

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an important technological system, as well as a fascinating system for studying basic principles of nanomaterials synthesis; yet despite continuing efforts for the past decade many important questions about this process remain largely unexplained. We present a series of parametric ethylene chemical vapor deposition growth studies in a "hot-wall" reactor using ultrapure process gases that reveal the fundamental kinetics of the CNT growth. Our data show that the growth rate is proportional to the concentration of the carbon feedstock and monotonically decreases with the concentration of hydrogen gas and that the most important parameter determining the rate of the CNT growth is the production rate of active carbon precursor in the gas phase reaction. The growth termination times obtained with the purified gas mixtures were strikingly insensitive to variations in both hydrogen and ethylene pressures ruling out the carbon encapsulation of the catalyst as the main process termination cause.

  13. Understanding the nanoscale local buckling behavior of vertically aligned MWCNT arrays with van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Kim, Hyung-Ick; Wei, Bingqing; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-Boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-08-01

    The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect.The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03581c

  14. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoyue; Misra, Mano

    2010-01-01

    In this work we describe a novel bifacial design concept for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Bifacial DSCs are fabricated with ruthenium complex chemisorbed double-sided TiO 2 nanotube arrays on a Ti metal substrate, in combination with two electron-collecting counter electrodes. Our investigation shows that the present bifacial DSCs have similar conversion efficiencies when illuminated from either their front or rear side, and a summated output power when illuminated on both sides. Furthermore, this type of bifacial DSC is also able to summate the output power of each side when working at an 'unsymmetrical' mode, in which much different output powers are generated by the front and rear sides. Therefore, this bifacial design concept exhibits a promising potential to reduce the cost of solar electricity when DSCs are operated at a location where a high albedo radiation is available.

  15. Vertically Aligned Niobium Nanowire Arrays for Fast-Charging Micro-Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-07-01

    Planar micro-supercapacitors are attractive for system on chip technologies and surface mount devices due to their large areal capacitance and energy/power density compared to the traditional oxide-based capacitors. In the present work, a novel material, niobium nanowires, in form of vertically aligned electrodes for application in high performance planar micro-supercapacitors is introduced. Specific capacitance of up to 1 kF m -2 (100 mF cm -2 ) with peak energy and power density of 2 kJ m -2 (6.2 MJ m -3 or 1.7 mWh cm -3 ) and 150 kW m -2 (480 MW m -3 or 480 W cm -3 ), respectively, is achieved. This remarkable power density, originating from the extremely low equivalent series resistance value of 0.27 Ω (2.49 µΩ m 2 or 24.9 mΩ cm 2 ) and large specific capacitance, is among the highest for planar micro-supercapacitors electrodes made of nanomaterials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Massive transfer of vertically aligned Si nanowire array onto alien substrates and their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Shu-Chia; Hung, Shih-Che; Chao, Jiun-Jie; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2009-01-01

    Si nanowires (NWs) are promising materials for future electronic, photovoltaic, and sensor applications. So far the Si NWs are mainly formed on particular substrates or at high temperatures, greatly limiting their application flexibility. Here we report a low temperature process for forming and massively transferring vertically aligned Si NWs on alien substrates with a large density of about (3-5) x 10 7 NWs/mm 2 . The X-ray diffraction spectrum reveals that the transferred NWs exhibit almost the same crystal property as the bulk Si. Our investigation further shows that the transferred NWs have exceptional optical characteristics. The transferred Si NWs of 12.14 μm exhibit the transmittance as low as 0.3% in the near infrared region and 0.07% in the visible region. The extracted absorption coefficient of Si NWs in the near infrared region is about 3 x 10 3 cm -1 , over 30 times larger than that of the bulk Si. Because of the low temperature process, it enables a large variety of alien substrates such as glass and plastics to be used. In addition, the exceptional properties of the transferred NWs offer potential applications for photovoltaic, photo-detectors, sensors, and flexible electronics.

  17. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned single-crystalline NKN nano-rod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Oh, Seung-Min; Jung, Woo-Suk; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-05-08

    Piezoelectric materials capable of converting between mechanical and electrical energy have a great range of potential applications in micro- and nano-scale smart devices; however, their performance tends to be greatly degraded when reduced to a thin film due to the large clamping force by the substrate and surrounding materials. Herein, we report an effective method for synthesizing isolated piezoelectric nano-materials as means to relax the clamping force and recover original piezoelectric properties of the materials. Using this, environmentally friendly single-crystalline NaxK1-xNbO3 (NKN) piezoelectric nano-rod arrays were successfully synthesized by conventional pulsed-laser deposition and demonstrated to have a remarkably enhanced piezoelectric performance. The shape of the nano-structure was also found to be easily manipulated by varying the energy conditions of the physical vapor. We anticipate that this work will provide a way to produce piezoelectric micro- and nano-devices suitable for practical application, and in doing so, open a new path for the development of complex metal-oxide nano-structures.

  18. Vertically Free-Standing Ordered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Nanocup Arrays by Template-Assisted Ion Beam Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Kangrong; Hu, Die; Zhang, Fengyuan; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhou, Guofu; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-04-01

    In this report, vertically free-standing lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocup arrays with good ordering and high density (1.3 × 1010 cm-2) were demonstrated. By a template-assisted ion beam etching (IBE) strategy, the PZT formed in the pore-through anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on the Pt/Si substrate was with a cup-like nanostructure. The mean diameter and height of the PZT nanocups (NCs) was about 80 and 100 nm, respectively, and the wall thickness of NCs was about 20 nm with a hole depth of about 80 nm. Uppermost, the nanocup structure with low aspect ratio realized vertically free-standing arrays when losing the mechanical support from templates, avoiding the collapse or bundling when compared to the typical nanotube arrays. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum revealed that the as-prepared PZT NCs were in a perovskite phase. By the vertical piezoresponse force microscopy (VPFM) measurements, the vertically free-standing ordered ferroelectric PZT NCs showed well-defined ring-like piezoresponse phase and hysteresis loops, which indicated that the high-density PZT nanocup arrays could have potential applications in ultra-high non-volatile ferroelectric memories (NV-FRAM) or other nanoelectronic devices.

  19. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Boncel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs. A mixture of toluene (main carbon source, pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source and ferrocene (catalyst precursor was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C, composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs. As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM, the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 108 nanotubes per mm2 (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor. In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a ‘bamboo’-like or ‘membrane’-like (multi-compartmental structure morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp2-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a ‘mixed base-and-tip’ (primarily of the base-type type as compared to the purely

  20. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  1. The flush-mounted rail Langmuir probe array designed for the Alcator C-Mod vertical target plate divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.

    2018-04-01

    An array of flush-mounted and toroidally elongated Langmuir probes (henceforth called rail probes) have been specifically designed for the Alcator C-Mod's vertical target plate divertor and operated over multiple campaigns. The "flush" geometry enables the tungsten electrodes to survive high heat flux conditions in which traditional "proud" tungsten electrodes suffer damage from melting. The toroidally elongated rail-like geometry reduces the influence of sheath expansion, which is an important effect to consider in the design and interpretation of flush-mounted Langmuir probes. The new rail probes successfully operated during C-Mod's FY2015 and FY2016 experimental campaigns with no evidence of damage, despite being regularly subjected to heat flux densities parallel to the magnetic field exceeding ˜1 GW m-2 for short periods of time. A comparison between rail and proud probe data indicates that sheath expansion effects were successfully mitigated by the rail design, extending the use of these Langmuir probes to incident magnetic field line angles as low as 0.5°.

  2. Functionalized vertical GaN micro pillar arrays with high signal-to-background ratio for detection and analysis of proteins secreted from breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mun-Ki; Kim, Gil-Sung; Jeong, Jin-Tak; Lim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Won-Yong; Umar, Ahmad; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-11-02

    The detection of cancer biomarkers has recently attracted significant attention as a means of determining the correct course of treatment with targeted therapeutics. However, because the concentration of these biomarkers in blood is usually relatively low, highly sensitive biosensors for fluorescence imaging and precise detection are needed. In this study, we have successfully developed vertical GaN micropillar (MP) based biosensors for fluorescence sensing and quantitative measurement of CA15-3 antigens. The highly ordered vertical GaN MP arrays result in the successful immobilization of CA15-3 antigens on each feature of the arrays, thereby allowing the detection of an individual fluorescence signal from the top surface of the arrays owing to the high regularity of fluorophore-tagged MP spots and relatively low background signal. Therefore, our fluorescence-labeled and CA15-3 functionalized vertical GaN-MP-based biosensor is suitable for the selective quantitative analysis of secreted CA15-3 antigens from MCF-7 cell lines, and helps in the early diagnosis and prognosis of serious diseases as well as the monitoring of the therapeutic response of breast cancer patients.

  3. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2 among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  4. Depth-dependence of time-lapse seismic velocity change detected by a joint interferometric analysis of vertical array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawazaki, K.; Saito, T.; Ueno, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, utilizing depth-sensitivity of interferometric waveforms recorded by co-located Hi-net and KiK-net sensors, we separate the responsible depth of seismic velocity change associated with the M6.3 earthquake occurred on November 22, 2014, in central Japan. The Hi-net station N.MKGH is located about 20 km northeast from the epicenter, where the seismometer is installed at the 150 m depth. At the same site, the KiK-net has two strong motion seismometers installed at the depths of 0 and 150 m. To estimate average velocity change around the N.MKGH station, we apply the stretching technique to auto-correlation function (ACF) of ambient noise recorded by the Hi-net sensor. To evaluate sensitivity of the Hi-net ACF to velocity change above and below the 150 m depth, we perform a numerical wave propagation simulation using 2-D FDM. To obtain velocity change above the 150 m depth, we measure response waveform from the depths of 150 m to 0 m by computing deconvolution function (DCF) of earthquake records obtained by the two KiK-net vertical array sensors. The background annual velocity variation is subtracted from the detected velocity change. From the KiK-net DCF records, the velocity reduction ratio above the 150 m depth is estimated to be 4.2 % and 3.1 % in the periods of 1-7 days and 7 days - 4 months after the mainshock, respectively. From the Hi-net ACF records, the velocity reduction ratio is estimated to be 2.2 % and 1.8 % in the same time periods, respectively. This difference in the estimated velocity reduction ratio is attributed to depth-dependence of the velocity change. By using the depth sensitivity obtained from the numerical simulation, we estimate the velocity reduction ratio below the 150 m depth to be lower than 1.0 % for both time periods. Thus the significant velocity reduction and recovery are observed above the 150 m depth only, which may be caused by strong ground motion of the mainshock and following healing in the shallow ground.

  5. Combined antenna and localized plasmon resonance in Raman scattering from random arrays of silver-coated, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P; Duenas, J A; Boyle, M G; Doherty, M D; Bell, S E J; Kern, A M; Martin, O J F; Teh, A-S; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2011-02-09

    The electric field enhancement associated with detailed structure within novel optical antenna nanostructures is modeled using the surface integral equation technique in the context of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The antennae comprise random arrays of vertically aligned, multiwalled carbon nanotubes dressed with highly granular Ag. Different types of "hot-spot" underpinning the SERS are identified, but contrasting characteristics are revealed. Those at the outer edges of the Ag grains are antenna driven with field enhancement amplified in antenna antinodes while intergrain hotspots are largely independent of antenna activity. Hot-spots between the tops of antennae leaning towards each other also appear to benefit from antenna amplification.

  6. Rational control on floating catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotube assemblies: From vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays to carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongyuan; Chen, Minghai; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Floating catalyst CVD for the growth of CNT films and arrays was investigated. • The structure of CNT array grown in floating catalyst CVD was revealed. • Temperature was proved as a key for the growth of different CNT assemblies. • The increase of growth temperature induced the growth of single-walled CNT film. - Abstract: Floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) has been widely used for the growth of various carbon nanotube (CNT) macrostructures, mainly including vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays and none-woven CNT films. However, it is still unclear for the reason why these CNT macrostructures with largely different morphologies were received via the similar method. In this research, it revealed that the growth temperature largely affected the nucleation status of floating catalysts and thus controlled the morphologies of CNT macrostructures from VACNT arrays to none-woven CNT films. In low temperatures (below 800 °C), VACNTs were grown by bottom-up mechanism with several CNTs, but not one individual from bottom to up along the array height direction. Furthermore, VACNT arrays were only grown on some substrates that can induce iron atoms aggregating to catalyst particles with a suitable size. When increasing the growth temperature higher than 800 °C, more catalyst particles were nucleated in the gas flow, which induced the formation of none-woven CNT films composed of thin CNTs (single-walled CNTs and double-walled CNTs). This research was significative for understanding CNT growth mechanism via FCCVD process and the synthesis of different CNT macrostructures by this strategy.

  7. Rational control on floating catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotube assemblies: From vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays to carbon nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongyuan; Chen, Minghai, E-mail: mhchen2008@sinano.ac.cn; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Floating catalyst CVD for the growth of CNT films and arrays was investigated. • The structure of CNT array grown in floating catalyst CVD was revealed. • Temperature was proved as a key for the growth of different CNT assemblies. • The increase of growth temperature induced the growth of single-walled CNT film. - Abstract: Floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) has been widely used for the growth of various carbon nanotube (CNT) macrostructures, mainly including vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays and none-woven CNT films. However, it is still unclear for the reason why these CNT macrostructures with largely different morphologies were received via the similar method. In this research, it revealed that the growth temperature largely affected the nucleation status of floating catalysts and thus controlled the morphologies of CNT macrostructures from VACNT arrays to none-woven CNT films. In low temperatures (below 800 °C), VACNTs were grown by bottom-up mechanism with several CNTs, but not one individual from bottom to up along the array height direction. Furthermore, VACNT arrays were only grown on some substrates that can induce iron atoms aggregating to catalyst particles with a suitable size. When increasing the growth temperature higher than 800 °C, more catalyst particles were nucleated in the gas flow, which induced the formation of none-woven CNT films composed of thin CNTs (single-walled CNTs and double-walled CNTs). This research was significative for understanding CNT growth mechanism via FCCVD process and the synthesis of different CNT macrostructures by this strategy.

  8. Site-specific nucleation and controlled growth of a vertical tellurium nanowire array for high performance field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, Muhammad; Zhan Xueying; Mirza, Misbah; Wang Zhenxing; Sun Lianfeng; He Jun; Niu Mutong; Zhang Jinping; Zhao Qing

    2013-01-01

    We report the controlled growth of highly ordered and well aligned one-dimensional tellurium nanostructure arrays via a one-step catalyst-free physical vapor deposition method. The density, size and fine structures of tellurium nanowires are systematically studied and optimized. Field emission measurement was performed to display notable dependence on nanostructure morphologies. The ordered nanowire array based field emitter has a turn-on field as low as 3.27 V μm −1 and a higher field enhancement factor of 3270. Our finding offers the possibility of controlling the growth of tellurium nanowire arrays and opens up new means for their potential applications in electronic devices and displays. (paper)

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays via Inverted Monolayer Colloidal Crystals Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Ding, Taotao; Qi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-04-01

    The periodically ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal approach on the silicon substrates by templating of the TiO2 ring deriving from the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC). With the inverted MCC mask, sol-gel-derived ZnO seeds could serve as the periodic nucleation positions for the site-specific growth of ZnO NRs. The large-scale patterned arrays of single ZnO NR with good side-orientation can be readily produced. According to the experimental results, the as-integrated ZnO NR arrays showed an excellent crystal quality and optical property, very suitable for optoelectronic applications such as stimulated emitters and ZnO photonic crystal devices.

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field emitter arrays with Ohmic base contact to silicon by Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morassutto, M.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Smithers, M.A.; Smithers, M.A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, dense arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes are obtained by thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition, using Fe catalyst dispersed on a thin Ta layer. Alignment of the carbon nanotubes depends on the original Fe layer thickness from which the catalyst dispersion is obtained by

  11. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO2-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Jagadale, Pravin; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO 2 /MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO 2 /MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO 2 /MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO 2 -ceramic and MWCNT/TiO 2 -ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10 −2 min −1 and 2.23 × 10 −2 min −1 respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO 2 /MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO 2 on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO 2 /MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation

  12. Experimental Optimization of Passive Cooling of a Heat Source Array Flush-Mounted on a Vertical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Baudoin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat sources, such as power electronics for offshore power, could be cooled passively—mainly by conduction and natural convection. The obvious advantage of this strategy is its high reliability. However, it must be implemented in an efficient manner (i.e., the area needs to be kept low to limit the construction costs. In this study, the placement of multiple heat sources mounted on a vertical plate was studied experimentally for optimization purposes. We chose a regular distribution, as this is likely to be the preferred choice in the construction process. We found that optimal spacing can be determined for a targeted source density by tuning the vertical and horizontal spacing between the heat sources. The optimal aspect ratio was estimated to be around two.

  13. Improving the rate of Cu+2 recovery from industrial wastewater using a vertical array of reciprocating perforated zin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. El-Shazly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the possibility of improving the rate of Cu+2 recovery and/or removal from industrial wastewater by cementation technique using an array of pulsating horizontal perforated zinc discs. The results show that the rate of cementation was found to increase by increasing frequency and amplitude of oscillation (vibrating velocity; disc diameter; copper ion concentration and solution temperature while decreasing by increasing the disc separation. Under certain conditions using pulsating array of perforated zinc discs was found to increase the rate of mass transfer by a factor of 17 times the stagnant discs. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 8.948 kcal/mol which indicates that under the present conditions cementation takes place under mixed control, i.e. the reaction is partially diffusion control. As such no overall mass transfer correlation could be obtained.

  14. Surface-roughness-assisted formation of large-scale vertically aligned CdS nanorod arrays via solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Minmin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Meng; Sun, Huabin; Wang, Jianyu; Yin, Yao; Gao, Fan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Large-scale cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorod arrays were successfully synthesized on several different substrates through solvothermal reaction. During the growth experiments, we observed that the adhesion strength of the CdS nanorod arrays to different substrates differed dramatically, causing some of the CdS coating being easily flushed away by deionized water (DI water). With doubts and suspicions, we seriously investigate the original morphology of all the substrates by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The phase, morphology, crystal structure and photoelectric property of all the products were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and current–voltage (I–V) probe station. The growth mechanism of solvothermal reaction was proposed on the basis of all the characterizations. Our approach presents a universal method of liquid phase epitaxy of 1D material on a wide range of substrates of any shape.

  15. Compaction of Aquifer at Different Depths: Observations from a Vertical GPS Array in the Coastal Center of the University of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kearns, T.; Yang, L.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Houston and the surrounding Harris County have experienced the detrimental effects of subsidence even prior to World War II, to the extent that the land along Galveston Bay had sunk as much as 20 feet since 1906. One dramatic example is the Brownwood subdivision, a coastal community in Baytown where continuous flooding due to subsidence forced the area to be deemed unlivable and consequently abandoned. Thus, Houston's changes in groundwater and compaction of its aquifers are of relatively high concern to those in the public (infrastructure), private (oil & gas), and international (Port of Houston Authority) sectors. One of the key questions related to the subsidence issue in Houston area is what are the contributions of sediments at different depths, and what particularly is the contribution from shallow sediments? To address these questions, University of Houston has installed a vertical GPS array in the UH Coastal Center in March 2014. The GPS array includes four permanent GPS stations with the antenna pole foundations anchored at different depths below ground surface (-10 m, -7m, -4m, 0 m). A special, double-pipe GPS antenna monument was designed for GPS stations with the array. This project was funded by an NSF grant and a UH internal grant. Five groundwater wells with the depths ranging from 2 m to 100 m below the ground surface were also installed at the UH Coastal Center site. This study will investigate continuous GPS and groundwater level measurements (March-November, 2014) at the UHCC site. It is expected that the GPS array will provide total information on subsidence as well as compaction of aquifers within different depth ranges (0 to -4m, -4 to -7 m, -7 to -10m, and below -10 m). Correlation of land subsidence and groundwater fluctuation will also be investigated.

  16. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  17. Synthesis of vertical MnO2 wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO2 wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO2 wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO2 wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  18. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  19. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: using TiO2-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Jagadale, Pravin; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO2/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO2/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (Paligned MWCNT network. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VANT (Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine) in a wind farm array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. T.; Buck, J. W.; Germain, A. C.; Hinchee, M. E.; Solt, T. S.; Leroy, G. M.; Srnsky, R. A.

    1988-09-01

    The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind wind farm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. From the field measurements, we derived the velocity and power/energy deficits under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. A method to estimate the energy deficit was developed based on the measured power deficit and the wind speed distributions. This method may be adopted for other turbine types and sites. Recommendations are made for optimizing wind farm design and operations, as well as for wind energy management.

  1. Vertically Aligned Co9 S8 Nanotube Arrays onto Graphene Papers as High-Performance Flexible Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Li, Jianwei; Han, Yan; Li, Dejun

    2018-02-16

    Paper-like electrodes are emerging as a new category of advanced electrodes for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). Graphene, a promising two-dimensional material with high conductivity, can be easily processed into papers. Here, we report a rational design of flexible architecture with Co 9 S 8 nanotube arrays (NAs) grown onto graphene paper (GP) via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. When employed as flexible free-standing electrode for SCs, the proposed architectured Co 9 S 8 /GPs exhibits superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh capacitance and outstanding rate capability (469 F g -1 at 10 A g -1 ). These results demonstrate that the new nanostructured Co 9 S 8 /GPs can be potentially applied in high performance flexible supercapacitors. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vertically oriented CoO@FeOOH nanowire arrays anchored on carbon cloth as a highly efficient electrode for oxygen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yin; Ni, Yuanman; Liu, Bing; Shang, Shuxia; Yang, Song; Cao, Minhua; Hu, Changwen

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional CoO@FeOOH nanowire arrays grown on carbon cloth were constructed, which exhibit good electrocatalytic activity towards OER in alkaline solution. Display Omitted -- Abstract: Developing high efficiency electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key to water splitting. In this work, we demonstrate the preparation of CoO@FeOOH core-shell nanowire (NWs) grown on three-dimensional (3D) carbon cloth (CC@CoO@FeOOH-NWAs) by hydrothermal method followed by electrodeposition process as well as its highly efficient activity for water oxidation. In this hybrid structure, CoO@FeOOH-NWs with an average diameter of 100 nm is vertically grown on the surface of carbon fibers of the carbon cloth. The combination of CoO@FeOOH catalyst with good electron transfer substrate exhibits exceptionally good electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solution. It needs an overpotential as low as 255 mV to achieve the current density of 10 mA cm −2 , with a Tafel slope of 82 mV dec −1 and also exhibits a good stability in 20 h. In addition, the nanowire array structure is well retained after the durability test with high current density of 50 mA cm −2 . Our strategy provides a guide to rational design of micro-structures of the materials to achieve their high performance.

  4. Synthesis of vertical MnO{sub 2} wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, MinHo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, 346 Joongang-ro, Samcheok, Gangwon-do 25913 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hyung [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, 346 Joongang-ro, Samcheok, Gangwon-do 25913 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, 365 Sinseon-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinsoo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Daogyong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Soo, E-mail: sskim2008@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, 346 Joongang-ro, Samcheok, Gangwon-do 25913 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, 346 Joongang-ro, Samcheok, Gangwon-do 25913 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The three-dimensional nanocomposites based on vertical MnO{sub 2} array on hemp-derived carbon (HDC) were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The 3D v-MnO{sub 2}/HDC nanocomposites showed well-defined porous nature with a high specific surface area of 382.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • PET glycolysis was performed using the 3D v-MnO{sub 2}/HDC nanocomposites as a catalyst, leading to efficient catalytic performance. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO{sub 2} wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO{sub 2} wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO{sub 2} wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  5. Vertically oriented TiO(x)N(y) nanopillar arrays with embedded Ag nanoparticles for visible-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weitao; Ullah, Najeeb; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Kumar, R Vasant; Ding, Yucheng; Barber, Zoe H

    2012-03-27

    We present a straightforward method to produce highly crystalline, vertically oriented TiO(x)N(y) nanopillars (up to 1 μm in length) with a band gap in the visible-light region. This process starts with reactive dc sputtering to produce a TiN porous film, followed by a simple oxidation process at elevated temperatures in oxygen or air. By controlling the oxidation conditions, the band gap of the prepared TiO(x)N(y) can be tuned to different wavelength within the range of visible light. Furthermore, in order to inhibit carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity, Ag nanoparticles have been embedded into the nanogaps between the TiO(x)N(y) pillars by photoinduced reduction of Ag(+) (aq) irradiated with visible light. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of about 10 nm are uniformly dispersed along the pillars. The prepared TiO(x)N(y) nanopillar matrix and Ag:TiO(x)N(y) network show strong photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation, evaluated via degradation of Rhodamine B. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Wave energy conversion utilizing vertical motion of water in the array of water chambers aligned in the direction of wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesayoshi Hadano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a new technical approach, wave energy converter by using vertical motion of water in the multiple water chambers were developed to realize actual wave power generation as eco-environmental renewable energy. And practical use of wave energy converter was actually to require the following conditions: (1 setting up of the relevant device and its application to wave power generation in case that severe wave loading is avoided; (2 workability in installation and maintenance operations; (3 high energy conversion potential; and (4 low cost. In this system, neither the wall(s of the chambers nor the energy conversion device(s are exposed to the impulsive load due to water wave. Also since this system is profitable when set along the jetty or along a long floating body, installation and maintenance are done without difficulty and the cost is reduced. In this paper, we describe the system which consists of a float, a shaft connected with another shaft, a rack and pinion arrangement, a ratchet mechanism, and rotary type generator(s. Then, we present the dynamics model for evaluating the output electric power, and the results of numerical calculation including the effect of the phase shift of up/down motion of the water in the array of water chambers aligned along the direction of wave propagation.

  7. High power vertical stacked and horizontal arrayed diode laser bar development based on insulation micro-channel cooling (IMCC) and hard solder bonding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boxue; Jia, Yangtao; Zhang, Haoyu; Jia, Shiyin; Liu, Jindou; Wang, Weifeng; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    An insulation micro-channel cooling (IMCC) has been developed for packaging high power bar-based vertical stack and horizontal array diode lasers, which eliminates many issues caused in its congener packaged by commercial copper formed micro-channel cooler(MCC), such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between cooler and diode laser bar, high coolant quality requirement (DI water) and channel corrosion and electro-corrosion induced by DI water if the DI-water quality is not well maintained The IMCC cooler separates water flow route and electrical route, which allows tap-water as coolant without electro-corrosion and therefore prolongs cooler lifetime dramatically and escalated the reliability of these diode lasers. The thickness of ceramic and copper in an IMCC cooler is well designed to minimize the CTE mismatch between laser bar and cooler, consequently, a very low "SMILE" of the laser bar can be achieved for small fast axis divergence after collimation. In additional, gold-tin hard solder bonding technology was also developed to minimize the risk of solder electromigration at high current density and thermal fatigue under hard-pulse operation mode. Testing results of IMCC packaged diode lasers are presented in this report.

  8. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  9. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO{sub 2}-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Jagadale, Pravin [DISAT — Department of Applied Science and Technology, Carbon group, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Sharon, Maheshwar [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO{sub 2}-ceramic and MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}-ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} and 2.23 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO{sub 2} on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation.

  10. Sub-1-V-60 nm vertical body channel MOSFET-based six-transistor static random access memory array with wide noise margin and excellent power delay product and its optimization with the cell ratio on static random access memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Ryosuke; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    In this study, with the aim to achieve a wide noise margin and an excellent power delay product (PDP), a vertical body channel (BC)-MOSFET-based six-transistor (6T) static random access memory (SRAM) array is evaluated by changing the number of pillars in each part of a SRAM cell, that is, by changing the cell ratio in the SRAM cell. This 60 nm vertical BC-MOSFET-based 6T SRAM array realizes 0.84 V operation under the best PDP and up to 31% improvement of PDP compared with the 6T SRAM array based on a 90 nm planar MOSFET whose gate length and channel width are the same as those of the 60 nm vertical BC-MOSFET. Additionally, the vertical BC-MOSFET-based 6T SRAM array achieves an 8.8% wider read static noise margin (RSNM), a 16% wider write margin (WM), and an 89% smaller leakage. Moreover, it is shown that changing the cell ratio brings larger improvements of RSNM, WM, and write time in the vertical BC-MOSFET-based 6T SRAM array.

  11. Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Follman, David

    2011-06-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength IR (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7 °C. In addition, we have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640×512 readout integrated integrated circuits to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 μm at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0 °C. Noise due to the readout can be reduced from 95 to 57 electrons by using off-chip correlated double sampling. In addition, Aerius has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, and provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  12. Effect of distribution, interface property and density of hydrogel-embedded vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on the properties of a flexible solid state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Xietao; Zhu, Yihao; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we fabricate a robust flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSC) device by embedding a conductive poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel into aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. We carefully investigate the effect of distribution, interface properties and densification of CNTs in the gel matrix on the electrochemical properties of an FSC. The total electrochemical capacitance of the device is measured to be 227 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.02 mWh cm‑3, which is dramatically enhanced compared with a similar device composed of non-parallel CNTs. Additionally, controllable in situ electrochemical oxidation greatly improved the compatibility between the hydrophobic CNTs and the hydrophilic hydrogel, which decreased the resistance of the device and introduced extra pseudocapacitance. After such oxidation treatment the energy storage ability further doubled to 430 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.04 mWh cm‑3 . The FSCs based on densified CNT arrays exhibited a much higher volumetric capacitance of 1140 mF cm‑3 and a larger energy density of 0.1 mWh cm‑3, with a large power density of 14 mW cm‑3. All devices show excellent stability of capacitance after at least 10 000 charge–discharge cycles with a loss of less than 2%. These easy-to-assemble hybrid arrays thus potentially provide a new method for manufacturing wearable devices and implantable medical devices.

  13. Electrodeposition of flake-like Cu_2O on vertically aligned two-dimensional TiO_2 nanosheet array films for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Kerong; Lv, Jianguo; He, Gang; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flake-like Cu_2O/TNS with exposed {001} facets constructed p-n heterostructure. • The TNS arrays were used as starting substrates for Cu_2O growth. • The Cu_2O/TNS prepared at −0.4 V exhibits the best photoelectrochemical property. - Abstract: A novel Cu_2O/TNS composite structure of single crystal TiO_2 nanosheet (TNS) arrays decorated with flake-like Cu_2O were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by the electrodeposition process. The effects of deposition potential on the microstructure, morphology, and optical property of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. When the deposition potential is higher than −0.4 V, peaks corresponding to Cu appear, meanwhile, flake-like Cu_2O become agglomerating, and transform into dense Cu_2O particles. Additionally, photoelectrochemical experiments indicate that the films deposited at −0.4 V show the lowest resistivity and highest exciton separation efficiency. This enhanced photoelectrochemical properties can be explained by synergistic effect of p-type flake-like Cu_2O and n-type TiO_2 heterojunctions combined with two-dimensional TiO_2 nanosheet with exposed highly reactive {001} facets.

  14. Electrodeposition of flake-like Cu{sub 2}O on vertically aligned two-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanosheet array films for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Co-operative Innovation Research Center for Weak Signal-Detecting Materials and Devices Integration, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Institute of Applied Physics AOA, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Kerong [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, Gang [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flake-like Cu{sub 2}O/TNS with exposed {001} facets constructed p-n heterostructure. • The TNS arrays were used as starting substrates for Cu{sub 2}O growth. • The Cu{sub 2}O/TNS prepared at −0.4 V exhibits the best photoelectrochemical property. - Abstract: A novel Cu{sub 2}O/TNS composite structure of single crystal TiO{sub 2} nanosheet (TNS) arrays decorated with flake-like Cu{sub 2}O were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by the electrodeposition process. The effects of deposition potential on the microstructure, morphology, and optical property of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. When the deposition potential is higher than −0.4 V, peaks corresponding to Cu appear, meanwhile, flake-like Cu{sub 2}O become agglomerating, and transform into dense Cu{sub 2}O particles. Additionally, photoelectrochemical experiments indicate that the films deposited at −0.4 V show the lowest resistivity and highest exciton separation efficiency. This enhanced photoelectrochemical properties can be explained by synergistic effect of p-type flake-like Cu{sub 2}O and n-type TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions combined with two-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanosheet with exposed highly reactive {001} facets.

  15. In situ carbon encapsulation of vertical MoS2 arrays with SnO2 for durable high rate lithium storage: dominant pseudocapacitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; Deng, Qinglin; Wang, Junyong; Jiang, Kai; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2018-01-03

    Improving the conductivity and charge transfer kinetics is favourable for innovation of sustainable energy devices such as metal oxide/sulfide-based electrodes. Herein, with an intercalation pseudocapacitance effect, an in situ polymerization-carbonization process for novel carbon-sealed vertical MoS 2 -SnO 2 anchored on graphene aerogel (C@MoS 2 -SnO 2 @Gr) has enabled excellent rate performance and durability of the anode of lithium ion batteries to be achieved. The integrated carbon layer and graphene matrix provide a bicontinuous conductive network for efficient electron/ion diffusion pathways. The charge transfer kinetics could be enhanced by the synergistic effects between vertical MoS 2 nanosheets and well-dispersed SnO 2 particles. Based on the crystal surface matching, the ameliorated electric contact between MoS 2 and SnO 2 can promote the extraction of Li + from Li 2 O and restrain the serious aggregation of Li x Sn. As a result, the improved reversibility leads to a higher initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) of 80% (0.1 A g -1 current density) compared to that of other materials. In particular, with the dominating surface capacitive process, the C@MoS 2 -SnO 2 @Gr electrode delivers a stable capacity of 680 mA h g -1 at 2.5 A g -1 for 2000 cycles. Quantitative insight into the origin of the boosted kinetics demonstrated the high pseudocapacitance contribution (above 90%) which leads to the durable high rate Li ion storage.

  16. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahman Mohd Yusri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf.

  17. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue.

  18. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Johnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28 cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue.

  19. Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2012-06-07

    Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application.

  20. A low-potential, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-assisted electrodeposition of cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanostructures onto vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jiang [Food and Bioprocess Engineering laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhang Weide [Nanoscience Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Gunasekaran, Sundaram, E-mail: guna@wisc.edu [Food and Bioprocess Engineering laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > We successfully synthesized CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposites using a cathodic electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to deposit cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanostructures onto vertically well-aligned MWCNTs arrays. > This is an enzyme-free sensor. > Under optimal detection conditions, the sensor showed a good-enough sensitivity of 162.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, a low detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M (S/N = 3) and a fast response of less than 4 s within the linear range of up to 4.5 mM. > Other advantages of the sensor for Glc measurements include high insensitivity to common interferences, long-term stability, reproducibility and resistance to chloride poisoning without additional outer membrance like Nafion. Therefor it is useful for routine Glc analysis. > The novel nanocomposite material with good mechanical strength and high conductivity can be planted into microchannels to conduct sophisticated lab-on-a-chip Glc detection. - Abstract: A novel nanocomposite was synthesized using a cathodic, low-potential, electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to homogeneously deposit cobalt oxide/hydroxide (denoted as CoOx.nH{sub 2}O) nanostructures onto vertically well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWCNTs), while the MWCNTs were prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a tantalum (Ta) substrate. The CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposite exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity towards glucose (Glc) after modification with CoOx.nH{sub 2}O than before. This non-enzymatic Glc sensor has a high sensitivity (162.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), fast response time (<4 s) and low detection limit (2.0 {mu}M at signal/noise ratio = 3), and a linear dynamic range up to 4.5 mM. The sensor output is stable over 30 days and unaffected by common interferents that co-exist with Glc in analytical samples; it is also resistant to chloride poisoning. These features make the CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposite a promising electrode

  1. As-grown vertically aligned amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays as high-rate Li-based micro-battery anodes with improved long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberti, Andrea; Garino, Nadia; Sacco, Adriano; Bianco, Stefano; Chiodoni, Angelica; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 nanotube (NT) arrays are fabricated by fast and facile anodic oxidation. • Near-theoretical initial specific capacity and remarkable rate capability. • Very long-term cycling stability (>2000 cycles) at a very high C-rate. • High surface area and improved interfacial characteristics for fast diffusion kinetics. • NTs show promising prospects in storage devices conceived for high power applications. - Abstract: Vertically oriented arrays of high surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) are fabricated by the fast and facile anodic oxidation of a titanium foil. The formation of well-defined one-dimensional nanotubular carpets is assessed by means of morphological Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy characterisation, while X-ray diffraction analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The electrochemical response evaluated in lab-scale lithium cells is highly satisfying with near-theoretical initial specific capacity and remarkable rate capability, noteworthy in the absence of binders and conductive agents, which would affect the overall energy density. A specific capacity exceeding 200 mAh g −1 is observed at very high 24 C and approx. 80 mAh g −1 are retained even at very high 96 C rate, thus accounting for the promising prospects in storage devices conceived for high power applications. Moreover, the NTs can perform with good cycling stability and capacity retention approaching 50% of the initial value after very long-term operation along with improved durability (> 2000 cycles)

  2. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  3. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  4. CdS/CdSe quantum dot shell decorated vertical ZnO nanowire arrays by spin-coating-based SILAR for photoelectrochemical cells and quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Luo, Qiu-Ping; Chen, Hong-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2012-04-23

    A CdS/CdSe composite shell is assembled onto the surface of ZnO nanowire arrays with a simple spin-coating-based successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The as-prepared photoelectrode exhibit a high photocurrent density in photoelectrochemical cells and also generates good power conversion efficiency in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  6. Memoir of the Long Range Acoustic Propagation Program (LRAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    data after the exercise was completed. All activities were governed by Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or, using the military designation, Zulu time. Accurate...is founder and chief executive of several firms: LPS Collaborative Group (a technical and management consulting firm), Pearl River Publishing (a

  7. Introduction to the LRAPP Environmental-Acoustic Data Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    REFER TO SZC7:3; II OF THE LRAP? ENVIRO.NMENTA..- ACOUSTrC DATA DANK USERS MANUAL. FIGURE 3-4 Examlre of Pace of Text 3-.6 SCALE* . ICD KMfl.At...Commanding Officer 1 Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility Monterey, CA 93940 Director of Naval Matters 1 Center of Naval Analysis Arlinqton, VA

  8. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  9. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  10. Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geohegan, David B [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilya N [Knoxville, TN; Puretzky, Alexander A [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-27

    Methods and apparatus are described for fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites. A composition includes a vertically aligned nanotube array including a plurality of nanotubes characterized by a property across substantially all of the vertically aligned nanotube array. A method includes depositing a vertically aligned nanotube array that includes a plurality of nanotubes; and controlling a deposition rate of the vertically aligned nanotubes array as a function of an in situ monitored property of the plurality of nanotubes.

  11. Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-09-12

    We design a partially aperiodic, vertically-aligned silicon nanowire array that maximizes photovoltaic absorption. The optimal structure is obtained using a random walk algorithm with transfer matrix method based electromagnetic forward solver. The optimal, aperiodic structure exhibits a 2.35 times enhancement in ultimate efficiency compared to its periodic counterpart. The spectral behavior mimics that of a periodic array with larger lattice constant. For our system, we find that randomly-selected, aperiodic structures invariably outperform the periodic array.

  12. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  14. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1999-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  15. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  17. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  18. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  19. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  20. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  1. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  2. Gamma radiation effects in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lubkowski, Grzegorz; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Suhrke, Michael; Weinand, Udo; Endler, Ingolf; Meißner, Frank; Richter, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of gamma radiation effects in low-density arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. These arrays are characterized by excellent anti-reflective and absorbing properties for wavelengths from UV to IR, which makes them an interesting option for stray light control in optical space applications. Gamma irradiation equivalent to an estimated surface lifetime exposition in geostationary orbit does not affect the reflectivity of the structures. First h...

  3. Application of Schlumberger array of vertical electric sounding to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water bearing formations are probably sands, sandstones, gravels and or sands with clay intercalation. The resistivity values for the water bearing layers detected vary from 100 ohm-m to 20,000 ohm-m. Depths to probable water tables vary from 20m to 217m while the thicknesses of water bearing formations vary from ...

  4. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  5. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  6. Vertical nanowire architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  7. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  8. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  9. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  10. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  12. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  13. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  14. Diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Rong; Einarsson, Erik; Murakami, Yoichi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Chiashi, Shohei; Tang, Zikang; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate wide-range diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using a wet chemistry prepared catalyst. In order to ensure compatibility to electronic applications, the current minimum mean diameter of 2 nm for vertically aligned SWNTs is challenged. The mean diameter is decreased to about 1.4 nm by reducing Co catalyst concentrations to 1/100 or by increasing Mo catalyst concentrations by five times. We also propose a novel spectral analysis method that allows one to distinguish absorbance contributions from the upper, middle, and lower parts of a nanotube array. We use this method to quantitatively characterize the slight diameter change observed along the array height. On the basis of further investigation of the array and catalyst particles, we conclude that catalyst aggregation-rather than Ostwald ripening-dominates the growth of metal particles.

  15. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  16. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  17. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  19. Vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  20. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  1. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  2. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  4. Control Strategies for Arrays of Wave Energy Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Westphalen, J; Bacelli, G; Balitsky, P; Ringwood, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the differences between two control strategies for a two-device linear array of wave energy converters (WEC) for device spacings of 4 to 80 times the device diameter. The WECs operate in heave only and are controlled in real time. The control strategies, called the independent device and global array control, estimate the excitation forces and calculate the optimum vertical velocity trajectory and reactive power take off force to achieve the ...

  5. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  6. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  7. Vertical + horizontal unlimited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The movie theatre has largely been unchanged since its very start. Still people are sitting in front of a large white screen looking at images projected from a traditional film projector. However, as movie and movie making becomes increasingly digitized and a vast array of distributed media...... is available, new forms of cinematic experience are emerging. This presentation aims to inspire to new ideas by giving a brief introduction to recent international research in new cinematic forms taking a few examples from the MIT Media Lab in Boston - from interactive cinema to media fabrics - and The Future...... is the computer sports performance "Otopia" developed at Performance-design at The Roskilde University just north of Copenhagen for the annual Roskilde Festival. The presentation ends with an outline of possible projects in the future discussing the promises of the merger of genres as computer games and film...

  8. Geometrical optics, electrostatics, and nanophotonic resonances in absorbing nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttu, Nicklas

    2013-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays have shown promise for next-generation photovoltaics and photodetection, but enhanced understanding of the light-nanowire interaction is still needed. Here, we study theoretically the absorption of light in an array of vertical InP nanowires by moving continuously, first from the electrostatic limit to the nanophotonic regime and then to the geometrical optics limit. We show how the absorption per volume of semiconductor material in the array can be varied by a factor of 200, ranging from 10 times weaker to 20 times stronger than in a bulk semiconductor sample.

  9. Broadband absorption of semiconductor nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    We use electromagnetic simulations to carry out a systematic study of broadband absorption in vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications. We study six semiconductor materials that are commonly used for solar cells. We optimize the structural parameters of each nanowire array to maximize the ultimate efficiency. We plot the maximal ultimate efficiency as a function of height to determine how it approaches the perfect-absorption limit. We further show that the ultimate efficiencies of optimized nanowire arrays exceed those of equal-height thin films for all six materials and over a wide range of heights from 100 nm to 100 µm

  10. Investigations of two types of superconducting arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, M.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation has two parts. Part one studies the anisotropy effect on homogeneous superconducting wire-networks, by using the Abrikosov approach. The networks assumed to have an infinite square lattice geometry. An anisotropy parameter R is defined to be the cross sectional area ratio of the vertical and horizontal strands. Many limiting behaviors of the order parameter distribution as R → ∞ are obtained. Many anisotropy-induced vortex configurational transitions are found at several Φ/Φ 0 values studied, and are investigated in detail. Part two studies the ground-state vortex configurations of the Josephson-coupled arrays of superconducting islands. The Ginzburg-Landau Josephson array model is used. With arrays of Penrose tiling geometry, the authors have found negative evidences against a proposed mechanism, and positive evidences for a new mechanism for generating commensurate states. But the mechanisms for the majority of the nontrivial commensurate states remain to be investigated. With arrays of infinite square lattice geometry, a temperature-induced vortex configurational transition at Φ/Φ 0 = 1/6 is found. The authors discover that the equilibrium vortex ground state of an infinite square-lattice array can occur in a unit cell of size other than q by q, or 2q by 2q, which has been widely accepted and commonly used so far

  11. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  12. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  13. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  14. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  15. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  16. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  17. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  18. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  19. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  20. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

    2014-01-01

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium

  1. Carbon Nanofiber Electrode Array for Neurochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2017-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report using vertically aligned CNF as neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in a smart deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  2. Vertically Integrated Edgeless Photon Imaging Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab; Deptuch, Grzegorz [Fermilab; Shenai, Alpana [Fermilab; Maj, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Kmon, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Grybos, Pawel [AGH-UST, Cracow; Szczygiel, Robert [AGH-UST, Cracow; Siddons, D. Peter [Brookhaven; Rumaiz, Abdul [Brookhaven; Kuczewski, Anthony [Brookhaven; Mead, Joseph [Brookhaven; Bradford, Rebecca [Argonne; Weizeorick, John [Argonne

    2017-01-01

    The Vertically Integrated Photon Imaging Chip - Large, (VIPIC-L), is a large area, small pixel (65μm), 3D integrated, photon counting ASIC with zero-suppressed or full frame dead-time-less data readout. It features data throughput of 14.4 Gbps per chip with a full frame readout speed of 56kframes/s in the imaging mode. VIPIC-L contain 192 x 192 pixel array and the total size of the chip is 1.248cm x 1.248cm with only a 5μm periphery. It contains about 120M transistors. A 1.3M pixel camera module will be developed by arranging a 6 x 6 array of 3D VIPIC-L’s bonded to a large area silicon sensor on the analog side and to a readout board on the digital side. The readout board hosts a bank of FPGA’s, one per VIPIC-L to allow processing of up to 0.7 Tbps of raw data produced by the camera.

  3. A wideband connection to sperm whales: A fiber-optic, deep-sea hydrophone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerfordt, Anders; Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    A 10-element, 950 m long, vertical hydrophone array based on fiber-optic data transmission has been developed primarily for studying the beam pattern from deep diving cetaceans emitting sonar pulses. The array elements have a configurable sampling rate and resolution with a maximum signal bandwidth...

  4. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  5. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  6. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Young; Song, Dong Eon; Kim, Sang Sub

    2008-01-01

    Vertically and laterally aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on Pt-coated Si substrates by catalyst-free metal organic chemical vapor deposition. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on the nanorod arrays using a coating-and-etching process with a photo-resist is reported. Tests of the devices as oxygen gas sensors have been performed. Our results demonstrate that the approach holds promise for the realization of sensitive and reliable nanorod array chemical sensors

  7. Piezo-Phototronic Enhanced UV Sensing Based on a Nanowire Photodetector Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xun; Du, Weiming; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    A large array of Schottky UV photodetectors (PDs) based on vertical aligned ZnO nanowires is achieved. By introducing the piezo-phototronic effect, the performance of the PD array is enhanced up to seven times in photoreponsivity, six times in sensitivity, and 2.8 times in detection limit. The UV PD array may have applications in optoelectronic systems, adaptive optical computing, and communication. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  9. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  10. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  11. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  12. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  13. Romanian earthquakes analysis using BURAR seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Rogozea, Maria; Nica, Daniela; Popescu, Emilia; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Bucovina seismic array (BURAR) is a medium-aperture array, installed in 2002 in the northern part of Romania (47.61480 N latitude, 25.21680 E longitude, 1150 m altitude), as a result of the cooperation between Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA and National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of ten elements, located in boreholes and distributed over a 5 x 5 km 2 area; nine with short-period vertical sensors and one with a broadband three-component sensor. Since the new station has been operating the earthquake survey of Romania's territory has been significantly improved. Data recorded by BURAR during 01.01.2005 - 12.31.2005 time interval are first processed and analyzed, in order to establish the array detection capability of the local earthquakes, occurred in different Romanian seismic zones. Subsequently a spectral ratios technique was applied in order to determine the calibration relationships for magnitude, using only the information gathered by BURAR station. The spectral ratios are computed relatively to a reference event, considered as representative for each seismic zone. This method has the advantage to eliminate the path effects. The new calibration procedure is tested for the case of Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes and proved to be very efficient in constraining the size of these earthquakes. (authors)

  14. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  15. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  16. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  17. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  18. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  19. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  20. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  1. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  2. Studies on a 120 degrees segmented circular array for multi-beam multi-frequency bathymetric application

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    A theoretical analysis of the vertical for field patterns and input impedances, as well as excitation velocities of a 120 degrees segmented circular array of 40 groups of four elements each is performed. The narrowest beam widths at normal incidence...

  3. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL V009 (UARCL3AL) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  4. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT V009 (UARCL3AT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  5. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Chong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  6. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Chong; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2017-01-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO 2 nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO 2 nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  7. Nanostructured pillars based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes as the stationary phase in micro-CEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Guei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2009-06-01

    We present a micro-CEC chip carrying out a highly efficient separation of dsDNA fragments through vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a microchannel. The vertically aligned MWCNTs were grown directly in the microchannel to form straight nanopillar arrays as ordered and directional chromatographic supports. 1-Pyrenedodecanoic acid was employed for the surface modification of the MWCNTs' stationary phase to adsorb analytes by hydrophobic interactions. This device was used for separating dsDNA fragments of three different lengths (254, 360, and 572 bp), and fluorescence detection was employed to verify the electrokinetic transport in the MWCNT array. The micro-CEC separation of the three compounds was achieved in less than 300 s at a field strength of 66 V/cm due to superior laminar flow patterns and a lower flow resistance resulting from the vertically aligned MWCNTs being used as the stationary phase medium. In addition, a fivefold reduction of band broadening was obtained when the analyte was separated by the chromatographic MWCNT array channel instead of the CE channel. From all of the results, we suggest that an in situ grown and directional MWCNT array can potentially be useful for preparing more diversified forms of stationary phases for vertically efficient chip-based electrochromatography.

  8. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  9. Stereo imaging and random array stratified imaging for cargo radiation inspecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Zeng Yu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Stereo Imaging and Random Array Stratified Imaging for cargo container radiation Inspecting. By using dual-line vertical detector array scan, a stereo image of inspected cargo can be obtained and watched with virtual reality view. The random detector array has only one-row of detectors but distributed in a certain horizontal dimension randomly. To scan a cargo container with this random array detector, a 'defocused' image is obtained. By using 'anti-random focusing', one layer of the image can be focused on the background of all defocused images from other layers. A stratified X-ray image of overlapped bike wheels is presented

  10. Natural convection heat transfer from a vertical circular tube sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharne, S.P.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine natural convection heat transfer coefficients (a) on a plain vertical circular plate, and (b) on a similar plate with a square array of non-conducting tubes fixed in it. The experiments were carried out using air as the heat transfer medium. The diameter of the brass plates used was 350 mm. The diameter of the bakelite tubes used was 19.2 mm. The range of Rayleigh numbers was from 1.06x10 8 to 1.66x10 8 . The results show that the heat transfer coefficients in case (a) are very close to those obtained using standard correlations for vertical flat plates, whereas for case (b) the heat transfer coefficients are at least 50 percent higher than those predicted by the Churchill-Chu correlation. It is hence concluded that the disturbance to boundary layer caused by the presence of tubes enhances the heat transfer coefficient significantly. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  12. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  13. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  15. Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Ramirez, M.L. de.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)

  16. Visible diffraction from quasi-crystalline arrays of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy P.; Butt, Haider; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Large area arrays of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are patterned in a quasi-crystalline Penrose tile arrangement through electron beam lithography definition of Ni catalyst dots and subsequent nanotube growth by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. When illuminated with a 532 nm laser beam high-quality and remarkable diffraction patterns are seen. The diffraction is well matched to theoretical calculations which assume apertures to be present at the location of the VACNTs for transmitted light. The results show that VACNTs act as diffractive elements in reflection and can be used as spatially phased arrays for producing tailored diffraction patterns.

  17. Highly aligned carbon nanotube arrays fabricated by bias sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Honda, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Keita; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Ikuno, Takashi; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Ohkura, Shigeharu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro; Oura, Kenjiro; Hirao, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been successfully grown on Si substrates by dc bias sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the resultant arrays consisted of dense CNTs with diameters of 40-60 nm and lengths of 300-400 nm. The CNTs were found to have a bamboo-like structure at the end of which metallic nanoparticle was formed, indicating tip growth mechanism. The energy enhancement of carbon particles is a key factor for synthesis of CNTs using dc bias sputtering system

  18. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  19. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  20. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  1. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  2. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  3. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  4. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  5. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  6. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  7. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  8. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available dual-band dual-polarized (DBDP) antenna design for WLAN applications. The antenna is in the form of an array consisting of four double-dipole radiators. The basic radiating element consists of a rhombus shaped dipole above a planar ground plane... the ground planes and the respective feedlines. Substrate cuts and difierent heights for the horizontal feedlines were necessary to achieve the latter. The 2nd conflguration (for vertical polarization) has a slightly difierent feeding network layout...

  9. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  10. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  11. Carbon Micronymphaea: Graphene on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube (CNT, graphene, and their hybrid structure under various operating conditions during a one-step synthesis via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. We focus on the synthetic aspects of carbon hybrid material composed of heteroepitaxially grown graphene on top of a vertical array of carbon nanotubes, called carbon micronymphaea. We characterize the structural features of this unique nanocomposite by uses of electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We observe carbon nanofibers, poorly aligned and well-aligned vertical arrays of CNT sequentially as the growth temperature increases, while we always discover the carbon hybrids, called carbon micronymphaea, at specific cooling rate of 15°C/s, which is optimal for the carbon precipitation from the Ni nanoparticles in this study. We expect one-pot synthesized graphene-on-nanotube hybrid structure poses great potential for applications that demand ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratios with intact graphitic nature and directional electronic and thermal transports.

  12. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  13. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  14. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  15. Concurrent array-based queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  16. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  17. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  18. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  19. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured metallic arrays with multi-shapes in monolayer and bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shaoli, E-mail: slzhu@ntu.edu.s [Nanyang Technological University, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering (Singapore); Fu Yongqi [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics (China)

    2010-06-15

    Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured metallic arrays with different shapes in monolayer and bilayer were presented in this article. Nano-rhombic, nano-hexagon, and nano-column metallic arrays with the tunable shapes and in-plane dimensions were fabricated by means of vertical reactive ion etching and nanosphere lithography. The nanosize range of nanoparticles is from 50 to 300 nm. Optical characterization of these arrays was performed experimentally by spectroscopy. Specifically, we compared spectra width at site of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the measured extinction spectra in the visible range to that of the traditional hexagonal-arranged triangular nanoparticles. The results show that the combination of vertical reactive ion etching and nanosphere lithography approach yields as tunable masks and provides an easy way for a flexible nanofabrication. These metallic arrays have narrower FWHM of the spectra which makes them potential applications in biosensors, data storage, and bioreactors.

  20. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  1. Fabrication of Phased Array EMAT and Its Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Bong Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Ki Bok

    2010-01-01

    EMAT has been applied in various fields for flaw detection and material characterization because it has noncontact property in wave generation and a good mode selectivity. Unfortunately, however, EMAT shows low signal to noise ratio relative to commercial contact transducer because of low energy conversion efficiency. If the phase matching through the control of time delay between each coil consisting of the array EMAT is accomplished, it is expected that it will be a solution for the improvement of low signal to noise ratio. In this experiment, the phased array EMATs which consists of 3 or 4 meander coils and one big magnet were fabricated for surface and vertical shear wave generation. Effect of phased delay control on signal directivity and amplitude enhancement was verified. A slit with the depth of 0.5 mm and a side-drill hole of 0.5 mm diameter were clearly detected by fabricated phased array EMATs, respectively

  2. MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd

    2007-01-01

    A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase

  3. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  4. A 4 probe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, C E [CEGB, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Marchwood, Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    A NDT system is described which moves away from the present manual method using a single send/receive transducer combination and uses instead an array of four transducers. Four transducers are shown sufficient to define a point reflector with a resolution of m{lambda}z/R where m{lambda} is the minimum detectable path difference in the system (corresponding to a m cycle time resolution), z the range and R the radius of the array. Signal averaging with an input ADC rate of 100 MHz is used with voice output for the range data. Typical resolution measurements in a water tank are presented. We expect a resolution of the order of mm in steel at a range of 80 mm. The system is expected to have applications in automated, high resolution, sizing of defects and in the inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds. (author)

  5. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  6. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  7. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  8. Phased array antenna control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  9. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  10. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  11. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  12. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  14. De-entrainment on vertical elements in air droplet cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, J.C.; Kirchner, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    De-entrainment phenomena on vertical elements in air-water droplet cross flow are generated using a horizontal array of water spray nozzles and a draft-induced wind tunnel. These conditions are used to obtain experimental values of the de-entrainment efficiency of isolated elements (25.4-, 63.5-, and 101.6-mm-diam cylinders and a 76.2-mm-square tube), and of an array of 101.6-mm-diam cylinders. A flow model is developed that extrapolates the de-entrainment efficiency of isolated elements through the use of a correlation for the interference effect to predict the efficiency of large arrays of similar elements. This simple model is shown to provide a good prediction of the de-entrainment efficiency of arrays in terms of the efficiency of an isolated element

  15. Layered-metal-hydroxide nanosheet arrays with controlled nanostructures to assist direct electronic communication at biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Lu, Shan; Zhao, Liwei; He, Jing

    2011-10-18

    In this work, ordered vertical arrays of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets have been developed to achieve electron transfer (eT) at biointerfaces in electrochemical devices. It is found that tailoring the gap size of LDH nanosheet arrays could significantly promote the eT rate. This research has successfully extended nanomaterials for efficient modifications of electrode surfaces from nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes to nanosheets. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  17. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  18. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  19. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  20. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  1. Vertical structures in vibrated wormlike micellar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Tamir; Deegan, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Vertically vibrated shear thickening particulate suspensions can support a free-standing interfaces oriented parallel to gravity. We find that shear thickening worm-like micellar solutions also support such vertical interfaces. Above a threshold in acceleration, the solution spontaneously accumulates into a labyrinthine pattern characterized by a well-defined vertical edge. The formation of vertical structures is of interest because they are unique to shear-thickening fluids, and they indicate the existence of an unknown stress bearing mechanism.

  2. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  3. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  4. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Shaw, Michael J [Tijeras, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM; Lentine, Anthony L [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  5. Laser interferometer array for Big Dee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    A twelve channel interferometer array is planned for obtaining electron density profiles on Big Dee. Three of the channels are vertical; the remainder are radial or diagonal in an azimuthal plane. Each channel consists of coaxial CO/sub 2/ and HeNe laser beams. The reference beam is formed by splitting off half of the laser power at each wavelength by using acousto-optic modulators which introduce a 40 MHz frequency shift in the reference beam. In the radial channels the probe beam passes through a barium fluoride window to a plane metal mirror on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel. The reflected beam passes back out of the vacuum vessel, through the same window, to a beam splitter where the probe beam and the reference beam are again combined

  6. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  7. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  8. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam

  9. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  10. Silicon nanowires enhanced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cell with vertically surface microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiuting; Fang, Lipao; Wei, Jiyu; Xiao, Guipeng; Lv, Meihong; Ma, Quanhong; Liu, Chunfeng; Wang, Wang

    2017-09-01

    Owing to its biocompatibility, noncytotoxicity, biodegradability and three-dimensional structure, vertically silicon nanowires (SiNWs) arrays are a promising scaffold material for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and relevant medical applications. Recently, its osteogenic differentiation effects, reorganization of cytoskeleton and regulation of the fate on stem cells have been demonstrated. However, it still remains unknown whether SiNWs arrays could affect the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or not. In the present study, we have employed vertically aligned SiNWs arrays as culture systems for NSCs and proved that the scaffold material could promote the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs while maintaining excellent cell viability and stemness. Immunofluorescence imaging analysis, Western blot and RT-PCR results reveal that NSCs proliferation and neuronal differentiation efficiency on SiNWs arrays are significant greater than that on silicon wafers. These results implicate SiNWs arrays could offer a powerful platform for NSCs research and NSCs-based therapy in the field of neural tissue engineering.

  11. Vertical epitaxial wire-on-wire growth of Ge/Si on Si(100) substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Zhang, Zhang; Shingubara, Shoso; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Vertically aligned epitaxial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire arrays on Si(100) substrates were prepared by a two-step chemical vapor deposition method in anodic aluminum oxide templates. n-Butylgermane vapor was employed as new safer precursor for Ge nanowire growth instead of germane. First a Si nanowire was grown by the vapor liquid solid growth mechanism using Au as catalyst and silane. The second step was the growth of Ge nanowires on top of the Si nanowires. The method presented will allow preparing epitaxially grown vertical heterostructure nanowires consisting of multiple materials on an arbitrary substrate avoiding undesired lateral growth.

  12. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  13. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  14. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  15. Innovations in biomedical nanoengineering: nanowell array biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YoungTae; Jeong, Sunil; Lee, JuKyung; Choi, Hak Soo; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured biosensors have pioneered biomedical engineering by providing highly sensitive analyses of biomolecules. The nanowell array (NWA)-based biosensing platform is particularly innovative, where the small size of NWs within the array permits extremely profound sensing of a small quantity of biomolecules. Undoubtedly, the NWA geometry of a gently-sloped vertical wall is critical for selective docking of specific proteins without capillary resistances, and nanoprocessing has contributed to the fabrication of NWA electrodes on gold substrate such as molding process, e-beam lithography, and krypton-fluoride (KrF) stepper semiconductor method. The Lee group at the Mara Nanotech has established this NW-based biosensing technology during the past two decades by engineering highly sensitive electrochemical sensors and providing a broad range of detection methods from large molecules (e.g., cells or proteins) to small molecules (e.g., DNA and RNA). Nanosized gold dots in the NWA enhance the detection of electrochemical biosensing to the range of zeptomoles in precision against the complementary target DNA molecules. In this review, we discuss recent innovations in biomedical nanoengineering with a specific focus on novel NWA-based biosensors. We also describe our continuous efforts in achieving a label-free detection without non-specific binding while maintaining the activity and stability of immobilized biomolecules. This research can lay the foundation of a new platform for biomedical nanoengineering systems.

  16. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  17. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  18. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  19. Array display tool ADT reference manual. Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Array Display Tool (ADT) is a Motif program to display arrays of process variables from the Advanced Photon Source control system. A typical use is to display the horizontal and vertical monitor readings. A picture of the ADT interface is here. The screen layout, apart from the menu bar, consists of two types of graphic areas in which the values for the arrays of process variables are shown: Display areas, which display one or more arrays as a function of index, and a zoom area. In the zoom area specified arrays only are displayed as a function of lattice position along with symbols for the major elements of the lattice. There can be several display areas, but at most one zoom area. When the screen is resized these areas change size proportionally. There are a number of options in the View Menu to change the way the values are displayed. It is also possible via the Options Menu to: (1) Store the current values internally. (2) Store the values from a snapshot file internally. (3) Display one of the stored sets of values along with the current values. (4) Display the difference of the current values with one of the stored sets of values. (5) Write the current values to a snapshot file. There are several (currently 5) slots in which you can store values internally. In addition you can display the values with specified reference values subtracted

  20. The Development of High-Density Vertical Silicon Nanowires and Their Application in a Heterojunction Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned p-type silicon nanowire (SiNW arrays were fabricated through metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE of Si wafers. An indium tin oxide/indium zinc oxide/silicon nanowire (ITO/IZO/SiNW heterojunction diode was formed by depositing ITO and IZO thin films on the vertically aligned SiNW arrays. The structural and electrical properties of the resulting ITO/IZO/SiNW heterojunction diode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and current−voltage (I−V measurements. Nonlinear and rectifying I−V properties confirmed that a heterojunction diode was successfully formed in the ITO/IZO/SiNW structure. The diode had a well-defined rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 550.7 at 3 V and a turn-on voltage of 2.53 V under dark conditions.

  1. Flexible symmetric supercapacitors based on vertical TiO2 and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. J.; Chang, Pai-Chun; Lu, Jia G.

    2010-03-01

    Highly conducting and porous carbon nanotubes are widely used as electrodes in double-layer-effect supercapacitors. In this presentation, vertical TiO2 nanotube array is fabricated by anodization process and used as supercapacitor electrode utilizing its compact density, high surface area and porous structure. By spin coating carbon nanotube networks on vertical TiO2 nanotube array as electrodes with 1M H2SO4 electrolyte in between, the specific capacitance can be enhanced by 30% compared to using pure carbon nanotube network alone because of the combination of double layer effect and redox reaction from metal oxide materials. Based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, this type of hybrid electrode has proven to be suitable for high performance supercapacitor application and maintain desirable cycling stability. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique shows that the electrode has good electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we will discuss the prospect of extending this energy storage approach in flexible electronics.

  2. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  3. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  4. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a kvlcc model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Nam Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15~2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  5. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a KVLCC model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun An

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15∼2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  6. First test model of the optical microscope which images the whole vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The first test model of the optical microscope which produces the in focus image of the whole vertical particle track without depth scanning is described. The in focus image of the object consisting of the linear array of the point-like elements was obtained. A comparison with primary out of focus image of such an object has been made

  7. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, William G [Sandia Park, NM; Siegal, Michael P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  8. Array architectures for iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Hosagrahar V.; Rao, Sailesh K.; Kailath, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Regular mesh-connected arrays are shown to be isomorphic to a class of so-called regular iterative algorithms. For a wide variety of problems it is shown how to obtain appropriate iterative algorithms and then how to translate these algorithms into arrays in a systematic fashion. Several 'systolic' arrays presented in the literature are shown to be specific cases of the variety of architectures that can be derived by the techniques presented here. These include arrays for Fourier Transform, Matrix Multiplication, and Sorting.

  9. Coherency analysis of accelerograms recorded by the UPSAR array during the 2004 Parkfield earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Kiureghian, Armen Der; Dreger, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variability of near-fault strong motions recorded by the US Geological Survey Parkfield Seismograph Array (UPSAR) during the 2004 Parkfield (California) earthquake is investigated. Behavior of the lagged coherency for two horizontal and the vertical components is analyzed by separately...

  10. A versatile method to grow localized arrays of nanowires for highly sensitive capacitive devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, A.; Yunus, S.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to increase the detection efficiency of the capacitive sensing devices, by growing vertically aligned nanowires arrays, localized and confined on small interdigited electrodes structures. The metallic tracks are made using optical lithography, and the nanowires are reali...

  11. Vertically aligned nanowires on flexible silicone using a supported alumina template prepared by pulsed anodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carpets of vertically aligned nanowires on flexible substrates are successfully realized by a template method. Applying special pulsed anodization conditions, defect-free nanoporous alumina structures supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible silicone elastomer, are created. By using...... this template with nanopores ending on a conducting underlayer, a high-density nanowire array can be simply grown by direct DCelectrodeposition on the top of the silicone rubber....

  12. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, F.; Morant, C.; Elizalde, E.; Roque-Malherbe, R.; Lopez, V.; Zamora, F.; Domingo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Arrays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800 degree C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.

  13. Josephson junctions array resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.

  14. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  15. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  16. Scintillator detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Dibianca, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a scintillator detector array for use in computerized tomography and comprises a housing including a plurality of chambers, the said housing having a front wall transmissive to x-rays and side walls opaque to x-rays, such as of tungsten and tantalum, a liquid scintillation medium including a soluble fluor, the solvent for the fluor being disposed in the chambers. The solvent comprises either an intrinsically high Z solvent or a solvent which has dissolved therein a high Z compound e.g. iodo or bromonaphthalene; or toluene, xylene or trimethylbenzene with a lead or tin alkyl dissolved therein. Also disposed about the chambers are a plurality of photoelectric devices. (author)

  17. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  18. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  19. Modeling of a VMJ PV array under Gaussian high intensity laser power beam condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeongsook; Kim, Gunzung; Park, Yongwan

    2018-02-01

    The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system is one of the most promising systems in the long-rang wireless power transfer field. The vertical multi-junction photovoltaic (VMJ PV) array converts the HILPB into electricity to power the load or charges a battery. The output power of a VMJ PV array depends mainly on irradiance values of each VMJ PV cells. For simulating an entire VMJ PV array, the irradiance profile of the Gaussian HILPB and the irradiance level of the VMJ PV cell are mathematically modeled first. The VMJ PV array is modeled as a network with dimension m*n, where m represents the number of VMJ PV cells in a column, and n represents the number of VMJ PV cells in a row. In order to validate the results obtained in modeling and simulation, a laboratory setup was developed using 55 VMJ PV array. By using the output power model of VMJ PV array, we can establish an optimal power transmission path by the receiver based on the received signal strength. When the laser beam from multiple transmitters aimed at a VMJ PV array at the same time, the received power is the sum of all energy at a VMJ PV array. The transmitter sends its power characteristics as optically coded laser pulses and powers as HILPB. Using the attenuated power model and output power model of VMJ PV array, the receiver can estimate the maximum receivable powers from the transmitters and select optimal transmitters.

  20. Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Yao, Maoqing; Chi, Chunyung; Huang, Ningfeng; Lin, Chenxi; Li, Ruijuan; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-06-13

    Vertically aligned, catalyst-free semiconducting nanowires hold great potential for photovoltaic applications, in which achieving scalable synthesis and optimized optical absorption simultaneously is critical. Here, we report combining nanosphere lithography (NSL) and selected area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (SA-MOCVD) for the first time for scalable synthesis of vertically aligned gallium arsenide nanowire arrays, and surprisingly, we show that such nanowire arrays with patterning defects due to NSL can be as good as highly ordered nanowire arrays in terms of optical absorption and reflection. Wafer-scale patterning for nanowire synthesis was done using a polystyrene nanosphere template as a mask. Nanowires grown from substrates patterned by NSL show similar structural features to those patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL). Reflection of photons from the NSL-patterned nanowire array was used as a measure of the effect of defects present in the structure. Experimentally, we show that GaAs nanowires as short as 130 nm show reflection of <10% over the visible range of the solar spectrum. Our results indicate that a highly ordered nanowire structure is not necessary: despite the "defects" present in NSL-patterned nanowire arrays, their optical performance is similar to "defect-free" structures patterned by more costly, time-consuming EBL methods. Our scalable approach for synthesis of vertical semiconducting nanowires can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cells.

  1. Efficiency of the DOMUS 750 vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Kyle; Rasch, Tyler; Ju, Guoqiang; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some preliminary results on the efficiency of a wind turbine for an off-grid housing unit. To generate power, the unit uses a photovoltaic solar array and a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The existing VAWT was analysed to improve efficiency and increase power generation. There were found to be two main sources of inefficiency: 1. the 750W DC epicyclic generator performed poorly in low winds, and 2. the turbine blades wobbled, allowing for energy loss due to off-axis rotation. A 12V DC permanent magnet alternator was chosen that met the power requirements of the housing unit and would generate power at lower wind speeds. A support bracket was designed to prevent the turbine blades from wobbling.

  2. Units of signals in the surface and underground scintillation detectors of the Yakutsk array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedenko, L G; Fedorova, G F; Roganova, T M

    2013-01-01

    Signals in the surface and underground scintillation detectors from the extensive air shower particles at the Yakutsk array are measured in some practical units. These units are signals in detectors caused by the near vertical muons. These signals from the near vertical muons in the surface and underground detectors have been simulated with the help of the GEANT4 package. These simulations follow up the real experimental calibration of the surface and underground detectors carried out at the Yakutsk array. Results of simulations show the noticeable difference of ∼5% in energies deposited in these two types of detectors. This difference should be taken into account to interpret correctly data on the fraction of muons observed at the Yakutsk array and to make real conclusions about the composition of the primary cosmic radiation at ultra-high energies.

  3. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Lei, L.; Dikhtyar, V.; Korol, M.; Jerby, E.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  4. Submillimeter heterodyne arrays for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güsten, R.; Baryshev, A.; Bell, A.; Belloche, A.; Graf, U.; Hafok, H.; Heyminck, S.; Hochgürtel, S.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Kasemann, C.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Korn, A.; Krämer, I.; Leinz, C.; Lundgren, A.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, K.; Muders, D.; Pacek, F.; Rabanus, D.; Schäfer, F.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, G.; Stutzki, J.; Wieching, G.; Wunsch, A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on developments of submillimeter heterodyne arrays for high resolution spectroscopy with APEX. Shortly, we will operate state-of-the-art instruments in all major atmospheric windows accessible from Llano de Chajnantor. CHAMP+, a dual-color 2×7 element heterodyne array for operation in the

  5. Vertical one-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic for HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Xu Xiaoyuan; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Baonian; Luhmann, N.C.; Wang, Jian; Xia, Z.G.

    2005-01-01

    A vertical resolved 16-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic has been developed and installed on the HT7 Tokamak for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 0.5 us. The system is working on a fixed frequency 97.5 GHz in the first stage. The sample volumes of the system are aligned vertically with a vertical channel spacing of 11 mm, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the toroidal magnetic field. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array and an optical imaging system. The focus location may be shifted horizontally via translation of one of the optical imaging elements. The detail of the system design and laboratory testing of the ECE Imaging optics are presented, together with HT7 plasma data. (author)

  6. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Franklin, Aaron D; Amama, Placidus B; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D; Fisher, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiO x adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors

  7. Working memory and individual differences in the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Baddeley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies, using a modified version of the sequential Corsi block task to examine the impact of symmetry on visuospatial memory, showed an advantage of vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, but no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. The present four experiments investigated the mechanisms underlying the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal configurations using simultaneous presentation and a dual-task paradigm. Results indicated that the recall of vertically symmetric arrays was always better than that of all other patterns and was not influenced by any of the concurrent tasks. Performance with horizontally or diagonally symmetrical patterns differed, with high performing participants showing little effect of concurrent tasks, while low performers were disrupted by concurrent visuospatial and executive tasks. A verbal interference had no effect on either group. Implications for processes involved in the encoding of symmetry are discussed, together with the crucial importance of individual differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of vertical seismic motions and qp-values in sedimentary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohdo, Masanobu; Hatori, Toshiaki; Chiba, Osamu; Takahashi, Katsuya; Takemura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    Using seismic records observed in 4 borehole arrays, characteristics of vertical seismic motions in sedimentary layers are investigated. The results are as follows. 1) P-waves having intensive effect to vertical component are propagating within sedimentary layers even after the S-wave onset time (S-wave part). 2) Frequency dependent Q-values for P-waves (Qp) in Tertiary sediment layers obtained from the optimal analyses to spectral ratios have the tendency to be identical with Q-values for S-waves (Qs) with the same wavelength. 3) Observed vertical motions in upper ground can be simulated by the multiple reflection theory of P-waves based on the optimized velocities and Q-values. (author)

  9. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  10. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  11. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  12. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  13. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  14. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Yazdani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD. Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays.

  15. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays.

  16. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  17. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  19. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  20. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  1. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  2. Fabrication and gas sensing properties of vertically aligned Si nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kwon, Yong Jung; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sang Sub; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a peculiar configuration for a gas sensor consisting of vertically aligned silicon nanowires (VA-Si NWs) synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) is reported. Si NWs were prepared via a facile MACE method and subsequent thermal annealing. Etching was performed by generation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and subsequent etching in HF/H2O2 aqueous solution; the growth conditions were optimized by changing the process parameters. Highly vertically oriented arrays of Si NWs with a straight-line morphology were obtained, and a top-top electrode configuration was applied. The VA-Si NW gas sensor showed good sensing performance, and the VA-Si NWs exhibited a remarkable response (Rg/Ra = 11.5 ∼ 17.1) to H2 gas (10-50 ppm) at 100 °C which was the optimal working temperature. The formation mechanism and gas sensing mechanism of VA-Si NWs are described. The obtained results can suggest new approaches to making inexpensive, versatile, and portable sensors based on Si NWs having a novel top-top electrode structure that are fully compatible with well-developed Si technologies.

  3. Vertical Soil Profiling Using a Galvanic Contact Resistivity Scanning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proximal sensing of soil electromagnetic properties is widely used to map spatial land heterogeneity. The mapping instruments use galvanic contact, capacitive coupling or electromagnetic induction. Regardless of the type of instrument, the geometrical configuration between signal transmitting and receiving elements typically defines the shape of the depth response function. To assess vertical soil profiles, many modern instruments use multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. Alternatively, vertical electrical sounding can be used to measure changes in apparent soil electrical conductivity with depth at a specific location. This paper examines the possibility for the assessment of soil profiles using a dynamic surface galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach, with transmitting and receiving electrodes configured in an equatorial dipole-dipole array. An automated scanner system was developed and tested in agricultural fields with different soil profiles. While operating in the field, the distance between current injecting and measuring pairs of rolling electrodes was varied continuously from 40 to 190 cm. The preliminary evaluation included a comparison of scan results from 20 locations to shallow (less than 1.2 m deep soil profiles and to a two-layer soil profile model defined using an electromagnetic induction instrument.

  4. An optical tunable filter array based on LCOS phase grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong; Wan, Zhujun; Chen, Xu; Yan, Shijia; Luo, Zhixiang

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports an optical tunable filter array (TFA) based on a LCOS (liquid crystal on silicon) chip. The input broadband optical beam is first dispersed by a bulk grating and then incident on the LCOS chip. The LCOS chip is phase-only modulated and constructed as a dynamic reflective phase grating. The phase modulation is adjusted to meet the Littrow angle for a specified passband wavelength and thus the optical beam corresponding to this wavelength is steered to the output. The input/output optical beams are coupled to optical fibers with a dual-fiber collimator. Four dualfiber collimators are vertically aligned as the inputs/outputs and the pixels of the LCOS chip are vertically allocated as four independent zones. Thus the device can act as a 4-channel TFA, which is assembled and functionally demonstrated.

  5. Calibration of the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietta, M.; Alision, P.S.; Arneodo, F.; Barnhill, D.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.J.; Bertou, X.; Bonifazi, C.; Busca, N.; Creusot, A.; Dornic, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Filevitch, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Grunfeld, C.M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Medina, M.C.; Moreno, E.; Navarra, G.; Nitz, D.; Ohnuki, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory will consist of 1600 water Cherenkov detectors, deployed over 3000 km 2 . The remoteness and large number of detectors required a simple, automatic remote calibration procedure. The primary physics calibration is based on the average charge deposited by a vertical and central throughgoing muon, determined with good precision at the detector via a novel rate-based technique and later with higher precision via charge histograms. This value is named the vertical-equivalent muon (VEM). The VEM and the other parameters needed to maintain this calibration over the full energy range and to assess the quality of the detector are measured every minute. This allows an accurate determination of the energy deposited in each detector when an atmospheric cosmic ray shower occurs

  6. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  7. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  8. Length Dependent Foam-Like Mechanical Response of Axially Indented Vertically Oriented Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sands T, Xu X, Fisher T. Dendrimer -assisted controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for enhanced thermal interface conductance. Nanotechnology 2007;18...surfaces. Rev Sci Instrum 2006;77(9):095105-1–3. [11] Allaoui A, Hoa S, Evesque P, Bai J. Electronic transport in carbon nanotube tangles under compression

  9. Exploring arrays of vertical one-dimensional nanostructures for cellular investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Sara; Buch-Månson, Nina; Rostgaard, Katrine Rønne

    2014-01-01

    of research. Encouragingly, despite the diversity of NS platforms and experimental conditions used thus far, general trends and conclusions from combining cells with NSs are beginning to crystallize. This review covers the broad spectrum of NS materials and dimensions used; the observed cellular responses...

  10. Feasibility of estimating vertical transverse isotropy from microseismic data recorded by surface monitoring arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gei, D.; Eisner, Leo; Suhadolc, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 6 (2011), WC117-WC126 ISSN 0016-8033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : anisotropy * inversion * microseismicity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.418, year: 2011

  11. Realization of cantilever arrays for parallel proximity imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarov, Y; Ivanov, Tz; Frank, A; Zoellner, J-P; Nikolov, N; Rangelow, I W

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterisation of self-actuating, and self-sensing cantilever arrays for large-scale parallel surface scanning. Each cantilever is integrated with a sharp silicon tip, a thermal-driven bimorph actuator, and a piezoresistive deflection sensor. Thus, the tip to the sample distance can be controlled individually for each cantilever. A radius of the tips below 10 nm is obtained, which enables nanometre in-plane surface imaging by Angstrom resolution in vertical direction. The fabricated cantilever probe arrays are also applicable for large-area manipulation, sub-10 nm metrology, bottom-up synthesis, high-speed gas analysis, for different bio-applications like recognition of DNA, RNA, or various biomarkers of a single disease, etc.

  12. Dual-Polarized Planar Phased Array Analysis for Meteorological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis for the accuracy requirements of the planar polarimetric phased array radar (PPPAR in meteorological applications. Among many factors that contribute to the polarimetric biases, four factors are considered and analyzed in this study, namely, the polarization distortion due to the intrinsic limitation of a dual-polarized antenna element, the antenna pattern measurement error, the entire array patterns, and the imperfect horizontal and vertical channels. Two operation modes, the alternately transmitting and simultaneously receiving (ATSR mode and the simultaneously transmitting and simultaneously receiving (STSR mode, are discussed. For each mode, the polarimetric biases are formulated. As the STSR mode with orthogonal waveforms is similar to the ATSR mode, the analysis is mainly focused on the ATSR mode and the impacts of the bias sources on the measurement of polarimetric variables are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Some insights of the accuracy requirements are obtained and summarized.

  13. Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

    2013-01-01

    A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

  14. A sensor array system for monitoring moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Cook, P.J.

    2007-05-15

    To facilitate investigations of moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil, we have developed a technique to qualitatively monitorpatterns of saturation changes. Field results suggest that this device,the sensor array system (SAS), is suitable for determining changes inrelative wetness along vertical soil profiles. The performance of theseprobes was compared with that of the time domain reflectometry (TDR)technique under controlled and field conditions. Measurements from bothtechniques suggest that by obtaining data at high spatial and temporalresolution, the SAS technique was effective in determining patterns ofsaturation changes along a soil profile. In addition, hardware used inthe SAS technique was significantly cheaper than the TDR system, and thesensor arrays were much easier to install along a soilprofile.

  15. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  16. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  17. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  18. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  19. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  20. Vertical integration increases opportunities for patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoccia, R A; Benvenuto, J A; Blancett, L

    1991-08-01

    New sources of patients will become more and more important in the next decade as hospitals continue to feel the squeeze of a competitive marketplace. Vertical integration, a distribution tool used in other industries, will be a significant tool for health care administrators. In the following article, the authors explain the vertical integration model that shows promise for other institutions.

  1. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  2. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  3. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  4. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m b = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m b = 4.4) and SALUT (m b = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m b = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, M.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Fabrication of vertical nanowire resonators for aerosol exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzsch, Stephan; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Stranz, Andrej; Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin; Waag, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Vertical silicon nanowire (SiNW) resonators are designed and fabricated in order to assess exposure to aerosol nanoparticles (NPs). To realize SiNW arrays, nanolithography and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at cryogenic temperature are utilized in a top-down fabrication of SiNW arrays which have high aspect ratios (i.e., up to 34). For nanolithography process, a resist film thickness of 350 nm is applied in a vacuum contact mode to serve as a mask. A pattern including various diameters and distances for creating pillars is used (i.e., 400 nm up to 5 μm). In dry etching process, the etch rate is set high of 1.5 μm/min to avoid underetching. The etch profiles of Si wires can be controlled aiming to have either perpendicularly, negatively or positively profiled sidewalls by adjusting the etching parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen content). Moreover, to further miniaturize the wire, multiple sacrificial thermal oxidations and subsequent oxide stripping are used yielding SiNW arrays of 650 nm in diameter and 40 μm in length. In the resonant frequency test, a piezoelectric shear actuator is integrated with the SiNWs inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. The observation of the SiNW deflections are performed and viewed from the topside of the SiNWs to reduce the measurement redundancy. Having a high deflection of ~10 μm during its resonant frequency of 452 kHz and a low mass of 31 pg, the proposed SiNW is potential for assisting the development of a portable aerosol resonant sensor.

  7. Analysis of Camera Arrays Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Xu, Ru; Lv, Zhihan; Song, Houbing

    2016-03-22

    The Internet of Things is built based on various sensors and networks. Sensors for stereo capture are essential for acquiring information and have been applied in different fields. In this paper, we focus on the camera modeling and analysis, which is very important for stereo display and helps with viewing. We model two kinds of cameras, a parallel and a converged one, and analyze the difference between them in vertical and horizontal parallax. Even though different kinds of camera arrays are used in various applications and analyzed in the research work, there are few discussions on the comparison of them. Therefore, we make a detailed analysis about their performance over different shooting distances. From our analysis, we find that the threshold of shooting distance for converged cameras is 7 m. In addition, we design a camera array in our work that can be used as a parallel camera array, as well as a converged camera array and take some images and videos with it to identify the threshold.

  8. 32 x 16 CMOS smart pixel array for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Choquette, Kent D.; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2000-05-01

    Free space optical interconnects can increase throughput capacities and eliminate much of the energy consumption required for `all electronic' systems. High speed optical interconnects can be achieved by integrating optoelectronic devices with conventional electronics. Smart pixel arrays have been developed which use optical interconnects. An individual smart pixel cell is composed of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a photodetector, an optical receiver, a laser driver, and digital logic circuitry. Oxide-confined VCSELs are being developed to operate at 850 nm with a threshold current of approximately 1 mA. Multiple quantum well photodetectors are being fabricated from AlGaAs for use with the 850 nm VCSELs. The VCSELs and photodetectors are being integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry using flip-chip bonding. CMOS circuitry is being integrated with a 32 X 16 smart pixel array. The 512 smart pixels are serially linked. Thus, an entire data stream may be clocked through the chip and output electrically by the last pixel. Electrical testing is being performed on the CMOS smart pixel array. Using an on-chip pseudo random number generator, a digital data sequence was cycled through the chip verifying operation of the digital circuitry. Although, the prototype chip was fabricated in 1.2 micrometers technology, simulations have demonstrated that the array can operate at 1 Gb/s per pixel using 0.5 micrometers technology.

  9. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  10. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  11. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  12. Functionalized polypyrrole nanotube arrays as electrochemical biosensor for the determination of copper ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Meng; Hu Xiaoke; Ma Zhaohu; Chen Lingxin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PPy nanotube arrays were electropolymerized using ZnO nanowire arrays as templates. ► PPy nanotube arrays were anchored onto ITO glass without any chemical linker. ► Using SWV, the biosensor was found to be highly sensitive and selective to Cu 2+ . ► The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of Cu 2+ in drinking water. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor based on functionalized polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays modified with a tripeptide (Gly-Gly-His) proved to be highly effective for electrochemical analysis of copper ions (Cu 2+ ). The vertically oriented PPy nanotube arrays were electropolymerized by using modified zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays as templates which were electrodeposited on indium–tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The electrodes were functionalized by appending pyrrole-α-carboxylic acid onto the surface of polypyrrole nanotube arrays by electrochemical polymerization. The carboxylic groups of the polymer were covalently coupled with the amine groups of the tripeptide, and its structural features were confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The tripeptide modified PPy nanotube arrays electrode was used for the electrochemical analysis of various trace copper ions by square wave voltammetry. The electrode was found to be highly sensitive and selective to Cu 2+ in the range of 0.1–30 μM. Furthermore, the developed biosensor exhibited a high stability and reproducibility, despite the repeated use of the biosensor electrode.

  13. Influence of packing density and surface roughness of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes on adhesive properties of gecko-inspired mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhong, Guofang; Oppenheimer, Pola Goldberg; Zhang, Can; Tornatzky, Hans; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-02-18

    We have systematically studied the macroscopic adhesive properties of vertically aligned nanotube arrays with various packing density and roughness. Using a tensile setup in shear and normal adhesion, we find that there exists a maximum packing density for nanotube arrays to have adhesive properties. Too highly packed tubes do not offer intertube space for tube bending and side-wall contact to surfaces, thus exhibiting no adhesive properties. Likewise, we also show that the surface roughness of the arrays strongly influences the adhesion properties and the reusability of the tubes. Increasing the surface roughness of the array strengthens the adhesion in the normal direction, but weakens it in the shear direction. Altogether, these results allow progress toward mimicking the gecko's vertical mobility.

  14. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  15. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  16. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  17. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  18. COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vroublevski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.

  19. Open Channel Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Heo, Jeong Hwan; Chung, Bum Jin

    2013-01-01

    The natural convection heat transfer of vertical plate fin was investigated experimentally. Heat transfer systems were replaced by mass-transfer systems, based on the analogy concept. The experimental results lie within the predictions of the existing heat transfer correlations of plate-fin for the natural convections. An overlapped thermal boundary layers caused increasing heat transfer, and an overlapped momentum boundary layers caused decreasing heat transfer. As the fin height increases, heat transfer was enhanced due to increased inflow from the open side of the fin spacing. When fin spacing and fin height are large, heat transfer was unaffected by the fin spacing and fin height. Passive cooling by natural convection becomes more and more important for the nuclear systems as the station black out really happened at the Fukushima NPPs. In the RCCS (Reactor Cavity Cooling System) of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), natural convection cooling through duct system is adopted. In response to the stack failure event, extra cooling capacity adopting the fin array has to be investigated. The finned plate increases the surface area and the heat transfer increases. However, the plate of fin arrays may increase the pressure drop and the heat transfer decreases. Therefore, in order to enhance the passive cooling with fin arrays, the parameters for the fin arrays should be optimized. According to Welling and Wooldridge, a natural convection on vertical plate fin is function of Gr, Pr, L, t, S, and H. The present work investigated the natural convection heat transfer of a vertical finned plate with varying the fin height and the fin spacing. In order achieve high Rayleigh numbers, an electroplating system was employed and the mass transfer rates were measured using a copper sulfate electroplating system based on the analogy concept

  20. MARS: A protein family involved in the formation of vertical skeletal elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abehsera, Shai; Peles, Shani; Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Sagi, Amir

    2017-05-01

    Vertical organizations of skeletal elements are found in various vertebrate teeth and invertebrate exoskeletons. The molecular mechanism behind the development of such structural organizations is poorly known, although it is generally held that organic matrix proteins play an essential role. While most crustacean cuticular organizations exhibit horizontal chitinous layering, a typical vertical organization is found towards the surface of the teeth in the mandibles of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Candidate genes encoding for mandible-forming structural proteins were mined in C. quadricarinatus molt-related transcriptomic libraries by using a binary patterning approach. A new protein family, termed the Mandible Alanine Rich Structural (MARS) protein family, with a modular sequence design predicted to form fibers, was found. Investigations of spatial and temporal expression of the different MARS genes suggested specific expression in the mandibular teeth-forming epithelium, particularly during the formation of the chitinous vertical organization. MARS loss-of-function RNAi experiments resulted in the collapse of the organization of the chitin fibers oriented vertically to the surface of the crayfish mandibular incisor tooth. A general search of transcriptomic libraries suggested conservation of MARS proteins across a wide array of crustaceans. Our results provide a first look into the molecular mechanism used to build the complex crustacean mandible and into the specialized vertical structural solution that has evolved in skeletal elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the shear force of single cancer cells by vertically aligned carbon nanotubes suitable for metastasis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahad, M; Mohajerzadeh, S; Janmaleki, M; Taghinejad, H; Taghinejad, M

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have been demonstrated as probes for rapid quantifying of cancer cell deformability with high resolution. Through entrapment of various cancer cells on CNT arrays, the deflections of the nanotubes during cell deformation were used to derive the lateral cell shear force using a large deflection mode method. It is observed that VACNT beams act as sensitive and flexible agents, which transfer the shear force of cells trapped on them by an observable deflection. The metastatic cancer cells have significant deformable structures leading to a further cell traction force (CTF) than primary cancerous one on CNT arrays. The elasticity of different cells could be compared by their CTF measurement on CNT arrays. This study presents a nanotube-based methodology for quantifying the single cell mechanical behavior, which could be useful for understanding the metastatic behavior of cells.

  2. CMOS gate array characterization procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, James P.

    1993-09-01

    Present procedures are inadequate for characterizing the radiation hardness of gate array product lines prior to personalization because the selection of circuits to be used, from among all those available in the manufacturer's circuit library, is usually uncontrolled. (Some circuits are fundamentally more radiation resistant than others.) In such cases, differences in hardness can result between different designs of the same logic function. Hardness also varies because many gate arrays feature large custom-designed megacells (e.g., microprocessors and random access memories-MicroP's and RAM's). As a result, different product lines cannot be compared equally. A characterization strategy is needed, along with standardized test vehicle(s), methodology, and conditions, so that users can make informed judgments on which gate arrays are best suited for their needs. The program described developed preferred procedures for the radiation characterization of gate arrays, including a gate array evaluation test vehicle, featuring a canary circuit, designed to define the speed versus hardness envelope of the gate array. A multiplier was chosen for this role, and a baseline multiplier architecture is suggested that could be incorporated into an existing standard evaluation circuit chip.

  3. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  4. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  5. Wettability control of micropore-array films by altering the surface nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Hung, Shao-Tsu

    2010-07-01

    By controlling the surface nanostructure, the wettability of films with similar pore-array microstructure can be tuned from hydrophilic to nearly superhydrophobic without variation of the chemical composition. PA1 pore-array film consisting of the horizontal ZnO nanosheets was nearly superhydrophobic. PA2 pore-array film consisting of growth-hindered vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods was hydrophilic. The influences of the nanostructure shape, orientation and the micropore size on the contact angle of the PA1 films were studied. This study provides a new approach to control the wettability of films with similar pore-array structure at the micro-scale by changing their surface nanostructure. PA1 films exhibited irradiation induced reversible wettability transition. The feasibility of creating a wetted radial pattern by selective UV irradiation of PA1 film through a mask with radial pattern and water vapor condensation was also evaluated.

  6. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-09-02

    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry-Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ∼1 μm and a length of ∼15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry-Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm(-2). The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  7. A large-aperture low-cost hydrophone array for tracking whales from small boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B; Dawson, S

    2009-11-01

    A passive sonar array designed for tracking diving sperm whales in three dimensions from a single small vessel is presented, and the advantages and limitations of operating this array from a 6 m boat are described. The system consists of four free floating buoys, each with a hydrophone, built-in recorder, and global positioning system receiver (GPS), and one vertical stereo hydrophone array deployed from the boat. Array recordings are post-processed onshore to obtain diving profiles of vocalizing sperm whales. Recordings are synchronized using a GPS timing pulse recorded onto each track. Sensitivity analysis based on hyperbolic localization methods is used to obtain probability distributions for the whale's three-dimensional location for vocalizations received by at least four hydrophones. These localizations are compared to those obtained via isodiachronic sequential bound estimation. Results from deployment of the system around a sperm whale in the Kaikoura Canyon in New Zealand are shown.

  8. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  9. Ultra-wideband WDM VCSEL arrays by lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon

    Advancements in heterogeneous integration are a driving factor in the development of evermore sophisticated and functional electronic and photonic devices. Such advancements will merge the optical and electronic capabilities of different material systems onto a common integrated device platform. This thesis presents a new lateral heterogeneous integration technology called nonplanar wafer bonding. The technique is capable of integrating multiple dissimilar semiconductor device structures on the surface of a substrate in a single wafer bond step, leaving different integrated device structures adjacent to each other on the wafer surface. Material characterization and numerical simulations confirm that the material quality is not compromised during the process. Nonplanar wafer bonding is used to fabricate ultra-wideband wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays. The optically-pumped VCSEL arrays span 140 nm from 1470 to 1610 nm, a record wavelength span for devices operating in this wavelength range. The array uses eight wavelength channels to span the 140 nm with all channels separated by precisely 20 nm. All channels in the array operate single mode to at least 65°C with output power uniformity of +/- 1 dB. The ultra-wideband WDM VCSEL arrays are a significant first step toward the development of a single-chip source for optical networks based on coarse WDM (CWDM), a low-cost alternative to traditional dense WDM. The CWDM VCSEL arrays make use of fully-oxidized distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) to provide the wideband reflectivity required for optical feedback and lasing across 140 rim. In addition, a novel optically-pumped active region design is presented. It is demonstrated, with an analytical model and experimental results, that the new active-region design significantly improves the carrier uniformity in the quantum wells and results in a 50% lasing threshold reduction and a 20°C improvement in the peak

  10. The Contribution of Genetic Recombination to CRISPR Array Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczok, Anne; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2015-06-16

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a microbial immune system against foreign DNA. Recognition sequences (spacers) encoded within the CRISPR array mediate the immune reaction in a sequence-specific manner. The known mechanisms for the evolution of CRISPR arrays include spacer acquisition from foreign DNA elements at the time of invasion and array erosion through spacer deletion. Here, we consider the contribution of genetic recombination between homologous CRISPR arrays to the evolution of spacer repertoire. Acquisition of spacers from exogenic arrays via recombination may confer the recipient with immunity against unencountered antagonists. For this purpose, we develop a novel method for the detection of recombination in CRISPR arrays by modeling the spacer order in arrays from multiple strains from the same species. Because the evolutionary signal of spacer recombination may be similar to that of pervasive spacer deletions or independent spacer acquisition, our method entails a robustness analysis of the recombination inference by a statistical comparison to resampled and perturbed data sets. We analyze CRISPR data sets from four bacterial species: two Gammaproteobacteria species harboring CRISPR type I and two Streptococcus species harboring CRISPR type II loci. We find that CRISPR array evolution in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae can be explained solely by vertical inheritance and differential spacer deletion. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we find an excess of single spacers potentially incorporated into the CRISPR locus during independent acquisition events. In Streptococcus thermophilus, evidence for spacer acquisition by recombination is present in 5 out of 70 strains. Genetic recombination has been proposed to accelerate adaptation by combining beneficial mutations that arose in independent lineages. However, for most species under study, we find that CRISPR evolution is shaped mainly by spacer acquisition and

  11. Gecko-Inspired Electrospun Flexible Fiber Arrays for Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Johnny F.

    The ability of geckos to adhere to vertical solid surfaces comes from their remarkable feet with millions of projections terminating in nanometer spatulae. We present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive dry adhesives. By using electrospun nylon 6 nanofiber arrays, we create gecko-inspired dry adhesives, that are electrically insulating, and that show shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm2 on a glass slide. This measured value is 270% that reported of gecko feet and 97-fold above normal adhesion strength of the same arrays. The data indicate a strong shear binding-on and easy normal lifting-off. This anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to an enhanced shear adhesion strength with decreasing fiber diameter (d) and an optimum performance of nanofiber arrays in the shear direction over a specific range of thicknesses. With use of electrospinning, we report the fabrication of nylon 6 nanofiber arrays that show a friction coefficient (mu) of 11.5. These arrays possess significant shear adhesion strength and low normal adhesion strength. Increasing the applied normal load considerably enhances the shear adhesion strength and mu, irrespective of d and fiber arrays thickness (T). Fiber bending stiffness and fiber surface roughness are considerably decreased with diminishing d while fiber packing density is noticeably increased. These enhancements are proposed to considerably upsurge the shear adhesion strength between nanofiber arrays and a glass slide. The latter upsurge is mainly attributed to a sizeable proliferation in van der Waals (vdW) forces. These nanofiber arrays can be alternatively bound-on and lifted-off over a glass slide with a trivial decrease in the initial mu and adhesion strength. By using selective coating technique, we have also created hierarchical structures having closely packed nanofibers with d of 50 nm. We determine the effects of applied normal load, fiber surface roughness, loading angle, d, T, and repeated

  12. Measuring of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke in the forthcoming decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    I first introduce the importance of measuring V ub precisely. Then, from a theoretician's point of view, I review (a) past history, (b) present trials, and (c) possible future alternatives on measuring vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke and/or vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke. As of my main topic, I introduce a model-independent method, which predicts Γ(B→X u lν)/Γ(B→X c lν)≡(γ u /γ c ) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 ≅(1.83±0.28) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 and vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke ≡(γ c /γ u ) 1/2 x [B(B→X u lν)/B(B→ X c lν]) 1/2 ≅(0.74±0.06) x [B(B→X u lν/)B(B→X c lν)] 1/2 , based on the heavy quark effective theory I also explore the possible experimental options to separate B→X u lν from the dominant B→X c lν: the measurement of inclusive hadronic invariant mass distributions, and the 'D-π' (and 'K-π') separation conditions I also clarify the relevant experimental backgrounds. (orig.)

  13. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  14. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding airspace activity is essential for airspace control. Being able to detect vertical activity in aircraft allows prediction of aircraft intent, thereby allowing more accurate situation awareness and correspondingly more appropriate...

  15. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  16. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  17. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  18. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  19. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  20. Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which uses uniformly redundant arrays to image non-focusable radiation. The array is used in conjunction with a balanced correlation technique to provide a system with no artifacts so that virtually limitless signal-to-noise ratio is obtained with high transmission characteristics. The array is mosaicked to reduce required detector size over conventional array detectors. 15 claims

  1. GISAXS analysis of 3D nanoparticle assemblies—effect of vertical nanoparticle ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegso, K; Siffalovic, P; Benkovicova, M; Jergel, M; Luby, S; Majkova, E; Capek, I; Kocsis, T; Perlich, J; Roth, S V

    2012-01-01

    We report on grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) study of 3D nanoparticle arrays prepared by two different methods from colloidal solutions—layer-by-layer Langmuir–Schaefer deposition and spontaneous self-assembling during the solvent evaporation. GISAXS results are evaluated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) considering the multiple scattering effects and employing a simplified multilayer model to reduce the computing time. In the model, particular layers are represented by nanoparticle chains where the positions of individual nanoparticles are generated following a model of cumulative disorder. The nanoparticle size dispersion is considered as well. Three model cases are distinguished—no shift between the neighboring chains (AA stacking), a shift equal to half of the mean interparticle distance (AB stacking) and random shift between the chains. The first two cases correspond to vertically correlated nanoparticle positions across different chains. A comparison of the experimental GISAXS patterns with the model cases enabled us to distinguish important differences between the 3D arrays prepared by the two methods. In particular, laterally ordered layers without vertical correlation of the nanoparticle positions were found in the nanoparticle multilayers prepared by the Langmuir–Schaefer method. On the other hand, the solvent evaporation under particular conditions produced highly ordered 3D nanoparticle assemblies where both laterally and vertically correlated nanoparticle positions were found. (paper)

  2. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  3. Simple passive methods for the assessment of the directional and vertical distributions of wind-blown particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orza, J. A.G.; Cabello, M.; Mateo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and tested two types of passive collectors to study aeolian erosion in the field. The first passive sampler is a sticky pad that allows for directional particulate assessment by an automatic particle counting procedure. the second one features an omni-directional capture opening, and mass of retained particles is gravimetric ally quantified. Vertical arrays of these passive collectors have been constructed to obtain vertical profiles of the horizontal particle flux as a function of soil properties, nearby sources and wind speed. We present some first results from field campaigns. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. Characterization of silicon isotropic etch by inductively coupled plasma etcher for microneedle array fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J; Tay, F E H; Miao Jianmin; Sun Jianbo

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the isotropic etching properties in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher for microneedle arrays fabrication. The effects of process variables including powers, gas and pressure on needle structure generation are characterized by factorial design of experiment (DOE). The experimental responses of vertical etching depth, lateral etching length, ratio of vertical etching depth to lateral etching length and photoresist etching rate are reported. The relevance of the etching variables is also presented. The obtained etching behaviours for microneedle structure generation will be applied to develop recipes to fabricate microneedles in designed dimensions

  5. Characterization of silicon isotropic etch by inductively coupled plasma etcher for microneedle array fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, J [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, F E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technologica l University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun Jianbo [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technologica l University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This work investigates the isotropic etching properties in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher for microneedle arrays fabrication. The effects of process variables including powers, gas and pressure on needle structure generation are characterized by factorial design of experiment (DOE). The experimental responses of vertical etching depth, lateral etching length, ratio of vertical etching depth to lateral etching length and photoresist etching rate are reported. The relevance of the etching variables is also presented. The obtained etching behaviours for microneedle structure generation will be applied to develop recipes to fabricate microneedles in designed dimensions.

  6. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Zayyad, T. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Allen, M.; Anderson, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Cheon, B.G. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, E.J. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W.R. [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); University of Tokyo, Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Gorbunov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-10-11

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  7. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B.G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E.J.; Cho, W.R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gorbunov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  8. Successive Standardization of Rectangular Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Olshen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we illustrate and develop further with mathematics and examples, the work on successive standardization (or normalization that is studied earlier by the same authors in [1] and [2]. Thus, we deal with successive iterations applied to rectangular arrays of numbers, where to avoid technical difficulties an array has at least three rows and at least three columns. Without loss, an iteration begins with operations on columns: first subtract the mean of each column; then divide by its standard deviation. The iteration continues with the same two operations done successively for rows. These four operations applied in sequence completes one iteration. One then iterates again, and again, and again, ... In [1] it was argued that if arrays are made up of real numbers, then the set for which convergence of these successive iterations fails has Lebesgue measure 0. The limiting array has row and column means 0, row and column standard deviations 1. A basic result on convergence given in [1] is true, though the argument in [1] is faulty. The result is stated in the form of a theorem here, and the argument for the theorem is correct. Moreover, many graphics given in [1] suggest that except for a set of entries of any array with Lebesgue measure 0, convergence is very rapid, eventually exponentially fast in the number of iterations. Because we learned this set of rules from Bradley Efron, we call it “Efron’s algorithm”. More importantly, the rapidity of convergence is illustrated by numerical examples.

  9. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  10. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  11. Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices

  12. Effect of alignment on adsorption characteristics of self-oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, D; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of self-oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays are examined from N 2 (-196 deg. C) adsorption measurements. The arrays were synthesized in a laboratory by in situ chemical vapour deposition of iron or cobalt phthalocyanines at 880 and 950 deg. C, under otherwise constant conditions, in an attempt to obtain different morphological structures. For both precursors, increasing the temperature leads to MWCNT arrays with lower Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume, though the effect is more pronounced for those arising from the iron-based compound. Despite this, precursor yields of individual nanotubes of larger diameter, higher BET area and total pore volume characterize the resulting arrays compared to those arising from cobalt phthalocyanine for the same temperatures. As evidenced by SEM and TEM images, the arrays synthesized from iron phthalocyanine at 880 deg. C show better vertical alignment and denser structures than those obtained from this compound at 950 deg. C, and also from cobalt phthalocyanine at both temperatures. Further ultrasonication of the arrays produced from the iron compound brings about a significant reduction in their adsorption capacity, attributable to the pronounced disarrangement of the resulting structures. The present results demonstrate that the alignment of MWCNT arrays plays a crucial role in their N 2 adsorption characteristics

  13. Oxide-confined 2D VCSEL arrays for high-density inter/intra-chip interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger; Michalzik, Rainer; Jung, Christian; Grabherr, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Jaeger, Roland; Schnitzer, Peter; Ebeling, Karl J.

    1998-04-01

    We have designed and fabricated 4 X 8 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays intended to be used as transmitters in short-distance parallel optical interconnects. In order to meet the requirements of 2D, high-speed optical links, each of the 32 laser diodes is supplied with two individual top contacts. The metallization scheme allows flip-chip mounting of the array modules junction-side down on silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips. The optical and electrical characteristics across the arrays with device pitch of 250 micrometers are quite homogeneous. Arrays with 3 micrometers , 6 micrometers and 10 micrometers active diameter lasers have been investigated. The small devices show threshold currents of 600 (mu) A, single-mode output powers as high as 3 mW and maximum wavelength deviations of only 3 nm. The driving characteristics of all arrays are fully compatible to advanced 3.3 V CMOS technology. Using these arrays, we have measured small-signal modulation bandwidths exceeding 10 GHz and transmitted pseudo random data at 8 Gbit/s channel over 500 m graded index multimode fiber. This corresponds to a data transmission rate of 256 Gbit/s per array of 1 X 2 mm2 footprint area.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide arrays with enhanced properties for electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Anguo; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO mesoporous nanowall arrays are prepared via hydrothermal method. • Mesoporous nanowall arrays are favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • NiO mesoporous nanowall arrays show good supercapacitor performance. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays are prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis method with a following annealing process. The NiO nanowall shows continuous mesopores ranging from 5 to 10 nm and grows vertically on the substrate forming a porous net-like structure with macropores of 20–300 nm. A plausible mechanism is proposed for the growth of mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays. As cathode material of pseudocapacitors, the as-prepared mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays show good pseudocapacitive performances with a high capacitance of 600 F g −1 at 2 A g −1 and impressive high-rate capability with a specific capacitance of 338 F g −1 at 40 A g −1 . In addition, the mesoporous nanowall NiO arrays possess good cycling stability. After 6000 cycles at 2 A g −1 , a high capacitance of 660 F g −1 is attained, and no obvious degradation is observed. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to its highly porous morphology, which provides large reaction surface and short ion diffusion paths, leading to enhanced electrochemical properties

  15. Depth extraction method with high accuracy in integral imaging based on moving array lenslet technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-yao; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Xue-wei; Song, Li-pei; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xing

    2018-03-01

    In order to improve depth extraction accuracy, a method using moving array lenslet technique (MALT) in pickup stage is proposed, which can decrease the depth interval caused by pixelation. In this method, the lenslet array is moved along the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously for N times in a pitch to get N sets of elemental images. Computational integral imaging reconstruction method for MALT is taken to obtain the slice images of the 3D scene, and the sum modulus (SMD) blur metric is taken on these slice images to achieve the depth information of the 3D scene. Simulation and optical experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of this method.

  16. A functional hybrid memristor crossbar-array/CMOS system for data storage and neuromorphic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuk-Hwan; Gaba, Siddharth; Wheeler, Dana; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose M; Hussain, Tahir; Srinivasa, Narayan; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-11

    Crossbar arrays based on two-terminal resistive switches have been proposed as a leading candidate for future memory and logic applications. Here we demonstrate a high-density, fully operational hybrid crossbar/CMOS system composed of a transistor- and diode-less memristor crossbar array vertically integrated on top of a CMOS chip by taking advantage of the intrinsic nonlinear characteristics of the memristor element. The hybrid crossbar/CMOS system can reliably store complex binary and multilevel 1600 pixel bitmap images using a new programming scheme. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Hydrophilicity Reinforced Adhesion of Anodic Alumina Oxide Template Films to Conducting Substrates for Facile Fabrication of Highly Ordered Nanorod Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanju; Wang, Guiqiang; Yang, Rui; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Hui; Sun, Shuqing

    2017-01-17

    Arrays of ordered nanorods are of special interest in many fields. However, it remains challenging to obtain such arrays on conducting substrates in a facile manner. In this article, we report the fabrication of highly ordered and vertically standing nanorod arrays of both metals and semiconductors on Au films and indium tin oxide glass substrates without an additional layering. In this approach, following the simple hydrophilic treatment of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and conducting substrates, the AAO membrane was transferred onto the modified substrates with excellent adhesion. Subsequently, nanorod arrays of various materials were electrodeposited on the conducting substrates directly. This method avoids any expensive and tedious lithographic and ion milling process, which provides a simple yet robust route to the fabrication of arrays of 1D materials with high aspect ratio on conducting substrates, which shall pave the way for many practical applications in a range of fields.

  18. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  19. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  20. Sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with similar international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA as well as our sensitivity to gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. I will show that a detection is possible by the end of the decade.

  1. Fractal-Based Lightning Channel Length Estimation from Convex-Hull Flash Areas for DC3 Lightning Mapping Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Eric C.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Carey, Larry D.; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; MacGorman, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    We will use VHF Lightning Mapping Array data to estimate NOx per flash and per unit channel length, including the vertical distribution of channel length. What s the best way to find channel length from VHF sources? This paper presents the rationale for the fractal method, which is closely related to the box-covering method.

  2. Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, K; Majidi, C; Groff, R E; Dittmore, A; Fearing, R

    2006-09-01

    Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.

  3. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  4. The OncoArray Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Christopher I; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy...... among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring...

  5. Phased Arrays 1985 Symposium - Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    anjl with an1 au~ U lar fy b)eanir. ( mice the 1311 0 ,0 - (a ) ,[ -40.0. -80𔃺 , -90.0 -45.0 0𔃺 45.0 90.0 ANGLE FROM BROADSIDE (DEGREES) aii ia -40,0...Electronic Scanning", RADC-TR-83-128, Dec. 1983. AL) A138808 222 m " ; . . . • " - " - . . . . -" ARRAYS OF COAXIALIY-FED MONOPOLE ELEMENTS IN A PARALLEL...Research Institute Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 Farmingdale, NY 11735 AB ST RAC U Arrays of coaxially-fed monopoles radiating into a parallel plate region

  6. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  7. Locating sources within a dense sensor array using graph clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstoft, P.; Riahi, N.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a model-free technique to identify weak sources within dense sensor arrays using graph clustering. No knowledge about the propagation medium is needed except that signal strengths decay to insignificant levels within a scale that is shorter than the aperture. We then reinterpret the spatial coherence matrix of a wave field as a matrix whose support is a connectivity matrix of a graph with sensors as vertices. In a dense network, well-separated sources induce clusters in this graph. The geographic spread of these clusters can serve to localize the sources. The support of the covariance matrix is estimated from limited-time data using a hypothesis test with a robust phase-only coherence test statistic combined with a physical distance criterion. The latter criterion ensures graph sparsity and thus prevents clusters from forming by chance. We verify the approach and quantify its reliability on a simulated dataset. The method is then applied to data from a dense 5200 element geophone array that blanketed of the city of Long Beach (CA). The analysis exposes a helicopter traversing the array and oil production facilities.

  8. A simple uniformity test for ultrasound phased arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to test phased array ultrasound transducers for non functioning elements. We aimed to modify a widely performed test to improve its ease and effectiveness for these arrays. A paperclip was slowly moved along the transducer array, with the scanner operating in M-mode, imaging at a fundamental frequency with automatic gain and grey scale adjustment disabled. Non-functioning elements are identified by a dark vertical line in the image. The test was repeated several times for each transducer, looking for consistency of results. 2 transducers, with faults already shown by electronic transducer testing, were used to validate the method. 23 transducers in clinical use were tested. The results of the modified test on the 2 faulty transducers agreed closely with electronic transducer testing results. The test indicated faults in 5 of the 23 transducers in clinical use: 3 with a single failed element and 2 with non-uniform sensitivity. 1 transducer with non-uniform sensitivity had undergone lens repair; the new lens was visibly non-uniform in thickness and further testing showed a reduction in depth of penetration and a loss of elevational focus in comparison with a new transducer. The modified test is capable of detecting non-functioning elements. Further work is required to provide a better understanding of more subtle faults. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of VCSELs and VCSEL arrays for optical data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Craig A.; Jiang, Wenbin; Lebby, Michael S.; Kiely, Philip A.; Claisse, Paul R.

    1997-05-01

    High performance, low cost, and highly reliable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been developed and are currently being used in both parallel and serial optical interconnect applications. For example, Motorola's OPTOBUSTM parallel optical interconnect relies heavily on the unique characteristics of arrays of GaAs based VCSELs emitting at 850 nm to achieve its stringent performance goals at low cost. Representative parametric results of discrete VCSELs and VCSEL arrays will be compared, including `optical power output-current' and `current-voltage' curves, optical wall plug efficiencies, and modulation characteristics. The use of statistical parameter analysis across a wafer and subsequent parametric wafer maps has proven to be a valuable tool for maintaining control of the fabrication process. The consistency of VCSEL parameters across individual VCSEL arrays will be discussed. VCSELs are very robust devices. Life times at room ambient in excess of 3E6 hours have been reported by several groups. Degradation behavior of selected device parameters will be discussed. Failure analysis demonstrating the effect of proton implant depth on reliability will be presented. ESD damage at forward bias is shown to be process related, while ESD damage at reverse bias is shown to be material related. These VCSELs are ESD Class 1 devices.

  10. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  11. Field emission properties of ZnO nanosheet arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, Kusha Kumar; Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Khare, Ruchita; More, Mahendra A.; Chakravarty, Disha; Late, Dattatray J.; Thapa, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Electron emission properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanosheet arrays grown on Indium tin oxide coated glass substrates have been studied. Influence of oxygen vacancies on electronic structures and field emission properties of ZnO nanosheets are investigated using density functional theory. The oxygen vacancies produce unshared d electrons which form an impurity energy state; this causes shifting of Fermi level towards the vacuum, and so the barrier energy for electron extraction reduces. The ZnO nanosheet arrays exhibit a low turn-on field of 2.4 V/μm at 0.1 μA/cm 2 and current density of 50.1 μA/cm 2 at an applied field of 6.4 V/μm with field enhancement factor, β = 5812 and good field emission current stability. The nanosheet arrays grown by a facile electrodeposition process have great potential as robust high performance vertical structure electron emitters for future flat panel displays and vacuum electronic device applications

  12. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  13. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  14. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. In Situ Synthesis of Vertical Standing Nanosized NiO Encapsulated in Graphene as Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinghuang; Jia, Henan; Liang, Haoyan; Chen, Shulin; Cai, Yifei; Qi, Junlei; Qu, Chaoqun; Cao, Jian; Fei, Weidong; Feng, Jicai

    2018-03-01

    NiO is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. Herein, the novel vertically standing nanosized NiO encapsulated in graphene layers (G@NiO) are rationally designed and synthesized as nanosheet arrays. This unique vertical standing structure of G@NiO nanosheet arrays can enlarge the accessible surface area with electrolytes, and has the benefits of short ion diffusion path and good charge transport. Further, an interconnected graphene conductive network acts as binder to encapsulate the nanosized NiO particles as core-shell structure, which can promote the charge transport and maintain the structural stability. Consequently, the optimized G@NiO hybrid electrodes exhibit a remarkably enhanced specific capacity up to 1073 C g -1 and excellent cycling stability. This study provides a facial strategy to design and construct high-performance metal oxides for energy storage.

  16. Simulation of magnetization and levitation properties of arrays of ring-shaped type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun, E-mail: linxj8686@163.com; Huang, Chenguang; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A strong magnetic coupling appears if the gap between the superconducting rings is small. • The saturation magnetization of superconducting rings is related to the radial gap but independent of the vertical gap. • The array of rings in a non-uniform field experiences a levitation force, which increases with increasing height or thickness of the rings. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the magnetic and mechanical properties of arrays of superconducting rings arranged in axial, radial, and matrix configurations under different magnetic fields. In terms of the Bean's critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy method, the dependences of the magnetization and levitation behaviors on the geometry, number, and gap of the superconducting rings are obtained. The results show that when the applied field is spatially uniform, the magnetic property of the superconducting array is associated with the gaps between the rings. For the case of small gaps, the entire array becomes not easy to be fully penetrated by the induced currents, and the magnetic field profiles of which are almost the same as ones in a single large ring. If the superconducting array is fully penetrated, its saturation magnetization value is affected by the radial interval and, however, is almost independent of the vertical separation. When the applied field produced by a cylindrical permanent magnet is nonuniform, the superconducting array will be subjected to a levitation force. The levitation force increases monotonically and finally reaches a saturation value with increasing height or thickness of the rings, and such saturation value is closely related to the inner radius of the array.

  17. Integrated high-efficiency Pt/carbon nanotube arrays for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weimin; Minett, Andrew I.; Zhao, Jie; Razal, Joselito M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Romeo, Tony; Chen, Jun [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Gao, Mei [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Bayview Ave, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    A facile strategy to deposit Pt nanoparticles with various metal-loading densities on vertically aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) arrays as electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is described. The deposition is achieved by electrostatic adsorption of the Pt precursor on the positively charged polyelectrolyte functionalized ACNT arrays and subsequent reduction by L-ascorbic acid. The application of the aligned electrocatalysts in fuel cells is realized by transferring from a quartz substrate to nafion membrane using a hot-press procedure to fabricate the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). It is shown that the MEA with vertically aligned structured electrocatalysts provides better Pt utilization than that with Pt on conventional carbon nanotubes or carbon black, resulting in higher fuel cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Measurement of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke at the Z energy from B mesons exclusive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Recent ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL measurements of the form factors in the exclusive decay modes anti B 0 → D *+ l - anti ν l and anti B 0 →D + l - anti ν l are reviewed here. The values obtained allow an almost model-independent determination of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke in the HQET framework. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke using b hadron semileptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbiendi, G.; Aakesson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined by measuring the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of beauty hadrons at OPAL based on b → X u lν event topology and kinematics. This analysis uses OPAL data collected between 1991 and 1995, which correspond to about four million hadronic Z decays. We measure Br(b → X u lν) to be (1.63 ±0.53 +0.55 -0.62 ) x 10 -3 . The first uncertainty is the statistical error and the second is the systematic error. From this analysis, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined to be: vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke =(4.00±0.65(stat) +0.67 -0.76 (sys)±0.19(HQE)) x 10 -3 . The last error represents the theoretical uncertainties related to the extraction of vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke from Br(b→X u l ν) using the Heavy Quark Expansion. (orig.)

  20. A global vertical reference frame based on four regional vertical datums

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 493-502 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotentinal * local vertical datums * global vertical reference frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  1. Parametric Study of Synthetic-Jet-Based Flow Control on a Vertical Tail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastero, Marianne; Lindstrom, Annika; Beyar, Michael; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Separation control over the rudder of the vertical tail of a commercial airplane using synthetic-jet-based flow control can lead to a reduction in tail size, with an associated decrease in drag and increase in fuel savings. A parametric, experimental study was undertaken using an array of finite span synthetic jets to investigate the sensitivity of the enhanced vertical tail side force to jet parameters, such as jet spanwise spacing and jet momentum coefficient. A generic wind tunnel model was designed and fabricated to fundamentally study the effects of the jet parameters at varying rudder deflection and model sideslip angles. Wind tunnel results obtained from pressure measurements and tuft flow visualization in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Subsonic Wind Tunnel show a decrease in separation severity and increase in model performance in comparison to the baseline, non-actuated case. The sensitivity to various parameters will be presented.

  2. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... and the turbulence intensity, of which the turbulence intensity was found to dominate over the peak factor in determining the effects of stability and height above the surface on the gust factor. The peak factor only explained 15% or less of the vertical decrease of the gust factor, but determined the effect of gust...... duration on the gust factor. The statistical method to estimate the peak factor did not reproduce the observed vertical decrease in near-neutral and stable conditions and near-constant situation in unstable conditions. Despite this inconsistency, the theoretical method provides estimates for the peak...

  3. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  4. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  5. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  6. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  7. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  8. Study on characteristics of vertical strong motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Y.; Katukura, H.; Fukushima, S.; Mizutani, M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistic properties of vertical strong ground motions from near-field earthquakes are discussed in comparison with that of horizontal motions. It is a feature of this analysis that time history of each observed record is divided into direct P- and S-wave segments from a seismological viewpoint. Following results are obtained. Vertical motion energy excited by direct S-waves is about 0.6 times of horizontal ones at deep underground, and it approaches to 1.0 at shallow place. Horizontal motion energy excited by direct P-waves becomes 0.2 times (at deep) or more (at shallow) of vertical one. These results can be available in modeling of input motions for aseismic design. (author)

  9. Remedy and Recontamination Assessment Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    instruments pre-installed from the R/V Ecos during the April 22, 2016 event. .................................................................... 38...Environmental Security Technology Certification Program IBI Index of Benthic Integrity ISMA In situ Microcosm Arrays HOC Hydrophobic Organic Compound...system was successfully designed and constructed based on the goal of providing an integrated technology for assessing the effectiveness of

  10. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  11. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  12. PHARUS : PHased ARray Universal SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paquay, M.H.A.; Vermeulen, B.C.B.; Koomen, P.J.; Hoogeboom, P.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been developed. The project is called PHARUS, an acronm for PHased ARray Universal SAR. This instrument serves remote sensing applications. The antenna system contains 48 active modules (expandable to 96). A module

  13. Gamma-ray array physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution I am going to discuss the development of large arrays of Compton Suppressed, High Purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors and the physics that has been, that is being, and that will be done with them. These arrays and their science have dominated low-energy nuclear structure research for the last twenty years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. John Sharpey Schafer played a visionary role in convincing a skeptical world that the development of these arrays would lead to a path of enlightenment. The extent to which he succeeded can be seen both through the world-wide propagation of ever more sophisticated devices, and through the world-wide propagation of his students. I, personally, would not be working in research if it were not for Johns inspirational leadership. I am eternally grateful to him. Many excellent reviews of array physics have been made in the past which can provide detailed background reading. The review by Paul Nolan, another ex-Sharpey Schafer student, is particularly comprehensive and clear

  14. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  15. Micromolding for ceramic microneedle arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; Lüttge, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication process of ceramic microneedle arrays (MNAs) is presented. This includes the manufacturing of an SU-8/Si-master, its double replication resulting in a PDMS mold for production by micromolding and ceramic sintering. The robustness of the replicated structures was tested by means of

  16. Optically Controlled Phased Array Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garafalo, David

    1998-01-01

    .... The antenna is a 3-foot by 9 foot phased array capable of a scan angle of 120 degrees. The antenna was designed to be conformal to the cargo door of a large aircraft and is designed to operate in the frequency range of 830 - 1400 MHz with a 30...

  17. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation κ, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q ∼1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  19. Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottermo, Fredric; Möllerström, Erik; Nordborg, Anders; Hylander, Jonny; Bernhoff, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

  20. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes for pressure, tactile and vibration sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazoglu, O; Popp, A; Pavlidis, D; Schneider, J J; Garth, D; Schüttler, F; Battenberg, G

    2012-03-02

    We report a simple method for the micro-nano integration of flexible, vertically aligned multiwalled CNT arrays sandwiched between a top and bottom carbon layer via a porous alumina (Al(2)O(3)) template approach. The electromechanical properties of the flexible CNT arrays have been investigated under mechanical stress conditions. First experiments show highly sensitive piezoresistive sensors with a resistance decrease of up to ∼35% and a spatial resolution of <1 mm. The results indicate that these CNT structures can be utilized for tactile sensing components. They also confirm the feasibility of accessing and utilizing nanoscopic CNT bundles via lithographic processing. The method involves room-temperature processing steps and standard microfabrication techniques.

  1. The rapid growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using laser heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B; Jeong, S H; Jeong, M S; Lim, S C; Lee, I H; Lee, Y H

    2009-05-06

    Growth of densely packed vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) using laser-induced chemical vapor deposition with visible laser (lambda = 532 nm) irradiation at room temperature is reported. Using a multiple-catalyst layer (Fe/Al/Cr) on quartz as the substrate and an acetylene-hydrogen mixture as the precursor gas, VA-CNT pillars with 60 microm height and 4 microm diameter were grown at a high rate of around 1 microm s(-1) with good reproducibility. It is demonstrated that the fabrication of uniform pillar arrays of VA-CNTs can be achieved with a single irradiation for each pillar using LCVD with no annealing or preprocessing of the substrate. Here, laser fast heating is considered the primary mechanism facilitating the growth of VA-CNT pillars. Field emission characteristics of an array of VA-CNT pillars were then examined to investigate their potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  2. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes over vertically aligned silicon nanowire bundles for achieving uniform field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Jr; Huang, Yung-Jui; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Lee, San-Liang

    2014-01-01

    A fabrication strategy is proposed to enable precise coverage of as-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) mats atop vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) bundles in order to realize a uniform bundle array of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions over a large sample area. No obvious electrical degradation of as-fabricated SiNWs is observed according to the measured current-voltage characteristic of a two-terminal single-nanowire device. Bundle arrangement of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions is optimized to relax the electrostatic screening effect and to maximize the field enhancement factor. As a result, superior field emission performance and relatively stable emission current over 12 h is obtained. A bright and uniform fluorescent radiation is observed from CNT-SiNW-based field emitters regardless of its bundle periodicity, verifying the existence of high-density and efficient field emitters on the proposed CNT-SiNW bundle arrays.

  3. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  4. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  5. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  6. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  7. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 . The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W + W - b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 . To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K 0 s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 <1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 , provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  8. Rotor instrumentation circuits for the Sandia 34-meter vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.; Stephenson, William A.

    1988-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has erected a research oriented, 34-meter diameter, Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine near Bushland, Texas, which has been designated the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed. To meet present and future research needs, the machine was equipped with a large array of sensors. This manuscript details the sensors initially placed on the rotor, their respective instrumentation circuits, and the provisions incorporated into the design of the rotor instrumentation circuits for future research. This manuscript was written as a reference manual for the rotor instrumentation of the Test Bed.

  9. The effect of barrier layer-mediated catalytic deactivation in vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patole, S P; Yu, Seong-Man; Shin, Dong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kim, Ha-Jin; Han, In-Taek; Kwon, Kee-Won

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Al-barrier layer-mediated Fe-catalytic deactivation in vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. The substrate surface morphology, catalytic diffusion and barrier layer oxidation were found to be dependent on the annealing temperature of the barrier layer, which ultimately affects CNT growth. The annealed barrier layer without complete oxidation was found to be suitable for top to bottom super aligned CNT arrays. The highest average CNT growth rate of up to 3.88 μm s -1 was observed using this simple approach. Details of the analysis are also presented.

  10. A look inside the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield through vertical seismic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, J Andres; Malin, Peter; Catchings, Rufus D; Shalev, Eylon

    2003-12-05

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth pilot hole is located on the southwestern side of the Parkfield San Andreas fault. This observatory includes a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) array. VSP seismograms from nearby microearthquakes contain signals between the P and S waves. These signals may be P and S waves scattered by the local geologic structure. The collected scattering points form planar surfaces that we interpret as the San Andreas fault and four other secondary faults. The scattering process includes conversions between P and S waves, the strengths of which suggest large contrasts in material properties, possibly indicating the presence of cracks or fluids.

  11. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: a case study of the Siberian craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija

    2014-01-01

    by regional xenolith P-T arrays,lithosphere density heterogeneity as constrained by free-board and satellite gravity data, and the non-thermalpart of upper mantle seismic velocity heterogeneity based on joint analysis of thermal and seismic tomography data.Density structure of the cratonic lithosphere...... and strongly depleted lithospheric mantle of the Archean nuclei, particularly below the Anabar shield.Since we cannot identify the depth distribution of density anomalies, we complement the approach by seismicdata. An analysis of temperature-corrected seismic velocity structure indicates strong vertical...

  12. High-yield growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on a continuously moving substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman de Villoria, R; Hart, A J; Steiner, S A III; Wardle, B L; Figueredo, S L; Slocum, A H

    2009-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are grown on a moving substrate, demonstrating continuous growth of nanoscale materials with long-range order. A cold-wall chamber with an oscillating moving platform is used to locally heat a silicon growth substrate coated with an Fe/Al 2 O 3 catalyst film for CNT growth via chemical vapor deposition. The reactant gases are introduced over the substrate through a directed nozzle to attain high-yield CNT growth. Aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays (or 'forests') with heights of ∼1 mm are achieved at substrate speeds up to 2.4 mm s -1 . Arrays grown on moving substrates at different velocities are studied in order to identify potential physical limitations of repeatable and fast growth on a continuous basis. No significant differences are noted between static and moving growth as characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, although overall growth height is marginally reduced at the highest substrate velocity. CNT arrays produced on moving substrates are also found to be comparable to those produced through well-characterized batch processes consistent with a base-growth mechanism. Growth parameters required for the moving furnace are found to differ only slightly from those used in a comparable batch process; thermal uniformity appears to be the critical parameter for achieving large-area uniform array growth. If the continuous-growth technology is combined with a reaction zone isolation scheme common in other types of processing (e.g., in the manufacture of carbon fibers), large-scale dense and aligned CNT arrays may be efficiently grown and harvested for numerous applications including providing interlayers for advanced composite reinforcement and improved electrical and thermal transport.

  13. High-yield growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on a continuously moving substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán de Villoria, R; Figueredo, S L; Hart, A J; Steiner, S A; Slocum, A H; Wardle, B L

    2009-10-07

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are grown on a moving substrate, demonstrating continuous growth of nanoscale materials with long-range order. A cold-wall chamber with an oscillating moving platform is used to locally heat a silicon growth substrate coated with an Fe/Al2O3 catalyst film for CNT growth via chemical vapor deposition. The reactant gases are introduced over the substrate through a directed nozzle to attain high-yield CNT growth. Aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays (or 'forests') with heights of approximately 1 mm are achieved at substrate speeds up to 2.4 mm s(-1). Arrays grown on moving substrates at different velocities are studied in order to identify potential physical limitations of repeatable and fast growth on a continuous basis. No significant differences are noted between static and moving growth as characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, although overall growth height is marginally reduced at the highest substrate velocity. CNT arrays produced on moving substrates are also found to be comparable to those produced through well-characterized batch processes consistent with a base-growth mechanism. Growth parameters required for the moving furnace are found to differ only slightly from those used in a comparable batch process; thermal uniformity appears to be the critical parameter for achieving large-area uniform array growth. If the continuous-growth technology is combined with a reaction zone isolation scheme common in other types of processing (e.g., in the manufacture of carbon fibers), large-scale dense and aligned CNT arrays may be efficiently grown and harvested for numerous applications including providing interlayers for advanced composite reinforcement and improved electrical and thermal transport.

  14. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane – a cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Melanie Goebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. In experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left to right or in top to bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults starting counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction.

  15. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane - a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Silke M

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction.

  16. Vertically grown Ge nanowire Schottky diodes on Si and Ge substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Nishant; Tracy, Clarence J.; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Picraux, S. T.; Hathwar, Raghuraj; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2015-07-01

    The processing and performance of Schottky diodes formed from arrays of vertical Ge nanowires (NWs) grown on Ge and Si substrates are reported. The goal of this work is to investigate CMOS compatible processes for integrating NWs as components of vertically scaled integrated circuits, and elucidate transport in vertical Schottky NWs. Vertical phosphorus (P) doped Ge NWs were grown using vapor-liquid-solid epitaxy, and nickel (Ni)-Ge Schottky contacts were made to the tops of the NWs. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured for variable ranges of NW diameters and numbers of nanowires in the arrays, and the I-V characteristics were fit using modified thermionic emission theory to extract the barrier height and ideality factor. As grown NWs did not show rectifying behavior due to the presence of heavy P side-wall doping during growth, resulting in a tunnel contact. After sidewall etching using a dilute peroxide solution, rectifying behavior was obtained. Schottky barrier heights of 0.3-0.4 V and ideality factors close to 2 were extracted using thermionic emission theory, although the model does not give an accurate fit across the whole bias range. Attempts to account for enhanced side-wall conduction due to non-uniform P doping profile during growth through a simple shunt resistance improve the fit, but are still insufficient to provide a good fit. Full three-dimensional numerical modeling using Silvaco Atlas indicates that at least part of this effect is due to the presence of fixed charge and acceptor like traps on the NW surface, which leads to effectively high ideality factors.

  17. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  18. Three-dimensional cut wire pair behavior and controllable bianisotropic response in vertically oriented meta-atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, D Bruce; Adomanis, Bryan M; Sinclair, Michael B; Campione, Salvatore

    2017-12-11

    This paper investigates three-dimensional cut wire pair (CWP) behavior in vertically oriented meta-atoms. We first analyze CWP metamaterial inclusions using full-wave electromagnetic simulations. The scattering behavior of the vertical CWP differs substantially from that of the planar version of the same structure. In particular, we show that the vertical CWP supports a magnetic resonance that is solely excited by the incident magnetic field. This is in stark contrast to the bianisotropic resonant excitation of in-plane CWPs. We further show that this CWP behavior can occur in other vertical metamaterial resonators, such as back-to-back linear dipoles and back-to-back split ring resonators (SRRs), due to the strong coupling between the closely spaced metallic elements in the back-to-back configuration. In the case of SRRs, the vertical CWP mode (unexplored in previous literature) can be excited with a magnetic field that is parallel to both SRR loops, and exists in addition to the familiar fundamental resonances of the individual SRRs. In order to fully describe the scattering behavior from such dense arrays of three-dimensional structures, coupling effects between the close-packed inclusions must be included. The new flexibility afforded by using vertical resonators allows us to controllably create purely electric inclusions, purely magnetic inclusions, as well as bianisotropic inclusions, and vastly increases the degrees of freedom for the design of metafilms.

  19. Hydrothermal-synthesized NiO nanowall array for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Tong, Xili; Wang, Jian; Gong, Changwei; Zhang, Mingang; Liang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Freestanding NiO nanowall array is prepared via a hydrothermal synthesis method and shows noticeable Li battery performance with good cycle life and high capacity. Highlights: ► NiO nanowall array is prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method. ► NiO nanowall array with high capacity as anode material for Li ion battery. ► Nanowall array structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. -- Abstract: We report a self-supported NiO nanowall array prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis method. The microstructure and morphology of the sample are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrothermal-synthesized NiO nanowalls with thicknesses of ∼20 nm arrange vertically to the substrate forming a net-like nanowall array structure. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, the NiO nanowall array exhibits better electrochemical performances with higher coulombic efficiency and better cycling performance as compared to the dense NiO film. The NiO nanowall array shows an initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 567 mAh g −1 at 0.3 A g −1 after 50 cycles, higher than those of the dense polycrystalline NiO film (361 mAh g −1 ). The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanowall array structure with shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport

  20. Fish schooling as a basis for vertical axis wind turbine farm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Robert W; Liska, Sebastian; Dabiri, John O

    2010-09-01

    Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighboring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbors, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooling fish is shown to significantly increase the array performance coefficient based upon an array of 16 x 16 wind turbines. The results suggest increases in power output of over one order of magnitude for a given area of land as compared to HAWTs.

  1. Fish schooling as a basis for vertical axis wind turbine farm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlesey, Robert W; Liska, Sebastian; Dabiri, John O

    2010-01-01

    Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighboring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbors, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooling fish is shown to significantly increase the array performance coefficient based upon an array of 16 x 16 wind turbines. The results suggest increases in power output of over one order of magnitude for a given area of land as compared to HAWTs.

  2. Determination of material constants of vertically aligned carbon nanotube structures in compressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yupeng; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-Boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-01-01

    Different chemical vapour deposition (CVD) fabrication conditions lead to a wide range of variation in the microstructure and morphologies of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which actually determine the compressive mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the underlying relationship between the structure/morphology and mechanical properties of CNTs is not fully understood. In this study, we characterized and compared the structural and morphological properties of three kinds of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays from different CVD fabrication methods and performed monotonic compressive tests for each VACNT array. The compressive stress–strain responses and plastic deformation were first compared and analyzed with nanotube buckling behaviours. To quantify the compressive properties of the VACNT arrays, a strain density energy function was used to determine their intrinsic material constants. Then, the structural and morphological effects on the quantified material constants of the VACNTs were statistically investigated and analogized to cellular materials with an open-cell model. The statistical analysis shows that density, defect degree, and the moment of inertia of the CNTs are key factors in the improvement of the compressive mechanical properties of VACNT arrays. This approach could allow a model-driven CNT synthesis for engineering their mechanical behaviours. (paper)

  3. Fabrication and characterization of vertically aligned carbon-nanotube membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Richard; Akin, Cevat; Purri, Matt; Shan, Jerry; Kim, Sangil; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Membranes having vertically-aligned carbon-nanotube (VACNT) pores offer promise as highly efficient and permeable membranes for use as breathable thin films, or in filtration and separation applications, among others. However, current membrane-fabrication techniques utilizing chemical-vapor-deposition-grown VACNT arrays are costly and difficult to scale up. We have developed a solution-based, electric-field-assisted approach as a cost-effective and scalable method to produce large-area VACNT membranes. Nanotubes are dispersed in a liquid polymer, and aligned and electrodeposited with the aid of an electric field prior to crosslinking the polymer to create VACNT membranes. We experimentally examine the electrodeposition process, focusing on parameters including the electric field, composition of the solution, and CNT functionalization that can affect the nanotube number density in the resulting membrane. We characterize the CNT pore size and number density and investigate the transport properties of the membrane. Size-exclusion tests are used to check for defects and infer the pore size of the VACNT membranes. Dry-gas membrane permeability is measured with a pressurized nitrogen-flow system, while moisture-vapor-transfer rate is measured with the ASTM-E96 upright-cup test. We discuss the measured transport properties of the solution-based, electric-field-fabricated VACNT membranes in reference to their application as breathable thin films. We would like to acknowledge DTRA for their funding and support of our research.

  4. Vertically integrated circuit development at Fermilab for detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R; Deptuch, G; Hoff, J; Khalid, F; Lipton, R; Shenai, A; Trimpl, M; Zimmerman, T

    2013-01-01

    Today vertically integrated circuits, (a.k.a. 3D integrated circuits) is a popular topic in many trade journals. The many advantages of these circuits have been described such as higher speed due to shorter trace lenghts, the ability to reduce cross talk by placing analog and digital circuits on different levels, higher circuit density without the going to smaller feature sizes, lower interconnect capacitance leading to lower power, reduced chip size, and different processing for the various layers to optimize performance. There are some added advantages specifically for MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) in High Energy Physics: four side buttable pixel arrays, 100% diode fill factor, the ability to move PMOS transistors out of the diode sensing layer, and a increase in channel density. Fermilab began investigating 3D circuits in 2006. Many different bonding processes have been described for fabricating 3D circuits [1]. Fermilab has used three different processes to fabricate several circuits for specific applications in High Energy Physics and X-ray imaging. This paper covers some of the early 3D work at Fermilab and then moves to more recent activities. The major processes we have used are discussed and some of the problems encountered are described. An overview of pertinent 3D circuit designs is presented along with test results thus far.

  5. Click Chemistry Mediated Functionalization of Vertical Nanowires for Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica; Buch-Månson, Nina; Bovet, Nicolas; Nygård, Jesper; Martinez, Karen L; Meldal, Morten

    2016-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are gaining significant importance in various biological applications, such as biosensing and drug delivery. Efficient and controlled immobilization of biomolecules on the NW surface is crucial for many of these applications. Here, we present for the first time the use of the Cu(I) -catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition and its strain-promoted variant for the covalent functionalization of vertical NWs with peptides and proteins. The potential of the approach was demonstrated in two complementary applications of measuring enzyme activity and protein binding, which is of general interest for biological studies. The attachment of a peptide substrate provided NW arrays for the detection of protease activity. In addition, green fluorescent protein was immobilized in a site-specific manner and recognized by antibody binding to demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the use of covalently modified NWs for diagnostic purposes using minute amounts of material. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. DNA electrophoresis through microlithographic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevick, E.M.; Williams, D.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophoresis is one of the most widely used techniques in biochemistry and genetics for size-separating charged molecular chains such as DNA or synthetic polyelectrolytes. The separation is achieved by driving the chains through a gel with an external electric field. As a result of the field and the obstacles that the medium provides, the chains have different mobilities and are physically separated after a given process time. The macroscopically observed mobility scales inversely with chain size: small molecules move through the medium quickly while larger molecules move more slowly. However, electrophoresis remains a tool that has yet to be optimised for most efficient size separation of polyelectrolytes, particularly large polyelectrolytes, e.g. DNA in excess of 30-50 kbp. Microlithographic arrays etched with an ordered pattern of obstacles provide an attractive alternative to gel media and provide wider avenues for size separation of polyelectrolytes and promote a better understanding of the separation process. Its advantages over gels are (1) the ordered array is durable and can be re-used, (2) the array morphology is ordered and can be standardized for specific separation, and (3) calibration with a marker polyelectrolyte is not required as the array is reproduced to high precision. Most importantly, the array geometry can be graduated along the chip so as to expand the size-dependent regime over larger chain lengths and postpone saturation. In order to predict the effect of obstacles upon the chain-length dependence in mobility and hence, size separation, we study the dynamics of single chains using theory and simulation. We present recent work describing: 1) the release kinetics of a single DNA molecule hooked around a point, frictionless obstacle and in both weak and strong field limits, 2) the mobility of a chain impinging upon point obstacles in an ordered array of obstacles, demonstrating the wide range of interactions possible between the chain and

  7. Earthquake behavior at deep underground observed by three-dimensional array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Shigeo.

    1989-01-01

    The earthquake observation has been carried out using an eight point three-dimensional array between on-ground and the depth of about 400 m at Hosokura Mine in Miyagi prefecture, for the purpose of obtaining the basic datum on the characteristics of the seismic waves for the earthquake resistance design of the deep underground disposal facility of high level waste. The following results ware obtained. (1) The maximum accelerations at the underground are damped to about 60 % of those at on-ground horizontal and to about 70 % vertical. (2) Although the frequency characteristics of the seismic waves varies for each earthquake, the transfer characteristics of seismic waves from deep underground to on-ground is the same for each earthquake. (3) The horizontal dirrections of seismic wave incidence are similar to the directions from epicenters of each earthquake. The vertical directions of seismic wave incidence are in the range of about 3deg to 35deg from vertical line. (author)

  8. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  9. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  10. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  11. The Design Philosophy for a Vertical Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijling, J. K.; Burcharth, H. F.; Voortman, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent risk-based design philosophy for vertical breakwaters is proposed. The design philosophy consists of a two-step approach. The first step is the definition of the main function of the breakwater, which leads to a definition of failure. The second step is the choice of the acceptable...

  12. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  13. A Comparison of Methods of Vertical Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Brenda H.; Hoover, H. D.

    Rasch model vertical equating procedures were applied to three mathematics computation tests for grades six, seven, and eight. Each level of the test was composed of 45 items in three sets of 15 items, arranged in such a way that tests for adjacent grades had two sets (30 items) in common, and the sixth and eighth grades had 15 items in common. In…

  14. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  15. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  16. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  17. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  18. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  19. Proverbs : Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Allsop, N.W.H.; De Groot, M.B.; Crouch, R.S.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Final report and appendices of the European project Proverbs on tools for the design of vertical breakwaters (caisson type breakwaters) and similar hydraulic structures in the coastal zone. It includes the loads (waves) as well as the strength of the structure (geotechnial aspects, structural

  20. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite