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Sample records for lowland birch betula

  1. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  2. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  3. DNA typing of birch: Development of a forensic STR system for Betula pendula and Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Monique; Dragutinović, Aleksandar; Noordhoek, Jeroen W; Bergwerff, Leonie; Kuiper, Irene

    2018-04-07

    Although botanical trace evidence is often encountered in case investigations, the utilization of such traces in forensic investigations is still limited. Development of a forensic STR system for the two species of Betula (birch) indigenous to and abundant in North West Europe is a step in enhancing the applicability of traces from these species. We describe six microsatellite markers developed for birch species in detail, including repeat structure, and we propose a nomenclature for the encountered alleles. To assess the population characteristics, the genetic composition of wild, planted and intermediate populations of Betula pendula (a diploid species) and Betula pubescens (a tetraploid species) were investigated. The genetic differences between these two species were larger than the differences between populations of one species, even when both species co-occurred at one location. Therefore allele frequencies were estimated for both species separately. General, conservative random match probabilities were estimated for wild trees based on these allele frequencies (5∙10 -6 for the diploid B. pendula and 1∙10 -13 for the tetraploid B. pubescens), illustrating the potential relevance if trace evidence secured from a suspect is found to match a birch tree growing on or near a crime scene. Apart from wild trees, planted Betula trees also occur that may not originate from seeds, but may have been propagated through cloning. Based on the studied Betula trees, the random match probability of a potentially planted profile might be as high as 1.4∙10 -2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  5. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  6. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  7. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  8. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  10. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera.

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    Gabriel Theriault

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula papyrifera is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1 develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2 assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3 describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome, binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  11. The influence of log soaking temperature on surface quality and integrity performance of birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Toni Antikainen; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Wood material surface properties play an important role in adhesive bond formation and performance. In the present study, a test method was developed to evaluate the integrity of the wood surface, and the results were used to understand bond performance. Materials used were rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers, produced from logs soaked at 20 or 70 °C prior...

  12. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO 2 and/or O 3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO 2 increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O 3 also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO 2 + O 3 ) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO 2 may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O 3 will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO 2 enhances and elevated O 3 decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth

  13. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F

    2008-10-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO(2) and/or O(3) on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO(2) increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O(3) also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO(2)+O(3)) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO(2) may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O(3) will likely have a negative impact.

  14. Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to elevated CO2 and O3 during leaf maturation and senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Parviainen, Juha; Ruhanen, Hanna; Brosche, Mikael; Keinaenen, Markku; Thakur, Ramesh C.; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Kangasjaervi, Jaakko; Oksanen, Elina; Karnosky, David F.; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves to elevated concentrations of CO 2 and O 3 were studied with microarray analyses from three time points during the summer of 2004 at Aspen FACE. Microarray data were analyzed with clustering techniques, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and Sammon's mappings, to detect similar gene expression patterns within sampling times and treatments. Most of the alterations in gene expression were caused by O 3 , alone or in combination with CO 2 . O 3 induced defensive reactions to oxidative stress and earlier leaf senescence, seen as decreased expression of photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes, and increased expression of senescence-associated genes. The effects of elevated CO 2 reflected surplus of carbon that was directed to synthesis of secondary compounds. The combined CO 2 + O 3 treatment resulted in differential gene expression than with individual gas treatments or in changes similar to O 3 treatment, indicating that CO 2 cannot totally alleviate the harmful effects of O 3 . - Clustering analysis of birch leaf gene expression data reveals differential responses to O 3 and CO 2 .

  15. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

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    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  16. Influence of Welding Time on Tensile-Shear Strength of Linear Friction Welded Birch (Betula pendula L. Wood

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    Jussi Ruponen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal welding time for linear friction welding of birch (Betula pendula L. wood while keeping the other parameters constant and at similar levels compared to other species in a similar density range. Specimens with dimensions of 20 × 5 × 150 mm3 were welded together, and the influence of welding time (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 s on the mechanical properties of the specimens was determined. The studies included a tensile-shear strength test as well as visual estimation of wood failure percentage (WFP. Additionally, X-ray microtomographic imaging was used to investigate and characterise the bond line properties as a non-destructive testing method. The highest mean tensile-shear strength, 7.9 MPa, was reached with a welding time of 3.5 s. Generally, all four result groups showed high, yet decreasing proportional standard deviations as the welding time increased. X-ray microtomographic images and analysis express the heterogeneity of the weld line clearly as well. According to the averaged group-wise results, WFP and tensile-shear strength correlated positively with an R2 of 0.93. An extrapolation of WFP to 65% totals a tensile-shear strength of 10.6 MPa, corresponding to four common adhesive bonds determined for beech.

  17. Comparative toxic effects of some xenobiotics on the germination and early seedling growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. ) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, P; Vladut, R

    1981-12-01

    Seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were germinated in homogeneous emulsions or aqueous tank-mix solutions of fenitrothion or Matacil and their respective adjuvants: Atlox and Aerotex, or diluent oil No. 585 and nonylphenol. Percentage and peak germination values, water uptake, sprout length, ATP content, and morphological modifications were recorded from 0 to 14 or 21 days. Apart from 100 ppm fenitrothion which stimulated germination values, germination in jack pine was only marginally affected by any of the treatments; in contrast, white birch was negatively affected by all treatments. The most sensitive parameters of toxicity were the sprout length and ATP content after 14 days growth. Aberrant hypocotyl/root length ratios were evidenced in pine seeds after exposure to xenobiotic treatments which did not affect the germinative capacity of seeds. ATP content in the 14-day-old pine and birch seedlings was consistently higher than controls in all treatment sets. (Refs. 29).

  18. Carbon dynamics in the deciduous broadleaf tree Erman's birch (Betula ermanii) at the subalpine treeline on Changbai Mountain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Qi, Lin; Zhou, Wangming; Liu, Cheng-Gang; Yu, Dapao; Dai, Limin

    2018-01-01

    The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) and carbon limitation hypothesis (CLH) are two dominant explanations for treeline formation. The GLH proposes that low temperature drives the treeline through constraining C sinks more than C sources, and it predicts that non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels are static or increase with elevation. Although the GLH has received strong support globally for evergreen treelines, there is still no consensus for deciduous treelines, which experience great asynchrony between supply and demand throughout the year. We investigated growth and the growing-season C dynamics in a common deciduous species, Erman's birch (Betula ermanii), along an elevational gradient from the closed forest to the treeline on Changbai Mountain, Northeast China. Samples were collected from developing organs (leaves and twigs) and main storage organs (stems and roots) for NSC analysis. Tree growth decreased with increasing elevation, and NSC concentrations differed significantly among elevations, organs, and sampling times. In particular, NSC levels varied slightly during the growing season in leaves, peaked in the middle of the growing season in twigs and stems, and increased continuously throughout the growing season in roots. NSCs also tended to increase or vary slightly in developing organs but decreased significantly in mature organs with increasing elevation. The decrease in NSCs with elevation in main storage organs indicates support for the CLH, while the increasing or static trends in new developing organs indicate support for the GLH. Our results suggest that the growth limitation theory may be less applicable to deciduous species' growth than to that of evergreen species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

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    Lisa Öberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  20. The effect of cisplatin administration on certain trace elements homeostasis in rats and the protective effect of silver birch (Betula pendula) sap.

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    Muselin, Florin; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Berbecea, Adina; Doma, Alexandru Octavian; Brezovan, Diana; Savici, Jelena; Trif, Alexandra; Cristina, Romeo Teodor

    2018-02-07

    A clinically active structure with known antitumor activities is cisplatin (CDDP), but this it comes with toxicity characteristics which can be faded by the beneficial effects of Silver birch (Betula pendula) sap. We aimed to assess the cisplatin activity on: Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in rats and to observe the effect of birch sap. Healthy Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were divided in four groups: Control: receiving 1 mL saline I.P. way + water; E1: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P.; E2: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P. + birch sap and Control sap group: 1 mL saline I.P. + birch sap. Blood was collected: at the trial's start and after 48 h, and blood and organs (liver, kidney and spleen) for the cytoarchitecture investigation and readings were sampled after seven days. Samples were processed in nitric acid by microwave digestion and readings were completed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, the outcomes being statistically analyzed by ANOVA. Cisplatin produced a significant imbalance in the trace elements homeostasis, the birch sap administration recovering them usual homeostasis status. Comparatively with the Control, rats exposed to cisplatin presented a not significant (p > 0.05) decrease of Zn (-26.74%) and Mg (-10.25%), a significant (p  0.05) increase of Mn (+28.16%). Birch sap administration after Cisplatin was followed by restoration or nevertheless significant increase (p sap against diverse cisplatin deleterious side-effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

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    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  2. On the Effect of Thinning on Tree Growth and Stand Structure of White Birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev and Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. in Mongolia

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    Alexander Gradel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North Mongolia are largely dominated either by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. or birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev. The increasing demand for timber and firewood is currently met by removal of wood from these forest stands. Therefore, silvicultural approaches that account for both utilization and protection are needed. Thinning trials were established in the research area Altansumber, in the mountain forest steppe west of the town of Darkhan. We analyzed the response of non-spatial and spatial structure and growth of birch and larch stands on thinning. Before thinning, spatial tree distribution was largely clumped. Thinning promoted regular tree distribution. Ingrowth of new stems after thinning tended to redirect stand structure towards clumping. Both relative and absolute tree growth and competition were evaluated before, directly after, and three years after the thinning. Competition played a significant role in tree growth before thinning. A reduction in competition after thinning triggered significantly increased growth of both birch and larch. The observed positive growth response was valid in absolute and relative terms. A methodically based forest management strategy, including thinning operations and selective cuttings, could be established, even under the harsh Mongolian conditions. Our findings could initiate the development of broader forest management guidelines for the light-taiga dominated stands.

  3. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

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    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  4. Combination treatment of elevated UVB radiation, CO2 and temperature has little effect on silver birch (Betula pendula) growth and phytochemistry.

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    Lavola, Anu; Nybakken, Line; Rousi, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Petrelius, Mari; Kellomäki, Seppo; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    Elevations of carbon dioxide, temperature and ultraviolet-B (UBV) radiation in the growth environment may have a high impact on the accumulation of carbon in plants, and the different factors may work in opposite directions or induce additive effects. To detect the changes in the growth and phytochemistry of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings, six genotypes were exposed to combinations of ambient or elevated levels of CO2 , temperature and UVB radiation in top-closed chambers for 7 weeks. The genotypes were relatively similar in their responses, and no significant interactive effects of three-level climate factors on the measured parameters were observed. Elevated UVB had no effect on growth, nor did it alter plant responses to CO2 and/or temperature in combined treatments. Growth in all plant parts increased under elevated CO2 , and height and stem biomass increased under elevated temperature. Increased carbon distribution to biomass did not reduce its allocation to phytochemicals: condensed tannins, most flavonols and phenolic acids accumulated under elevated CO2 and elevated UVB, but this effect disappeared under elevated temperature. Leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 . We conclude that, as a result of high genetic variability in phytochemicals, B. pendula seedlings have potential to adapt to the tested environmental changes. The induction in protective flavonoids under UVB radiation together with the positive impact of elevated CO2 and temperature mitigates possible UVB stress effects, and thus atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature are the climate change factors that will dictate the establishment and success of birch at higher altitudes in the future. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  6. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2009-11-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown under two carbon dioxide concentrations (ambient: 360 micromol mol(-1) and elevated: 720 micromol mol(-1)), three soil temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three moisture regimes (low: 30-40%; intermediate: 45-55% and high: 60-70% field water capacity) in greenhouses. In situ gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2 months of treatments. Net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) of seedlings grown under the intermediate and high moisture regimes increased from low to intermediate T(soil) and then decreased to high T(soil). There were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil), with the exception that A(n) was significantly higher under high than low T(soil) at the high moisture regime. No significant T(soil) effect on A(n) was observed at the low moisture regime. The intermediate T(soil) increased stomatal conductance (g(s)) only at intermediate and high but not at low moisture regime, whereas there were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil) treatments. Furthermore, the difference in g(s) between the intermediate and high T(soil) at high moisture regime was not statistically significant. The low moisture regime significantly reduced the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio at all T(soil). There were no significant individual or interactive effects of treatment on maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization or potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results of this study suggest that soil moisture condition should be taken into account when predicting the responses of white birch to soil warming.

  7. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  8. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: pildiko@andromeda.rutgers.edu; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  9. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkey, Fallon M.; Matthews, Jennifer; Ryser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. - Highlights: ► Metal resistance in trees from an industrially contaminated region was investigated. ► Both red maple and white birch have developed some degree of resistance. ► There is indication of a cost for resistance. ► Populations from non-contaminated regions show variation in response to contamination. - Adaptive metal resistance can also develop in trees with long generation times, but the degree of resistance is lower than for herbaceous species from the same region.

  10. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D.; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-01-01

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  11. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  13. Short-term effects of light quality on leaf gas exchange and hydraulic properties of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglas, Aigar; Papp, Kaisa; Sekiewicz, Maciej; Sellin, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Leaves have to acclimatize to heterogeneous radiation fields inside forest canopies in order to efficiently exploit diverse light conditions. Short-term effects of light quality on photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf water use and hydraulic traits were studied on Betula pendula Roth shoots cut from upper and lower thirds of the canopy of 39- to 35-year-old trees growing in natural forest stand, and illuminated with white, red or blue light in the laboratory. Photosynthetic machinery of the leaves developed in different spectral conditions acclimated differently with respect to incident light spectrum: the stimulating effect of complete visible spectrum (white light) on net photosynthesis is more pronounced in upper-canopy layers. Upper-canopy leaves exhibit less water saving behaviour, which may be beneficial for the fast-growing pioneer species on a daily basis. Lower-canopy leaves have lower stomatal conductance resulting in more efficient water use. Spectral gradients existing within natural forest stands represent signals for the fine-tuning of stomatal conductance and tree water relations to afford lavish water use in sun foliage and enhance leaf water-use efficiency in shade foliage sustaining greater hydraulic limitations. Higher sensitivity of hydraulic conductance of shade leaves to blue light probably contributes to the efficient use of short duration sunflecks by lower-canopy leaves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  15. Growth response of downy birch (Betula pubescens) to moisture treatment at an cut-over peat bog in the Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Hazuková, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2005), s. 247-256 ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Betula pubescens * cut-over peatland * increment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2005

  16. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 predicts allergenicity for 15 birch species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Peters, J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen of the European and Asian white birch (Betula pendula and B. platyphylla) causes hay fever in humans. The allergenic potency of other birch species is largely unknown. To identify birch trees with a reduced allergenicity, we assessed the immunochemical characteristics of 15 species and two

  18. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkey, Fallon M; Matthews, Jennifer; Ryser, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen

  20. Establishing an Alaskan birch syrup industry: Birch Syrup—It’s the Un-maple!TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlene. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    Ten years ago a small group of Alaskans began commercial production of birch syrup from the sap of the paper birch, Betula papyrifera, and established an industry that is expanding in response to demand and has the potential to make a significant contribution to Alaska's economy. There are still many problems to be solved; research and...

  1. A prospective study comparing the efficacy and safety of two sublingual birch allergen preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette; van Twuijver, Esther; van Ree, Ronald; Kleinjans, Huub; Boot, Johan Diderik; Pfaar, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: SUBLIVAC FIX Birch (SUB-B) is a liquid oral preparation of Betula verrucosa pollen extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjuctivitis induced by birch pollen. The major allergen content of SUB-B and Staloral Birch (Stal-B) have been shown to be comparable. In order to

  2. Alaska birch for edge-glued panel production—considerations for wood products manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Nicholls

    2010-01-01

    Edge-glued panels could become a natural extension for the birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber industry in Alaska, resulting in greater utilization of the birch resource while allowing producers to explore a wider variety of products and markets. Key advantages of edge-glued panel production include the relatively low cost of equipment, the...

  3. Defects in birch associated with injuries made by Xyloterinus politus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to give a brief pictorial description of the internal defects in paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis Britt.) that are associated with external signs of infestation by the ambrosia beetle Xyloterinus politus (fig. 1). The information was gained...

  4. Molecular passportization of clones of karelian birch using PCRwith semi-specific primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V Matveeva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Using 4 clones of Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var caretica Merckl. from the collection of the karelian birch of the laboratory of genetics of Research Institute of Forest Genetics and Breeding, Voronezh, one normal tree of Betula pendula Roth, and one tree of B. pubescens Ehrh., collected from the nature, we have analyzed the possibility of application of PCR with semi-specific primers for molecular typing. We found primers with high percentage of polymorphic markers. These primers could be recommended for molecular typing of birch.

  5. Birch's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Francis Birch's 1952 paper started the sciences of mineral physics and physics of the Earth's interior. Birch stressed the importance of pressure, compressive strain and volume in mantle physics. Although this may seem to be an obvious lesson many modern paradoxes in the internal constitution of the Earth and mantle dynamics can be traced to a lack of appreciation for the role of compression. The effect of pressure on thermal properties such as expansivity can gravitational stratify the Earth irreversibly during accretion and can keep it chemically stratified. The widespread use of the Boussinesq approximation in mantle geodynamics is the antithesis of Birchian physics. Birch pointed out that eclogite was likely to be an important component of the upper mantle. Plate tectonic recycling and the bouyancy of oceanic crust at midmantle depths gives credence to this suggestion. Although peridotite dominates the upper mantle, variations in eclogite-content may be responsible for melting- or fertility-spots. Birch called attention to the Repetti Discontinuity near 900 km depth as an important geodynamic boundary. This may be the chemical interface between the upper and lower mantles. Recent work in geodynamics and seismology has confirmed the importance of this region of the mantle as a possible barrier. Birch regarded the transition region (TR ; 400 to 1000 km ) as the key to many problems in Earth sciences. The TR contains two major discontinuities ( near 410 and 650 km ) and their depths are a good mantle thermometer which is now being exploited to suggest that much of plate tectonics is confined to the upper mantle ( in Birch's terminology, the mantle above 1000 km depth ). The lower mantle is homogeneous and different from the upper mantle. Density and seismic velocity are very insensitive to temperature there, consistent with tomography. A final key to the operation of the mantle is Birch's suggestion that radioactivities were stripped out of the deeper parts of

  6. Paper birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale Gormanson; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra Wrobel; Marla R. Emery; Michael J. Dockry

    2015-01-01

    Data on paper birch (Betula papyrifera L.; wiigwaas in the Ojibwe language), collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service on forested lands in the Great Lakes region (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) from 1980 through 2010, are reported. Also presented are results and analysis of a supplemental inventory...

  7. The influence of air temperature and relative humidity on dynamics of water potential in Betula pendula (Betulaceae trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Тikhova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear multiple models were developed to describe diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water potential (Ψ of the foliated shoots in the plants of Betula genus related to air temperature and relative humidity in the middle taiga (southern Karelia. The results of the study revealed unidirectional changes, but different effect strength of air temperature and relative humidity on Ψ of the foliated shoots of common silver birch (Betula pendula Roth and curly (Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica. It was shown that increasing air temperature 1°С results in similar decreasing of Ψ value equal to 0.037–0.038 MPa in both of the birches (p > 0.05. Since the diurnal air temperature range achieves 10–15 °С, the contribution of this factor may be up to 0.57 MPa. On the contrary, the contribution of relative air humidity to Ψ value differs significantly in distinct birch forms (p < 0.05. In this case the change range of Ψ value in silver birch and curly birch may be up to 0.46 (0.015 MPa/1 % RH and 0.52 МПа (0.017 MPa/1 % RH, respectively. The results indicate that curly birch responds to the increase of relative air humidity with higher magnification of Ψ in comparison with common silver birch.

  8. Paper birch decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, microclimate, and birch stand conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  9. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  10. Potential role of soil calcium in recovery of paper birch following ice storm injury in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, an increased number of mature paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and heart-leafed paper birch (B. papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern.) in northeastern United States forests have exhibited decline symptoms including foliar loss, reduced fine branching, and tree mortality. We assessed crown health, radial...

  11. Reproduction of mountain birch along a strong pollution gradient near Monchegorsk, Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Zvereva, Elena L.

    2004-01-01

    We explored effects of severe pollution on sexual reproduction of mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, by counting catkins on sample branches and weighing both somatic and generative structures of both short and long shoots from birches growing at 21 sites around large nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, Northwestern Russia. Proportion of reproducing trees, production of catkins, shoot and catkin weight, as well as the relative difference in weight of somatic structures of generative and vegetative shoots, were generally independent of pollution load; in 2003 birches growing in industrial barrens produced more catkins than birches growing in unpolluted forests. Thus, we found no support for the hypothesis that reproductive allocation should decrease with decrease in environmental capacity. Absence of adverse effects might indicate that long-lasting pollution impact already eliminated the most sensitive individuals from the affected birch populations. - Capsule: Variation in reproductive characteristics of mountain birch near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk is independent of pollution load

  12. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea.

  13. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  14. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Eraenen, Janne K.; Zverev, Vitali E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  15. Stem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after three years of treatments to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seija Kaakinen; Katri Kostiainen; Fredrik Ek; Pekka Saranpaa; Mark E. Kubiske; Jaak Sober; David F. Karnosky; Elina Vapaavuori

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] and ozone [O3] and their interaction on wood chemistry and anatomy of five clones of 3-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Wood chemistry was studied also on paper birch (Betula papyrifera...

  16. The influence of lathe check depth and orientation on the bond quality of phenol-formaldehyde-bonded birch plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mark Hughes; Charles R. Frihart; Janne Logren

    2013-01-01

    During the rotary peeling of veneer for plywood or the laminated veneer lumber manufacture, checks are formed in the veneer that are as deep as 70 – 80 % of the veneer thickness. The results of this study show that, during adhesive bond testing, deep lathe checks in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) veneer significantly reduce the shear strength and the...

  17. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Study of Impregnation Birch and Aspen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vladislavovich Grigorev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of wood impregnation was implemented by applying centrifugal methods. The impregnants were a 10% aqueous solution of potassium chloride and a 2% aqueous solution of borax. Birch (Betula pendula and aspen (Populus tremula wood samples in different moisture content were tested. The impregnation time in the centrifugal device were 30 seconds repeated 21 times, and the samples were measured after every 30 seconds. The experimental results were fitted to a nonlinear filtration law, which indicated that the centrifugal wood impregnation was dependent on wood species, wood moisture, rotational speed, and radius. Determination of rotational speed and centrifuge radius for impregnating aspen and birch at varying lengths and humidity under conditions of the nonlinear impregnant filtration law can be done using the example charts that were developed and presented in this study.

  19. The impact of birch seedlings on evapotranspiration from a mined peatland: an experimental study in southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense stands of birch (Betula spp. on abandoned peat workings have often been identified as potential barriers to site restoration, but little research has been conducted to evaluate their impact on water resources. The objective of this experimental study was to determine whether birch seedlings established on an abandoned mined peatland in eastern Canada had a significant impact on evapotranspiration. Transpiration rates from birch seedlings planted in containers filled with Sphagnum compost were measured gravimetrically. Unplanted containers were used to similarly measure evaporation rates from bare peat. On average, the measured rates of evaporation (per unit area from peat were 2.5 times the rates of transpiration from birch leaves. However, if the total leaf area of a dense birch population established on an abandoned mined peatland is considered, the total amount of water lost through birch transpiration could be higher than that lost by evaporation from the peat surface. This study provides a rough estimate of potential water losses due to birch seedling transpiration, and indicates that a dense population of birch on a mined peatland may influence site hydrology even at the early establishment phase (seedlings. Consequently, recently abandoned mined peatlands should be restored rapidly to prevent the establishment of birch trees.

  20. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

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    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  1. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Bertrand, A.; Casares, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Oviedo University, Julian Claveria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es; Tames, R.S. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction.

  2. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  3. Birch symposium proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.T. Doolittle; P.E. Bruns

    1969-01-01

    This symposium on yellow and paper birch is the third in a series of meetings devoted to discussion of our fine hardwood timber species. The first meeting, held at Carbondale, Illinois, in 1966, dealt with black walnut. The second, held at Houghton, Michigan, in 1968, dealt with sugar maple. The purpose of this third meeting is to bring together our present knowledge...

  4. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  5. Ozone-induced H2O2 accumulation in field-grown aspen and birch is linked to foliar ultrastructure and peroxisomal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Oksanen; E. Häikiö; J. Sober; D.F. Karnosky

    2003-01-01

    Saplings of three aspen (Populus tremuloides) genotypes and seedlings of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were exposed to elevated ozone (1.5x ambient) and 560 p.p.m. CO2, singly and in combination, from 1998 at the Aspen-FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) site (Rhinelander, USA).

  6. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in early stages of sapwood decay in red spruce, eastern hemlock, red maple, and paper birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jody Jellison; Jon Connolly; Jonathan Schilling

    2007-01-01

    The decay of coarse woody debris is a key component in the formation of forest soil and in the biogeochemical cycles of Ca and Mg. We tracked changes in density and concentration of Ca and Mg in sapwood of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and...

  7. Shotgun Bisulfite Sequencing of the Betula platyphylla Genome Reveals the Tree’s DNA Methylation Patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Most studies of DNA methylation have been performed in herbaceous plants, and little is known about the methylation patterns in tree genomes. In the present study, we generated a map of methylated cytosines at single base pair resolution for Betula platyphylla (white birch by bisulfite sequencing combined with transcriptomics to analyze DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression. We obtained a detailed view of the function of DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the genome of B. platyphylla. There are 34,460 genes in the whole genome of birch, and 31,297 genes are methylated. Conservatively, we estimated that 14.29% of genomic cytosines are methylcytosines in birch. Among the methylation sites, the CHH context accounts for 48.86%, and is the largest proportion. Combined transcriptome and methylation analysis showed that the genes with moderate methylation levels had higher expression levels than genes with high and low methylation. In addition, methylated genes are highly enriched for the GO subcategories of binding activities, catalytic activities, cellular processes, response to stimulus and cell death, suggesting that methylation mediates these pathways in birch trees.

  8. Possibilities of assessing trace metal pollution using Betula pendula Roth. leaf and bark - experience in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both seasonal and spatial variations in trace metal uptake, as well as concentration of photosynthetic pigments in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. trees in five urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities were studied. The characteristics of soil were assessed in terms of texture, pH and trace element content. Concentrations of boron, strontium and zinc in both leaves and bark showed an increasing temporal trend, however, copper showed an opposite seasonal trend. A higher accumulation of trace elements was noticed in leaves compared to bark. The obtained results for photosynthetic pigments showed low sensitivity of birch to B, Cu, Sr and Zn contamination, indicating that birch tolerates pollution and climate stress by increasing the amount of pigments. Analysis of the effects on soil chemistry of trace element accumulation in plant tissues proved that soil chemistry poorly explains the variability of elements in bark (27.6 % compared to leaves (82.99 %. Discriminant analysis showed that Belgrade and Smederevo are clearly separated from the other three sites. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  9. Role of ectomycorrhizae in the tolerance of Betula papyrifera to copper and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    A study was initiated to investigate the effect of infection by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from a Cu- and Ni-contaminated site near Sudbury, Ontario on the tolerance of birch seedlings to Cu or Ni. Betula papyrifera seedlings were infected with one of four fungi: Laccaria proxima, Lactarius hibbardae, Lactarius rufus, or Scleroderma flavidum, or were left uninoculated. After mycorrhizal formation, seedlings were treated with 32 or 63 ..mu..M Cu or 34 or 85 ..mu..M Ni for 18 weeks. The fungi as a group depressed growth of Cu-treated seedlings relative to uninoculated plants, but at the low level of Ni, infection generally stimulated the relative growth of the birch. At the high Ni treatment however, only S. flavidum increased birch Ni tolerance. While there was no relationship between the axenic growth of the fungi in Ni and their effect on host Ni tolerance, there was a better relationship with Cu tolerance. Still, the recommendation was made that axenic growth tests not be used for rapid screening of metal-tolerance-enhancing fungi.

  10. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  11. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8 and wild type (WT. In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees.

  12. Tolerance of an expanding subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa, to simulated caribou browsing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Champagne

    Full Text Available Densification of the shrub layer has been reported in many subarctic regions, raising questions about the implication for large herbivores and their resources. Shrubs can tolerate browsing and their level of tolerance could be affected by browsing and soils productivity, eventually modifying resource availability for the caribou. Our objective was to assess the compensatory growth potential of a subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa Michx., in relation with caribou browsing and nutriment availability for the plants. We used a simulated browsing (0, 25 and 75% of available shoots and nitrogen-fertilisation (0 and 10 g m(-2 experiment to test two main hypotheses linking tolerance to resource availability, the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis and the Growth Rate Hypothesis as well as the predictions from the Limiting Resource Model. We seek to explicitly integrate the relative browsing pressure in our predictions since the amount of tissues removed could affect the capacity of long-lived plants to compensate. Birches fully compensated for moderate browsing with an overall leaf biomass similar to unbrowsed birches but undercompensated under heavy browsing pressure. The main mechanism explaining compensation appears to be the conversion of short shoots into long shoots. The leaf area increased under heavy browsing pressure but only led to undercompensation. Fertilisation for two consecutive years did not influence the response of birch, thus we conclude that our results support the LRM hypothesis of equal tolerance under both high and low nitrogen availability. Our results highlight that the potential for compensatory growth in dwarf birch is surpassed under heavy browsing pressure independently of the fertilisation regime. In the context of the worldwide decline in caribou herds, the reduction in browsing pressure could act synergistically with global climate change to promote the current shrub expansion reported in subarctic regions.

  13. Near-ambient ozone concentrations reduce the vigor of Betula and Populus species in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku; Vapaavuori, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    2009-12-01

    In this review the main growth responses of Finnish birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen species (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides x P. tremula) are correlated with ozone exposure, indicated as the AOT40 value. Data are derived from 23 different laboratory, open-top chamber, and free-air fumigation experiments. Our results indicate that these tree species are sensitive to increasing ozone concentrations, though high intraspecific variation exists. The roots are the most vulnerable targets in both genera. These growth reductions, determined from trees grown under optimal nutrient and water supply, were generally accompanied by increased visible foliar injuries, carbon allocation toward defensive compounds, reduced carbohydrate contents of leaves, impaired photosynthesis processes, disturbances in stomatal function, and earlier autumn senescence. Because both genera have shown complex ozone defense and response mechanisms, which are modified by variable environmental conditions, a mechanistically based approach is necessary for accurate ozone risk assessment.

  14. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

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    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  15. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  16. The influence of felling season and log-soaking temperature on the wetting and phenol formaldehyde adhesive bonding characteristics of birch veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Pekka Saranpää; Martin Ohlmeyer; Mark Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most adhesive studies employing wood veneer as the substrate assume that it is a relatively uniform material if wood species and veneer thickness are constant. In the present study, veneers from rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) were produced from logs harvested in spring, autumn and winter, and soaked at 20°C and 70°C prior to peeling. Firstly...

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

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    Tripti Mishra

    Full Text Available Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB, in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA, oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A. Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer.

  18. Multispecies genetic structure and hybridization in the Betula genus across Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sebastiani, Federico; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Lascoux, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern Eurasia, and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. However, although many population genetic studies of forest tree species have been conducted in Europe or Eastern Asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. Here, we focus on the birch genus Betula, which is commonly distributed in boreal and cool temperate forests, and examine 129 populations of two tetraploid and four diploid species collected from Iceland to Japan. All individuals were genotyped at seven to 18 nuclear simple sequence repeats (nSSRs). Pairwise FST' among the six species ranged from 0.285 to 0.903, and genetic differentiation among them was clear. structure analysis suggested that Betula pubescens is an allotetraploid and one of the parental species was Betula pendula. In both species pairs of B. pendula and B. plathyphylla, and B. pubescens and B. ermanii, genetic diversity was highest in central Siberia. A hybrid zone was detected around Lake Baikal for eastern and western species pairs regardless of ploidy level. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that the divergence of B. pendula and B. platyphylla occurred around the beginning of the last ice age (36 300 years BP, 95% CI: 15 330-92 700) and hybridization between them was inferred to have occurred after the last glacial maximum (1614 years BP, 95% CI: 561-4710), with B. pendula providing a higher contribution to hybrids. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of a New Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System for Micropropagation of Cultivars of Eucalyptus, Birch and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Businge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid instead of solid culture medium for the micropropagation of plants offers advantages such as better access to medium components and scalability through possible automation of the processes. The objective of this work was to compare a new temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB to solid medium culture for the micropropagation of a selection of tree species micropropagated for commercial use: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven Spach, Eucalyptus (E. grandis x E. urophylla, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh, and Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica. Cultivation of explants in the TIB resulted in a significant increase of multiplication rate and fresh weight of Eucalyptus and B. pendula, but not Betula pubescens. In addition, the fresh weight of embryogenic tissue and the maturation frequency of somatic embryos increased significantly when an embryogenic cell line of A. nordmanniana was cultivated in the TIB compared to solid culture medium. These results demonstrate the potential for scaling up and automating micropropagation by shoot multiplication and somatic embryogenesis in commercial tree species using a temporary immersion bioreactor.

  20. Rhizosphere C flux from tree roots to soil: spatial and temporal differences between sugar maple and yellow birch saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. P.; Fahey, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Rhizosphere carbon flux (RCF) has rarely been measured for intact root-soil systems. We measured RCF for eight year-old saplings of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis) collected from Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and transplanted into 35 cm diameter pots with native soil horizons intact. We hypothesized birch roots which support ectomycorrhizal fungi would release more C to the rhizosphere than sugar maple roots which support vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Saplings (n=5) were pulse-labeled with 13CO2 at ambient CO2 concentrations for 4-6 hours, and the label was chased through rhizosphere and bulk soil pools in organic and mineral horizons for 7 days. We observed immediate appearance of the label in rhizosphere soil, and there was a striking difference in the temporal pattern of 13C concentration between species. In maple, peak concentration of the label appeared at day 1 and declined over time whereas in birch the label increased in concentration over the 7 day chase period. As a result, total RCF was 2-3 times greater from birch roots. We estimate at least 5% and 10% of NPP may be released from this flux pathway in sugar maple and yellow birch saplings respectively. These results suggest that rhizosphere C flux likely represents a substantial proportion of NPP in northern hardwood forests, and may be influenced by trees species and mycorrhizal association.

  1. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Katri; Saranpää, Pekka; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Kubiske, Mark E; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2014-06-01

    We studied the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 on radial growth and wood properties of four trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) saplings. The material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander (WI, USA). Trees had been exposed to four treatments [control, elevated CO2 (560 ppm), elevated O3 (1.5 times ambient) and combined CO2 + O3 ] during growing seasons 1998-2008. Most treatment responses were observed in the early phase of experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport. Under elevated CO2, radial growth was enhanced and the trees had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger diameter vessels. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased radial growth and the diameters of vessels and fibres. Clone-specific decrease in wood density and cell wall thickness was observed under elevated CO2 . In birch, the treatments had no major impacts on wood anatomy or wood density. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter, randomi......-treated group. CONCLUSION: The rBet v 1-based vaccine was safe and effective in treating birch pollen allergy, and induced a highly specific immune response.......BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  3. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  4. Comparison of 226Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vankova, Radomira; Vanek, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The uptake of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The 226 Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers + seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest 226 Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of 226 Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period

  5. Effect of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid on the physiological-biochemical processes in the leaves of plants. [Acer negundo; Betula verrucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaevskii, V S; Suslova, V S

    1967-01-01

    In the vicinity of copper-smelting plants, the boxelder (Acer negundo) had an injury rate of 5-10% of a period of years, the European white birch (Betula verrucosa), 60-100%. During the 1st stages of the action of H2SO4 and SO2 on the boxelder, observations were made of an active rise in reducing substances, but in the birch there was intensification of oxidative processes. The discovery of a peak of intensification of oxidative activity after stopping peroxidase activity is explained by the activation of cytochrome oxidase and other oxidative systems. It is suggested that H2SO4 affects the oxidation-reduction conditions in the plants not only through the change in pH of the medium but also biochemically. H2SO4 and SO2 exert similar effects on plants in trials: there is very rapid inactivation of catalase and unique behavior of peroxidase. 8 references, 5 figures.

  6. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  7. Elevated CO{sub 2} does not ameliorate effects of ozone on carbon allocation in Pinus halepensis and Betula pendula in symbiosis with Paxillus involutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoeviita, M.M. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Oulu (Finland); Pelloux, J.; Fontaine, V.; Botton, B.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere Associe INRA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}, 200 nmol ozone mol{sup -1} and a combination of the two on carbon allocation was examined in Pinus halepensis co-cultured with Betula pendula in symbiosis with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. The results show that under low nutrient and ozone levels, elevated CO{sub 2} has no effect on the growth of B. pendula or P. halepensis seedlings nor on net carbon partitioning between plant parts. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not enhance the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the birch. On the other hand, ozone had a strong negative effect on the growth of the birch, which corresponded with the significantly reduced growth rates of the fungus. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the negative effects of ozone on birch; in contrast, it acted as an additional stress factor. Neither ozone nor CO{sub 2} had significant effects on biomass accumulation in the pine seedlings. Ozone stimulated the spread of mycorrhizal infection from the birch seedlings to neighbouring pines and had no statistically significant effects on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in the pine needles or on PEPC activity in pine roots. (au)

  8. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  9. Variation of Drying Strains between Tangential and Radial Directions in Asian White Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Fu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood disks of 30 mm in thickness cut from white birch (Betula platyphylla Suk logs were dried at a constant temperature (40 °C. The drying strains including practical shrinkage strain, elastic strain, viscoelastic creep strain and mechano-sorptive creep were measured both tangentially and radially. The effects of moisture content and radial position on each strain were also discussed qualitatively. Overall, the difference of the practical shrinkage strain between the tangential and radial directions was proportional to the distance from the pith. The tangential elastic strain and viscoelastic creep strain were higher than these strains in a radial direction, and they all decreased with the decrease of moisture content. Additionally, there were opposite mechano-sorptive creep between tangential and radial directions.

  10. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  11. Characterization of Betula platyphylla gene transcripts associated with early development of male inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xue-Mei

    2012-02-01

    Birch (Betula platyphylla), an eminent tree species in Northeast and Inner Mongolia of China, has been widely used in architecture, furniture, and paper making in recent years. In order to retrieve genes involved in early development of B. platyphylla male inflorescence, RNA populations extracted from early and late developmental stage were analyzed by cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. Following amplification of 256 pairs of primer combinations, ~7000 fragments were generated, of which 350 transcripts expressing more in early stage than late. Of 350 specific transcripts, 198 clear and reproducible electrophoresis bands were retrieved and sequenced successfully, 74 of them (37%) showing significant homologies to known genes after GO annotation. Majority of the predicted gene products were involved in metabolism (24.56%), cellular process (27.19%), response to stimulus (11.4%) and cell growth (8.7%). Transcripts ME56, ME108, ME206 and ME310, representing metabolism, cellular process, response to stimulus and cell growth, respectively, were selected for further study to validate cDNA-AFLP expression patterns via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR expression pattern results were consistent with cDNA-AFLP analysis results.

  12. The influence of photosynthetically-active radiation and simulated shadelight on the control of leaf growth of Betula and Acer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Davies, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to quantify the effects of photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) on extension of leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Plants grown at 250 μ mol m -2 s -1 were exposed to a range of fluence rates (0-680 μ mol m -2 s -1 ) whilst enclosed in Perspex chambers in which temperature, vapour pressure deficit and photoenvironment were all controlled. Measurements of leaf extension, water relations, and cell wall extensibility (WEX) were made at the end of a 3 h exposure period. For leaves of birch, reducing the fluence rate resulted in reduced leaf extension and a lowering of WEX. Exposure of sycamore seedlings for 3 h to different values of PAR had little effect on the growth of leaves and WEX remained constant. The characteristics of net photosynthesis also differed for the two species and photosynthesis and wall loosening may be linked. Since natural woodland shadelight, in addition to reduced PAR, also has a reduced R/FR ratio, a second group of seedlings were placed in a photoenvironment which simulated shadelight (low PAR, R/FR) for 28 d. This treatment reduced extension rate and final leaf size for both species. Measurements of extension, water relations and WEX made when seedlings were exposed to shadelight whilst held in the Perspex chambers revealed differences in the control of leaf growth for the two species. It is confirmed that leaves of birch are highly responsive to changes in PAR with cell wall loosening the most likely process controlling this response

  13. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  14. [Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-02-01

    In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season.

  15. Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of African Birch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Also, strength properties of African birch timber perpendicular to grain ... Air dried African birch (Anogeissus leiocarpus) ..... Forest Product Research Labouratory. ... America. 001 – 589. Ikram Mohamed, EE; Abdel Khalig, M; Hiba, AA;. Saad ...

  16. Christian Birch - den korrupte konferensråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2005-01-01

      http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf......  http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf...

  17. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    = 6) were followed through use of daily diary cards during 3 consecutive birch pollen seasons. At inclusion and at the 3-year follow-up visit, conjunctival and nasal challenges, intradermal late-phase reaction evaluation, and measurement of specific IgE were performed. RESULTS: Asymptomatic sensitized...... a clinical characterization of skin test-positive subjects without symptoms and to ascertain the predictive values of common allergologic tests. METHODS: Asymptomatic adults with positive skin prick test results for birch (n = 15), nonatopic control subjects (n = 25), and birch pollen-allergic patients (n...

  18. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...... variables and local shrub dominance. We found that establishment of shrub ramets was positively related to summer precipitation, which implies that the current high dominance of B. nana at our study site could be related to high summer precipitation in the period from 1960 to 1990. The results confirmed...... that early summer temperature is most influential to annual growth rates of B. nana. In addition, summer precipitation stimulated shrub growth in years with warm summers, suggesting that B. nana growth may be co-limited by summer moisture supply. The dual controlling role of temperature and summer...

  19. Hourly pattern of allergenic alder and birch pollen concentrations in the air: Spatial differentiation and the effect of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycka, K.; Kasprzyk, I.

    2018-06-01

    In temperate climate widespread alder and birch are an important source of strong aeroallergens. The diurnal pattern of airborne pollen concentrations depends on the rhythm of pollen release from anthers as well as weather conditions, convection air currents, long-distance transport, pollen trap location and local vegetation. The aim of the study was to present a diurnal pattern of Alnus (alder) and Betula (birch) pollen concentrations in the air in a horizontal and vertical gradient and examine the weather parameters that had the greatest impact on the pattern. The study was conducted in Rzeszów City, southeast Poland over three years. Pollen grains were collected using a Hirst volumetric spore trap at three sampling points: two at 12 m the agl, and one at 1.5 m agl. Data were analysed using circular statistics and a nonlinear function. For alder, three models of hourly patterns were elaborated and the most common presented early morning minimum and early afternoon maximum. For birch, the most common model has one peak at night and a marked decrease in concentrations in early morning, although a second model has peak during early afternoon. A model with 3 peaks is much less common. These models are characteristic for warm temperate climate regions, where alders and birches are common. The diurnal patterns did not depend on the localization of traps or proximity of the pollen source, although these factors influenced the hourly concentrations, with higher values observed at roof level. Significant relationships between the hourly pollen counts and meteorological parameters were observed only for alder. Three incidents of increasing birch pollen concentrations were observed during the first two hours of precipitation and linked to a convection effect. Unstable weather conditions caused by air convection might strongly modify the circadian pattern and cause the nightly peaks concentrations. The general results are that people suffering from allergies may be exposed

  20. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  1. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  2. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R. N.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Romanovsky, V.; Breen, Amy L.; Bolton, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  3. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Hassegawa

    Full Text Available Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.. For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR, an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  4. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  5. Influences of Thermo-Vacuum Treatment on Colors and Chemical Compositions of Alder Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With high temperature-heat treatment, the dimensional stability and durability of wood is improved and wood color is darkened as well. In this paper, alder birch wood (Betula alnoides was treated by the Thermo-Vacuum Treatment (TVT. The changes of wood color parameters and the chemical composition were determined by the CIE1976 L*a*b* method and the chemical analysis method, respectively. The results were revealed as follows: (1 A lower value of lightness, L*, and a higher value of total color difference, △E*, were obtained at the higher heat-treatment temperatures and longer treatment time. (2 The higher the heat-treatment temperatures and the longer the heat-treatment times were, the lower the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose were and the higher the content of lignin was. Moreover, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis demonstrated that the characteristic absorption peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin diminished. The acetylation reaction of hemicellulose and the degradation reaction of groups of lignin side chain occurred during TVT. (3 TVT degraded the chemical composition of cell walls, which resulted in further changes of the wood color. A significant correlation existed between the differences of color indices and the differences of the chemical composition after TVT.

  6. Effects of sample drying and storage, and choice of extraction solvent and analysis method on the yield of birch leaf hydrolyzable tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2003-06-01

    In this study, I investigated the effects of different methods of sample drying and storage, and the choice of extraction solvent and analysis method on the concentrations of 14 individual hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), and insoluble ellagitannins in birch (Betula pubescens) leaves. Freeze- and vacuum-drying of birch leaves were found to provide more reliable results than air- or oven-drying. Storage of leaves at -20 degrees C for 3 months before freeze-drying did not cause major changes in tannin content, although levels of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose and isostrictinin were altered. Storage of dried leaf material at -20 degrees C is preferred because 1 year storage of freeze-dried leaves at 4 degrees C and at room temperature decreased the concentration of the pedunculagin derivative, one of the main ellagitannins of birch. Furthermore, storage at room temperature increased the levels of isostrictinin and 2,3-(S)-HHDP-glucose, indicating possible HT catabolism. Of the extraction solvents tested, aqueous acetone was superior to pure acetone, or aqueous or pure methanol. The addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid into 70% acetone significantly increased the yield of ellagitannins. presumably by preventing their oxidation. By comparing the conventional rhodanine assay and the HPLC-ESI-MS assay for quantification of leaf galloylglucoses, the former tends to underestimate total concentrations of galloylglucoses in birch leaf extract. On the basis of the outcomes of all the method and solvent comparisons, their suitability for qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant HTs is discussed, emphasizing that each plant species, with its presumably unique HT composition, is likely to have a unique combination of ideal conditions for tissue preservation and extraction.

  7. Combined effects of environmental disturbance and climate warming on insect herbivory in mountain birch in subarctic forests: Results of 26-year monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M V; Zverev, V; Zvereva, E L

    2017-12-01

    Both pollution and climate affect insect-plant interactions, but the combined effects of these two abiotic drivers of global change on insect herbivory remain almost unexplored. From 1991 to 2016, we monitored the population densities of 25 species or species groups of insects feeding on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) in 29 sites and recorded leaf damage by insects in 21 sites in subarctic forests around the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia. The leaf-eating insects demonstrated variable, and sometimes opposite, responses to pollution-induced forest disturbance and to climate variations. Consequently, we did not discover any general trend in herbivory along the disturbance gradient. Densities of eight species/species groups correlated with environmental disturbance, but these correlations weakened from 1991 to 2016, presumably due to the fivefold decrease in emissions of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals from the smelter. The densities of externally feeding defoliators decreased from 1991 to 2016 and the densities of leafminers increased, while the leaf roller densities remained unchanged. Consequently, no overall temporal trend in the abundance of birch-feeding insects emerged despite a 2-3°C elevation in spring temperatures. Damage to birch leaves by insects decreased during the observation period in heavily disturbed forests, did not change in moderately disturbed forests and tended to increase in pristine forests. The temporal stability of insect-plant interactions, quantified by the inverse of the coefficient of among-year variations of herbivore population densities and of birch foliar damage, showed a negative correlation with forest disturbance. We conclude that climate differently affects insect herbivory in heavily stressed versus pristine forests, and that herbivorous insects demonstrate diverse responses to environmental disturbance and climate variations. This diversity of responses, in combination with the

  8. Oral allergy syndrome to chicory associated with birch pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadot, P.; Kochuyt, A.-M.; van Ree, R.; Ceuppens, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few cases of IgE-mediated chicory allergy with oral, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms are reported. We present 4 patients with inhalant birch pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome to chicory. IgE-binding proteins in chicory and cross-reactivity with birch pollen were studied.

  9. Divergences in hydraulic architecture form an important basis for niche differentiation between diploid and polyploid Betula species in NE China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Song, Jia; Wang, Miao; Liu, Yan-Yan; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-05-01

    Habitat differentiation between polyploid and diploid plants are frequently observed, with polyploids usually occupying more stressed environments. In woody plants, polyploidization can greatly affect wood characteristics but knowledge of its influences on xylem hydraulics is scarce. The four Betula species in NE China, representing two diploids and two polyploids with obvious habitat differentiation, provide an exceptional study system for investigating the impact of polyploidization on environmental adaptation of trees from the point view of xylem hydraulics. To test the hypothesis that changes in hydraulic architecture play an important role in determining their niche differentiation, we measured wood structural traits at both the tissue and pit levels and quantified xylem water transport efficiency and safety in these species. The two polyploids had significantly larger hydraulic weighted mean vessel diameters than the two diploids (45.1 and 45.5 vs 25.9 and 24.5 μm) although the polyploids are occupying more stressed environments. As indicated by more negative water potentials corresponding to 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivities, the two polyploids exhibited significantly higher resistance to drought-induced embolism than the two diploids (-5.23 and -5.05 vs -3.86 and -3.13 MPa) despite their larger vessel diameters. This seeming discrepancy is reconciled by distinct characteristics favoring greater embolism resistance at the pit level in the two polyploid species. Our results showed clearly that the two polyploid species have remarkably different pit-level anatomical traits favoring greater hydraulic safety than their congeneric diploid species, which have likely contributed to the abundance of polyploid birches in more stressed habitats; however, less porous inter-conduit pits together with a reduced leaf to sapwood area may have compromised their competitiveness under more favorable conditions. Contrasts in hydraulic architecture between diploid and

  10. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristensky, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy) is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment) graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere. PMID:17291351

  11. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  12. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N

    2004-01-01

    IgE were detected using 125I-labelled rBet v 1.2801, a recombinant variant of the major allergen of Betula verrucosa pollen. Results show that IgG4-depletion resulted in equivalent reductions in binding and blocking activities. In contrast, a significant but less than two-fold higher relative...... for the clinical efficacy of SIT. In this study, fractionated serum samples from 14 SIT-treated birch pollen allergic individuals enabled determination of the inhibitory capacity of IgG4 alone versus non-IgG4 IgG. Allergen-binding activities of IgG and the IgG-mediated inhibition of allergen binding to autologous...

  13. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J C Hincke

    Full Text Available The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1 the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2 the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400-450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data.

  14. Selective Solvents for Extraction of Triterpenes from Betula Pendula Outer Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Rižikovs, J; Dobele, G; Jurkjāne, V; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    The volume of birch plywood production in Latvia is illustrated by the 208 000 m3 of plywood sold in 2011 and about 562 000 m3 of processed birch veneer blocks. Wood residues such as bark, veneer shorts, cut off ends and others are used as a fuel. It would be more expedient to increase the birch wood utilisation degree by involving also birch outer bark in the processing cycle. It makes up 2% of the veneer blocks’ mass. At the J.S.C. “Latvijas Finieris”, about 6000 t per year of graded and mi...

  15. Microbial Diversity of Betula Trees: Pollen, Catkins, Leaves Relatively of Flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana V. Shevtsova; Jana Petrová; Ján Brindza; Kateryna G. Garkava; Miroslava Kačániová

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative microbiological analysis by dilution plating method of pollen and additional male and female catkins, leaves of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and its two cultivars: ‘Purpurea’ and ‘Youngii’ relatively of flowering period of Betula has been realized with the aim to provide new knowledge of the microbiological quality of anemophilous pollen for processing and its further application. Qualitative microbiological analysis with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was used in the identification of aerobic,...

  16. Solar ultraviolet radiation alters alder and birch litter chemistry that in turn affects decomposers and soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Titta; Haimi, Jari; Tegelberg, Riitta; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Vapaavuori, Elina; Aphalo, Pedro Jose

    2009-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV)-A and UV-B radiation were excluded from branches of grey alder (Alnus incana) and white birch (Betula pubescens) trees in a field experiment. Leaf litter collected from these trees was used in microcosm experiments under laboratory conditions. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the different UV treatments on litter chemical quality (phenolic compounds, C, N and lignin) and the subsequent effects of these changes on soil fauna and decomposition processes. We measured the decomposition rate of litter, growth of woodlice (Porcellio scaber), soil microbial respiration and abundance of nematodes and enchytraeid worms. In addition, the chemical quality of woodlice feces was analyzed. The exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B had several effects on litter chemistry. Exclusion of UV-B radiation decreased the C content in litter in both tree species. In alder litter, UV exclusion affected concentration of phenolic groups variably, whereas in birch litter there were no significant differences in phenolic compounds. Moreover, further effects on microbial respiration and chemical quality of woodlice feces were apparent. In both tree species, microbial CO(2) evolution was lower in soil with litter produced under exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B radiation when compared to soil with control litter. The N content was higher in the feces of woodlice eating alder litter produced under exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B compared to the control. In addition, there were small changes in the concentration of individual phenolic compounds analyzed from woodlice feces. Our results demonstrate that both UV-A and UV-B alter litter chemistry which in turn affects decomposition processes.

  17. Modelling the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bobrowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing sustainable adaptation pathways under climate change conditions in mountain regions requires accurate predictions of treeline shifts and future distribution ranges of treeline species. Here, we model for the first time the potential distribution of Betula utilis, a principal Himalayan treeline species, to provide a basis for the analysis of future range shifts. Our target species Betula utilis is widespread at alpine treelines in the Himalayan mountains, the distribution range extends across the Himalayan mountain range. Our objective is to model the potential distribution of B. utilis in relation to current climate conditions. We generated a dataset of 590 occurrence records and used 24 variables for ecological niche modelling. We calibrated Generalized Linear Models using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and evaluated model performance using threshold-independent (AUC, Area Under the Curve and threshold-dependent (TSS, True Skill Statistics characteristics as well as visual assessments of projected distribution maps. We found two temperature-related (Mean Temperature of the Wettest Quarter, Temperature Annual Range and three precipitation-related variables (Precipitation of the Coldest Quarter, Average Precipitation of March, April and May and Precipitation Seasonality to be useful for predicting the potential distribution of B. utilis. All models had high predictive power (AUC ≥ 0.98 and TSS ≥ 0.89. The projected suitable area in the Himalayan mountains varies considerably, with most extensive distribution in the western and central Himalayan region. A substantial difference between potential and real distribution in the eastern Himalaya points to decreasing competitiveness of B. utilis under more oceanic conditions in the eastern part of the mountain system. A comparison between the vegetation map of Schweinfurth (1957 and our current predictions suggests that B. utilis does not reach the upper elevational limit in

  18. Leaf N resorption efficiency and litter N mineralization rate have a genotypic tradeoff in a silver birch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J M H; Rousi, Matti

    2018-02-07

    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H 2  = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH 4 + yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Growth response of seedlings of six Betula pubescens Ehrh. provenances to six ozone exposure regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Science

    1998-07-01

    Seedlings of six provenances of Betula pubescens Ehrh. from different latitudes (59-70 deg N) were grown under six ozone exposure regimes by combining different concentrations and daily exposure periods. The different treatments at increasing O{sub 3} exposure over 40 nmol/mol (AOT40 given in parentheses) were: 19 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h day{sup -1} (0.1 {mu}mol/mol-h), 42 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h day{sup -1} (2.5 {mu}mol/mol-h), 44 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h day{sup -1} (7.1 {mu}mol/mol-h), 76 nmol mol{sup -1}/6 day{sup -1} (9.4 {mu}mol/mol-h), 75 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h day{sup -1} (17.8 {mu}mol/mol{sup -1}) and 116 nmol mol{sup -1}/6 h day{sup -1} (19.8 {mu}mol/mol{sup -1}) for 40 days at a 24 h day{sup -1} photoperiod in growth chambers placed in a greenhouse. The effect of increasing the O{sub 3} exposure from 19 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h to 42 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h was a decrease in root but not shoot dry weight. A further increase in the exposure to 44 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h also decreased the shoot dry weight. An increase in the O{sub 3} concentration to 75 and 116 nmol mol{sup -1} further decreased shoot and root dry weights. A moderate O{sub 3} exposure (42 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h) increased the plant height and leaf size, while a further increase in O{sub 3} concentration and exposure time decreased both of these variables. The birch provenances generally had a similar response to the O{sub 3} treatments. The accumulated O{sub 3} exposure over the 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nmol mol{sup -1} concentrations (AOT0, AOT10, AOT20, AOT30, AOT40 and AOT50, respectively) was calculated for all O{sub 3} treatments. The shoot and root dry weights were correlated best with AOT40 and AOT30, and were estimated to decrease by 10% at an AOT40 of 7.0 and 5.5 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}-h, respectively. The development of O{sub 3} injury (yellow stipples/chlorosis) was most marked when correlated with AOT40 26 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  20. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  1. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Khinchi, M.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  2. Neotropical lowland forests along environmental gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotropical lowlands feature an extraordinary display of vegetation types. This is especially the case for Bolivia where three biogeographical regions, Amazonian, Brazilian-Paranaense and Gran Chaco meet in the lowland areas, providing thus an ideal setting to study vegetation-environment

  3. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  4. Genetic and environmental variation in rust frequency on mature mountain birch trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elamo, Pirjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, Seppo [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology) and (Kevo Subarctic Research Inst., Turku (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental variation in the frequency of birch rust, the most important leaf disease of birch species, The same half-sib families of mature mountain birch trees were studied in two areas corresponding to their natural growing habitats over 3 yrs. The frequency of birch rust was examined both in the field and from detached leaves inoculated in the laboratory. The frequency of birch rust varied among the mountain birch families. However, the heritability of birch rust resistance was found to be fairly low, with the heritability of naturally occurring birch rust varying between 0.27 and 0.41. The frequency of birch rust varied highly between the two study areas and among study years. Nevertheless, the relative frequency of birch rust among tree individuals and tree families remained similar and as a result no notable genotype x environment interaction was observed. The field and in vitro results differed with respect to the ranking of birch families by birch rust resistance.

  5. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for character-marked cabinets from Alaska birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geof Donovan; David. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Alaska birch lumber has a higher occurrence of defects (knots, bark pockets, flecks, spalting, etc.) when compared to competing hardwoods. These defects are a disadvantage when birch lumber is graded under standard National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) grading rules. This paper examines whether defects and other character markings found in birch lumber may be an...

  6. Recycling of wood- and peat-ash. A successful way to establish full plant cover and dense birch stand on a cut-away peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huotari, N.

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical harvesting of peat changes the original mire ecosystem completely, and without active measures these areas may remain non-vegetated even for decades. Afforestation is one of the most popular after-use options for cut-away peatlands in Finland since it has both economic and aesthetic values. Recycling of wood-ash as a fertilizer has been studied extensively in peatlands drained for forestry. Wood-ash is reported to promote tree growth in these areas without any significant negative impact to the environment and could, therefore, be a suitable option also on cut-away peatlands. However, the environmental effects of ash-fertilization on cut-away areas and on ground vegetation are not fully understood. The impact of wood- and peat-ash application on the early establishment of ground vegetation and downy birch (Betula pubescens) seedlings and on post-fertilization element concentrations in plants and peat substrate were studied in a cut-away peatland. Six treatments of wood-ash, peat-ash, biotite or Forest PK-fertilizer were replicated in three blocks in different mixtures and quantities corresponding to 50 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. All the fertilizers accelerated the revegetation of the bare peat surface significantly, whereas the establishment of plants in the unfertilized area was non-existent even several years after the peat harvesting had ceased. The most striking difference between the wood- and peat-ash-fertilizers and the commercial Forest PK-fertilizer was the extensive coverage of fire-loving moss species in all the areas where ash was spread. Wood- and peat-ash application also accelerated the germination and early establishment of downy birch seedlings more efficiently than the PK-fertilizer. Ground vegetation proved to be highly important in increasing the early biomass production and carbon sequestration on ash-fertilized cut-away peatland. In addition, the below-ground biomass was equal to the above-ground biomass, or even greater. Both wood- and

  7. Occurrence, Biology and Harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Rhynchitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, was studied the occurrence, biology and harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Rhynchitidae on forest woody plants in the Brno region. Leaf rolls were found on 13 species (and 10 genera of woody plants. Most frequently, they occurred on Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp. (namely on T. cordata, Salix caprea and Populus tremula. The beetles hibernate in ground pupal chambers and appear on woody plants in the last decade of April. After hibernation, females live on average seven (males five weeks, and damage on average 40 (males 25 cm2 of leaves. The females create leaf rolls on annual shoots they have gnawed, exceptionally (in 2% on leaves with damaged petioles. In the rolls on F. sylvatica, they roll on average 5.6 leaves whose total average area is 49.5 cm2 and lay on average 5.1 eggs. In the rolls on Tilia spp., they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 63.2 cm2 and lay on average 4.9 eggs. In the rolls on S. caprea, they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 38.3 cm2 and lay on average 3.5 eggs. The maximum number of laid eggs (on average 8.0 was observed in the leaf rolls on Vitis vinifera. The average number of eggs in the leaf rolls was decreasing from May to July. The number of eggs was increasing with the increasing total leaf area rolled. The females lay on average 50 eggs. On P. tremula, S. caprea and Pyrus pyraster they create about 15 leaf rolls, on F. sylvatica and Tilia spp. about 10 leaf rolls and on V. vinifera ca. 8 leaf rolls. Embryogenesis lasts from 8 to 9 days. Larvae develop over 3 instars and damage ca. 300 mm2 of leaves. Coming of age within 4−7 weeks, they leave the leaf rolls from mid-June to the beginning of September.

  8. Using traditional ecological knowledge as a basis for targeted forest inventory: paper birch (Betula papyrifera) in the US Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla R. Emery; Alexandra Wrobel; Mark H. Hansen; Michael Dockry; W. Keith Moser; Kekek Jason Stark; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been proposed as a basis for enhanced understanding of ecological systems and their management. TEK also can contribute to targeted inventories of resources not included in standard mensuration. We discuss the results of a cooperative effort between the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) and USDA Forest...

  9. Biodegradation of PAHs in long-term contaminated soil cultivated with european white birch (betula pendula) and red mulberry (morus rubra) tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Jan; Wiesche in der, C.; Macková, M.; Zadražil, F.; Macek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2009), s. 66-81 ISSN 1522-6514 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06156 Program:2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * Lolium perenne * HPLC * plants Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2009

  10. Effect of log soaking and the temperature of peeling on the properties of rotary-cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer bonded with phenol-formaldehyde adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Akio Yamamoto; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes; Jaan Kers

    2016-01-01

    Heating logs prior to peeling positively affects the surface properties of veneer as well as the wood-adhesive bond strength. However, the mechanism behind this increase in strength is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to separate the influence of soaking temperature and peeling temperature on the physical surface properties and bonding quality....

  11. Cardiovascular evaluation of lowland gorillas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, R.E.; Mezei, L.E.; Muhlbauer, M.C.; Weber, M.

    1998-01-01

    To design a diagnostic protocol that uses appropriate techniques, including ultrasonography, to assess cardiovascular health and detect primary cardiac diseases in gorillas and to establish a database of reference values for cardiac measurements in clinically normal gorillas. Prospective study. 5 adult male lowland gorillas from 11 to 18 years old. A complete cardiac evaluation was performed on anesthetized gorillas, including physical examination, thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, echocardiography, blood pressure determination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and serologic assay for viral diseases. Standard cardiac measurements were made from images collected during ultrasonography. Cardiac measurements derived from ultrasonographic images were consistent with those considered normal in human beings. Results of other diagnostic tests were also considered normal. Cardiac disease is the primary cause of mortality in old captive gorillas. The technique used here provided excellent evaluation of cardiac function. Use of these techniques will allow early detection of cardiac disease, making treatment or medical management possible

  12. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1977-01-01

    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  13. Internasional Symposium On Lowland Technology (ISLT 2012) SUbstainability of Lowlands to Climated Change and Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Lawalenna

    2011-01-01

    ???Lowland??? denotes regions of low elevation, which are particularly vulnerable to climatic and environmental changes. For example, global warming, which appears to be causing a rise in sea level, must ultimately affect the safety of coastal dikes and other coastal infrastructures, as well as threaten the water and ecological systems in lowland areas. Lowland regions are also particularly susceptible to natural disasters. Action is now required for the development of new tech...

  14. Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine-treeline ecotone, central Greater Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M Hughes; Daniel M. Johnson; Maia Akhalkatsi; Otar Abdaladze

    2009-01-01

    Seedling establishment is an important factor dictating the altitudinal limits of treeline species. Factors that affect seedling mortality and survival, however, have yet to be fully characterized, especially for deciduous treeline species. Here we describe microsite characteristics of successfully established Betula litwinowii seedlings at the...

  15. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  16. CO2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula paperifera Mash seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species’ potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26oC and 37oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37oC was higher than that at 26oC under elevated CO2. Stomatal conductance (gs was lower at 37oC than at 26oC, while transpiration rate (E was higher at 37oC than that at 26oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE at both 26oC and 37oC, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37oC under elevated CO2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax, PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax and triose phosphate utilization (TPU varied with CO2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm’, total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc were higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT. The data suggest that the CO2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  17. Postcolonial Hybrids in The Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into Jhumpa Lahiri’s 2013 novel, The Lowland, to analyze the diasporic experience of the Indian-born characters. Homi Bhabha’s postcolonial approach is utilized to demonstrate the ways in which the characters perceive the immigration experience, and to unravel the causes of their despair, the disintegration of their family, and the underlying reasons behind the decisions that they make to compensate for their marginal status in the adopted land. It is attempted to shed light on the characters’ insecurities and mental challenges brought forth by their ‘liminal’ condition, in which they find themselves caught in a dilemma between the Indian lifestyle on the one hand, and the American dominant culture, on the other. Furthermore, ‘hybridity’ is discussed, which entails the characters’ partial adoption of the foreign culture that gives birth to mixed identities in the ‘third space.’ This research concludes that in spite of the disturbing aspects of diasporic life including uncertainty, marginality, and unbelonging over which the characters possess no control, they are capable of surviving and even flourishing in the foreign social milieu. Keywords: Adopted Land; Diaspora; Liminality; Hybridity; Third Space

  18. Sources of variation in concentrations of nickel and copper in mountain birch foliage near a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia: results of long-term monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of nickel and copper, two principal metal pollutants of the 'Severonikel' smelter at Monchegorsk, NW Russia, were measured in unwashed leaves of mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, collected in eight study sites along the pollution gradient during 1991-2003. In spite of significant decline in metal emissions, concentrations of foliar metals in most of the study sites did not decrease, indicating that soil contamination remains extremely high. Multiyear mean values peaked at 6.6 km S of the smelter, where they were 20-25 times higher than in the most distant study site. Concentrations of both metals demonstrated pronounced annual variation, which was explained by the meteorological conditions of early summer: higher precipitation in May increased foliar concentrations of both metals, whereas higher precipitation in June resulted in lower foliar concentrations of nickel. These data suggest that ecotoxicological situation in metal-contaminated areas can be modified by the expected climate change. In heavily polluted sites individual birch trees generally retained their ranks in terms of metal contamination during 1995-2003, demonstrating that the use of the same set of trees can significantly increase the accuracy of the monitoring data. - Foliar concentrations of nickel and copper did not reflect emission decline during 1991-2003; annual variation was explained by weather conditions

  19. Birch veneer and plywood demand: projected needs of the industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark E. McDonald

    1969-01-01

    Production of hardwood plywood in the United States has increased steadily from 1955 to 1967 - almost doubling during this period (table 1). The peak year for shipments of hardwood plywood was 1965, for all species (1,668,313,000 square feet surface measure) and also for birch ( 600,72 3,000 square feet surface measure). The U.S. Bureau of Census figures are not...

  20. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  1. Top-down and bottom-up characterization of nitrated birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a with CZE hyphenated to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusenkov, Sergey; Stutz, Hanno

    2018-02-01

    Tyrosine (Tyr) residues of the major pollen allergen of birch Betula verrucosa, Bet v 1a, were nitrated by peroxynitrite. This modification enhances the allergenicity. Modified tyrosines were identified by analyzing intact allergen variants in combination with top-down and bottom-up approaches. Therefore, a laboratory-built sheath-liquid assisted ESI interface was applied for hyphenation of CE to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer to localize individual nitration sites. The major focus was on identification of primary nitration sites. The top-down approach unambiguously identified Tyr 5 as the most prominent modification site. Fragments from the allergen core and the C-terminal part carried up to three potential nitration sites, respectively. Thus, a bottom-up approach with tryptic digest was used as a complementary strategy which allowed for the unambiguous localization of nitration sites within the respective peptides. Nitration propensity for individual Tyr residues was addressed by comparison of MS signals of nitrated peptides relative to all cognates of homolog primary sequence. Combined data identified surface exposed Tyr 5 and Tyr 66 as major nitration sites followed by less accessible Tyr 158 whereas Tyr 81, 83 and 150 possess a lower nitration tendency and are apparently modified in variants with higher nitration levels. © 2018 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Solvent Effect on Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Betula alba and Convolvulus arvensi

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azman A. Nurul; Husni Shafik; Almajano P. Maria; Gallego G. Maria

    2013-01-01

    The potential of using herbal Betula alba (BA) and Convolvulus arvensis (CA) as a natural antioxidant for food applications were investigated. Each plant extract was prepared by using pure ethanol, different concentration of ethanol aqueous solutions, including 50% and 75%, 50% methanol aqueous and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, trolox equivalent antioxida...

  3. Daily home measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children during natural birch pollen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    the feasibility, repeatability, accuracy, sensitivity, and biologic plausibility of new handheld equipment for FENO measurements. We studied day-to-day home measurements of FENO during the birch pollen season in children with allergy to birch pollen and a history of mild asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during...... this season, as well as in nonatopic children. METHODS: Eleven children with mild asthma and allergy to birch pollen, performed daily home measurements of FENO for 6 weeks before and during the birch pollen season by using a handheld FENO monitor (NIOX MINO). Additionally, FENO (chemiluminescence equipment...... of FENO to a wider group of asthma clinics and even home measurements....

  4. Preliminary study on early growth traits of betula platyphylla seeds carried by space satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Haijiao; Li Kailong; Liu Guifeng; Li Zhixin; Teng Wenhua; Jiang Jing

    2010-01-01

    Dry seeds of Betula platyphylla were carried by return satellite for space mutagenesis. Growth characteristics of two-year-old and five-year-old Betula platyphylla trees were analyzed among 4 families (HT98-1, HT98-2, HT98-3 and HT98-4) after space mutagensis. The results showed that the height of two-year-old seedlings from space induced mutant lines HT98-1, HT98-2 and HT98-4 was significant difference with their ground control. Among these families except for family HT98-4, the others were significantly higher than their ground control; there was a significant difference at 0.01 level on five-year-old height between HT98-1 and HT98-4 and their ground control. According to x-bar + S as standard, 64 superior individuals from 2 families were selected out,their average height of which was higher than the average of 14.84% of control, their diameter of breast height (DBH) was 27.90% higher than their control,their volume was 64.27% higher than their control. These superior mutants of Betula platyphylla lay the basis for future space induction breeding. (authors)

  5. Microbial Diversity of Betula Trees: Pollen, Catkins, Leaves Relatively of Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Shevtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative microbiological analysis by dilution plating method of pollen and additional male and female catkins, leaves of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and its two cultivars: ‘Purpurea’ and ‘Youngii’ relatively of flowering period of Betula has been realized with the aim to provide new knowledge of the microbiological quality of anemophilous pollen for processing and its further application. Qualitative microbiological analysis with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was used in the identification of aerobic, anaerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliforms. Mixed microbiota was determined, consisting of aerobic (4.68–4.89 log cfu/g and anaerobic (3.30–3.48 log cfu/g mesophilic bacteria, lactobacilli (0–3.48 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0–4.57 log cfu/g, fungi and yeast (3.78–3.95 log cfu/g on the pollen grains, that indicates acceptable quality in comparison with the microbiological quality parameters for bee pollen. Pantoea agglomerans was found associated with pollen of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. Recommendations on the collection of anemophilous pollen were established.

  6. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  7. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...

  8. Differential response of Aspen and Birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Thomas D. Sharkey; Carlo Calfapietra; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO...

  9. Impact of urbanization of the proteome of birch pollen and its chemotactic activity on human granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryce, M.; Drews, O.; Schenk, M.F.; Menzel, A.; Estrella, N.; Weichenmeier, I.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Buters, J.; Ring, J.; Gorg, A.; Behrendt, H.; Traidl-Hoffmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was

  10. Fertilization increases diameter growth of birch-beech-maple trees in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. O. Safford

    1973-01-01

    In a 60-year-old northern hardwood stand treated with lime plus NPK fertilizer, the following increases in average basal area growth rate over untreated trees were observed: sugar maple 128 percent, paper birch 69 percent, yellow birch 51 percent, and beech 20 percent. Magnitude of response was inversely related to relative growth rate of the species. Growth rate...

  11. Selective suppression of antibody production with the aid of radiolabelled birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipp, G.; Biro, G.; Hartung, W.D.; Lehmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi 125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi 125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)

  12. Altered growth and fine root chemistry of Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum under elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W. F. J.; Kopper, B. J.; Lindroth, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on fine root chemical composition of two tree species common to northern hardwood forests was investigated. Results showed no change in the root/shoot ratios and fine root percentages in either birch or maple samples as a result of enriched carbon dioxide. Tissue nitrogen concentrations decreased in the fine roots, and consequently, carbon/nitrogen ratios increased with elevated carbon dioxide. In birch only, condensed tannins increased with carbon dioxide enrichment; in maple, neither complex tannins nor hydrosable tannins appear to have been influenced by elevated carbon dioxide. It is suspected that the responses of the tree saplings to elevated carbon dioxide may be related to their successional status. 37 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Smolibowska Joanna; Szymański Marcin; Szymański Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharid...

  14. Petroleum possibilities of the James Bay Lowland area: Drilling in the James Bay Lowland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martison, N W

    1954-12-31

    Interest in the possible occurrence of petroleum and natural gas in the James Bay lowland arises from the presence there of Palaeozoic sedimentary formations resembling those in south-western Ontario. The first part of this report reviews earlier geologic surveys conducted in the lowland and reports results of field work and drill core studies 1946-51. It describes the area`s topography, climate, stratigraphy and palaeontology (Ordovician to Lower Cretaceous, plus Pleistocene and recent glacial deposits), structural geology, and evidence of petroleum. Lists of fossils and correlations are included. The appendices include a list of fossil locations and drill logs. The second part details the drilling programs carried out in the lowland by the Ontario Dept. of Mines, including detailed logs, as well as drilling carried out by some other organisations.

  15. Hardrock Elastic Physical Properties: Birch's Seismic Parameter Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Milkereit, B.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying rock composition and properties is imperative in a variety of fields including geotechnical engineering, mining, and petroleum exploration, in order to accurately make any petrophysical calculations. Density is, in particular, an important parameter that allows us to differentiate between lithologies and estimate or calculate other petrophysical properties. It is well established that compressional and shear wave velocities of common crystalline rocks increase with increasing densities (i.e. the Birch and Nafe-Drake relationships). Conventional empirical relations do not take into account S-wave velocity. Physical properties of Fe-oxides and massive sulfides, however, differ significantly from the empirical velocity-density relationships. Currently, acquiring in-situ density data is challenging and problematic, and therefore, developing an approximation for density based on seismic wave velocity and elastic moduli would be beneficial. With the goal of finding other possible or better relationships between density and the elastic moduli, a database of density, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio was compiled based on a multitude of lab samples. The database is comprised of isotropic, non-porous metamorphic rock. Multi-parameter cross plots of the various elastic parameters have been analyzed in order to find a suitable parameter combination that reduces high density outliers. As expected, the P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity ratios show no correlation with density. However, Birch's seismic parameter, along with the bulk modulus, shows promise in providing a link between observed compressional and shear wave velocities and rock densities, including massive sulfides and Fe-oxides.

  16. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  17. Correlation between the morphogenetic types of litter and their properties in bog birch forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, T. T.; Efremov, S. P.; Avrova, A. F.

    2010-08-01

    A formalized arrangement of morphogenetic types of litter according to the physicochemical parameters provided their significant grouping in three genetic associations. The litter group (highly decomposed + moderately decomposed) is confined to the tall-grass group of bog birch forests. The rhizomatous (roughly decomposed) litter is formed in the sedge-reed grass bog birch forests. The litter group (peaty + peatified + peat) is associated with the bog-herbaceous-moss group of forest types. The genetic associations of the litters (a) reliably characterize the edaphic conditions of bog birch forests and (b)correspond to formation of the peat of certain ecological groups. We found highly informative the acid-base parameters, the exchangeable cations (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and the total potential acidity, which differentiated the genetic associations of litter practically with 100% probability. The expediency of studying litters under groups of forest types rather than under separate types of bog birch forests was demonstrated.

  18. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  19. Vegetation of birch and aspen forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega State Nature Reserve (Russia is located in the Arkhangelsk region in the northern taiga subzone. Together with spruce forests and mires, birch forests represent one of the most wide-spread plant communities of its territory. Birch forests cover 24.6% of the Reserve's area. Aspen forests are rare plant communities in the Pinega Reserve. These forests cover only 0.9% of the whole Reserve's area. The birch and aspen forests vegetation has been classified based on 82 relevès. Eleven associations could be distinguished, which represent six groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa are provided including their biodiversity analysis. The analysis allowed establishing that the revealed syntaxa differ in relation to habitat environmental conditions: e.g., soil moisture, trophicity, nitrogen saturation and soil acidity. Sphagnum and blueberry birch forests proved to be the poorest in nitrogen, in contrast to the richest humidoherbaceous and broad-grassed groups of birch forest associations. Broad-grassed birch forests in the Pinega Reserve inhabit the most drained locations, while humidoherbaceous and Sphagnum forests occur in lesser drained locations.

  20. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolibowska Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharides, polyphenols or terpenes. These fungi are commonly found in Poland and may superbly compete with Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lentinula edodes (Shitake used in Asia for medicinal purposes.

  1. Detection of allergen composition and in vivo immunogenicity of depigmented allergoids of Betula alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnés, J; Himly, M; Gallego, M; Iraola, V; Robinson, D S; Fernández-Caldas, E; Briza, P

    2009-03-01

    Chemical modification of allergen vaccines to reduce IgE binding improves safety while maintaining clinical efficacy. However, this also complicates the characterization of allergoids using techniques as for native allergen extracts. The objective of this study was to analyse the molecular size of Betula alba depigmented allergoids, conservation of major allergens in the allergoids and in vivo antibody response to immunization. The molecular size of depigmented allergoids was evaluated by high performance-size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques. Protein composition was compared with native extracts by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based peptide mapping. Rabbits were immunized with depigmented allergoid of Betula pollen adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide (Depigoid). IgG antibodies against individual allergens were determined by ELISA and immunoblot. Depigmented allergoids contained a range of high molecular weight particles, approximately 60% of which had a molecular weight of 1-3 MDa. Peptide sequencing confirmed the preservation of five isoforms of Bet v 1, as well as Bet v 2, Bet v 6 and Bet v 7. Sera from immunized rabbits showed high levels of specific IgG to rBet v 1.0101 and rBet v 2. The mean protein content was 544+/-106 microg per mg of freeze-dried material for depigmented allergoids and 434+/-71 for native extracts. They retain the capacity to induce specific IgG antibodies against individual allergens present in the native extract. These findings confirm the immunogenicity of depigmented allergoids and may explain why patients treated with these vaccines are protected against the native allergens. Analysis of molecular size and allergen content may be useful techniques for characterization and standardization of allergoid products.

  2. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  3. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and

  4. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  5. Responses of human birch pollen allergen-reactive T cells to chemically modified allergens (allergoids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, D; Ebner, C; Jarman, E R; Montermann, E; Kraft, D; Reske-Kunz, A B

    1998-11-01

    Allergoids are widely used in specific immunotherapy for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a modification of birch pollen allergens with formaldehyde affects the availability of T-cell epitopes. Efficient modification of the allergens was verified by determining IgE and IgG binding activity using ELISA inhibition tests. T-cell responses to birch pollen allergoids were analysed in polyclonal systems, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of five birch pollen-allergic individuals, as well as birch pollen extract-reactive T-cell lines (TCL), established from the peripheral blood of 14 birch pollen-allergic donors. To determine whether the modification of natural (n)Bet v 1 with formaldehyde or maleic anhydride results in epitope-specific changes in T-cell reactivities, 22 Bet v 1-specific T-cell clones (TCC), established from nine additional birch pollen-allergic individuals, were tested for their reactivity with these products. The majority of PBMC and TCL showed a reduced response to the birch pollen extract allergoid. Bet v 1-specific TCC could be divided into allergoid-reactive and -non-reactive TCC. No simple correlation between possible modification sites of formaldehyde in the respective T-cell epitopes and the stimulatory potential of the allergoid was observed. Mechanisms of suppression or of anergy induction were excluded as an explanation for the non-reactivity of representative TCC. All TCC could be stimulated by maleylated and unmodified nBet v 1 to a similar extent. These results demonstrate differences in the availability of T-cell epitopes between allergoids and unmodified allergens, which are most likely due to structural changes within the allergen molecule.

  6. A Stochastic Water Balance Framework for Lowland Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; MacVean, Lissa; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-11-01

    The water balance dynamics in lowland watersheds are influenced not only by local hydroclimatic controls on energy and water availability, but also by imports of water from the upstream watershed. These imports result in a stochastic extent of inundation in lowland watersheds that is determined by the local flood regime, watershed topography, and the rate of loss processes such as drainage and evaporation. Thus, lowland watershed water balances depend on two stochastic processes—rainfall and local inundation dynamics. Lowlands are high productivity environments that are disproportionately associated with urbanization, high productivity agriculture, biodiversity, and flood risk. Consequently, they are being rapidly altered by human development—generally with clear economic and social motivation—but also with significant trade-offs in ecosystem services provision, directly related to changes in the components and variability of the lowland water balance. We present a stochastic framework to assess the lowland water balance and its sensitivity to two common human interventions—replacement of native vegetation with alternative land uses, and construction of local flood protection levees. By providing analytical solutions for the mean and PDF of the water balance components, the proposed framework provides a mechanism to connect human interventions to hydrologic outcomes, and, in conjunction with ecosystem service production estimates, to evaluate trade-offs associated with lowland watershed development.

  7. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  8. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  9. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. ► Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. ► Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  10. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T., E-mail: darbah@ohio.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Sharkey, Thomas D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO{sub 2} and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO{sub 2} protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO{sub 2} were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO{sub 2} confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  11. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO 2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO 2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO 2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO 2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO 2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO 2 . Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO 2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  12. Algological and Mycological Characterization of Soils under Pine and Birch Forests in the Pasvik Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneikova, M. V.; Redkina, V. V.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of algological and mycological complexes in Al-Fe-humus podzols (Albic Podzols) under pine and birch forests of the Pasvik Reserve is characterized. The number of micromycetes is higher in more acid soils of the pine forest, while the species diversity is greater under the birch forest. The genus Penicillium includes the largest number of species. The greatest abundance and occurrence frequency are typical for Penicillium spinulosum, P. glabrum, and Trichoderma viride in pine forest and for Umbelopsis isabellina, Mucor sp., Mortierella alpina, P. glabrum, Aspergillus ustus, Trichoderma viride, and T. koningii in birch forest. Cyanobacteria-algal cenoses of the investigated soils are predominated by green algae. Soils under birch forest are distinguished by a greater diversity of algal groups due to the presence of diatoms and xanthophytes. Species of frequent occurrence are represented by Pseudococcomyxa simplex and Parietochloris alveolaris in soils of the pine forest and by Tetracystis cf. aplanospora, Halochlorella rubescens, Pseudococcomyxa simplex, Fottea stichococcoides, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Hantzschia amphioxys, Microcoleus vaginatus, and Aphanocapsa sp. in soils under birch forest

  13. Metabolism of [ 14 C]GA 19 and [ 14 C]GA 53 by ecotypes of Betula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing with this line of research, we studied the metabolism of 14C-labelled GA19 and GA53. [14C]GA19 and [14C] A53 were applied to the apices of the northern ecotype (67º N) and to the leaves of the southern ecotype (64º N) of Betula pendula Roth. under different photoperiods and at different times in order to ...

  14. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Victoria; Navazas, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Gil, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Beatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R.; Sanchez, Jesus; Isabel Pelaez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica. The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales, Burkholderiales, and Pseudomonad...

  15. Bacterial and enchytraeid abundance accelerate soil carbon turnover along a lowland vegetation gradient in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Petersen, D.G.; McGuire, A.D.; Briones, M.J.I.; Churchill, A.C.; Doctor, D.H.; Pruett, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Boreal wetlands are characterized by a mosaic of plant communities, including forests, shrublands, grasslands, and fens, which are structured largely by changes in topography and water table position. The soil associated with these plant communities contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient availability that drive changes in biogeochemical cycling rates. Therefore different boreal plant communities likely contain different soil biotic communities which in turn affect rates of organic matter decomposition. We examined relationships between plant communities, microbial communities, enchytraeids, and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a shallow topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that as soil moisture increases along the gradient, surface soils would become increasingly dominated by bacteria and mesofauna and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized bomb radiocarbon techniques to infer rates of C turnover and the 13C isotopic composition of SOM and respired CO2 to infer the degree of soil humification. Soil phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities were generally higher in the rich fen compared with the forest and bog birch sites. Results indicated greater C fluxes and more rapid C turnover in the surface soils of the fen sites compared to the wetland forest and shrub sites. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraeid counts, indicated that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had higher abundances of these microbial and mesofaunal groups. Fungal abundance was highly variable and not significantly different among sites. Microbial data was utilized in a food web model that confirmed that rapidly cycling systems are dominated by bacterial activity and enchytraeid grazing. However, our results also suggest that oxidative enzymes play an important role in the C mineralization process in

  16. Habitats of 0+ fry in an English lowland river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duncan, A.; Kubečka, Jan; Kett, S.; Hanna, N.; Skeldon, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-4 (2001), s. 153-171 ISSN 0945-3784 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : 0+ fish communities * lowland river * connected backwater Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  17. Yield constraint analysis of rainfed lowland rice in Souteast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Fertilizer application, field hydrology, plant nutrient uptake, toposequence, weed control, yield loss. Rainfed lowland rice yields are low and unstable due to uncertain water supply, low soil fertility, and pest infestation. To design management interventions aimed at increasing

  18. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed...

  19. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800–950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period. PMID:25902508

  20. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A; Eglinton, Timothy I; Curtis, Jason H

    2015-05-05

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800-950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period.

  1. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  2. Spatial variation of vessel grouping in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Vessel grouping in angiosperms may improve hydraulic integration and increase the spread of cavitations through redundancy pathways. Although disputed, it is increasingly attracting research interest as a potentially significant hydraulic trait. However, the variation of vessel grouping in a tree is poorly understood. I measured the number of solitary and grouped vessels in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth. from the pith to the bark along the water flow path. The vessel grouping parameters included the mean number of vessels per vessel group (VG), percentage of solitary vessels (SVP), percentage of radial multiple vessels (MVP), and percentage of cluster vessels (CVP). The effects of cambial age (CA) and flow path-length (PL) on the vessel grouping were analyzed using a linear mixed model.VG and CVP increased nonlinearly, SVP decreased nonlinearly with PL. In trunks and branches, VG and CVP decreased nonlinearly, and SVP increased nonlinearly with CA. In roots, the parameters had no change with CA. MVP was almost constant with PL or CA. The results suggest that vessel grouping has a nonrandom variation pattern, which is affected deeply by cambial age and water flow path.

  3. Vertical distribution and temperature relations of sheathing mycorrhizas of Betula spp. growing on coal spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingleby, K.; Last, F.T.; Mason, P.A.

    1985-10-01

    Naturally-occurring fine roots (<2 mm dia.) of Betula spp. were sampled to a depth of 30 cm at seven locations on each of two transects across a heap of coal spoil in parts subject to after-burn. In the top 20 cm of substrate, 87% of the root pieces occurred. Irrespective of depth, sheathing mycorrhizas were found on 83% of the roof pieces. While the percentages of Paxillus-type mycorrhizas decreased with soil depth, those of a Scleroderma-type significantly increased. Total numbers of mycorrhizas counted at the end-of-season were independent of substrate temperatures. However, numbers of Paxillus-type mycorrhizas were inversely related to both annual mean and spring substrate temperatures, whereas those of the Scleroderma- type were directly related. Vegetative cultures of Scleroderma citrinum grew on an agar medium at 30 C, whereas those of Paxillus involutus did not; at lower temperatures the two fungi responded similarly to temperature changes. The evidence suggests that the observed patterns of mycorrhizal development reflect the changing competitive abilities of Scleroderma and Paxillus and/or host influences at different temperatures in the range 8-16 C.

  4. Growth and nutrient efficiency of Betula alnoides clones in response to phosphorus supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As phosphorus deficiency limits the productivity of many plantation forests in Asia, there is considerable interest in developing phosphorus-efficient clones for the region through targeted breeding programs. Therefore, we determined growth, nutrient concentrations and nutrient absorption and utility efficiencies of four Betula alnoides clones (C5, C6, 1-202 and BY1 in response to six phosphorus levels of 0, 17, 52, 70, 140 and 209 mg P plant-1 coded as P1 to P6, respectively. Maximum growth occurred in the P4, P5 and P6 plants since they had the largest height, biomass, leaf area and branch number. Phosphorus application increased the phosphorus concentrations of all clones. Nutrient loading was achieved with the P6 treatment because growth and biomass were not significantly higher, but root, stem and leaf phosphorus concentrations were approximately twice those of P4 plants. Clone BY1 had the highest phosphorus-efficiency, and is recommended for field application due to its maximum root collar diameter, biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, nutrient absorption and utility efficiency among the four clones. The findings will help to improve the nutrient efficiency of this species in plantation forestry in Asia.

  5. Speciation analysis of aluminium in plant parts of Betula pendula and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    The research presents the first results of aluminium speciation analysis in aqueous extracts of individual plant parts of Betula pendula and soil samples, using High Performance Ion Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPIC-DAD). The applied method allowed us to carry out a full speciation analysis of aluminium in the form of predominant aluminium-fluoride complexes: AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) (first analytical signal), AlF 2+ (second analytical signal) and Al 3+ (third analytical signal) in samples of lateral roots, tap roots, twigs, stem, leaf and soil collected under roots of B. pendula. Concentrations of aluminium and its complexes were determined for two types of environment characterised by different degree of human impact: contaminated site of the Chemical Plant in Luboń and protected area of the Wielkopolski National Park. For all the analysed samples of B. pendula and soil, AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) had the largest contribution, followed by Al 3+ and AlF 2+ . Significant differences in concentration and contribution of Al-F complexes and Al 3+ form, depending on the place of sampling (different anthropogenic pressure) and plant part of B. pendula were observed. Based on the obtained results, it was found that transport of aluminium is "blocked" by lateral roots, and is closely related to Al content of soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

    2005-05-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  8. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  9. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  10. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow birch. Eleven types of external...

  11. Growth Response of Seedling Yellow Birch to Humus-Soil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Robert R. Oberg

    1966-01-01

    Previous observations of the establishment of yellow birch have cited the importance of mixed humus-mineral soil seedbeds. Godman and Krefting pointed out that both germination and growth were enhanced. Subsequent studies have shown that while germination in the absence of competition is adequate on mineral soil of a Podzol A under a wide variety of light and...

  12. Delivery Systems for Birch-Bark Triterpenoids and Their Derivatives in Anticancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierina, Inese; Vilskersts, Reinis; Turks, Maris

    2018-05-29

    Birch-bark triterpenoids and their semi-synthetic derivatives possess a wide range of biological activities including cytotoxic effects on various tumour cell lines. However, due to the low solubility and bioavailability, their medicinal applications are rather limited. The use of various nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems is rapidly developing approach to the solubilisation of insufficiently bioavailable pharmaceuticals. Herein, the drug delivery systems deemed to be applicable for birch-bark triterpenoid structures are reviewed. The aforementioned disadvantages of birch-bark triterpenoids and their semi-synthetic derivatives can be overcome through their incorporation into organic nanoparticles, which include various dendrimeric systems, as well as embedding the active compounds into polymer matrices or complexation with carbohydrate nanoparticles without covalent bonding. Some of the known triterpenoid delivery systems consist of nanoparticles featuring inorganic cores covered with carbohydrates or other polymers. Methods for delivering the title compounds through encapsulation and emulsification into lipophilic media are also suitable. Besides, the birch-bark triterpenoids can form self-assembling systems with increased bio-availability. Even more, the self-assembling systems are used as carriers for delivering other chemotherapeutic agents. Another advantage besides increased bioavailability and anticancer activity is the reduced overall systemic toxicity in most of the cases, when triterpenoids are delivered with any of the carriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. MACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofiev, M.; Berger, U.; Prank, M.; Vira, J.; Arteta, J.; Belmonte, J.; Bergmann, K.C.; Chéroux, F.; Elbern, H.; Friese, E.; Galan, C.; Gehrig, R.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Kranenburg, R.; Kumar, U.; Marécal, V.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Pessi, A.M.; Robertson, L.; Ritenberga, O.; Rodinkova, V.; Saarto, A.; Segers, A.; Severova, E.; Sauliene, I.; Siljamo, P.; Steensen, B.M.; Teinemaa, E.; Thibaudon, M.; Peuch, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment in relation to birch pollen in Europe. The seven-model European ensemble of MACC-ENS, tested in trial simulations over the flowering season of 2010, was run through the flowering season of 2013. The simulations have been compared with

  14. Why linear Birch and U/sub s/-U/sub p/ expansions work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.

    1987-07-01

    The equivalence of the Birch-Murnoghan equation to a linear U/sub s/-U/sub p/ equation was illustrated in the previous paper. Here it is shown in a direct manner how the virial theorem boundary localization of valence electron kinetic energy changes lead to the convergence of the Eulerian strain expansion about the zero-pressure state

  15. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  16. The distribution of lignin in white birch wood as determined by bromination with TEM-EDXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, S.; Goring, D.A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorbance and bromine uptake were measured on various morphological regions of birch wood. To facilitate precise comparison, observations were made on identical locations in successive cross sections. From the data, the concentration of lignin and the ratio of the guaiacyl to syringyl residues were determined. The results obtained were then compared with the previous findings from the use of UV microscopy alone

  17. High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce and hardwood (birch, as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Betula pendula leaves extract and its effects on model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Skowyra, Monika; Muhammad, Kwestan; Gallego, María Gabriela; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The lipid deterioration in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) of lyophilized extract of BP stored in 80:20 (v/v) O 2 :CO 2 modified atmosphere (MAP) at 4 °C for 10 days was determined using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), % metmyoglobin and colour value. The BP methanol extract revealed the presence of catechin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin, and p-coumaric acid. The BP ethanol (50% w/w) extract showed scavenging activity in TEAC, ORAC and FRAP assays with values of 1.45, 2.81, 1.52 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, respectively. Reductions in lipid oxidation were found in samples treated with lyophilized BP extract (0.1% and 0.3% w/w) as manifested by the changes of colour and metmyoglobin concentration. A preliminary study film with BP showed retard degradation of lipid in muscle food. The present results indicated that the BP extracts can be used as natural food antioxidants.

  19. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  20. Branch Development of Five-Year-Old Betula alnoides Plantations in Response to Planting Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch development in the lower part of stem is critical to both early stem growth and wood quality of the most valuable section of tree, and its regulation through planting density has always been greatly concerned. Here the effect of planting density on branch development was examined in a five-year-old plantation of Betula alnoides with six planting densities (625, 833, 1111, 1250, 1667, and 2500 stems per hectare (sph in Guangdong Province, South China. Branch quantity (number, proportion, and density, morphology (diameter, length, and angle, position (height and orientation, and branch status (dead or alive were investigated for 54 dominant or co-dominant trees under six treatments of planting density after the growth of each tree was measured. Factors influencing branch development were also explored by mixed modelling. The results showed that the mean tree heights of 1250 and 1667 sph treatments were higher than those of other planting density treatments. The quantity of live branches decreased with increasing planting density. However, planting density had no significant effect on the number of all branches, and there existed no remarkable difference in branch number and proportion among four orientations. As for branch morphology, only the largest branch diameter had a significantly negative correlation with planting density. In addition, high planting density significantly increased the height of the largest branch within the crown. Mixed effects models indicated that branch diameter, length, and angle were closely correlated with each other, and they were all in positively significant correlation to the branch height at the stem section below six meters. It was concluded that properly increasing planting density will promote natural pruning, improve early branch control, and be beneficial for wood production from the most valuable section of the stem.

  1. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. DENTAL LESIONS IN THE LOWLAND TAPIR (TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjørnelund, Karen B; Jonsson, Lena M; Kortegaard, Hanne; Arnbjerg, Jens; Nielsen, Søren S; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-06-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually and radiographically examined. The specimens were divided into subpopulations according to age (juveniles, young adults, adults) and origin (free-range or captive). Dental lesions were identified in 24% (11/46) of the study population. The most common pathologic findings were complicated dental fractures with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions present frequent problems for lowland tapirs, occurring both in captive and in free-ranging individuals, and indicates that increasing age should be considered a risk factor for the development of these lesions. Notably, the predominant dental problems in lowland tapirs and Malayan tapirs are not the same.

  3. Rapid production of trees. [Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robus, Sorbus, Picea, and Abies spp. , Betula verrucose, Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarjorg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Seedlings of Acer platanoides approximately 2 m tall were produced in southern Norway in one year by seed stratification indoors. Similar results were obtained with Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robus and Sorbus spp. Trails were also carried out with Betula verrucose (B. pendula), Populus trichocarpa, Picea spp., Abies spp., and other conifers. In all trials growth was increased when plants were raised in a plastic house, and depended on the time that Spring growth was started or whether supplementary light was given and also depended on the seed strain. For northern and high altitude strains it was important to maintain critical day length.

  4. Grass pollen symptoms interfere with the recollection of birch pollen symptoms - a prospective study of suspected, asymptomatic skin sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K

    2007-01-01

    of seasonal allergic symptoms and prospective seasonal symptom registration among subjects with AS. METHODS: On the basis of a population survey, autumn 2002, including skin prick tests (positive if > or =3 mm) and a screening questionnaire, 87 subjects with AS to birch and/or grass pollen, birch and/or grass...... days. RESULTS: Eleven AS subjects (birch: n = 10) subsequently developed allergic symptoms, yet nine admitted, at follow up, to have had symptoms before inclusion, or even denied pollen-related symptoms despite a significant diary. Compared with AS subjects sensitized to grass pollen, AS subjects...

  5. Unravelling the distinct crystallinity and thermal properties of suberin compounds from Quercus suber and Betula pendula outer barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia F; Gandini, Alessandro; Caetano, Ana; Maria, Teresa M R; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of suberin (a naturally occurring aromatic-aliphatic polyester ubiquitous to the vegetable realm) as a renewable source of chemicals and, in particular, to assess their physical properties. A comparison between cork and birch suberin fragments obtained by conventional depolymerisation processes (hydrolysis or methanolysis) is provided, focusing essentially on their thermal and crystallinity properties. It was found that suberin fragments obtained by the hydrolysis depolymerisation of birch had a high degree of crystallinity, as indicated by their thermal analysis and corroborated by the corresponding XRD diffractions, as opposed to hydrolysis-depolymerised cork suberin counterparts, which were essentially amorphous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dental lesions in the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnelund, Karen B.; Jonsson, Lena M.; Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris ) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions...... of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually...... with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions...

  7. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    all Bolivian lowlands reaching 37,944,434 ha and leaves small forest patches in a few PAs. These deforestation scenarios are not meant to predict the future but to show how current and future decisions carried out by the neo-extractivist practices of MAS government could affect deforestation and carbon emission trends. In this perspective, recognizing land use systems as open and dynamic systems is a central challenge in designing efficient land use policies and managing a transition towards sustainable land use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-Ai; Song, Zhi-Jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost all Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. The prevalence of birch allergy among patients visiting health care during pollen season can be as high as 16.7% in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch allergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 as well as to the major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4. A relatively high number of patients (17.6%) are IgE-sensitized to birch pollen allergen(s) other than Bet v 1. The high prevalence of specific IgE to Mal d 1 and Gly m 4 among Bet v 1-sensitized patients indicates that pollen-food allergy syndrome could be of clinical relevance in China.

  9. Molecular Characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL Gene Family in Betula luminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yun Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a major family of plant-specific transcription factors, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL genes play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. In this study, 18 SPL genes were identified and cloned from Betula luminifera. Two zinc finger-like structures and a nuclear location signal (NLS segments were existed in the SBP domains of all BlSPLs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes were clustered into nine groups (group I-IX. The intron/exon structure and motif composition were highly conserved within the same group. 12 of the 18 BlSPLs were experimentally verified as the targets of miR156, and two cleavage sites were detected in these miR156-targeted BlSPL genes. Many putative cis-elements, associated with light, stresses and phytohormones response, were identified in the promoter regions of BlSPLs, suggesting that BlSPL genes are probably involved in important physiological processes and developmental events. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that miR156-targeted BlSPLs exhibited a more differential expression pattern, while most miR156-nontargeted BlSPLs tended to be constitutively expressed, suggesting the distinct roles of miR156-targeted and nontargeted BlSPLs in development and growth of B. luminifera. Further expression analysis revealed that miR156-targeted BlSPLs were dramatically up-regulated with age, whereas mature BlmiR156 level was apparently declined with age, indicating that miR156/SPL module plays important roles in vegetative phase change of B. luminifera. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that several miR156-targeted and nontargeted BlSPLs could interact with two DELLA proteins (BlRGA and BlRGL, which suggests that certain BlSPLs take part in the GA regulated processes through protein interaction with DELLA proteins. All these results provide an important basis for further exploring the biological functions of BlSPLs in B. luminifera.

  10. Effects of intensive harvesting on forest floor properties in Betula papyrifera stands in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.; Deering, K.W.; Titus, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates litter and organic matter production and related site ecology in nine medium to high quality Betula papyrifera stands in three locations in central Newfoundland on a variety of land form and drainage conditions. Three sites, Badger West (BW), Moose Pond (MP) and Middleton Lake (ML) were selected. The ML site has the highest quality (with the best height/age ratio, 18 m/60 yr, and height/DBH ratio, 18 m/30 cm), followed by MP and BW. Litter depth on well developed moders or mulls was usually 2 - 3 cm and varied from 1 - 15 cm. Forest floor depths (measured in 324 profiles) rarely reached 20 cm and was commonly 5 - 10 cm; it varied with position and site. Total and available nutrients indicate that B. papyrifera produces one of the highest-quality organic matter types of the local forest types and is important in improving site quality. The mean N-concentration in green foliage (2.21 %) and trapped litter (1.03 %) was highest at the best quality site ML, followed by MP and BW. The concentration of calcium, 0.85 %, was highest at the poorest quality site. Four years after harvesting, litter depth significantly decreased in all sites and treatments with the exception of the BW whole-tree harvest treatment. Total forest floor depth significantly decreased at all sites in the stem-only harvest treatment as well as the MP whole-tree harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available nitrogen following harvesting in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites. Change in available phosphorus was insignificant, with the exception of an increase in the MP stem-only harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available potassium at both the ML and BW whole-tree harvest treatments, but a significant increase in the stem-only harvest treatments at ML and MP. There was a significant decrease in available calcium in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites 34 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogenation efficiency Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  12. Tree competition and species coexistence in a Quercus--Betula forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-hua; Mi, Xiang-cheng; Liu, Can-ran; Ma, Ke-ping

    2006-09-01

    The population size structure, growth dynamics and mode of competition among adult trees (≥ 4 cm DBH) of six abundant tree species in a 5 ha study plot of a temperate deciduous forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China were investigated using diffusion and growth dynamics models. In the year of 2000, two dominant species, Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica accounted for ca. 68.69% of the total basal area and 52.71% of the total density of adult plants. Q. liaotungensis, Populus davidiana and Acer mono exhibited inverse J-shaped DBH distributions whereas Betula dahurica, B. platyphylla and Salix caprea had unimodal DBH distributions. One-sided interspecific competition was detected between some species combinations at the scale of the 5 ha study plot, and the competitive effect was mainly size-dependent rather than from species-specific interactions with large individuals in the canopy layer out competing smaller individuals in the understory. Symmetric competition was found between Q. liaotungensis and A. mono only. However, considering the straight line relationship of G ( t, x) - √{D(t, x)}, which suggests that competitive asymmetry is very low or absent, combined with the relatively low mortality of trees with a DBH larger than 4 cm, we speculate that asymmetric interspecific competition was not important in structuring this tree community. Regeneration characteristics of each species are most likely important in regulating species coexistence and stand dynamics in this forest.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing of canopy biodiversity in Hawaiian lowland rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly M. Carlson; Gregory P. Asner; R. Flint Hughes; Rebecca Ostertag; Roberta E. Martin

    2007-01-01

    Mapping biological diversity is a high priority for conservation research, management and policy development, but few studies have provided diversity data at high spatial resolution from remote sensing. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy to map woody vascular plant species richness in lowland tropical forest ecosystems in Hawaii. Hyperspectral signatures spanning...

  14. Sediment composition mediated land use effects on lowland streams ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Reis Oliveira, P.C.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van der Geest, H.G.; Naranjo, S.; Verdonschot, P.F.M

    2018-01-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged connection between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the contribution of runoff to the sediment composition in lowland stream deposition zones and the subsequent effects on benthic invertebrates remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was therefore to

  15. Geochemical and hydrodynamic phosphorus retention mechanisms in lowland catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, B.

    2017-01-01

    The release of phosphorus (P) to surface water from heavily fertilised agricultural fields is of major importance for surface water quality. The research reported in this thesis examined the role of geochemical and hydrodynamic processes controlling P speciation and transport in lowland catchments

  16. Effects of riparian vegetation development in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, A.; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Groot, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth in a lowland restored stream. Hydrological series, high-resolution bathymetric data and aerial photographs are combined in the study. The vegetation root system was found to assert a strong control on soil stabilization,

  17. Population dynamics of Rodents and Insectivores in lowland tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The community structure of rodents and insectivores in the lowland tropical rainforest of Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria was assessed using a combination of live-trapping and sighting techniques during the dry and wet seasons. Seventeen species (14 species of rodent, 3 species of insectivores) were captured, ...

  18. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  19. Soil microbial diversity patterns of a lowland spring environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadis, S.; Puglisi, E.; Arena, M.; Cappa, F.; Van Veen, J.A.; Cocconcelli, P.S.; Trevisan, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Po river plain lowland springs represent unique paradigms of managed environments. Their current locations used to be swamps that were drained 6–7 centuries ago, and they have been in constant use ever since. Our aims were to identify the effects of land use on the microbial communities of these

  20. agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of FHIA hybrids in lowlands of Rwanda. Completely ... L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer la performance agronomique de FHIA hybride ..... major Musa types present in Asia and the.

  1. Surgical extractions for periodontal disease in a Western Lowland gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, John F

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes surgical exraction of multiple premolar and molar teeth in a Western Lowland gorilla. Postoperative photographs and radiographs indicated complete healing of the extraction sites. This case report includes a review of gorilla dental anatomy, oral disease in primates, pathogenesis of periodontal disease, predisposing factors to periodontal disease, and principles of surgical tooth extraction.

  2. An Indian Federation in Lowland Ecuador. IWGIA Document 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ernesto

    Official involvement of the Ecuadorian government with colonization of the southern lowlands, lands traditionally belonging to the Shuar Indians, began in the early 60's when the CREA (Centro de Reconversion Economica del Azuay) was created to provide assistance to white settlers. Until that time, the Shuar lands had been dominated by the Salesian…

  3. Influence of Biomass Pretreatment Process Time on Furfural Extraction from Birch Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdausks, Prans; Puke, Maris; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Kruma, Irena

    2013-12-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis was used for hemicelluloses secession from birch wood. The reaction was investigated at different biomass treatment times (10-90 min, increasing it by 10 min). We found that the greatest amount of furfural 1.4-2.6%, which is 9.7-17.7% from theoretical possible yield, was formed in the first 30 min of the beginning of birch wood pentoses monosaccharide dehydration, but the greatest yield of furfural 10.3%, which is 70.0% from the theoretical yield, can be obtained after 90 min. Given that furfural yield generally does not exceed 50% from the theoretical amount, the result can be considered as very good.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  5. The Role of Conjoining (Tie) Channels in Lowland Floodplain Development and Lake Infilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Lepper, K.; Wilson, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    In simple models of lowland river systems, water and sediment enter the main stem via tributary and secondary channels and are only redistributed to the floodplain during overbank and crevasse splay events. Along numerous river systems across the globe, however, water and sediment are regularly exchanged between the river and off river water bodies via stable, narrow channels. These channels, known as tie channels on the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and batture channels along the lower Mississippi, are largely overlooked but important components of floodplain sediment dispersal where they exist. These channels become pathways of sediment dispersal to the floodplain system when elevated river stages force sediment-laden flows into the off-river water bodies. On the Fly River, it is estimated that about 50% of the sediment delivery to the floodplain is via these channels, and along low gradient tributary channels during flood driven flow reversals. During low flow, tie channels serve to drain the floodplain. With the outgoing flows, large amounts sediment can be carried and lost to the floodplain; floodplain lakes progressively infill with sediment as the mouth of these channels steadily prograde lakeward. These lake deposits not only become significant stratigraphic components of floodplains (traditionally referred to as clay plugs), but are important local sinks recording hundreds to thousands of years of river history. As with all sinks, the proper interpretation of these stratigraphic records requires understanding the processes by which sediment is delivered to the sink and how these processes alter the paleohydraulic and climatic signals of interest. We have conducted field investigations of conjoining channels in Papua New Guinea (the Fly and Strickland Rivers), Louisiana (Raccourci Old River ~ 65 km upriver of Baton Rouge) and Alaska (Birch Creek). These field investigations include extensive surveys of both cross and along channel morphological trends

  6. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  7. Why linear Birch and U/sub s/-U/sub p/ expansions work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.

    1987-11-01

    The equivalence of the Birch-Murnaghan equation to a linear U/sub s/-U/sub p/ equation was illustrated in the previous paper. Here we show in a direct manner how the virial theorem and the effect of core exclusion on valence electron kinetic energy changes lead to the convergence of the Eulerian strain expansion about the zero-pressure state. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Indirectional statistics and the significance of an asymmetry discovered by Birch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, D.G.; Young, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Birch (1982, Nature, 298, 451) reported an apparent 'statistical asymmetry of the Universe'. The authors here develop 'indirectional analysis' as a technique for investigating statistical effects of this kind and conclude that the reported effect (whatever may be its origin) is strongly supported by the observations. The estimated pole of the asymmetry is at RA 13h 30m, Dec. -37deg. The angular error in its estimation is unlikely to exceed 20-30deg. (author)

  9. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  11. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, S.; Huttunen, S.; Vanhatalo, M.; Pakonen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O 3 ) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O 3 , i.e. O 3 levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O 3 and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels. - Northern birches are responsive to ambient ozone levels.

  12. Contamination of pine and birch wood dust with microscopic fungi and determination of its sterol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rogoziński, Tomasz; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2017-06-27

    Wood compounds, especially sterols, are connected with the level of contamination with microscopic fungi. Within this study, tests were conducted on wood dust samples collected at various work stations in a pine and birch timber conversion plant. Their contamination with mycobiota was measured as the concentration of ergosterol (ERG) by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Another aim of this study was to assess the effect of contamination with microscopic fungi on the sterol contents in wood dusts. Analyses were conducted on five sterols: desmosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol using UPLC and their presence was confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results of chemical analyses showed the greatest contamination with mycobiota in birch wood dust. We also observed varied contents of individual sterols depending on the wood dust type. Their highest concentration was detected in birch dust. The discriminant analysis covering all tested compounds as predictors showed complete separation of all tested wood dust types. The greatest discriminatory power was found for stigmasterol, desmosterol, and ergosterol.

  13. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Victoria; Navazas, Alejandro; González-Gil, Ricardo; González, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Béatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R; Sánchez, Jesús; Peláez, Ana Isabel

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica 's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales , Burkholderiales , and Pseudomonadales , especially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera. A total of 54 cultivable rhizobacteria and 41 root endophytes, mainly affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria , were isolated and characterized with respect to several potentially useful features for metal plant accumulation, such as the ability to promote plant growth, metal chelation, and/or mitigation of heavy-metal stress. Seven bacterial isolates were further selected and tested for in vitro accumulation of arsenic in plants; four of them were finally assayed in field-scale bioaugmentation experiments. The exposure to arsenic in vitro caused an increase in the total nonprotein thiol compound content in roots, suggesting a detoxification mechanism through phytochelatin complexation. In the contaminated field, the siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid producers of the endophytic bacterial consortium enhanced arsenic accumulation in the leaves and roots of Betula celtiberica , whereas the rhizosphere isolate Ensifer adhaerens strain 91R mainly promoted plant growth. Field experimentation showed that additional factors, such as soil arsenic content and pH, influenced arsenic uptake in the plant, attesting to the relevance of field conditions in the success of phytoextraction strategies. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms and plants have developed several ways of dealing with arsenic, allowing them to resist and metabolize this metalloid. These properties form the basis of

  14. Reported symptoms to peanut between 4 and 8 years among children sensitized to peanut and birch pollen - results from the BAMSE birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnoj, A; Ostblom, E; Ahlstedt, S; Hedlin, G; Lilja, G; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2010-02-01

    Specific IgE tests are sometimes difficult to interpret due to structural similarities between certain food and pollen allergens. This may be the reason why concomitant sensitization to peanut and birch pollen is frequently seen. The aim of this study was to investigate reported symptoms to peanut- and birch pollen in relation to sensitization. The data originate from 1928 children in the BAMSE birth cohort. Background factors and clinical parameters were obtained and the levels of IgE antibodies to peanut and birch pollen measured at 4 and 8 years. IgE antibodies to peanut were found in 5.5% and 7.4% of the children at 4 and 8 years, respectively. The IgE antibody levels to peanut were higher in children sensitized to peanut but not birch than in children sensitized to peanut and birch among both 4- and 8-year-olds (P = 0.093 and P = 0.003, respectively). Eight-year-olds sensitized to peanut but not birch, more often reported symptoms to peanut than children sensitized to both peanut and birch pollen (76%vs 46%, P = 0.002). The probability of reported symptoms to peanut increased significantly with increasing IgE levels to peanut, especially in 8-year-olds not sensitized to birch. Children sensitized to both peanut and birch pollen are less likely to report symptoms to peanut than children sensitized to peanut but not to birch pollen at 8 years. This is likely due to cross reactions between birch pollen and peanut and can explain the high sensitization rate to peanut in areas where birch trees are common.

  15. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  16. Competitive success of southern populations of Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia under simulated southern climate experiment in the subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Saravesi, Karita; Jylänki, Tanja; Kainulainen, Aila; Pajala, Jonna; Markkola, Annamari; Suominen, Otso; Saikkonen, Kari

    2017-06-01

    Global warming has been commonly accepted to facilitate species' range shifts across latitudes. Cross-latitudinal transplantations support this; many tree species can well adapt to new geographical areas. However, these studies fail to capture species' adaptations to new light environment because the experiments were not designed to explicitly separate species' responses to light and temperature. Here we tested reaction norms of tree seedlings in reciprocal transplantations 1,000 km apart from each other at two latitudes (60°N and 69°N). In contrast to past studies, we exposed our experimental plants to same temperature in both sites (temperature of 60°N growing site is recorded to adjust temperature of 69°N site in real time via Internet connection) while light environment (photoperiod, light quality) remained ambient. Shoot elongation and autumn coloration were studied in seedlings of two deciduous trees ( Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia ), which were expected to respond differently to day length. Sorbus as a member of Rosaceae family was assumed to be indifferent to photoperiod, while Betula responds strongly to day length. We hypothesized that (1) southern and northern populations of both species perform differently; (2) southern populations perform better in both sites; (3) autumn phenology of southern populations may delay in the northern site; (4) and Sorbus aucuparia is less dependent on light environment. According to the hypotheses, shoot elongation of northern population was inherently low in both species. An evolutionary consequence of this may be a competitive success of southern populations under warming climate. Southern population of B. pendula was delayed in autumn coloration, but not in growth cessation. Sorbus aucuparia was less responsive to light environment. The results suggest that light provides selection pressure in range shifts, but the response is species dependent.

  17. The consequences of pleistocene climate change on lowland neotropical vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, P.E.; Colinvaux, P.A. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City (Panama))

    1994-06-01

    Palynological reconstructions indicate that lowland tropical America was subject to intense cooling during the last ice-age. The descent of presently montane taxa into the lowlands of Amazonia and Minas Gerais indicate temperature depressions ranging from 5[degrees]C to 9[degrees]C cooler-than-present. The strengthened incursion of southerly airmasses caused a reassortment of vegetation throughout Amazonia. Presently allopatric species are found to have been sympatric as novel forest assemblages and formed and dissolved. Modest drying, perhaps a 20% reduction in precipitation, accounts for all the records that show a Pleistocene expansion of savanna. No evidence is found to support the fragmentation of Amazonian forests during glacial times, and the hypothesis of forest refuges as an explanation of tropical speciation is rejected on empirical grounds.

  18. Flow controls on lowland river macrophytes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Paul; Dunbar, Michael; Whitehead, Paul

    2008-08-01

    We review the current status of knowledge regarding the role that flow parameters play in controlling the macrophyte communities of temperate lowland rivers. We consider both direct and indirect effects and the interaction with other factors known to control macrophyte communities. Knowledge gaps are identified and implications for the management of river systems considered. The main factors and processes controlling the status of macrophytes in lowland rivers are velocity (hence also discharge), light, substrate, competition, nutrient status and river management practices. We suggest that whilst the characteristics of any particular macrophyte community reflect the integral effects of a combination of the factors, fundamental importance can be attributed to the role of discharge and velocity in controlling instream macrophyte colonisation, establishment and persistence. Velocity and discharge also appear to control the relative influence of some of the other controlling factors. Despite the apparent importance of velocity in determining the status of macrophyte communities in lowland rivers, relatively little is understood about the nature of the processes controlling this relationship. Quantitative knowledge is particularly lacking. Consequently, the ability to predict macrophyte abundance and distribution in rivers is still limited. This is further complicated by the likely existence of feedback effects between the growth of macrophytes and velocity. Demand for water resources increases the pressure on lowland aquatic ecosystems. Despite growing recognition of the need to allocate water for the needs of instream biota, the inability to assess the flow requirements of macrophyte communities limits the scope to achieve this. This increases the likelihood of overexploitation of the water resource as other users, whose demands are quantifiable, are prioritised.

  19. A water storage adaptation in the maya lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, V L; Gallopin, G G

    1991-02-08

    Prehispanic water management in the Maya Lowlands emphasized collection and storage rather than the canalization and diversion accentuated in highland Mexico. Reexamination of site maps of the ancient Maya city of Tikal, Guatemala, has revealed an important, overlooked factor in Maya centralization and urban settlement organization. In a geographical zone affected by an extended dry season and away from permanent water sources, large, well-planned reservoirs provided resource control as well as political leverage.

  20. Land Resources in Lowland of Kosova and Their Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    , S. Bulliqi; , F. Isufi; , F. Humolli; , A. Stublla; , E. Stublla

    2012-01-01

    The land presents a specific natural-historical body, respectively the rake surface of the earth as a result of effects from joint pathogenesis factors (climate, water, vegetation, relief and time). The spreading and use of land in the territory of the Republic of Kosova is not equal, therefore a research for the use of land in the Lowland of Kosova is very important, especially urbanism because of the concentration of population and uncontrolled development of. The general surface of the lan...

  1. Adaptations of lowland jungle mosses to anthropogenic environments in Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Kuc, Marian

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen lowland jungle mosses growing in anthropogenic habitats at Santa and The Bell - Ituni localities on the Demerara River in Guyana were examined in detail with the aim of detecting any features which would indicate their adaptations to new habitats. Amounts of chlorophyll in leaf cells, protective coloration, alterations in leaf morphology, characteristics of old stems, rhizoid tomentum and fertility are considered as the most pronounced adaptive features of these species to new localit...

  2. Ecological and distributional notes on hummingbirds from Bolivian lowland forests

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamczyk, S; Kessler, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution, ecology and behaviour of hummingbirds in the Andean foothills of Bolivia, where many lowland hummingbird species reach their south-western distributional limits. In November 2007 – October 2008, we surveyed hummingbirds at six sites along a 660-km transect, from tropical Amazonian humid forest to subtropical spiny forest of the Gran Chaco. In total, we found 21 hummingbird species. For ten of these, we provide new information on latitudinal and eleva...

  3. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Passos Cordeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of species distribution models (SDMs can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19% of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  4. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Jose Luis Passos; Fragoso, José M V; Crawshaw, Danielle; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2016-01-01

    The development of species distribution models (SDMs) can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA) at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs) better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19%) of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  5. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Vallet, Dominique; David, Laetitia; Bermejo, Magdalena; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Petit, Eric J; Ménard, Nelly

    2009-12-18

    Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected). Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  6. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed.We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population.Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  7. CO2 response to rewetting of hydrophobic soils - Can soil water repellency inhibit the 'Birch effect'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Carmen; Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Rewetting of dry soils is known to cause a short-term CO2 pulse commonly known as the 'Birch effect'. The displacement of CO2 with water during the process of wetting has been recognised as one of the sources of this pulse. The 'Birch effect' has been extensively observed in many soils, but some studies report a lack of such phenomenon, suggesting soil water repellency (SWR) as a potential cause. Water infiltration in water repellent soils can be severely restricted, causing overland flow or increased preferential flow, resulting in only a small proportion of soil pores being filled with water and therefore small gas-water replacement during wetting. Despite the suggestions of a different response of CO2 fluxes to wetting under hydrophobic conditions, this theory has never been tested. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that CO2 pulse does not occur during rewetting of water repellent soils. Dry homogeneous soils at water-repellent and wettable status have been rewetted with different amounts of water. CO2 flux as a response to wetting has been continuously measured with the CO2 flux analyser. Delays in infiltration and non-uniform heterogeneous water flow were observed in water repellent soils, causing an altered response in the CO2 pulse in comparison to typically observed 'Birch effect' in wettable systems. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects water relations in soil, but has also an impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  8. Influence of mycorrhizal associations on paper birch and jack pine seedlings when exposed to elevated copper, nickel or aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.D.; Browning, M.H.R.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1986-10-01

    Acid deposition may adversely affect northern forest ecosystems by increasing the concentration of metals in the soil solution. This study investigates the effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on paper birch and jack pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu, Ni or Al in sand culture. One of four mycorrhizal fungi, Scleroderma flavidum, was able to reduce Ni toxicity to the birch seedlings. It did this by reducing transport of Ni to the stems. None of the fungi affected Cu toxicity in birch. In separate experiments, jack pine seedlings were exposed to combinations of Al and Ca. Infection with Rhizopogon rubescens increased seedling susceptibility to Al. Seedlings inoculated with Suillus tomentosus showed a greater growth stimulation by Ca than uninoculated jack pines. Thus, for both tree species, the mycorrhizal association could alter the response of seedlings to high concentrations of certain metals, although this varied with fungal species. 8 references.

  9. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins – the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater

  10. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North Americ...

  11. Cooking birch pollen-related food: divergent consequences for IgE- and T cell-mediated reactivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohle, Barbara; Zwölfer, Bettina; Heratizadeh, Annice; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Antonia, Yuliya Dall; Alter, Mareike; Keller, Walter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Werfel, Thomas; Ebner, Christof

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 cross-reacts with homologous food allergens, resulting in IgE-mediated oral allergy syndromes (OASs). To avoid this food, allergy allergologists and guidebooks advise patients to consume birch pollen-related foods after heating. OBJECTIVE: We

  12. Mimotopes for Api g 5, a Relevant Cross-reactive Allergen, in the Celery-Mugwort-Birch-Spice Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukschal, Anna; Wallmann, Julia; Bublin, Merima; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-03-01

    In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome. Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined. Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope. The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity.

  13. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, S; Huttunen, S; Vanhatalo, M; Pakonen, T; Hämäläinen, A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O(3)) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O(3), i.e. O(3) levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O(3) and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels.

  14. Comparative ocular anatomy of the western lowland gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Stefanie; McCulley, James P; Alvarado, Thomas P; Hogan, R Nick

    2007-01-01

    To examine the lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) eye and determine similarities to and differences between the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and the human eye. In addition, we compare our findings of G. g. gorilla to previous reports on the eye of this subspecies. A 13-year-old deceased male lowland gorilla and a 34-year-old deceased female lowland gorilla were included in the study. Gross and microscopic examinations of the formalin-fixed right eyeball of each gorilla were carried out. Globe dimensions of G. g. gorilla were similar to G. g. beringei and to humans. The limbal conjunctival epithelium and the choroid were densely pigmented. However, the distribution of the conjunctival pigment ring was different to that of G. g. beringei and the melanocytes of the choroid were unusually round. There were deep crypts in the anterior border layer of the iris, and the epithelium of the pars plana was uniquely irregular. Vertical corneal diameter was observed to be equal or greater than horizontal diameter in G. g. gorilla, which is in contrast to humans and to previous findings for G. g. beringei. Corneal thickness was closer to that of humans than to G. g. beringei. Posterior lens capsule thickness was noticeably greater than that of humans. Although some variation between the ocular anatomy of G. g. gorilla and G. g. beringei does exist, the gross and microscopic findings closely resemble each other in these two subspecies. In addition, the eye of Gorilla appears remarkably similar to the human eye. However, comparison of measurements with those in humans is somewhat limited because formalin-fixation can introduce tissue shrinkage and artifact.

  15. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  16. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  17. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was successfully cultured in a rainfed lowland rice farm, although no additional care was provided for fishes. The highest ...

  18. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111 and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280; group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age- and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  19. Birch Bark Dry Extract by Supercritical Fluid Technology: Extract Characterisation and Use for Stabilisation of Semisolid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Armbruster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene compounds like betulin, betulinic acid, erythrodiol, oleanolic acid and lupeol are known for many pharmacological effects. All these substances are found in the outer bark of birch. Apart from its pharmacological effects, birch bark extract can be used to stabilise semisolid systems. Normally, birch bark extract is produced for this purpose by extraction with organic solvents. Employing supercritical fluid technology, our aim was to develop a birch bark dry extract suitable for stabilisation of lipophilic gels with improved properties while avoiding the use of toxic solvents. With supercritical carbon dioxide, three different particle formation methods from supercritical solutions have been tested. First, particle deposition was performed from a supercritical solution in an expansion chamber. Second, the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS method was used for particle generation. Third, a modified RESS-procedure, forming the particles directly into the thereby gelated liquid, was developed. All three methods gave yields from 1% to 5.8%, depending on the techniques employed. The triterpene composition of the three extracts was comparable: all three gave more stable oleogels compared to the use of an extract obtained by organic solvent extraction. Characterizing the rheological behaviour of these gels, a faster gelling effect was seen together with a lower concentration of the extract required for the gel formation with the supercritical fluid (SCF-extracts. This confirms the superiority of the supercritical fluid produced extracts with regard to the oleogel forming properties.

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of epinastine ophthalmic solution using a conjunctivitis allergen challenge model in patients with birch pollen allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Namba, Kenichi; Nakazono, Yumi; Iwata, Daiju; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    The efficacy of epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution for pollen allergic conjunctivitis has already been shown in a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test using cedar pollen as a challenge. The present study investigated the efficacy of this solution against birch pollen conjunctivitis in a CAC test. Ten adult subjects (eight males and two females) with asymptomatic birch pollen conjunctivitis were enrolled in this study. The average age of the subjects was 41.1 years. This study was conducted during a period without birch pollen dispersion. In each subject, the epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution was instilled in one eye, and an artificial tear fluid was instilled in the fellow eye in a double-blind manner. Five minutes or 4 h after the drug instillation, both eyes were challenged with an optimal concentration of birch pollen, and ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia were then graded. Tears were collected before the drug instillation and 20 min after the pollen challenge, and the histamine level was measured. The ocular itching scores and palpebral conjunctival hyperemia scores of the epinastine-treated eyes were significantly lower than those of the contralateral control eyes when the eyes were pretreated with the drug 4 h before the CAC. There was a significant correlation between the tear histamine level and mean ocular itching score of three time points (3, 5 and 10 min) following the CAC in the control eyes but not the epinastine-treated eyes. Epinastine is effective in suppressing ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia in birch pollen conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determining the age of CO2 Released From Mountain Birch Forest and Heath in Arctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, I. P.; Garnett, M. H.; Hopkins, D. W.; Sommerkorn, M.; Wookey, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    Nuclear weapons testing released a large amount of 14C into the atmosphere during the mid 20th Century. This radiocarbon pulse provides a tracer that can be used to determine the age of C released from plants and soils. Such information is critical for predicting how terrestrial C storage will respond to global change. If respired CO2 is mainly modern, then respiration and photosynthesis are tightly coupled. In contrast, if older C is being mineralized then there is more potential for climate change to induce C loss. We carried out one of the first studies to measure seasonal variations in the 14C content of CO2 released from arctic ecosystems. Using molecular sieves, we trapped CO2 respired from a mountain birch forest and heath near Abisko, northern Sweden and measured 14C contents by accelerator mass spectrometry. CO2 was collected from both vegetated plots (control) and clipped and trenched plots (CT) on three occasions during the 2007 growing season. In addition, we used a new passive sampling technique to collect CO2 from the CT plots during winter 2007-2008. Assuming that the respired C was derived from post bomb sources (justifiable as the majority of each soil profile was enriched with bomb C), we estimated the age of the CO2 and how it changed during the year in response to changes in plant activity and key environmental drivers. On the heath, the mean age of the CO2 respired from the control plots increased from 4 to 6 years old during the growing season. The CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 5 years old in early June to 11 years old by July, but then declined to 8 years old in September. The C released during winter was also 8 years old. In the Birch forest, the mean age of CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 4 years old in late May to 8-9 years old during July and September. However, during winter, the CO2 released was >10 years old. In the control plots, the age of respired CO2 increased from being 1 year old in late May to 6

  2. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a contemporary interest in biochar application to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and long-term carbon sequestration, a number of potential side effects of biochar incorporation in field soils remain poorly understood, e.g., in relation to interactions...... with agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient......, Kd (L kg−1), of the herbicide glyphosate. We measured Kd in equilibrium batch sorption experiments with triplicate soil samples from 20 field plots that received biochar at different application rates (0 to 100 Mg ha−1). The results showed that pure biochar had a lower glyphosate Kd value as compared...

  3. Production of bio-oil via hydrothermal liquefaction of birch sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malins, Kristaps

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH has significant impact on hydrothermal liquefaction of birch sawdust. • High yield of bio-oil (54.1%) was obtained under developed optimal conditions. • Compounds in bio-oil have appropriate chemical structure for hydrocarbon synthesis. • The yield of marketable solid residue with potential for industrial application was 7.1%. • Solid residue has high calorific value (29.8 MJ/kg) and C content (74.6 wt.%). - Abstract: The effect of weight ratio of plywood manufacturing by-product birch sawdust (BS) to water (1/2–1/8), reaction temperature (200–340 °C), initial H 2 pressure (0–10 MPa), residence time (5–90 min), catalysts amount (0.25–7.0 wt.%) and type (FeSO 4 , ZnSO 4 , NiSO 4 , Raney-nickel, Ni65%/SiO 2 −Al 2 O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH) on hydrothermal liquefaction of BS was investigated. High yield of bio-oil (54.1%) with calorific value (CV) 24.9 MJ/kg under developed optimal experimental conditions in the presence of NaOH (5 wt.%) utilizing weight ratio of BS to water 1/4, residence time 5 min, mixing speed 250 rpm at 300 °C without pressurized particular inert gas or H 2 atmosphere was achieved. Compounds in bio-oil analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have suitable chemical structures for conversion into renewable hydrocarbons. Marketable solid residue (SR) with yield 7.1%, high CV (29.8 MJ/kg) and perspective characteristics for industrial application was obtained. Produced gas in process analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC–TCD) contains 60.1 vol.% of CO 2 .

  4. Chemical modification of birch allergen extract leads to a reduction in allergenicity as well as immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter Adler; Lund, Lise; Lund, Gitte; Holm, Jens; Millner, Anders; Henmar, Helene

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, specific immunotherapy is currently conducted with vaccines containing allergen preparations based on intact extracts. In addition to this, chemically modified allergen extracts (allergoids) are used for specific allergy treatment. Reduced allergenicity and thereby reduced risk of side effects in combination with retained ability to activate T cells and induce protective allergen-specific antibody responses has been claimed for allergoids. In the current study, we compared intact allergen extracts and allergoids with respect to allergenicity and immunogenicity. The immunological response to birch allergen extract, alum-adsorbed extract, birch allergoid and alum-adsorbed allergoid was investigated in vitro in human basophil histamine release assay and by stimulation of human allergen-specific T cell lines. In vivo, Bet v 1-specific IgG titers in mice were determined after repetitive immunizations. In all patients tested (n = 8), allergoid stimulations led to reduced histamine release compared to the intact allergen extract. However, the allergoid preparations were not recognized by Bet v 1-specific T cell lines (n = 7), which responded strongly to the intact allergen extract. Mouse immunizations showed a clearly reduced IgG induction by allergoids and a strongly potentiating effect of the alum adjuvant. Optimal IgG titers were obtained after 3 immunizations with intact allergen extracts, while 5 immunizations were needed to obtain maximal response to the allergoid. The reduced histamine release observed for allergoid preparations may be at the expense of immunological efficacy because the chemical modifications lead to a clear reduction in T cell activation and the ability to induce allergen-specific IgG antibody responses. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  6. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  7. Foliar methyl salicylate emissions indicate prolonged aphid infestation on silver birch and black alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blande, James D; Korjus, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-03-01

    It is well documented that when plants are damaged by insects they respond by emitting a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While there have been numerous reports concerning VOCs induced by chewing herbivores, there are relatively few studies detailing the VOCs induced by aphid feeding. The effects of aphid feeding on VOCs emitted by boreal forest trees have been particularly neglected. Herbivore-induced VOCs have relevance to direct and indirect plant defence and atmospheric chemistry. In this study, we analysed the VOCs emitted by Betula pendula (Roth) and Alnus glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.) infested by specialist aphid species under laboratory conditions. We also complemented this by collecting VOCs from leaf beetle-damaged saplings under field conditions. In addition to induction of some inducible terpenes, we detected substantial aphid-induced emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA) in both B. pendula and A. glutinosa. MeSA emission intensity depended on the length of aphid infestation. Feeding by beetles induced emission of (E)-DMNT in both tree species and (E)-beta-ocimene in A. glutinosa but had no effect on MeSA emissions. MeSA has been shown to have aphid-repellent qualities and has been shown recently to have impact on formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. We discuss our results in relation to these two phenomena.

  8. [Spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperature of Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Ran; Wang, Xing Chang; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Quan Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Plant temperature is an important parameter for estimating energy balance and vegetation respiration of forest ecosystem. To examine spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperatures (T s ) and its influencing factors, we measured the T s with copper constantan thermocouples at different depths, heights and azimuths within the stems of two broadleaved tree species with contrasting bark and wood properties, Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica. The results showed that the monthly mean diurnal courses of the T s largely followed that of air temperature with a 'sinusoi dal' pattern, but the T s lagged behind the air temperature by 0 h at the stem surface to 4 h at 6 cm depth. The daily maximal values and ranges of the diurnal course of T s decreased gradually with increasing measuring depth across the stem and decreasing measuring height along the stem. The circumferential variation in T s was marginal, with slightly higher daily maximal values in the south and west directions during the daytime of the dormant season. Differences in thermal properties (i.e. , specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) of both bark and wood tissue between the two species contributed to the inter specific variations in the radial variation in T s through influencing the heat exchange between the stem surface and ambient air as well as heat diffusion within the stem. The higher reflectance of the bark of B. platyphylla decreased the influence of solar radiation on T s . The stepwise regression showed that the diurnal courses of T s could be well predicted by the environmental factors (R 2 > 0.85) with an order of influence ranking as air temperature > water vapor pressure > net radiation > wind speed. It is necessary to take the radial, vertical and inter specific varia-tions in T s into account when estimating biomass heat storage and stem CO2 efflux.

  9. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  10. Acidizing of Zechstein Main Dolomite in the Polish lowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierdzychi, W

    1966-07-01

    The first acidizing of Zechstein Dolomite in the Polish Lowlands was carried out in 1961. In the initial stage, a tendency existed toward multistage acidizing, and preheated acidizing fluid was used. In a preliminary operation, an acid having the concentration 12-36% was used for washing out the borehole. No additives were utilized except formalin for corrosion inhibition. In order to increase the absorption capacity, hydraulic perforations were used. The composition of acidizing fluid was determined in a preliminary study for any individual reservoir. From laboratory study, it was concluded also that the required time of 3-4 hr was sufficient for the exhaustion of acid. The pre-heating of the acid at the bottom of the hole by exothermic reaction with metallic magnesium was abandoned in the later stage of operations.

  11. Kax and kol: Collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Nicholas P.; Beach, Timothy P.; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Episodes of population loss and cultural change, including the famous Classic Collapse, punctuated the long course of Maya civilization. In many cases, these downturns in the fortunes of individual sites and entire regions included significant environmental components such as droughts or anthropogenic environmental degradation. Some afflicted areas remained depopulated for long periods, whereas others recovered more quickly. We examine the dynamics of growth and decline in several areas in the Maya Lowlands in terms of both environmental and cultural resilience and with a focus on downturns that occurred in the Terminal Preclassic (second century Common Era) and Terminal Classic (9th and 10th centuries CE) periods. This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas. PMID:22371571

  12. Integrated analysis of water quality in a mesoscale lowland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Habeck

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a modelling study on nitrogen transport from diffuse sources in the Nuthe catchment, representing a typical lowland region in the north-eastern Germany. Building on a hydrological validation performed in advance using the ecohydrological model SWIM, the nitrogen flows were simulated over a 20-year period (1981-2000. The relatively good quality of the input data, particularly for the years from 1993 to 2000, enabled the nitrogen flows to be reproduced sufficiently well, although modelling nutrient flows is always associated with a great deal of uncertainty. Subsequently, scenario calculations were carried out in order to investigate how nitrogen transport from the catchment could be further reduced. The selected scenario results with the greatest reduction of nitrogen washoff will briefly be presented in the paper.

  13. Leaching and residual activity of imidazolinone herbicides in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Refatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice (Oryza sativa L. production system have a potential for leaching. This can result in contamination of underground water resources and cause injury to not tolerant crops that are sown in a succession and/or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine the leaching potential and the residual activity of the herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice system. The experiment was conducted over a period of two years and consisted of conducting a field test to be followed by two bioassays with a year of difference between their implementation. Initially an experiment was conducted in lowland area where it was planted the cultivar of rice ‘PUITA INTA CL’. Approximately one and two years thereafter, soil samples from each plot were collected at intervals of 5cm to a depth of 30cm (B factor for the bioassay to evaluate persistence of herbicides. Factor A was composed of mixtures formulated of imazethapyr + imazapic (75 + 25g a.i. L-1, imazapyr + imazapic (525 + 175g a.i. kg-1 in two doses, imazethapyr (100g a.i. L-1 and treatment control without application. Basing on results, it was concluded that the mixtures imazethapyr + imazapic, imazapyr + imazapic and imazethapyr leached into the soil, reaching depths of up to 25cm in lowland soil. Imidazolinone herbicides used today in the irrigated rice Clearfield® system are persistent in soil, and their phytotoxic activity can be observed up to two years after application.

  14. A late Holocene tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooren, K.; Huizinga, A.; Hoek, W.; Bergen, M. V.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands in southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize were densely populated for thousands of years, and have been the subject of intensive studies on the interaction between humans and their environment. Accurate radiocarbon dating of proxy records and disrupting events has proved to be difficult due to the lack of organic material in many deposits and the 'old carbon effect' related to the calcareous geology of the Yucatan Peninsula. So far, tephrostratigraphy has hardly been used to define time markers for palynological, limnological and archaeological studies in this region, despite the frequent occurrence of tephra fall. With the objective to fill this gap, we developed a tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands using sediment cores from a flood basin of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in southern Mexico. Tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating were used to estimate the timing of past volcanic eruptions, and chemical compositions of glass shards were used to identify potential sources. At least six tephralayers were deposited since 2000 BC, the most notable representing eruptions of El Chichón volcano in the 5th and 15th century AD. The high sulphur emissions accompanying El Chichón's eruptions allowed testing of our age-depth model through a correlation with volcanic sulphate peaks in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. We demonstrate the applicability of the established tephrochronological framework in a detailed chronological reconstruction of the formation of the world's largest late Holocene beach ridge plain in southern Mexico. This plain with over 500 beach ridges is a highly sensitive recorder of combined sea level rise, subsidence, storm activity and changes in climate and upstream land use since the dawn of Olmec and Maya cultures circa 5000 years ago.

  15. Seasat synthetic aperture radar ( SAR) response to lowland vegetation types in eastern Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Milton, N.M.; Segal, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of Seasat SAR images of eastern Maryland and Virginia reveals botanical distinctions between vegetated lowland areas and adjacent upland areas. Radar returns from the lowland areas can be either brighter or darker than returns from the upland forests. Scattering models and scatterometer measurements predict an increase of 6 dB in backscatter from vegetation over standing water. This agrees with the 30-digital number (DN) increase observed in the digital Seasat data. The density, morphology, and relative geometry of the lowland vegetation with respect to standing water can all affect the strength of the return L band signal.-from Authors

  16. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  17. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  18. Allergy immunotherapy with a hypoallergenic recombinant birch pollen allergen rBet v 1-FV in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bachert, Claus; Lukat, Karl-Friedrich; Pfaar, Oliver; Meyer, Hanns; Narkus, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen extracts and chemically modified allergoids are used successfully in allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Recombinant extracts offer potential advantages with respect to pharmaceutical quality, standardization and dosing. A hypoallergenic recombinant folding variant of the major birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1-FV) was compared with an established native birch preparation. A pre-seasonal, randomized, actively controlled phase II study was performed in birch pollen allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with or without asthma, GINA I/ II. 51 patients (24 rBet v 1-FV, 27 native extract) started therapy with subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT). Primary end-point was a combined symptom medication score (SMS), changes in nasal provocation test, visual rating score and specific antibody responses secondary end-points. After one pre-seasonal treatment course the combined SMS was 5.86 (median; IQR: 14.02) for the rBet v 1-FV group versus 12.40 (median; IQR: 9.32) for the comparator during the three weeks pollen season (p = 0.330). After treatment in the second year, scores were 3.00 (median; IQR: 6.50) and 2.93 (4.86) respectively. Allergen tolerance in a nasal provocation test improved to a comparable extent in both groups. Significant increases in birch pollen-specific IgG1 and IgG4 were observed in both treatment groups following the first treatment phase and remained significantly raised until the end of the study. In this first in man, proof of concept phase II trial no statistical difference between rBet v 1-FV and an established natural pollen extract could be observed. rBet v 1-FV could be administered in higher doses than the native protein with no increase in adverse effects. The study was registered in clinicalTrials.gov (NCT00266526).

  19. Isolation of suberin from birch outer bark and cork using ionic liquids: A new source of macromonomers

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Rui; Garcia, Helga; Sousa, Andreia F.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Rebelo, Luis Paulo N.; Pereira, Cristina Silva

    2013-01-01

    Cholinium hexanoate, a biocompatible and biodegradable ionic liquid, was recently demonstrated to efficiently and selectively extract suberin domains from cork, combining high extraction efficiency with isolation of a partial depolymerised material. In the present paper, we report a comparative study of the characterisation of suberin extracted from birch outer bark and from cork using cholinium hexanoate. It became apparent that both extracted suberin samples showed still a cross-linked natu...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-07 Wetland Extent, Vegetation, and Inundation: Lowland Amazon Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a map of wetland extent, vegetation type, and dual-season flooding state of the entire lowland Amazon basin. The map was derived from mosaics...

  1. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  2. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  3. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Hui; Huang, Weixia; Xiong, Jie; Tao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Wei, Haibin; Yue, Yunxia; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investig...

  4. 8 Allergenic Composition of Polymerized Allergen Extracts of Betula verrucosa, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus and Phleum Pratense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Cases, Barbara; Tudela, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, Eva Abel; Casanovas, Miguel; Subiza, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergoids have been successfully used in the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases. They are modified allergen extracts that allow the administration of high allergen doses, due to their reduced IgE binding capacity.They maintain allergen-specific T-cell recognition. Since they are native allergen extracts that have been polymerized with glutaraldehyde, identification of the allergenic molecules requires more complicated methods. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative composition of different polymerized extracts and investigate the presence of defined allergenic molecules using Mass spectrometry. Methods Proteomic analysis was carried out at the Proteomics Facility of the Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos (Toledo, Spain). After reduction and alkylation, proteins were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were cleaned using C18 SpinTips Sample Prep Kit; peptides were separated on an Ultimate nano-LC system using a Monolithic C18 column in combination with a precolumn for salt removal. Fractionation of the peptides was performed with a Probot microfraction collector and MS and MS/MS analysis of offline spotted peptide samples were performed using the Applied Biosystems 4800 plus MALDI TOF/TOF Analyzer mass spectrometer. ProteinPilot Software V 2.0.1 and the Paragon algorithm were used for the identification of the proteins. Each MS/MS spectrum was searched against the SwissProt 2010_10 database, Uniprot-Viridiplantae database and Uniprot_Betula database. Results Analysis of the peptides revealed the presence of native allergens in the polymerized extracts: Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der p 8 and Der p 11 in D. pteronyssinus; Bet v 2, Bet v 6, Bet v 7 and several Bet v 1 isoforms in B. verrucosa and Phl p 1, Phl p 3, Phl p 5, Phl p 11 and Phl p 12 in P. pratense allergoids. In all cases, potential allergenic proteins were also identified, including ubiquitin, actin, Eenolase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, luminal

  5. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  7. N-Urea Efficiency In Lowland Rice Applied With Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, E.L.; Wemay, Y.; Sisworo, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two N-fertilizer experiments have been conducted using urea tablet and prill urea combined with Azolla application. Twelve treatments have been tested using 2 rice varieties namely Atomita-4 and IR-64. To enable the determination of N-urea efficiency 15 N labelled urea was used. The experiments were conducted in the dry and wet season (DS and WS) 1994/1995 at the experimental station, pusaka negara, Subang West Java. Data obtained from the two experiments showed that the highest N-urea efficiency was found in Atomita-4 applied with urea-tablet (DS=46,1%, WS= 35,8%). Letting the Azolla grow during one lowland rice growth period could increase the N-urea prill efficiency (±5%) compared when no azolla was applied. Apparently Atomita-4 could use N-urea more efficiently compared to IR-64, showing higher grain yield (atomita-4 DS=6.2 ton ha -1 WS=5.9 ton ha -1 ) vs IR-64 (DS=5.8 ton ha -1 , WS=5.3 ton ha -1 ). Decreasing the levels of TSP not influence to the urea efficiency at the DS and WS

  8. Rainfall interception from a lowland tropical rainforest in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, A. P.

    1997-12-01

    Results from a programme of throughfall measurements in a lowland tropical rainforest in Brunei, northwest Borneo, indicate that interception losses amount to 18% of the gross incident rainfall. The high annual rainfall experienced by the study area results in annual interception losses of around 800 mm, which may result in total annual evapotranspiration losses significantly higher than in other rainforest locations. An improved version of Gash's analytical interception model is tested on the available data using assumed values for the "forest" parameters, and is found to predict interception losses extremely well. The model predictions are based on an estimated evaporation rate during rainfall of 0.71 mm h -1. This is significantly higher than has been reported in other tropical studies. It is concluded that these results are distinctive when compared with previous results from rainforests, and that further, detailed work is required to establish whether the enhanced evaporation rate is due to advective effects associated with the maritime setting of the study area.

  9. Synthesis of the Paleoenvironmental changes in the Colombian lowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This chapter includes a summary of all cores studied for this thesis, and one important factor to mention about the origin of the lakes at the Colombian lowlands, out of the climatic change, is the riverine influence that have been driven their evolution, some times with stronger dynamic than others, but enough as to be repercussive over the vegetation communities. This sort of dynamics made possible to accumulate different kind of sediments, which can be correlated with the pollen assemblages found in the pollen records. Moreover, multivariate analysis of raw pollen data standardizes the zonation of pollen records (Grimm, 1987), which contribute to get better interpretation from the pollen spectra. The sites of this thesis mainly belongs to the 5 major ecosystems of Colombia as follow: Boquillas in the lower Magdalena valley in the north, savannahs pollen records from the Llanos Orientales in the east, Amazonian pollen records in south and the tropical rain forest in the west and the interandean dry forest in the southwest

  10. An 8700 year paleoclimate reconstruction from the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of a sediment core from Lago Puerto Arturo, a closed basin lake in northern Peten, Guatemala, has provided an ∼8700 cal year record of climate change and human activity in the southern Maya lowlands. Stable isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct environmental change in the region. Results indicate a relatively wet early to middle Holocene followed by a drier late Holocene, which we interpret as reflecting long-term changes in insolation (precession). Higher frequency variability is more likely attributable to changes in ocean/atmosphere circulation in both the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Pollen and isotope data show that most of the period of prehispanic agricultural settlement, i.e. ∼5000–1000 cal yr BP, was characterized by drier conditions than previous or subsequent periods. The presence ofZea (corn) pollen through peak aridity during the Terminal Classic period (∼1250–1130 cal yr BP) suggests that drought may not have had as negative an impact as previously proposed. A dramatic negative shift in isotope values indicates an increase in precipitation after ∼950 cal yr BP (hereafter BP).

  11. Use of azolla as a nitrogen source of lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Widjang, H.S.; Havid, S.; Hendratno; Soleh, S.; Goesworo, S.

    1991-01-01

    A four years experiment has been carried out to study possibility of using azolla as a nitrogen source for lowland rice. The work done in the first year, experiments were conducted in the wet season (WS) and the dry season (DS) of 1984/1985, was evaluate weather azolla could really increase rice yield. In the second year, experiments done in the WS and DS of 1985/1986, N-derived from azolla (N-dfA) and N-derived from urea (N-dfU) in rice plan were determined. The third year work done in the WS and DS of 1986/1987 was conducted to see what extend azolla could be applied in the terms of kg N/ha as a N-source for rice. While the last year was devoted to study the N-balance of azolla and urea, which was done in the DS of 1988/1989. Results of the experiments show that azolla has the same ability as urea to increase rice azolla interacted with urea. By increasing the azolla level N recovery in rice will decrease. The same phenomena was also found with urea. Another interesting fact is that an azolla cover in the rice field could promote N-uptake from urea. (author). 8 refs, 15 tabs

  12. Genetic approaches refine ex situ lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Lalonde, Danielle R; Quse, Viviana; Shoemaker, Alan; Russello, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Ex situ conservation management remains an important tool in the face of continued habitat loss and global environmental change. Here, we use microsatellite marker variation to evaluate conventional assumptions of pedigree-based ex situ population management and directly inform a captive lowland tapir breeding program within a range country. We found relatively high levels of genetic variation (N(total) = 41; mean H(E) = 0.67 across 10 variable loci) and little evidence for relatedness among founder individuals (N(founders) = 10; mean relatedness = -0.05). Seven of 29 putative parent-offspring relationships were excluded by parentage analysis based on allele sharing, and we identified 2 individuals of high genetic value to the population (mk

  13. Lowland extirpation of anuran populations on a tropical mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM), a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931–1989)and current data (2015/2016). Methods Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects. Results In the recordings, we detected the 12 native frog species known to occur in LM. Over a span of ∼25 years, two species have become extinct and four species suffered extirpation in lowland areas. As a consequence, low elevation areas in the LM (indicate that (1) climate change has increased temperatures in Puerto Rico, and (2) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was found in 10 native species and early detection of Bd coincides with anurans declines in the LM. Our study confirms the general impressions of amphibian population extirpations at low elevations, and corroborates the levels of threat assigned by IUCN. PMID:29158987

  14. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Water relations in silver birch during springtime: How is sap pressurised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Dominguez Carrasco, M D R; Salmon, Y; Aalto, J; Vanhatalo, A; Bäck, J; Lintunen, A

    2018-05-06

    Positive sap pressures are produced in the xylem of birch trees in boreal conditions during the time between the thawing of the soil and bud break. During this period, xylem embolisms accumulated during wintertime are refilled with water. The mechanism for xylem sap pressurization and its environmental drivers are not well known. We measured xylem sap flow, xylem sap pressure, xylem sap osmotic concentration, xylem and whole stem diameter changes, and stem and root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, along with meteorological conditions at two sites in Finland during and after the sap pressurisation period. The diurnal dynamics of xylem sap pressure and sap flow during the sap pressurisation period varied, but were more often opposite to the diurnal pattern after bud burst, i.e. sap pressure increased and sap flow rate mostly decreased when temperature increased. Net conversion of soluble sugars to starch in the stem and roots occurred during the sap pressurisation period. Xylem sap osmotic pressure was small in comparison to total sap pressure, and it did not follow changes in environmental conditions or tree water relations. Based on these findings, we suggest that xylem sap pressurisation and embolism refilling occur gradually over a few weeks through water transfer from parenchyma cells to xylem vessels during daytime, and then the parenchyma are refilled mostly during nighttime by water uptake from soil. Possible drivers for water transfer from parenchyma cells to vessels are discussed. Also the functioning of thermal dissipation probes in conditions of changing stem water content is discussed. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Klailova

    Full Text Available Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s. Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  17. Geological setting control of flood dynamics in lowland rivers (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Grzegorz; Ostrowski, Piotr; Falkowski, Tomasz; Mazgajski, Michał

    2018-04-27

    We aim to answer a question: how does the geological setting affect flood dynamics in lowland alluvial rivers? The study area covers three river reaches: not trained, relatively large on the European scale, flowing in broad valleys cut in the landscape of old glacial plains. We focus on the locations where levees [both: a) natural or b) artificial] were breached during flood. In these locations we identify (1) the erosional traces of flood (crevasse channels) on the floodplain displayed on DEM derived from ALS LIDAR. In the main river channel, we perform drillings in order to measure the depth of the suballuvial surface and to locate (2) the protrusions of bedrock resistant to erosion. We juxtapose on one map: (1) the floodplain geomorphology with (2) the geological data from the river channel. The results from each of the three study reaches are presented on maps prepared in the same manner in order to enable a comparison of the regularities of fluvial processes written in (1) the landscape and driven by (2) the geological setting. These processes act in different river reaches: (a) not embanked and dominated by ice jam floods, (b) embanked and dominated by rainfall and ice jam floods. We also analyse hydrological data to present hydrodynamic descriptions of the flood. Our principal results indicate similarity of (1) distinctive erosional patterns and (2) specific geological features in all three study reaches. We draw the conclusion: protrusions of suballuvial bedrock control the flood dynamics in alluvial rivers. It happens in both types of rivers. In areas where the floodplain remains natural, the river inundates freely during every flood. In other areas the floodplain has been reclaimed by humans who constructed an artificial levee system, which protects the flood-prone area from inundation, until levee breach occurs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  19. Lowland extirpation of anuran populations on a tropical mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Campos-Cerqueira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM, a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931–1989and current data (2015/2016. Methods Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects. Results In the recordings, we detected the 12 native frog species known to occur in LM. Over a span of ∼25 years, two species have become extinct and four species suffered extirpation in lowland areas. As a consequence, low elevation areas in the LM (<300 m have lost at least six anuran species. Discussion We hypothesize that these extirpations are due to the effects of climate change and infectious diseases, which are restricting many species to higher elevations and a much smaller area. Land use change is not responsible for these changes because LM has been a protected reserve for the past 80 years. However, previous studies indicate that (1 climate change has increased temperatures in Puerto Rico, and (2 Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd was found in 10 native species and early detection of Bd coincides with anurans declines in the LM. Our study confirms the general impressions of amphibian population extirpations at low elevations, and corroborates the levels of threat assigned by IUCN.

  20. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah

    2004-07-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l{sup -1} was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l{sup -1}) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l{sup -1}. The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l{sup -1}. The N level of 400 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high

  1. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l -1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l -1 ) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l -1 . The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l -1 . The N level of 400 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient

  2. Perinatal maternal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 prevents allergic inflammation in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Schabussova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. METHODS: BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway

  3. Determination of the suitability of chips from selected hardwoods for the production of furfural and charcoal. [Birches, beeches, oaks, alders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Z

    1979-01-01

    Debarked, cut beech, birch, alder, and oak residues from forestry and woodworking operations contain 16.56-19.73% pentosans and as such can be used for hydrolysis to furfural (I). The hydrolytic residue (mostly lignocellulose) can be carbonized at 400 degrees to charcoal. The hydrolysis is carried out continuously with steam at 250-300 degrees and 1.18 MPa. The residue chips are first soaked in water at 90 degrees for 4 hours and then fed into the hydrolyzer countercurrently to the steam. The yields of I are 5-6% and the yields of charcoal are approximately 20% on the chip weight.

  4. An ongoing hydro-biogeochemical characterization of a partly drained lowland in a clay till subcatchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    2016-01-01

    as well as novel approaches e.g. remote sensing using UAV’s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles commonly known as drones), a newly developed redox probe, and novel uses of geophysical methods. More information about TReNDS can be found at www.nitrat.dk. The project is funded by Innovation Fund Denmark......Riparian lowlands may have significant impact on the catchment nitrate balance. As a part of the strategic research project TReNDS (“Transport and reduction of nitrate in Danish landscapes at various scales”) extensive field investigations have commenced in the Fensholt subcatchment situated within...... Norsminde Fjord catchment, Odder, Denmark. The riparian lowlands are surrounded by a hilly landscape composed of mainly clayey till, and hence the landscape is heavily drained. Drainpipes are either disconnected at the hillslope bordering the riparian lowland or discharging partly through the riparian zone...

  5. Dispersal and colonisation of plants in lowland streams: success rates and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna

    2008-01-01

    -rich lowland streams. Rather, I conclude that primary colonisation is the main constraint to regaining vegetation in lowland streams in general and in vegetation-free rehabilitated streams in particular. Therefore, if plant colonisation is a target for stream rehabilitation, it is important to enhance......Plant dispersal and colonisation, including rates of dispersal, retention, colonisation and survival of dispersed propagules (shoots and seeds), were studied in a 300-m stream reach in a macrophyte-rich lowland stream during one growing season. Relationships between colonisation processes...... and simple flow parameters were tested. Each fortnight during a growing season, the number of dispersed plant propagules and the number of new and lost plant colonisations since the last sampling day were recorded. The retention of dispersing shoots was tested on two occasions during the growing season...

  6. A-B-O and Rh affinities between highland and lowland Quechua-speaking Peruvian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A R; Klayman, J E

    1975-09-01

    According to the accounts of the Spanish chronicles and various historical analyses the Quechua-speaking population inhabiting the Province of Lamas in the Eastern Tropical Lowlands of Peru are descendants of the Chanca Tribes that migrated from the highlands about 500 years ago. The results of the present study indicate that in terms of the A-B-O and Rh systems the lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas and the highland Quechua population from the Province of Junin are more similar to each other than to other tropical tribes. Therefore, it is quite possible that the present lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas may be descendants of Andean populations.

  7. A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theisen, Giovani

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based

  8. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  9. Isotopically exchangeable Al in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A.M. [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Fink, D. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Rose, J. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Waite, T. David [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: richard.collins@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Periodic discharges of high concentrations of aluminium (Al) causing fish kills and other adverse effects occur worldwide in waterways affected by coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS). The exchangeability — a metal's ability to readily transfer between the soil solid- and solution-phases — of Al in these soils is therefore of particular importance as it has implications for metal transport, plant availability and toxicity to living organisms. In the present study, the concentrations of isotopically exchangeable Al (E values) were measured in 27 CLASS and compared with common salt extractions (i.e. KCl and CuCl{sub 2}) used to estimate exchangeable soil pools of Al. E values of Al were high in the soils, ranging from 357 to 3040 mg·kg{sup −1}. Exchangeable concentrations estimated using 1 M KCl were consistently lower than measured E values, although a reasonable correlation was obtained between the two values (E = 1.68 × Al{sub KCl}, r{sup 2} = 0.66, n = 25). The addition of a 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extraction step improved the 1:1 agreement between extractable and isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations, but lead to significant mobilisation of non-isotopically exchangeable Al in surficial ‘organic-rich’ CLASS having E values < 1000 mg·kg{sup −1}. It was concluded that currently used (i.e. 1 M KCl) methodology severely underestimates exchangeable Al and total actual acidity values in CLASS and should be corrected by a factor similar to the one determined here. - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Al was compared to 1 M KCl or 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extractable Al. • 1 M KCl always underestimated isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations. • 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} mobilised non-isotopically exchangeable Al • 1 M KCl values require correction of ~ 1.7 to reflect exchangeable Al concentrations.

  10. Experimental methods for the Palaeolithic dry distillation of birch bark: implications for the origin and development of Neandertal adhesive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Soressi, M; Pomstra, D; Langejans, G H J

    2017-08-31

    The destructive distillation of birch bark to produce tar has recently featured in debates about the technological and cognitive abilities of Neandertals and modern humans. The abilities to precisely control fire temperatures and to manipulate adhesive properties are believed to require advanced mental traits. However, the significance given to adhesive technology in these debates has quickly outgrown our understanding of birch bark tar and its manufacture using aceramic techniques. In this paper, we detail three experimental methods of Palaeolithic tar production ranging from simple to complex. We recorded the fuel, time, materials, temperatures, and tar yield for each method and compared them with the tar known from the Palaeolithic. Our results indicate that it is possible to obtain useful amounts of tar by combining materials and technology already in use by Neandertals. A ceramic container is not required, and temperature control need not be as precise as previously thought. However, Neandertals must have been able to recognize certain material properties, such as adhesive tack and viscosity. In this way, they could develop the technology from producing small traces of tar on partially burned bark to techniques capable of manufacturing quantities of tar equal to those found in the Middle Palaeolithic archaeological record.

  11. The impact of climate change on ecosystem carbon dynamics at the Scandinavian mountain birch forest-tundra heath ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Wookey, Philip A

    2009-02-01

    Changes in temperature and moisture resulting from climate change are likely to strongly modify the ecosystem carbon sequestration capacity in high-latitude areas, both through vegetation shifts and via direct warming effects on photosynthesis and decomposition. This paper offers a synthesis of research addressing the potential impacts of climate warming on soil processes and carbon fluxes at the forest-tundra ecotone in Scandinavia. Our results demonstrated higher rates of organic matter decomposition in mountain birch forest than in tundra heath soils, with markedly shallower organic matter horizons in the forest. Field and laboratory experiments suggest that increased temperatures are likely to increase CO2 efflux from both tundra and forest soil providing moisture availability does not become limiting for the decomposition process. Furthermore, colonization of tundra heath by mountain birch forest would increase rates of decomposition, and thus CO2 emissions, from the tundra heath soils, which currently store substantial amounts of potentially labile carbon. Mesic soils underlying both forest and tundra heath are currently weak sinks of atmospheric methane, but the strength of this sink could be increased with climate warming and/or drying.

  12. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  13. Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius) incidence in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, K.S.; Hartemink, A.E.; Eganae, J.F.; Walo, C.; Poloma, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sweet potato is the main staple crop in PNG and this paper presents a study from the humid lowlands of the Morobe Province. Three experiments were carried out at two locations (Hobu and Unitech) to evaluate the effect of inorganic fertiliser inputs and fallow vegetation on the incidence of sweet

  14. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Lembrechts

    Full Text Available Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  15. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  16. Choosing soil management systems for rice production on lowland soils in South Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.C.R.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area of the state. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for flood-irrigated rice (Oriza

  17. Description of the phosphorus sorption and desorption processes in lowland peaty clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.

    2013-01-01

    To determine phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface water, information is needed about the behavior of P in soils. In this study, the sorption and desorption characteristics of lowland peaty clay soils are described based on experimental laboratory studies. The maximum P sorption

  18. Human-driven topographic effects on the distribution of forest in a flat, lowland agricultural region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Complex topography buffers forests against deforestation in mountainous regions. However, it is unknown if terrain also shapes forest distribution in lowlands where human impacts are likely to be less constrained by terrain. In such regions, if important at all, topographic effects will depend...

  19. Streamflow, a GIS-based Environmental Assessment Tool for Lowland Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, N.M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Schot, P.P.; Verkroost, A.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Human activities, such as stream management, drainage, urbanization and agriculture, heavily influence the aquatic ecosystems in small lowland streams. For the assessment of the impact of human activities of aquatic ecosystems, a modeling tool is created. This modeling tool is part of the EU-life

  20. Substrate homogenization affects survival and fitness in the lowland stream caddisflies Micropterna sequax and Potamophylax rotundipennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westveer, Judith J.; Verdonschot, Piet F.M.; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of substrate heterogeneity or patchiness is common in lowland streams with disturbed hydrological regimes. At the reach scale, peak discharges tend to homogenize the stream bed and decrease the availability of specific microhabitat types. This spatial shift in habitats toward a more

  1. Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegge, P.; Shrestha, A.K.; Moe, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on microhistological analyses of faecal material, we compared the early dry season diets of greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, swamp deer Cervus duvauceli and hog deer Axis porcinus, which inhabit the same alluvial grassland habitat complex in lowland Nepal. Their diets were

  2. Seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships in a lowland forested watershed in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana La Torre Torres; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun; Timothy Callahan

    2011-01-01

    Hydrological processes of lowland watersheds of the southern USA are not well understood compared to a hilly landscape due to their unique topography, soil compositions, and climate. This study describes the seasonal relationships between rainfall patterns and runoff (sum of storm flow and base flow) using 13 years (1964–1976) of rainfall and stream flow data for a low...

  3. Simple greenhouse climate model as a design tool for greenhouses in tropical lowland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impron, I.; Hemming-Hoffmann, S.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Six prototypes plastic greenhouses were built in the tropical lowlands of Indonesia. The geometrical dimensions were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by taking local climate parameters as static reference boundary conditions. It is necessary to evaluate the climate dynamics inside

  4. Morphodynamic regime change induced by riparian vegetation in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to establish and understand morphological changes in response to stream restoration measures, a detailed monitoring plan was implemented in a lowland stream called Lunterse Beek, located in the Netherlands. Over a period of 1.5 yr, the monitoring 5 included serial morphological surveys,

  5. Hydrology and substrates: determinants of oligochaete distribution in lowland streams (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    In most soft-bottomed, lowland streams in the Netherlands discharge regimes largely follow the precipitation pattern. Winter discharges are higher and much more dynamic then summer discharges, although rain storms throughout the year cause unexpected peak flows. Minimal precipitation, reduced stream

  6. Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    in the Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil, and moderate densities of widespread species in the tropical lowlands. Contemporary climate explains well the variation in species richness for the 25% most widespread species; for the remaining 75% of species with more restricted distributions, variation can only...

  7. Characterization of the gastrointestinal bacterial communities of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Yeoman, C. J.; White, B. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Nelson, K. E.; Torralba, M.; Gillis, M.; Wilson, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 150, S56 (2013), s. 132-133 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American-Association of Physical Anthropologists /82./. 09.04.2013-13.04.2013, Knoxville] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bacteria * western lowland gorillas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22247/pdf

  8. Seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya; Pt. 4/5 : Food consumption and anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.; Niemeijer, R.

    1991-01-01

    This is Part 4/5 of a series concerned with seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya. Household surveys were carried out in six locations in Kwale and Kilifi Districts in 1985-1987. The present report deals with food consumption and the nutritional condition of the study population. Results show

  9. Multiple stress response of lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates is dependent on habitat type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Jensen, Tinna M.; Rasmussen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, lowland stream ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stress due to the combination of water scarcity, eutrophication and fine sedimentation. The understanding of the effects of such multiple stress on stream benthic macroinvertebrates has been growing in the recent years...

  10. Patterns and determinants of floristic variation across lowland forests of Bolivia. Biotropica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.; Peña-Claros, M.; Alarcón, A.; Balcázar, J.; Chuviña, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Steege, ter H.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Floristic variation is high in the Neotropics, but little is known about the factors shaping this variation at the mesoscale. We examined floristic composition and its relationship with environmental factors across 220 1-ha permanent plots in tropical lowland Bolivia. For each plot, abundance of 100

  11. Influence of Disturbance on Habitats and Biological Communities in Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Friberg, N.

    2009-01-01

    ). The results indicate that disturbance cascades through the stream ecosystem, primarily meditated by changes in macrophyte communities that are essential providers of habitat in unshaded lowland streams in which other structural elements, as coarse inorganic substrates and woody debris, are scarce...

  12. Impact of stress on the gut microbiome of free-ranging western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, Klára; Shutt-Phillips, K. A.; Heistermann, M.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Modrý, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Wilson, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.; Gomez, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 1 (2018), s. 40-44 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gastrointestinal-tract * disease * habituation * clostridium * disrupts * health * organ * flora * gastrointestinal microbiome * bacteria * stress * western lowland gorilla * faecal glucocorticoid metabolites Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016

  13. The Impact of Climate Change on Metal Transport in a Lowland Catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, René R.; van der Perk, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074715437; van der Grift, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373433484; de Nijs, Ton C M; Bierkens, Marc F P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of future climate change on heavy metal (i.e., Cd and Zn) transport from soils to surface waters in a contaminated lowland catchment. The WALRUS hydrological model is employed in a semi-distributed manner to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes in the

  14. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey; John A. Stanturf; Brian Roy. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More...

  15. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  16. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas inhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, J.; Votýpka, J.; Todd, A.; Jirků, M.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.; Neel, C.; Modrý, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Plasmodium spp. * African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  17. Evaluating barriers to native seedling establishment in an invaded Hawaiian lowland wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Cordell; R. Ostertag; B. Rowe; L. Sweinhart; L. Vasquez-Radonic; J. Michaud; T.C. Cole; J.R. Schulten

    2009-01-01

    Many tropical island forest ecosystems are dominated by non-native plant species and lack native species regeneration in the understorey. Comparison of replicated control and removal plots offers an opportunity to examine not only invasive species impacts but also the restoration potential of native species. In lowland Hawaiian wet forests little is known about native...

  18. Ecosystem and restoration consequences of invasive woody species removal in Hawaiian lowland wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; S. Cordell; J. Michaud; T.C. Cole; J.R. Schulten; K.M. Publico; J.H. Enoka

    2009-01-01

    A removal experiment was used to examine the restoration potential of a lowland wet forest in Hawaii, a remnant forest type that has been heavily invaded by non-native species and in which there is very little native species regeneration. All non-native woody and herbaceous biomass (approximately 45% of basal area) was removed in four 100-m² removal plots;...

  19. Stability and instability on Maya Lowlands tropical hillslope soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Cook, Duncan; Krause, Samantha; Doyle, Colin; Eshleman, Sara; Wells, Greta; Dunning, Nicholas; Brennan, Michael L.; Brokaw, Nicholas; Cortes-Rincon, Marisol; Hammond, Gail; Terry, Richard; Trein, Debora; Ward, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    Substantial lake core and other evidence shows accelerated soil erosion occurred in the Maya Lowlands of Central America over ancient Maya history from 3000 to 1000 years ago. But we have little evidence of the wider network of the sources and sinks of that eroded sediment cascade. This study begins to solve the mystery of missing soil with new research and a synthesis of existing studies of tropical forest soils along slopes in NW Belize. The research aim is to understand soil formation, long-term human impacts on slopes, and slope stability over time, and explore ecological implications. We studied soils on seven slopes in tropical forest areas that have experienced intensive ancient human impacts and those with little ancient impacts. All of our soil catenas, except for one deforested from old growth two years before, contain evidence for about 1000 years of stable, tropical forest cover since Maya abandonment. We characterized the physical, chemical, and taxonomic characteristics of soils at crest-shoulder, backslopes, footslopes, and depression locations, analyzing typical soil parameters, chemical elements, and carbon isotopes (δ13C) in dated and undated sequences. Four footslopes or depressions in areas of high ancient occupation preserved evidence of buried, clay-textured soils covered by coarser sediment dating from the Maya Classic period. Three footslopes from areas with scant evidence of ancient occupation had little discernable deposition. These findings add to a growing corpus of soil toposequences with similar facies changes in footslopes and depressions that date to the Maya period. Using major elemental concentrations across a range of catenas, we derived a measure (Ca + Mg) / (Al + Fe + Mn) of the relative contributions of autochthonous and allochthonous materials and the relative age of soil catenas. We found very low ratios in clearly older, buried soils in footslopes and depressions and on slopes that had not undergone ancient Maya erosion. We

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    of the clinical symptoms of allergy. In order to study the structural basis of allergen-antibody interaction, a complex between the major birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 and a Fab' fragment isolated from the murine monoclonal Bet v 1 antibody BV16 has been crystallized. Complex crystals belong to space group P1...

  1. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L M

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  2. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  3. Controls on anastomosis in lowland river systems: Towards process-based solutions to habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Paweł; Grabowski, Robert C; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2017-12-31

    Anastomosing rivers were historically common around the world before extensive agricultural and industrial development in river valleys. Few lowland anastomosing rivers remain in temperate zones, and the protection of these river-floodplain systems is an international conservation priority. However, the mechanisms that drive the creation and maintenance of multiple channels, i.e. anabranches, are not well understood, particularly for lowland rivers, making it challenging to identify effective management strategies. This study uses a novel multi-scale, process-based hydro-geomorphological approach to investigate the natural and anthropogenic controls on anastomosis in lowland river reaches. Using a wide range of data (hydrologic, cartographic, remote-sensing, historical), the study (i) quantifies changes in the planform of the River Narew, Poland over the last 100years, (ii) documents changes in the natural and anthropogenic factors that could be driving the geomorphic change, and (iii) develops a conceptual model of the controls of anastomosis. The results show that 110km of anabranches have been lost from the Narew National Park (6810ha), a 42% reduction in total anabranch length since 1900. The rates of anabranch loss have increased as the number of pressures inhibiting anabranch creation and maintenance has multiplied. The cessation of localized water level and channel management (fishing dams, water mills and timber rafting), the loss of traditional floodplain activities (seasonal mowing) and infrastructure construction (embanked roads and an upstream dam) are contributing to low water levels and flows, the deposition of sediment at anabranch inlets, the encroachment of common reed (Phragmites australis), and the eventual loss of anabranches. By identifying the processes driving the loss of anabranches, this study provides transferable insights into the controls of anastomosis in lowland rivers and the management solutions needed to preserve the unique

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of Beryllium-7 deposition in birch-tree leaves and grass in the northeast upland area of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Michael, E-mail: poschl@mendelu.c [Department of Molecular Biology and Radiobiology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 61300 Brno (Czech Republic); Brunclik, Tomas, E-mail: brunclik@georadis.co [Georadis s.r.o., Hudcova 56b, 621 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hanak, Jaromir, E-mail: jaromir.hanak@geology.c [Czech Geological Survey, Department of Environmental Geology and Geophysics, Leitnerova 22, 658 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    The activity concentrations of Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally occurring radioisotope produced in the atmosphere, were measured in leaves of birch-trees, above-ground parts of grass, soil and rainwater in the mountain massive Kralicky Sneznik (the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude about 750 m) in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007. Dried and ground samples of the plants and soils, and water samples from wet deposition were used to determine the {sup 7}Be content using a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The {sup 7}Be values ranged from 147.0 to 279.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 48.7 to 740.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 2.1 to 8.7 Bq kg{sup -1}, and from 0.6 to 1.9 Bq kg{sup -1} in birch-tree leaves, grass samples, soils, and rainwater, respectively. Insignificant inter-annual variations but significant increase in the {sup 7}Be activity concentrations during the spring and summer months were observed in birch-tree leaves and grass samples. The seasonal variation of the {sup 7}Be concentrations in grass samples correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.4663 and 0.6489) with precipitation. No similar correlation was found for {sup 7}Be in birch-tree leaves. Beryllium-7 content in birch-tree leaves and in aerial parts of grass was mainly caused by direct transport of {sup 7}Be from wet deposition into aerial parts of the observed plants.

  5. Adaptation and impairment of DNA repair function in pollen of Betula verrucosa and seeds of Oenothera biennis from differently radionuclide-contaminated sites of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubriak, I I; Grodzinsky, D M; Polischuk, V P; Naumenko, V D; Gushcha, N P; Micheev, A N; McCready, S J; Osborne, D J

    2008-01-01

    The plants that have remained in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl since 1986 encapsulate the effects of radiation. Such plants are chronically exposed to radionuclides that they have accumulated internally as well as to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides from external sources and from the soil. This radiation leads to genetic damage that can be countered by DNA repair systems. The objective of this study is to follow DNA repair and adaptation in haploid cells (birch pollen) and diploid cells (seed embryos of the evening primrose) from plants that have been growing in situ in different radionuclide fall-out sites in monitored regions surrounding the Chernobyl explosion of 1986. Radionuclide levels in soil were detected using gamma-spectroscopy and radiochemistry. DNA repair assays included measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis, electrophoretic determination of single-strand DNA breaks and image analysis of rDNA repeats after repair intervals. Nucleosome levels were established using an ELISA kit. Birch pollen collected in 1987 failed to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis, but pollen at gamma/beta-emitter sites has now recovered this ability. At a site with high levels of combined alpha- and gamma/beta-emitters, pollen still exhibits hidden damage, as shown by reduced unscheduled DNA synthesis and failure to repair lesions in rDNA repeats properly. Evening primrose seed embryos generated on plants at the same gamma/beta-emitter sites now show an improved DNA repair capacity and ability to germinate under abiotic stresses (salinity and accelerated ageing). Again those from combined alpha- and gamma/beta-contaminated site do not show this improvement. Chronic irradiation at gamma/beta-emitter sites has provided opportunities for plant cells (both pollen and embryo cells) to adapt to ionizing irradiation and other environmental stresses. This may be explained by facilitation of DNA repair function.

  6. Thomas Birch's 'Weekly Letter' (1741-66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-09-20

    Thomas Birch (1705-66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720-90), wrote a 'Weekly Letter' from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396-400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the 'Hardwicke circle' gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the 'Weekly Letter' constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science.

  7. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  8. Degradation effects in the extraction of antioxidants from birch bark using water at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Zettersten, Camilla; Nyholm, Leif; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-02-24

    Experiments with birch bark samples have been carried to enable a distinction between extraction and degradation effects during pressurised hot water extraction. Two samples, E80 and E180, contained birch bark extracts obtained after extraction at 80 and 180°C for up to 45 min, respectively. Two other samples, P80 and P180, were only extracted for 5 min at the two temperatures and were thereafter filtered and hydrothermally treated at 80 and 180°C, respectively. During the latter treatment, samples were collected at different times to assess the stability of the extracted compounds. An offline DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, as well as a high performance liquid chromatographic separation coupled to an electrochemical detector, were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the processed samples. The results obtained with the different techniques were compared to assess the yield of the extraction and degradation processes. In addition, an online hyphenated system comprising high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array; electrochemical; and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ECD-MS/MS) was used to study the compositions of the extracts in more detail. The results for the samples processed at 80°C showed that the extraction reached a steady-state already after 5 min, and that the extracted compounds were stable throughout the entire extraction process. Processing at 180°C, on the other hand, gave rise to partly degraded extracts with a multitude of peaks in both the diode array and electrochemical detectors, and a higher antioxidant capacity compared to for the extracts obtained at 80°C. It is concluded that HPLC-DAD-ECD is a more appropriate technique for the determination of antioxidants than the DPPH assay. The mass spectrometric results indicate that one of the extracted antioxidants, catechin, was isomerised to its diastereoisomers; (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin. Copyright

  9. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  10. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette, E-mail: abp@bios.au.dk [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Göthe, Emma [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Riis, Tenna [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, Room 217, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); O' Hare, Matthew T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  11. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  13. On the occurrence of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types at Mabura Hill, Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Gradstein, Stephan Robbert

    1990-01-01

    A floristic and ecological study of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types around Mabura Hill, Guyana, South America, yielded 170 species: 52 mosses, 82 liverworts and 36 macrolichens. Lejeuneaceae account for about 30% of the species and are the dominant cryptogamic family of the lowland rain forest. Special attention was paid to the flora of the forest canopy, by using mountaineering techniques. It appeared that 50% of the bryophyte species and 86% of the macroli...

  14. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    1997-01-01

    The ranging and grouping patterns of a gorilla group were studied during 27 months from 1990-1992 at the Bai Hokou study site, Central African Republic. The study group ranged far daily (average = 2.3 km/day) and had a large home range (22.9 km2), relative to mountain gorillas, and ranging patterns differed between years. During 1990-1992, the bimale study group foraged less cohesively and had more flexible grouping patterns than mountain gorillas. The study group sometimes split into two distinct foraging subgroups, each led by a silverback, and these subgroups occasionally slept apart (mean = 950 m apart). Lowland gorillas rely on many of the same fruit resources as sympatric chimpanzees, and under certain demographic situations gorillas, like sympatric chimpanzees, may adapt their foraging group size to reduce intragroup feeding competition. However, the fiber content of the lowland gorilla diet likely relaxes constraints on foraging party size and facilitates group cohesion relative to chimpanzees.

  15. Early Middle Formative Occupation in the Central Maya Lowlands: Recent Evidence from Cahal Pech, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Awe

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century of intensive archaeological research the early Middle Formative (or Middle Preclassic period (1000-600 B.C. continues to be one of the most enigmatic eras in the study of Lowland Maya prehistory. While several factors contribte to this situation, the primary cause for this obscurity lies in the fact that few sites have produced either contextual or stratigraphic evidence of occupation during this phase (Rice 1976; Andrews 1988. Concsequently, any new site with evidence of Middle Formative occupation can contribute substantially to our limited knowledge of this pioneering stage of the lowland Maya. This paper introduces one such site, Cahal Pech, where recent investigations have uncovered a stratigraphic sequence that tentatively spans the early Middle Formative to the Late Classic period. It provides a preliminary description, of the site's early Middle Formative configuration and briefly discusses its possible regional affiliation.

  16. Lowland rice yield estimates based on air temperature and solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro Júnior, M.J.; Sentelhas, P.C.; Moraes, A.V.C.; Villela, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    Two regression equations were developed to estimate lowland rice yield as a function of air temperature and incoming solar radiation, during the crop yield production period in Pindamonhangaba, SP, Brazil. The following rice cultivars were used: IAC-242, IAC-100, IAC-101 and IAC-102. The value of optimum air temperature obtained was 25.0°C and of optimum global solar radiation was 475 cal.cm -2 , day -1 . The best agrometeorological model was the one that related least deviation of air temperature and solar radiation in relation to the optimum value obtained through a multiple linear regression. The yield values estimated by the model showed good fit to actual yields of lowland rice (less than 10%). (author) [pt

  17. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  18. Turbidity and plant growth in large slow-flowing lowland rivers: progress report March 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Marker, A.F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The River Great Ouse is a highly managed large lowland river in eastern England. It drains rich arable land in the Midlands and Eastern England and over the years nutrient concentrations have increased and there is a general perception that the clarity of the water has decreased. The main river channels have been dredged a number of times partly for flood control reasons but also for recreational boating and navigation activities. The period covered by this first report has been used to devel...

  19. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Le?o-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorph...

  20. TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF POORLY KNOWN CARABIDS (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE OF THE CASPIAN LOWLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belousov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New data are given on the distribution of the carabids Clivinopsis conicicollis Reitter and Anaulacus (Aephnidius ruficornis Chaudoir in the Caspain Lowland . Photographs of both species are provided and their distribution is mapped. C. conicicollis is for the first time recorded for Daghestan while members of the genus Anaulacus were not previously known for Russia, Azerbaidjan, Iran, and Turkmenistan. A determination key is given to distinguish between species of the genus Anaulacus and members of the related genus Masoreus Dejean.

  1. Hydrology and phosphorus transport simulation in a lowland polder by a coupled modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renhua; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Lingling; Gao, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the rain-runoff processes and phosphorus transport processes in lowland polders is critical in finding reasonable measures to alleviate the eutrophication problem of downstream rivers and lakes. This study develops a lowland Polder Hydrology and Phosphorus modeling System (PHPS) by coupling the WALRUS-paddy model and an improved phosphorus module of a Phosphorus Dynamic model for lowland Polder systems (PDP). It considers some important hydrological characteristics, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, groundwater-surface water feedback, human-controlled irrigation and discharge, and detailed physical and biochemical cycles of phosphorus in surface water. The application of the model in the Jianwei polder shows that the simulated phosphorus matches well with the measured values. The high precision of this model combined with its low input data requirement and efficient computation make it practical and easy to the water resources management of Chinese polders. Parameter sensitivity analysis demonstrates that K uptake , c Q2 , c W1 , and c Q1 exert a significant effect on the modeled results, whereas K resuspensionMax , K settling , and K mineralization have little effect on the modeled total phosphorus. Among the three types of uncertainties (i.e., parameter, initial condition, and forcing uncertainties), forcing uncertainty produces the strongest effect on the simulated phosphorus. Based on the analysis result of annual phosphorus balance when considering the high import from irrigation and fertilization, lowland polder is capable of retaining phosphorus and reducing phosphorus export to surrounding aquatic ecosystems because of their special hydrological regulation regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An interactive modelling tool for understanding hydrological processes in lowland catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS), a rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater (Brauer et al., 2014ab). WALRUS explicitly simulates processes which are important in lowland catchments, such as feedbacks between saturated and unsaturated zone and between groundwater and surface water. WALRUS has a simple model structure and few parameters with physical connotations. Some default functions (which can be changed easily for research purposes) are implemented to facilitate application by practitioners and students. The effect of water management on hydrological variables can be simulated explicitly. The model description and applications are published in open access journals (Brauer et al, 2014). The open source code (provided as R package) and manual can be downloaded freely (www.github.com/ClaudiaBrauer/WALRUS). We organised a short course for Dutch water managers and consultants to become acquainted with WALRUS. We are now adapting this course as a stand-alone tutorial suitable for a varied, international audience. In addition, simple models can aid teachers to explain hydrological principles effectively. We used WALRUS to generate examples for simple interactive tools, which we will present at the EGU General Assembly. C.C. Brauer, A.J. Teuling, P.J.J.F. Torfs, R. Uijlenhoet (2014a): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): a lumped rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2313-2332. C.C. Brauer, P.J.J.F. Torfs, A.J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet (2014b): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4007-4028.

  3. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  4. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta in small lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conallin J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7–20 cm juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI’s. The statistical confidence of HSI’s was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22 fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected for at all sites, but selection was inconsistent among sites for the variables substrate and velocity. The results indicate that during daytime summer conditions water depth is a significant variable for parr habitat selection in these small lowland streams, with cover also being important. Therefore, daytime refugia may be a critical limiting factor for parr in small lowland streams, and important for stream management actions under the Water Framework Directive.

  6. Survival and growth rates of juvenile salmonids reared in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golski Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of propagating juvenile trout, Salmo trutta L. in small lowland streams and to evaluate the impact of the environmental conditions in the streams on the juvenile fish. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario and sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta early fry fed under controlled conditions were used to stock third-order lowland streams. During summer, fall, and spring catches, fry were counted, measured, and weighed. The following parameters were calculated using the data collected: fry stocking density (ind. m-2; survival; specific mortality rate (SMR; length range; mean specimen length; body weight; mean body weight; specific growth rate (SGR; body condition (Fulton’s index. The ichthyological studies were accompanied by simultaneous analyses of environmental conditions that were performed monthly, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in spring and fall. No differences were observed in the biological parameters analyzed between sea trout and brown trout. Variability in environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygenation, conductivity, and stream width and depth were associated with differentiation in the biological parameters of the fry. The results clearly indicate that the considerable potential of small lowland streams for the propagation of salmonid juvenile stages is currently underexploited.

  7. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    , and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle...... O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia....... The capillary oxygen conductance of the lower extremity, a measure of oxygen diffusing capacity, was decreased in the Danish lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization, but was still higher than the value obtained from the high altitude natives. The values were (in ml min(-1) mmHg(-1)) 55.2+/-3.7 (SL), 48...

  8. Stimulate The Growth of Rice Using Endophytic Bacteria from Lowland Rice Plant Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and selection of endophytic bacteria from healthy food crops grown in lowland ecosystem is important to be conducted in order to get growth-stimulating endophytic bacteria at soil with low fertility level so that capable to optimize initial growth of food crops and subsequently can increase productivity level of lowland soil.The research objective was to isolate and to test the IAA-producing endophytic bacteria isolate in stimulating the rice crop growth at lowland area. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from tissues of rice, corn and peanut crops which grown at shallow swamp land in Ogan Ilir and Ogan Komering Ilir Districts, South Sumatra, Indonesia. There was nine isolates of nitrogen-fixer endophytic bacteria that capable to contribute IAA phytohormone into their growth media. The P31 isolate from rice crop tisssue of 2 months old produce the best rice sprouts than other isolates. This isolate can contribute of about 10 mg kg-1 IAA to its growth medium and increase the crowns dry weight and the roots dry weight respectively with magnitudes of 133% and 225% compared to control treatment. Concentration and absorbtion of N for rice crops innoculated with P31 isolates had increased by 169% and 400%, recpectively. The P31 isolates had been identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

  9. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on the Collapse of Lowland Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Demarest, Arthur A.; Brenner, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.

    2016-06-01

    Paleoclimatologists have discovered abundant evidence that droughts coincided with collapse of the Lowland Classic Maya civilization, and some argue that climate change contributed to societal disintegration. Many archaeologists, however, maintain that drought cannot explain the timing or complex nature of societal changes at the end of the Classic Period, between the eighth and eleventh centuries ce. This review presents a compilation of climate proxy data indicating that droughts in the ninth to eleventh century were the most severe and frequent in Maya prehistory. Comparison with recent archaeological evidence, however, indicates an earlier beginning for complex economic and political processes that led to the disintegration of states in the southern region of the Maya lowlands that precedes major droughts. Nonetheless, drought clearly contributed to the unusual severity of the Classic Maya collapse, and helped to inhibit the type of recovery seen in earlier periods of Maya prehistory. In the drier northern Maya Lowlands, a later political collapse at ca. 1000 ce appears to be related to ongoing extreme drought. Future interdisciplinary research should use more refined climatological and archaeological data to examine the relationship between climate and social processes throughout the entirety of Maya prehistory.

  11. Cerebral pressure-flow relationship in lowlanders and natives at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Lucas, Samuel J E; Lewis, Nia C S; duManoir, Gregory R; Dumanior, Gregory R; Smith, Kurt J; Bakker, Akke; Basnyat, Aperna S; Ainslie, Philip N

    2014-02-01

    We investigated if dynamic cerebral pressure-flow relationships in lowlanders are altered at high altitude (HA), differ in HA natives and after return to sea level (SL). Lowlanders were tested at SL (n=16), arrival to 5,050 m, after 2-week acclimatization (with and without end-tidal PO2 normalization), and upon SL return. High-altitude natives (n=16) were tested at 5,050 m. Testing sessions involved resting spontaneous and driven (squat-stand maneuvers at very low (VLF, 0.05 Hz) and low (LF, 0.10 Hz) frequencies) measures to maximize blood pressure (BP) variability and improve assessment of the pressure-flow relationship using transfer function analysis (TFA). Blood flow velocity was assessed in the middle (MCAv) and posterior (PCAv) cerebral arteries. Spontaneous VLF and LF phases were reduced and coherence was elevated with acclimatization to HA (Pflow coupling. However, when BP was driven, both the frequency- and time-domain metrics were unaltered and comparable with HA natives. Acute mountain sickness was unrelated to TFA metrics. In conclusion, the driven cerebral pressure-flow relationship (in both frequency and time domains) is unaltered at 5,050 m in lowlanders and HA natives. Our findings indicate that spontaneous changes in TFA metrics do not necessarily reflect physiologically important alterations in the capacity of the brain to regulate BP.

  12. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  13. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E

    2011-10-26

    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs.

  14. An entomopathogenic fungus and nematode prove ineffective for biocontrol of an invasive leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Progar; J.J. Kruse; John Lundquist; K.P. Zogas; M.J. Rinella

    2015-01-01

    A non-native invasive sawfly, the amber-marked birch leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), was first detected in south-central Alaska in 1996 and is now widely distributed throughout urban and wild birch trees in Alaska. Impacts have been considered primarily aesthetic because leaf miners cause leaves of birch trees (Betula...

  15. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  16. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. Zlonis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  17. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  18. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L.

    2005-01-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs

  19. Modulation of allergic immune responses by mucosal application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Repa, A; Wild, C; Pollak, A; Pot, B; Breiteneder, H; Wiedermann, U; Mercenier, A

    2006-07-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to modulate the host immune system and clinical trials have demonstrated that specific strains have the capacity to reduce allergic symptoms. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the potential of recombinant LAB producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 for mucosal vaccination against birch pollen allergy. Recombinant Bet v 1-producing Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis strains were constructed. Their immunogenicity was compared with purified Bet v 1 by subcutaneous immunization of mice. Intranasal application of the live recombinant strains was performed to test their immunomodulatory potency in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy. Bet v 1 produced by the LAB was recognized by monoclonal anti-Bet v 1 and IgE antibodies from birch pollen-allergic patients. Systemic immunization with the recombinant strains induced significantly lower IgG1/IgG2a ratios compared with purified Bet v 1. Intranasal pretreatment led to reduced allergen-specific IgE vs enhanced IgG2a levels and reduced interleukin (IL)-5 production of splenocytes in vitro, indicating a shift towards non-allergic T-helper-1 (Th1) responses. Airway inflammation, i.e. eosinophils and IL-5 in lung lavages, was reduced using either Bet v 1-producing or control strains. Allergen-specific secretory IgA responses were enhanced in lungs and intestines after pretreatment with only the Bet v 1-producing strains. Mucosal vaccination with live recombinant LAB, leading to a shift towards non-allergic immune responses along with enhanced allergen-specific mucosal IgA levels offers a promising approach to prevent systemic and local allergic immune responses.

  20. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  1. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Steinbrenner

    Full Text Available Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH. A birch bark dry extract (TE obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold, while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold. These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications

  2. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  3. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of talar morphology in extant gorilla taxa from highland and lowland habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Ryan P; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Mcnulty, Kieran P

    2015-01-01

    Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to climb significantly more often than eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei), a behavioral distinction attributable to major differences in their respective habitats (i.e., highland vs. lowland). Genetic evidence suggests that the lineages leading to these taxa began diverging from one another between approximately 1 and 3 million years ago. Thus, gorillas offer a special opportunity to examine the degree to which morphology of recently diverged taxa may be "fine-tuned" to differing ecological requirements. Using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics, we compared talar morphology in a sample of 87 specimens including western (lowland), mountain (highland), and grauer gorillas (lowland and highland populations). Talar shape was captured with a series of landmarks and semilandmarks superimposed by generalized Procrustes analysis. A between-group principal components analysis of overall talar shape separates gorillas by ecological habitat and by taxon. An analysis of only the trochlea and lateral malleolar facet identifies subtle variations in trochlear shape between western lowland and lowland grauer gorillas, potentially indicative of convergent evolution of arboreal adaptations in the talus. Lastly, talar shape scales differently with centroid size for highland and lowland gorillas, suggesting that ankle morphology may track body-size mediated variation in arboreal behaviors differently depending on ecological setting. Several of the observed shape differences are linked biomechanically to the facilitation of climbing in lowland gorillas and to stability and load-bearing on terrestrial substrates in the highland taxa, providing an important comparative model for studying morphological variation in groups known only from fossils (e.g., early hominins). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The structure factors deposited with PDB entry 3k78 show properties inconsistent with experimentally observed diffraction data, and without uncertainty represent calculated structure factors. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). The abnormal refinement is compared with normal refinement of an isomorphous variant structure of Bet v 1l. A variety of analytical tools, including the application of Diederichs plots, Rσ plots and bulk-solvent analysis are discussed as promising aids in validation. The examination of the Bet v 1d structure also cautions against the practice of indicating poorly defined protein chain residues through zero occupancies. The recommendation to preserve diffraction images is amplified

  6. Kinetic modeling of multi-feed simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated birch to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruifei; Koppram, Rakesh; Olsson, Lisbeth; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2014-11-01

    Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is a feasible option for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials at high substrate concentrations. In this work, a segregated kinetic model was developed for simulation of fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of steam-pretreated birch, using substrate, enzymes and cell feeds. The model takes into account the dynamics of the cellulase-cellulose system and the cell population during SSCF, and the effects of pre-cultivation of yeast cells on fermentation performance. The model was cross-validated against experiments using different feed schemes. It could predict fermentation performance and explain observed differences between measured total yeast cells and dividing cells very well. The reproducibility of the experiments and the cell viability were significantly better in fed-batch than in batch SSCF at 15% and 20% total WIS contents. The model can be used for simulation of fed-batch SSCF and optimization of feed profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  8. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Suberin fatty acids isolated from outer birch bark improve moisture barrier properties of cellulose ether films intended for tablet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Halenius, Anna; Paavo, Maaja; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Pirttimaa, Minni; Paaver, Urve; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Kogermann, Karin; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-07-15

    We showed that the addition of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) even at small concentrations significantly improves the water vapor barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. SFAs were isolated from the outer birch bark using extractive hydrolysis. The effects of SFAs on the film formation of aqueous HPMC were investigated with free films plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Special attention was paid on the physical solid-state, moisture barrier and mechanical stress-strain properties of films intended for tablet film coatings. Topography and surface morphology, glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young's modulus, and water vapor permeation (WVP) of films were studied. The addition of SFAs lowered the Tg of films suggesting partial enhancement in film plasticization. The WVP of films decreased with increasing SFAs concentration up to 15% (calculated as a % w/w from a polymer weight). The WVP value for a non-suberized reference film and suberized film plasticized with PEG 400 was 2.13×10(-6) and 0.69[×10(-6) g/(mm(2)×h)×mm/Pa], respectively. The addition of SFAs impaired the mechanical stress-strain properties of HPMC films by reducing the deformation capacity of film. In conclusion, the film properties and performance of aqueous HPMC can be modified by including SFAs in the films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thomas Birch's ‘Weekly Letter’ (1741–66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Birch (1705–66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720–90), wrote a ‘Weekly Letter’ from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396–400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the ‘Hardwicke circle’ gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the ‘Weekly Letter’ constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science. PMID:25254279

  11. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    Full Text Available The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investigated in 180 rice landraces under both normal and osmotic conditions via methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP technique. Great alterations (52.9~54.3% of total individual-locus combinations of DNA methylation are recorded when rice encountering the osmotic stress. Although the general level of epigenetic differentiation was very low, considerable level of ΦST (0.134~0.187 was detected on the highly divergent epiloci (HDE. The HDE detected in normal condition tended to stay at low levels in upland rice, particularly the ones de-methylated in responses to osmotic stress. Three out of four selected HDE genes differentially expressed between upland and lowland rice under normal or stressed conditions. Moreover, once a gene at HDE was up-/down-regulated in responses to the osmotic stress, its expression under the normal condition was higher/lower in upland rice. This result suggested expressions of genes at the HDE in upland rice might be more adaptive to the osmotic stress. The epigenetic divergence and its influence on the gene expression should contribute to the higher drought-resistance in upland rice as it is domesticated in the water-limited environment.

  12. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Huang, Weixia; Xiong, Jie; Tao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Wei, Haibin; Yue, Yunxia; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investigated in 180 rice landraces under both normal and osmotic conditions via methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Great alterations (52.9~54.3% of total individual-locus combinations) of DNA methylation are recorded when rice encountering the osmotic stress. Although the general level of epigenetic differentiation was very low, considerable level of ΦST (0.134~0.187) was detected on the highly divergent epiloci (HDE). The HDE detected in normal condition tended to stay at low levels in upland rice, particularly the ones de-methylated in responses to osmotic stress. Three out of four selected HDE genes differentially expressed between upland and lowland rice under normal or stressed conditions. Moreover, once a gene at HDE was up-/down-regulated in responses to the osmotic stress, its expression under the normal condition was higher/lower in upland rice. This result suggested expressions of genes at the HDE in upland rice might be more adaptive to the osmotic stress. The epigenetic divergence and its influence on the gene expression should contribute to the higher drought-resistance in upland rice as it is domesticated in the water-limited environment.

  13. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  14. ADAPTATION OF LOCAL SWEET POTATO CLONES IN THA LOWLANDS OF PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demas Wamaer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of study was to obtain local clones of adaptive lowland ubijalar in Papua. Experiment was conducted in lowland dry season 2012/2013 in two locations, namely Keerom and Jayapura districts. Randomized Block Design (RAK, 10 local varieties of adaptive lowland Papua and two national superior varieties (Beta 2 and Cangkuang were used. Cultivation technique used is a bund system. Results: there were three local varieties with higher yield and yield potential than Beta-2 comparison varieties (22.4 t/ha with yield potential 22.9 t/ha and Cangkuang (20.6 t/ha with potential yield 21,6 ta/ha, while the three local varieties are Ningkay-3 having average productivity 27,5 t/ha (yield potential 28,0 t/ha Ningkay-6 has productivity 24,9 t ha yield potential 28.1 t/ha and Ordinance Tingkamang-1 has an average productivity of 23.8 t/ha (yield potential of 24.5 t/ha. These three varieties are Ningkay-3, Ningkay-6, and Oringking Tingkamang-1 each also has a very high tuber-dry production either compared to other test varieties or with a comparison variety, the averaged average is 9,3; 8,0 and 7.3 t/ha with dry matter 33.8; 32.3 and 30.8 percent respectively. Further testing with various seasons and more locations and varying altitude is required

  15. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  16. Ecohydrological modelling of water discharge and nitrate loads in a mesoscale lowland catchment, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fohrer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to identify the capacities of applying an ecohydrological model for simulating flow and to assess the impact of point and non-point source pollution on nitrate loads in a complex lowland catchment, which has special hydrological characteristics in comparison with those of other catchments. The study area Kielstau catchment has a size of approximately 50 km2 and is located in the North German lowlands. The water quality is not only influenced by the predominating agricultural land use in the catchment as cropland and pasture, but also by six municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool are useful tools for simulating nutrient loads in river catchments. Diffuse entries from the agriculture resulting from fertilizers as well as punctual entries from the wastewater treatment plants are implemented in the model set-up.

    The results of this study show good agreement between simulated and measured daily discharges with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and 0.88 for the calibration period (November 1998 to October 2004; 0.75 and 0.92 for the validation period (November 2004 to December 2007. The model efficiency for daily nitrate loads is 0.64 and 0.5 for the calibration period (June 2005 to May 2007 and the validation period (June 2007 to December 2007, respectively. The study revealed that SWAT performed satisfactorily in simulating daily flow and nitrate loads at the lowland catchment in Northern Germany.

  17. Sources, distribution and export coefficient of phosphorus in lowland polders of Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Jiang, Yong; Yin, Hongbin; Amiri, Bahman Jabbarian

    2017-12-01

    Identifying phosphorus (P) sources, distribution and export from lowland polders is important for P pollution management, however, is challenging due to the high complexity of hydrological and P transport processes in lowland areas. In this study, the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of P export coefficient (PEC) from all the 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, China were estimated using a coupled P model for describing P dynamics in a polder system. The estimated amount of P export from polders in Lake Taihu Basin during 2013 was 1916.2 t/yr, with a spatially-averaged PEC of 1.8 kg/ha/yr. PEC had peak values (more than 4.0 kg/ha/yr) in the polders near/within the large cities, and was high during the rice-cropping season. Sensitivity analysis based on the coupled P model revealed that the sensitive factors controlling the PEC varied spatially and changed through time. Precipitation and air temperature were the most sensitive factors controlling PEC. Culvert controlling and fertilization were sensitive factors controlling PEC during some periods. This study demonstrated an estimation of PEC from 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, and an identification of sensitive environmental factors affecting PEC. The investigation of polder P export in a watershed scale is helpful for water managers to learn the distribution of P sources, to identify key P sources, and thus to achieve best management practice in controlling P export from lowland areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolving hydrologic connectivity in discontinuous permafrost lowlands: what it means for lake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, M. A.; Jepsen, S. M.; Rover, J.; Voss, C. I.; Briggs, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost influence on the hydrologic connectivity of surface water bodies in high-latitude lowlands is complicated by subsurface heterogeneity and the propensity of the system to change over time. In general, permafrost limits the subsurface exchange of water, solute, and nutrients between lakes and rivers. It follows that permafrost thaw could enhance subsurface hydrologic connectivity among surface water bodies, but the impact of this process on lake distribution is not well known. Changes in the extent of lakes in interior Alaska have important ecological and societal impacts since lakes provide (1) critical habitat for migratory arctic shorebirds and waterfowl, fish, and wildlife, and (2) provisional, recreational, and cultural resources for local communities. We utilize electromagnetic imaging of the shallow subsurface and remote sensing of lake level dynamics in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, USA, together with water balance modeling, to gain insight into the influence of discontinuous permafrost on lowland lake systems. In the study region with relatively low precipitation, observations suggest that lakes that are hydrologically isolated during normal conditions are sustained by periodic river flooding events, including ice-jam floods that occur during river ice break-up. Climatically-influenced alterations in flooding frequency and intensity, as well as depth to permafrost, are quantitatively assessed in the context of lake maintenance. Scenario modeling is used to evaluate lake level evolution under plausible changing conditions. Model results demonstrate how permafrost degradation can reduce the dependence of typical lowland lakes on flooding events. Study results also suggest that river flooding may recharge a more spatially widespread zone of lakes and wetlands under future scenarios of permafrost table deepening and enhanced subsurface hydrologic connectivity.

  19. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  20. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-L-Sisworo; H-Rasjid; Haryanto; Idawati

    2008-01-01

    Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days), dry season (120 days), wet season (120 days) at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m 2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m 2 . The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15 N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1) and IR-64 (V2); several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc), Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi ), Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St), grain (G), plant (P1 = St + G) in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to) of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu) of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S) of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1) is better than V2 (IR-64) expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N. (author)

  1. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Sisworo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days, dry season (120 days, wet season (120 days at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m2. The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1 and IR-64 (V2; several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 = urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc, Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi , Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St, grain (G, plant (P1 = St + G in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1 is better than V2 (IR-64 expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N

  2. Cascading effects of flow reduction on the benthic invertebrate community in a lowland river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Pusch, Martin T.; Lorenz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    on dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) have not yet received much attention. We compared the macroinvertebrate composition between reference conditions and a situation after several years of discharge reduction in the Spree River (Brandenburg, Germany). Community composition shifted from rheophilic species...... concentration minima of less than 5 mg l−1 which prevailed 74% of the days in summer. This depletion of DO after flow reduction presumably caused the observed species turnover. Hence, flow reduction in lowland rivers may not only directly impair the ecological functions provided by benthic macroinvertebrates...

  3. Hydrological functions of a mine-impacted and natural peatland-dominated watershed, James Bay Lowland

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Melissa; Whittington, Pete; Price, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Study region: This study was conducted in Northern Ontario, Canada, in the middle of the Hudson-James Bay. Lowland: one of the world’s largest wetland complexes. Study focus: Northern latitudes are expected to be the most impacted by climate change in the next century and adding to this stressor are increased mineral exploration activities, such as the De Beers Victor Mine, a large open-pit diamond mine. Because of the extremely low relief and presence of marine sediments, horizontal runof...

  4. Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point-to-catchment scale in a lowland stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, J. R.; Sebök, Éva; Duque, C.

    2015-01-01

    was quantified using differential gauging with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). At the catchment scale (26–114 km2), runoff sources during main rain events were investigated by hydrograph separations based on electrical conductivity (EC) and stable isotopes 2H/1H. Clear differences in runoff sources...... response to precipitation events. This shows a large variability in groundwater discharge to the stream, despite the similar lowland characteristics of sub-catchments indicating the usefulness of environmental tracers for obtaining information about integrated catchment functioning during precipitation...

  5. Shorth-Term Impacts of Weed Cutting on the Physical Habitats in Lowland Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Rørth, Frederikke Rahbek

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of weed cutting at 3 reaches in two Danish lowland rivers with the objectives of examining the response to cutting in rivers with contrasting physical conditions, macrophyte diversity, and assemblage patterns. Physical characteristics and abundance of macrophyte species were...... registered 3 or 4 times throughout the study period on all reaches. Weed cutting did not affect the total coverage of stone, gravel and sand and substratum homogeneity, and no common response was found among the reaches. This result is likely to reflect both initial differences in the physical environment...

  6. Comparison of different base flow separation methods in a lowland catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of water resources available in different storages and moving along different pathways in a catchment is important for its optimal use and protection, and also for the prediction of floods and low flows. Moreover, understanding of the runoff generation processes is essential for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes on the hydrological response of a catchment. Many methods for base flow separation exist, but hardly one focuses on the specific behaviour of temperate lowland areas. This paper presents the results of a base flow separation study carried out in a lowland area in the Netherlands. In this study, field observations of precipitation, groundwater and surface water levels and discharges, together with tracer analysis are used to understand the runoff generation processes in the catchment. Several tracer and non-tracer based base flow separation methods were applied to the discharge time series, and their results are compared.

    The results show that groundwater levels react fast to precipitation events in this lowland area with shallow groundwater tables. Moreover, a good correlation was found between groundwater levels and discharges suggesting that most of the measured discharge also during floods comes from groundwater storage. It was estimated using tracer hydrological approaches that approximately 90% of the total discharge is groundwater displaced by event water mainly infiltrating in the northern part of the catchment, and only the remaining 10% is surface runoff. The impact of remote recharge causing displacement of near channel groundwater during floods could also be motivated with hydraulic approximations. The results show further that when base flow separation is meant to identify groundwater contributions to stream flow, process based methods (e.g. the rating curve method; Kliner and Knezek, 1974 are more reliable than other simple non-tracer based methods. Also, the recursive filtering method

  7. FEATURES DELINEATION AND USE OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED THE CASPIAN LOWLAND THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kurbanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of delimitation of state property on specially protected areas land of the Caspian lowland in Daghestan need further study. It is Requires the definition of the status of land of recreational zones of the coast of the Caspian sea, including coastal and border strips, legal and logical resolution of the millet for the management of these lands as Federal property. It is Necessary to accelerate the work on the delimitation of the remaining areas of land in this zone, to take inventory, to put these lands on cadastral registration and to sign lease agreements with businesses on these lands. 

  8. The role of species functional traits for distribuitional patterns in lowland stream vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Giulia; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    Freshwater ecosystems provide goods and service to human society and invasion is a major threat to them. Plant invasion affect community dynamics, threatens biodiversity and promote biological homogenization. In this study we explore functional traits in three groups of species e.g. invasive...... species, disturbance-tolerant species and rare species in lowland streams. In order to investigate the role of functional traits for species distributional patterns we investigate relationships between a range of species features and species abundance in app. 1,200 stream sites in Denmark covering...

  9. Radar mapping, archaeology, and ancient land use in the Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. E. W.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Culbert, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the use of synthetic aperture radar in aerial survey of the southern Maya lowlands suggest the presence of very large areas drained by ancient canals for the purpose of intensive cultivation. Preliminary ground checks in several very limited areas confirm the existence of canals and raised fields. Excavations and ground surveys by several scholars provide valuable comparative information. Taken together, the new data suggest that Late Classic period Maya civilization was firmly grounded in large-scale and intensive cultivation of swampy zones.

  10. The fate of cadmium in field soils of the Danubian Lowland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lichner, Ľ.; Dlapa, P.; Šír, Miloslav; Čipáková, A.; Houšková, B.; Faško, P.; Nagy, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, 1-2 (2006), s. 154-165 ISSN 0167-1987 Grant - others:Czech program of bilateral cooperation in science and technology KONTAKT(SK) 185/99; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0619/03; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 2/3032/23 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Danubian Lowland * Macropore flow * Field soil * Cadmium * Adsorption Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2006

  11. Calcium and Phosphor Status of Beef Cattle in Upland and Lowland of Jratunseluna River Basin in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno; Subrata, A.; Surahmanto; Christiyanto, M.; Surono; Achmadi, J.; Wahyono, F.; Pangestu, E.

    2018-02-01

    The study was aimed to obtain information regarding feed given and mineralstatus (Ca, P) in fodder and beef cattle in Jratunseluna river basin. Feed and drinking water given by farmers identified for 14 days and extracted sampling for mineralanalysis, t-test was used to compare mineral status in upland and lowland. Results of the research showed that feed given by farmers were varying. The ratio of forage/concentrates in lowland and upland areas was different, i.e. 67: 33 and 30: 70, respectivelly. Ca content on forage given in upland areas ranged from 0.17 to 0.74%, and concentrates from 0.002 to 0.49%, while Ca content on forage given in lowland areas ranged from 0.33 to 0.52%, and concentrates ranged from 0.38 to 0.49%. P content on forage in upland areas ranged from 0.02 to 0.04%, concentrates ranged from 0.018 to 0.09%,while P content on forage in lowland areas ranged from 0.03 to 0.07%, and concentrates ranged from 0.04 to 0.07% . Ca and P consumption in upland areas were 301.06 and 54.73 g, and 391.92 and 65.70 g in lowland.Caand P content of beef cattle’s hair in upland were 0.14 and 0.01%, while in lowland areas were 0.11 and 0.03%.It can be concluded that Ca and P intakeof beef cattle in Jratunseluna river basin were less and mineral status of Ca and P in marginal condition.

  12. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  13. Non-destructive neutron activation analysis studies on a withering disease of lowland rice occurring near an iodine plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, N.; Moriyama, N.

    1985-01-01

    The withering disease of lowland rice that seems to be an injury caused by excess iodine was recognized in the paddy fields near an iodine isolation plant. To investigate the cause of this disease, a pot experiment of lowland rice was performed and iodine contents of soils and rice plants were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The soils of the disease-produced paddy fields were remarkably polluted with iodine, its content in roots of diseased rice plants was higher than the reported limiting values for the disease. (author)

  14. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  15. Erosion rates and landscape evolution of the lowlands of the Upper Paraguay river basin (Brazil) from cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; Bierman, Paul R.; Assine, Mario Luis; Rood, Dylan H.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Merino, Eder Renato

    2015-04-01

    The importance of Earth's low sloping areas in regard to global erosion and sediment fluxes has been widely and vigorously debated. It is a crucial area of research to elucidate geologically meaningful rates of land-surface change and thus the speed of element cycling on Earth. However, there are large portions of Earth where erosion rates have not been well or extensively measured, for example, the tropical lowlands. The Cuiabana lowlands are an extensive low-altitude and low-relief dissected metamorphic terrain situated in the Upper Paraguay river basin, central-west Brazil. Besides exposures of highly variable dissected metamorphic rocks, flat residual lateritic caps related to a Late Cenozoic planation surface dominate interfluves of the Cuiabana lowlands. The timescale over which the lowlands evolved and the planation surface developed, and the rate at which they have been modified by erosion, are poorly known. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in outcropping metamorphic bedrock and clastic-lateritic caps to quantify rates of erosion of the surface and associated landforms in order to better understand the Quaternary landscape evolution of these lowlands. Overall, slow erosion rates (mean 10 m/Ma) suggest a stable tectonic environment in these lowlands. Erosion rates vary widely between different lithologies (range 0.57 to 28.3 m/Ma) consistent with differential erosion driving regional landform evolution. The lowest erosion rates are associated with the low-relief area (irregular plains), where clastic-laterite (mean 0.67 m/Ma) and quartzite (mean 2.6 m/Ma) crop out, whereas the highest erosion rates are associated with dissection of residual hills, dominated by metasandstone (mean 11.6 m/Ma) and phyllite (mean 27.6 m/Ma). These data imply that the Cuiabana lowland is comprised of two dominant landform sets with distinct and different dynamics. Because the planation surface (mostly lowlands) is lowering and losing mass more

  16. Comparison of allergenicity and immunogenicity of an intact allergen vaccine and commercially available allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, L; Henmar, H; Würtzen, P A; Lund, G; Hjortskov, N; Larsen, J N

    2007-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy with intact allergen vaccine is a well-documented treatment for allergic diseases. Different vaccine formulations are currently commercially available, the active ingredient either being intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids. The rationale behind allergoids is to decrease allergenicity while maintaining immunogenicity. However, data from the German health authorities based on reporting of adverse events over a 10-year period did not indicate increased safety of allergoids over intact allergens. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical modification on allergenicity and immunogenicity comparing four commercial allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy with an intact allergen vaccine. Solid-phase IgE inhibition and histamine release assays were selected as model systems for allergenicity, and a combination of human T cell proliferation and IgG titres following mouse immunizations were used to address the immunogenicity of the intact allergen vaccine and the four allergoids. In all assays, the products were normalized with respect to the manufacturer's recommended maintenance dose. IgE inhibition experiments showed a change in epitope composition comparing intact allergen vaccine with allergoid. One allergoid product induced enhanced histamine release compared to the intact allergens, while the other three allergoids showed reduced release. Standard T cell stimulation assays using lines from allergic patients showed a reduced response for all allergoids compared with the intact allergen vaccine regardless of the cell type used for antigen presentation. All allergoids showed reduced capacity to induce allergen-specific IgG responses in mice. While some allergoids were associated with reduced allergenicity, a clear reduction in immunogenicity was observed for all allergoid products compared with the intact allergen vaccine, and the commercial allergoids tested therefore do not fulfil the allergoid

  17. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Heneberg

    Full Text Available Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20, hymenopteran venoms (n = 23 and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164 was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.

  18. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, J.; Holopainen, T.; Oksanen, E.; Lindsberg, M-M.; Lappi, J.; Peltonen, P.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Particulate emissions from the combustion of birch, beech, and spruce logs cause different cytotoxic responses in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Sippula, Olli; Uski, Oskari; Koponen, Hanna; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets. We determined the chemical composition (elements, ions, and carbonaceous compounds) of the particulate emissions with a diameter of less than 1 µm and tested their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammatory potential, and ability to induce oxidative stress in a human lung epithelial cell line. The chemical composition of the samples differed significantly, especially with regard to the carbonaceous and metal contents. Also the toxic effects in our tested endpoints varied considerably between each of the three log wood combustion samples, as well as between the log wood combustion samples and the pellet combustion sample. The difference in the toxicological potential of the samples in the various endpoints indicates the involvement of different pathways of toxicity depending on the chemical composition. All three emission samples from the log wood combustions were considerably more toxic in all endpoints than the emissions from the pellet combustion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1487-1499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oocyst-Derived Extract of Toxoplasma Gondii Serves as Potent Immunomodulator in a Mouse Model of Birch Pollen Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wagner

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract.First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells.Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses.Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis.

  1. Phosphorus critical levels and availability in lowland soils cultivated with flooded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Isabela Orlando dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowland soils present a great potential for the flooded rice crop. This work aimed to estimate critical levels of P in waterlogged soils cultivated with rice using Mehlich 1 and anion exchange resin as soil-P extractors, compare the performance of these extractors as for the evaluation of the P availability, and study the soil-P fractions involved in the P nutrition of the rice crop. Studied soils consisted of four Histosols: Low Humic Gley (GP, Aluvial (A, Humic Gley (GH and Bog Soil (O which were previously cultivated with beans. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme, using four soils, five P rates (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 and two liming treatments (with and without liming, with three replicates. After 60 days of flooding, soil samples were submitted to P extraction by Mehlich 1 and resin, and phosphorous fractionation. Two rice plants were cultivated in pots containing 3 dm³ of waterlogged soils. The labile P and the moderately labile P of the soils contributed for rice nutrition. The two tested extractors presented efficiency in the evaluation of P availability for the rice cultivated in lowland waterlogged soils.

  2. Predicting losing and gaining river reaches in lowland New Zealand based on a statistical methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zammit, Christian; Dudley, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of losing and gaining in rivers normally takes place in lowland where often there are various, sometimes conflicting uses for water resources, e.g., agriculture, industry, recreation, and maintenance of ecosystem function. To better support water allocation decisions, it is crucial to understand the location and seasonal dynamics of these losses and gains. We present a statistical methodology to predict losing and gaining river reaches in New Zealand based on 1) information surveys with surface water and groundwater experts from regional government, 2) A collection of river/watershed characteristics, including climate, soil and hydrogeologic information, and 3) the random forests technique. The surveys on losing and gaining reaches were conducted face-to-face at 16 New Zealand regional government authorities, and climate, soil, river geometry, and hydrogeologic data from various sources were collected and compiled to represent river/watershed characteristics. The random forests technique was used to build up the statistical relationship between river reach status (gain and loss) and river/watershed characteristics, and then to predict for river reaches at Strahler order one without prior losing and gaining information. Results show that the model has a classification error of around 10% for "gain" and "loss". The results will assist further research, and water allocation decisions in lowland New Zealand.

  3. Genetic Differentiation in Insular Lowland Rainforests: Insights from Historical Demographic Patterns in Philippine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Luis Antonio; Hosner, Peter A; Moyle, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies of Philippine birds support that deep genetic structure occurs across continuous lowland forests within islands, despite the lack of obvious contemporary isolation mechanisms. To examine the pattern and tempo of diversification within Philippine island forests, and test if common mechanisms are responsible for observed differentiation, we focused on three co-distributed lowland bird taxa endemic to Greater Luzon and Greater Negros-Panay: Blue-headed Fantail (Rhipidura cyaniceps), White-browed Shama (Copsychus luzoniensis), and Lemon-throated Leaf-Warbler (Phylloscopus cebuensis). Each species has two described subspecies within Greater Luzon, and a single described subspecies on Greater Negros/Panay. Each of the three focal species showed a common geographic pattern of two monophyletic groups in Greater Luzon sister to a third monophyletic group found in Greater Negros-Panay, suggesting that common or similar biogeographic processes may have produced similar distributions. However, studied species displayed variable levels of mitochondrial DNA differentiation between clades, and genetic differentiation within Luzon was not necessarily concordant with described subspecies boundaries. Population genetic parameters for the three species suggested both rapid population growth from small numbers and geographic expansion across Luzon Island. Estimates of the timing of population expansion further supported that these events occurred asynchronously throughout the Pleistocene in the focal species, demanding particular explanations for differentiation, and support that co-distribution may be secondarily congruent.

  4. Flood occurrence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satellite radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase data availability, radar is well-suitable for the identification, mapping, and measurement of tropical wetlands, for its cloud unimpeded sensing and night and day operation. Here we aim to extract flood extent and flood occurrence information from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. We explore the use of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery for observing flood inundation dynamics by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, in lakes and in peatlands, using pressure transducers. For validation of the open water flood occurrence map, bathymetry measurements were carried out in the main lakes. A series of PALSAR images covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 through 2010 were collected. A fully inundated region can be easily recognized on radar images from a dark signature. Open water flood occurrence was mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated river and lakes areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area revealed consistently high backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. We used those values as the threshold for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area.

  5. Analysis the Accuracy of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Flood Modelling on Lowland Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol Abidin, Ku Hasna Zainurin Ku; Razi, Mohd Adib Mohammad; Bukari, Saifullizan Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Flood is one type of natural disaster that occurs almost every year in Malaysia. Commonly the lowland areas are the worst affected areas. This kind of disaster is controllable by using an accurate data for proposing any kinds of solutions. Elevation data is one of the data used to produce solutions for flooding. Currently, the research about the application of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in hydrology was increased where this kind of model will identify the elevation for required areas. University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia is one of the lowland areas which facing flood problems on 2006. Therefore, this area was chosen in order to produce DEM which focussed on University Health Centre (PKU) and drainage area around Civil and Environment Faculty (FKAAS). Unmanned Aerial Vehicle used to collect aerial photos data then undergoes a process of generating DEM according to three types of accuracy and quality from Agisoft PhotoScan software. The higher the level of accuracy and quality of DEM produced, the longer time taken to generate a DEM. The reading of the errors created while producing the DEM shows almost 0.01 different. Therefore, it has been identified there are some important parameters which influenced the accuracy of DEM.

  6. Macrophytes, epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Sierra, María Victoria; Gómez, Nora; Marinelli, Claudia; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the physical habitat degradation in three lowland streams of Argentina that are subject to different land uses. To address this matter, we looked into some physical habitat alterations, mainly the water quality and channel changes, the impact on macrophytes' community, and the structural and functional descriptors of the epipelic biofilm and invertebrate assemblages. As a consequence of physical and chemical perturbations, we differentiated sampling sites with different degradation levels. The low degraded sites were affected mainly for the suburban land use, the moderately degraded sites for the rural land use, and the highly degraded sites for the urban land use. The data shows that the biotic descriptors that best reflected the environmental degradation were vegetation cover and macrophytes richness, the dominance of tolerant species (epipelic biofilm and invertebrates), algal biomass, O2 consumption by the epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates' richness and diversity. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight the importance of the macrophytes in the lowland streams, where there is a poor diversification of abiotic substrates and where the macrophytes not only provide shelter but also a food source for invertebrates and other trophic levels such as fish. We also noted that both in benthic communities, invertebrates and epipelic biofilm supplied different information: the habitat's physical structure provided by the macrophytes influenced mainly the invertebrate descriptors; meanwhile, the water quality mainly influenced most of the epipelic biofilm descriptors.

  7. Protein deficiency in a colony of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, N I; Ancrenaz, M; Wickings, E J; Lunn, P G

    1998-09-01

    A syndrome of alopecia and weight loss in a colony of 10 western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon during a 3-yr period was apparently due to a dietary protein deficiency, with nine individuals affected to some extent. The most severely afflicted was a 4-yr-old female who eventually died as a result of acute gastroenteritis caused by Shigella flexneri. Clinical signs included chronic alopecia, hair discoloration, failure to thrive, and weight loss, and their severity was directly correlated with the degree of hypoalbuminemia (12 g/L in the most extreme case) and normocytic normochromic anemia. Preliminary clinical tests and autopsy results suggested a dietary protein or amino acid deficiency as the cause of the hypoalbuminemia, and further analyses of serum amino acid and protein levels were consistent with a diagnosis of dietary protein deficiency. Supplementation of the colony diet with a protein preparation for humans produced a rapid amelioration of signs and improvement in body and coat condition, a normalization of serum albumin and total protein levels, and disappearance of the anemia in all affected animals except a 12-yr-old male, who responded well to treatment with anabolic steroids. The natural diet of western lowland gorillas is surprisingly high in protein, and the dietary protein requirement of captive gorillas may be increased as a result of the absence of commensal gastrointestinal ciliates.

  8. Food transfers in immature wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Angela A; Fletcher, Alison W

    2006-10-01

    The transfer of food items between individuals has been described in primates as serving an informative purpose in addition to supplementing the diet of immature individuals. This behaviour has yet to be described in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and results are presented here of observations of food transfers in immature gorillas at Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo. The frequency of food transfers decreased with increasing immature age, while the frequency of independent feeding and processing of food increased. Transfers between mothers and infants were the most frequent, with infants attempting to take items from the mother. These attempts were not always successful and the item was relinquished on less than 50% of attempts. Mothers also took items from their offspring. The results point to the functional significance of food transfers in western lowland gorillas being informational. In a bai environment, where one species forms the majority of a visiting gorilla's diet despite other species being available, the initiation of food transfers by immatures is proposed to serve the purpose of familiarising them with which species, and which parts of those species, may be eaten.

  9. Differences in temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption among lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, N. L.

    2005-01-01

    1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams with or w......1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams...... the exponential increase of oxygen consumption rate between 4 and 20 °C averaged 0.121 °C-1 (Q10 of 3.35) in 70 measurements and showed no significant variations between seasons and stream sites or correlations with ambient temperature and organic content. 5. Oxygen consumption rate was enhanced downstream...... at ambient temperature by 30-40% and 80-130%, respectively. Faster consumption of organic matter and dissolved oxygen downstream of point sources should increase the likelihood of oxygen stress of the stream biota and lead to the export of less organic matter but more mineralised nutrients to the coastal...

  10. Methane emissions from a human-dominated lowland coastal river network (Shanghai, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Evasion of methane (CH4) in streams and rivers play a critical role in global carbon (C) cycle, offsetting the C uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about CH4 emissions from lowland coastal rivers profoundly modified by anthropogenic perturbations. Here, we report results from a long-term, large-scale study of CH4 partial pressures (pCH4) and evasion rates in the Shanghai river network. The spatiotemporal variability of pCH4 was examined along a land-use gradient and the annual CH4 evasion were estimated to assess its role in regional C budget. During the study period, the median pCH4 from 87 surveyed rivers was 241 μatm. CH4 was oversaturated throughout the river network, CH4 hotpots were concentrated in the small urban rivers and highly discharge-dependent. The annual median fCH4 for each site ranged from 3.1 mg C•m-2•d-1 to 296.6 mg C•m-2•d-1. The annual CH4 evasion were 105 Gg CO2-eq•yr-1 and 96 Gg CO2-eq•yr-1 for the entire river network and the mainland rivers, respectively. Given the rapid urbanization in global coastal areas, more research is needed to quantify the role of lowland coastal rivers as a major landscape C source in global C budget.

  11. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Quantifying landscape change in an arctic coastal lowland using repeat airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Stoker, Jason M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Grosse, Guido; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Douglas, Thomas A.; Kinsman, Nichole E.M.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in air, permafrost, and sea surface temperature, loss of sea ice, the potential for increased wave energy, and higher river discharge may all be interacting to escalate erosion of arctic coastal lowland landscapes. Here we use airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data acquired in 2006 and 2010 to detect landscape change in a 100 km2 study area on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain of northern Alaska. We detected statistically significant change (99% confidence interval), defined as contiguous areas (>10 m2) that had changed in height by at least 0.55 m, in 0.3% of the study region. Erosional features indicative of ice-rich permafrost degradation were associated with ice-bonded coastal, river, and lake bluffs, frost mounds, ice wedges, and thermo-erosional gullies. These features accounted for about half of the area where vertical change was detected. Inferred thermo-denudation and thermo-abrasion of coastal and river bluffs likely accounted for the dominant permafrost-related degradational processes with respect to area (42%) and volume (51%). More than 300 thermokarst pits significantly subsided during the study period, likely as a result of storm surge flooding of low-lying tundra (impact of warm summers in the late-1980s and mid-1990s. Our results indicate that repeat airborne LiDAR can be used to detect landscape change in arctic coastal lowland regions at large spatial scales over sub-decadal time periods.

  13. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  14. Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pividori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. More than 234 hectares of new plantations of lowland mixed forest have been realized in the last 20 years in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. In many of these is now needed to start thinning operations, but there is a lack of experience about this topic. Aim of this work was to undertake an experimentation on different types of thinnings. The thinning trial has been performed at Bosco San Marco forest, municipality of Cessalto (Venice, in a very dense hornbeam-oak plantation aged 16. In 2010, three different thinning types were implemented on 9 hectares according to the following layout: geometrical (34% of woody mass removed, selective (15%, mixed geometrical-selective (30%, control plot. Three years later no significant differences between thinning trials in term of diametric growth, geometrical thinning excepted, were observed. These results provide a suite of solutions to the forest manager for choosing the early thinning type in high tree density condition.

  15. Diet of lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in El Rey National Park, Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalukian, Silvia C; de Bustos, M Soledad; Lizárraga, R Leonidas

    2013-03-01

    Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest herbivore in the Neotropics and, in Argentina, it inhabits a variety of habitats from 100 to 2100 m asl. Lowland tapirs importantly influence their habitat structure because they are selective browsers, seed predators and long-distance seed dispersers. However, increased knowledge of tapir ecology is necessary to support the conservation and management of the species in natural and human-modified environments. Between Jun 2002 and Dec 2008 we assessed the tapir's diet in El Rey National Park, Salta, northwestern Argentina. We collected fresh feces and recorded browsing signs, and we recorded direct observations of tapirs while they were feeding. We analyzed 88 feces samples that had been dried and subsequently weighed. Feces were dominated by fibers and leaves (84.09%), while fruit parts represented a small proportion of the weight (15.91%). During the dry months, a greater percentage of seeds were found in the feces, mainly due to the availability of 3 species of Fabaceae fruits. We recorded a total of 57 plant species from 26 families. Tapirs are adapted to extreme habitats, switching their diet from frugivory to herbivory when fruits are scarce. Considering this, forest remnants and even secondary growth fields should be protected from deforestation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  16. The growth response of Artemisia annua L. to organic fertilizer type in lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, L.; Widyastuti, Y.; Yunus, A.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a medicinal plant known in long period of time. Artemisia annua has a drug content therein, the compound is artemisinin, these compounds are useful as anti-malarial compounds. Growth of Artemisia annua L. in normal conditions is on the plateau. Planting can be done in lowland, but there is a risk that must be faced. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of the growth of the plant Artemisia annua conducted in lowland. This research was conducted at the Laboratory Jumantono of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and if there is a significant difference continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) level of 5%. The results showed that the application of goat manure has a positive effect on plant height by 201.9 cm, the number of branches by 57, 30.67 ml root volume and root length of 25 cm, and weight 12.4 grams interest.

  17. Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Lotterman, Kim; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Kroon, Hans de; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2011-01-01

    Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. - Multiple contaminants and periodic flooding may pose cumulative stress to plants in lowland floodplains.

  18. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  19. Necromass in forests of Madre de Dios, Peru: a comparison between terra firme and lowland forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Araujo-Murakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stocks of dead wood or necromass represent an important portion of biomass and nutrients in tropical forests. The objectives of this study were: 1 to evaluate and compare the necromass of “terra firme” and lowlands forests, (2 to study the relationship between necromass, above-ground biomass and wood density, and (3 to estimate the necromass of the department of Madre de Dios, Peru. Stocks of necromass and above-ground biomass were estimated at three different locations using permanent plots and line intercept transects. The average volume of necromass for the three sites was 72.9 m3 ha-1 with an average weight varying between 24.8 and 30.7 Mg ha-1, depending on the estimations of dead wood density used for the calculations. Terra firme forests had significantly higher stocks of necromass than lowland forests. The amount of necromass was 11% of the total above-ground biomass in Madre de Dios forests. The total stock of carbon stored in dead wood for the entire department of Madre de Dios was estimated to be approximately 100 mega tonnes of carbon. This is ten times more than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Peru between 2000 and 2008. The substantial stocks of necromass emphasize the importance of these types of field studies, considering that this component of tropical forest carbon cannot be detected using other methods such as satellite remote sensing.

  20. Short-rotation forestry of birch, maple, poplar and willow in Flanders (Belgium) II. Energy production and CO2 emission reduction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, Inge van de; Camp, Nancy van; Casteele, Liesbet van de; Verheyen, Kris; Lemeur, Raoul

    2007-01-01

    Belgium, being an EU country, has committed itself to a 7.5% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Within this framework, the Flemish government aims at reaching a share of 6% of renewable electricity in the total electricity production by 2010. In this work, the biomass production of birch, maple, poplar and willow in a short-rotation forestry (SRF) plantation after a 4-year growth period served as the base to calculate the amount of (electrical) energy that could be produced by this type of bioenergy crop in Flanders. The maximum amount of electricity that could be provided by SRF biomass was estimated at 72.9 GWh e year -1 , which only accounts for 0.16% of the total electricity production in this region. Although the energy output was rather low, the bioenergy production process under consideration appeared to be more energy efficient than energy production processes based on fossil fuels. The high efficiency of birch compared to the other species was mainly due to the high calorific value of the birch wood. The maximum CO 2 emission reduction potential of SRF plantations in Flanders was estimated at only 0.09% of the total annual CO 2 emission. The most interesting application of SRF in Flanders seemed to be the establishment of small-scale plantations, linked to a local combined heat and power plant. These plantations could be established on marginal arable soils or on polluted sites, and they could be of importance in the densely populated area of Flanders because of other environmental benefits, among which their function as (temporary) habitat for many species

  1. Bd on the beach: high prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island (Colombia, South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechas, Sandra Victoria; Sarmiento, Carolina; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2012-09-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has been implicated in the decimation and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide, especially at mid and high elevations. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the pathogen in the lowlands from Australia and Central America. We extend here its elevational range by demonstrating its presence at the sea level, in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island, off the Pacific coast of Colombia. We conducted two field surveys, separated by four years, and diagnosed Bd by performing polymerase chain reactions on swab samples from the skin of five amphibian species. All species, including the Critically Endangered Atelopus elegans, tested positive for the pathogen, with prevalences between 3.9 % in A. elegans (in 2010) and 52 % in Pristimantis achatinus. Clinical signs of chytridiomycosis were not detected in any species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. dendrobatidis in tropical lowlands at sea level, where temperatures may exceed optimal growth temperatures of this pathogen. This finding highlights the need to understand the mechanisms allowing the interaction between frogs and pathogen in lowland ecosystems.

  2. Inside out: high-efficiency plant regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Rong; Cen, Hui-Fang; Yan, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Zhang, Wan-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Selection of pre-embryogenic callus from a core structure from mature seed-derived callus is the key for high-efficiency plant regeneration and transformation of switchgrass different cultivars. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a dedicated biofuel crop. For its trait improvement through biotechnological approaches, we have developed a highly efficient plant regeneration and genetic transformation protocol for both lowland and upland cultivars. We identified and separated a pre-embryogenic "core" structure from the seed-derived callus, which often leads to development of highly regenerative type II calluses. From the type II callus, plant regeneration rate of lowland cultivars Alamo and Performer reaches 95%, and upland cultivars Blackwell and Dacotah, 50 and 76%, respectively. The type II callus was also amenable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformation efficiency of 72.8% was achieved for lowland cultivar Alamo, and 8.0% for upland cultivar Dacotah. PCR, Southern blot and GUS staining assays were performed to verify the transgenic events. High regenerative callus lines could be established in 3 months, and transgenic plants could be obtained in 2 months after Agrobacterium infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successful plant regeneration and recovery of transgenic plants from upland switchgrass cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The method presented here could be helpful in breaking through the bottleneck of regeneration and transformation of lowland and upland switchgrass cultivars and probably other recalcitrant grass crops.

  3. Do habituation, host traits and seasonality have an impact on protist and helminth infections of wild western lowland gorillas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pafčo, B.; Benavides, J. A.; Pšenková-Profousová, I.; Modrý, D.; Červená, B.; Shutt, K. A.; Hasegawa, H.; Fuh, T.; Todd, A. F.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 12 (2017), s. 3401-3410 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Western lowland gorilla * Parasite * Habituation * Human impact Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  4. Codetection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Habituated Wild Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans During a Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  5. Codetection of respiratory syncytial virus in habituated wild western lowland gorillas and humans during a respiratory disease outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  6. Soil seed banks and growth rates of an invasive species, Piper aduncum, in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, H.R.; Hartemink, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary fallow vegetation in parts of the Papua New Guinea lowlands is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum L. that originates from South America. Here we report on its seed bank, growth rate and biomass accumulation. P. aduncum accounted for 69 % (408 m[minus sign]2) of the seed bank in the

  7. A Greenhouse for Tropical Lowlands (Malaysia), Training manual : Guidelines for the Planning and Organisation of Training Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Stijger, I.; Blomne Sopov, M.; Campen, J.B.; Runia, L.

    2012-01-01

    This Training Manual on tropical lowland greenhouse horticulture has been prepared as a manual for training of trainers staff of the Department of Agriculture of Malaysia, agricultural extension workers of the government, trainers of educational institutes engaged in greenhouse training and for

  8. Late Holocene lowland fluvial archives and geoarchaeology : Utrecht's case study of Rhine river abandonment under Roman and Medieval settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dinter, M.; Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Jansma, E.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-01-01

    Fluvial lowlands have become attractive human settling areas all around the world over the last few millennia. Because rivers kept changing their course and networks due to avulsion, the sedimentary sequences in these areas are archives of both fluvial geomorphological and archaeological

  9. Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) reflect host ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; Vlčková, K.; Mrázek, Jakub; Koppová, Ingrid; Carbonero, F.; Ulanov, A.; Modrý, D.; Todd, A.; Torralba, M.; Nelson, K.; Gaskins, H. R.; Wilson, B.; Stumpf, R. M.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2015), s. 2551-2565 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : western lowland gorillas * microbiome * metabolomics * foraging ecology * anthropogenic interactions Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  10. Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles/nof wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)/nreflect host ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; Vlčková, K.; Mrázek, J.; Koppova, I.; Carbonero, F.; Ulanov, A.; Modrý, David; Todd, A.; Torralba, M.; Nelson, K. E.; Gaskins, H. R.; Wilson, B.; Stumpf, R. M.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2015), s. 2551-2565 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anthropogenic interactions * foraging ecology * metabolomics * microbiome * western lowland gorillas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  11. Nitrate response of a lowland catchment: On the relation between stream concentration and travel time distribution dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, Y. van der; Rooij, G.H. de; Rozemeijer, J.C.; Geer, F.C. van; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of surface waters is widespread in lowland catchments with intensive agriculture. For identification of effective nitrate concentration reducing measures the nitrate fluxes within catchments need to be quantified. In this paper we applied a mass transfer function approach to

  12. The nitrate response of a lowland catchment: on the relation between stream concentration and travel time distribution dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Y.; Rooij, de G.H.; Rozemeijer, J.C.; Geer, van F.C.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of surface waters is widespread in lowland catchments with intensive agriculture. For identification of effective nitrate concentration reducing measures the nitrate fluxes within catchments need to be quantified. In this paper we applied a mass transfer function approach to

  13. The Effects of Climate Change on Variability of the Growing Seasons in the Elbe River Lowland, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potopová, V.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Türkot, L.; Štěpánek, Petr; Soukup, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 546920 (2015), s. 546920 ISSN 1687-9309 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * extremes * climate change * growing seasons * Elbe River Lowland Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2015

  14. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 26 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : co-infection * faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  15. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas/ninhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African/nRepublic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Todd, A.; Jirků, Milan; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, Julius; Neel, C.; Modrý, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla * Plasmodium spp. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  16. High-frequency monitoring reveals nutrient sources and transport processes in an agriculture-dominated lowland water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Broers, H.P.; Berendrecht, W.; Rozemeijer, J.; Osté, L.; Griffioen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Many agriculture-dominated lowland water systems worldwide suffer from eutrophication caused by high nutrient loads. Insight in the hydrochemical functioning of embanked polder catchments is highly relevant for improving the water quality in such areas or for reducing export loads to downstream

  17. A comparative approach toward understanding the Mycenaean and Late Preclassic lowland Maya early civilisations through their art styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajema, Marcus Jan

    2015-01-01

    My thesis provides a comparative analysis of early cilivilisations through archaeological sources. The two selected cases are Mycenaean Greece and the Late Preclassic lowland Maya. Specifically the study focuses on art and its role in social life of the two cases. Major methodological reflections

  18. The effect of toposequence position on soil properties, hydrology, and yield of rainfed lowland rice in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.; Tuong, T.P.; Suganda, H.; Konboon, Y.; Harnpichitvitaya, D.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Franco, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    large proportion of rainfed lowland rice in Southeast Asia is grown in gently sloping areas along toposequences with differences in elevation of a few meters. These small differences in elevation can lead to differentiation in soil properties and hydrological conditions, which in turn may affect

  19. Sweet potato yields and nutrient dynamics after short-term fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is common in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea but little is known about the effect of different fallows on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) yield and nutrient flows and pools in these systems. An experiment was conducted in which two woody fallow species (Piper aduncum and

  20. Persistence of Native Trees in an Invaded Hawaiian Lowland Wet Forest: Experimental Evaluation of Light and Water Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodie R. Schulten; T. Colleen Cole; Susan Cordell; Keiko M. Publico; Rebecca Ostertag; Jaime E. Enoka; Jené D. Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian lowland wet forests are heavily invaded and their restoration is most likely to be successful if native species selected for restoration have efficient resource-use traits. We evaluated growth, survival, and ecophysiological responses of four native and four invasive species in a greenhouse experiment that simulated reduced light and water conditions commonly...

  1. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, −4, −7 and −8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula.

  2. Platyphylloside Isolated From Betula platyphylla Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Induce Lipolysis Via Regulating Adipokines Including PPARγ in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mina; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis, lipid contents of BPP on were measured using Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of various adipokines were measured by Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results: Platyphylloside showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed adipocyte differentiation even in the presence of troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. Platyphylloside might suppress adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1-induced adipogenesis, which is synergistically associated with downstream adipocyte-specific gene promoters such as aP2, FAS, SCD-1, LPL, and Adiponectin. In addition, platyphylloside affected lipolysis by down-regulating perilipin and HSL and up-regulating TNFα. Conclusion: Taken together, the results reveal that platyphylloside has anti-adipogenic activity and highlight its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity. SUMMARY The extract of B. platyphylla bark and its isolate, BPP, had anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells via suppression of adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes.Treatment with BPP significantly down-regulated the expression of PPARγ, C/EBP, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1c, SCD-1, FAS, aP2 and LPL.BPP induced a lipolytic response in mature adipocytes via up-regulation krof TNFá and down

  3. Population history, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the last Neotropical mega-herbivore, the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Thoisy Benoit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the forces that shaped Neotropical diversity is central issue to explain tropical biodiversity and inform conservation action; yet few studies have examined large, widespread species. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrrestris, Perissodactyla, Tapiridae is the largest Neotropical herbivore whose ancestors arrived in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange. A Pleistocene diversification is inferred for the genus Tapirus from the fossil record, but only two species survived the Pleistocene megafauna extinction. Here, we investigate the history of lowland tapir as revealed by variation at the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b, compare it to the fossil data, and explore mechanisms that could have shaped the observed structure of current populations. Results Separate methodological approaches found mutually exclusive divergence times for lowland tapir, either in the late or in the early Pleistocene, although a late Pleistocene divergence is more in tune with the fossil record. Bayesian analysis favored mountain tapir (T. pinchaque paraphyly in relation to lowland tapir over reciprocal monophyly, corroborating the inferences from the fossil data these species are sister taxa. A coalescent-based analysis rejected a null hypothesis of allopatric divergence, suggesting a complex history. Based on the geographic distribution of haplotypes we propose (i a central role for western Amazonia in tapir diversification, with a key role of the ecological gradient along the transition between Andean subcloud forests and Amazon lowland forest, and (ii that the Amazon river acted as an barrier to gene flow. Finally, the branching patterns and estimates based on nucleotide diversity indicate a population expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusions This study is the first examining lowland tapir phylogeography. Climatic events at the end of the Pleistocene, parapatric speciation, divergence along the Andean foothill

  4. Population history, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the last Neotropical mega-herbivore, the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thoisy, Benoit; da Silva, Anders Gonçalves; Ruiz-García, Manuel; Tapia, Andrés; Ramirez, Oswaldo; Arana, Margarita; Quse, Viviana; Paz-y-Miño, César; Tobler, Mathias; Pedraza, Carlos; Lavergne, Anne

    2010-09-14

    Understanding the forces that shaped Neotropical diversity is central issue to explain tropical biodiversity and inform conservation action; yet few studies have examined large, widespread species. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrrestris, Perissodactyla, Tapiridae) is the largest Neotropical herbivore whose ancestors arrived in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange. A Pleistocene diversification is inferred for the genus Tapirus from the fossil record, but only two species survived the Pleistocene megafauna extinction. Here, we investigate the history of lowland tapir as revealed by variation at the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b, compare it to the fossil data, and explore mechanisms that could have shaped the observed structure of current populations. Separate methodological approaches found mutually exclusive divergence times for lowland tapir, either in the late or in the early Pleistocene, although a late Pleistocene divergence is more in tune with the fossil record. Bayesian analysis favored mountain tapir (T. pinchaque) paraphyly in relation to lowland tapir over reciprocal monophyly, corroborating the inferences from the fossil data these species are sister taxa. A coalescent-based analysis rejected a null hypothesis of allopatric divergence, suggesting a complex history. Based on the geographic distribution of haplotypes we propose (i) a central role for western Amazonia in tapir diversification, with a key role of the ecological gradient along the transition between Andean subcloud forests and Amazon lowland forest, and (ii) that the Amazon river acted as an barrier to gene flow. Finally, the branching patterns and estimates based on nucleotide diversity indicate a population expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum. This study is the first examining lowland tapir phylogeography. Climatic events at the end of the Pleistocene, parapatric speciation, divergence along the Andean foothill, and role of the Amazon river, have similarly shaped

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegayehu Teklu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9% were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%, followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%, hookworm 42(4.9%, Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%, Taenia species 18(2.1%, Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9% and highland dwellers (42.3% (P = 0.185. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8% than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481. No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228 but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the

  7. Vegetation and floristics of a lowland tropical rainforest in northeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M. G.; Campbell, Mason J; Cox, Casey J; Crayn, Darren M; Ishida, Françoise Y; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Liddell, Michael J; Seager, Michael; Laurance, Susan G. W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Full floristic data, tree demography, and biomass estimates incorporating non-tree lifeforms are seldom collected and reported for forest plots in the tropics. Established research stations serve as important repositories of such biodiversity and ecological data. With a canopy crane setup within a tropical lowland rainforest estate, the 42-ha Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO) in Cape Tribulation, northern Australia is a research facility of international significance. We obtained an estimate of the vascular plant species richness for the site, by surveying all vascular plant species from various mature-phase, remnant and open vegetation patches within the site. We also integrate and report the demography and basal areas of trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) in a new 1-ha core plot, an extension to the pre-existing forest 1-ha plot under the canopy crane. In addition, we report for the canopy crane plot new demography and basal areas for smaller-size shrubs and treelets subsampled from nine 20 m2 quadrats, and liana basal area and abundance from the whole plot. The DRO site has an estimated total vascular plant species richness of 441 species, of which 172 species (39%) are endemic to Australia, and 4 species are endemics to the Daintree region. The 2 x 1-ha plots contains a total of 262 vascular plant species of which 116 (1531 individuals) are tree species ≥ 10 cm dbh. We estimate a stem basal area of 34.9 m2 ha-1, of which small stems (tree saplings and shrubs rainforests globally, our meta-analysis shows that DRO forests has a comparatively high stem density and moderate species diversity, due to the influence of cyclones. These data will provide an important foundation for ecological and conservation studies in lowland tropical forest. New information We present a floristic checklist, a lifeform breakdown, and demography data from two 1-ha rainforest plots from a lowland tropical rainforest study site. We also present a

  8. Vegetation and floristics of a lowland tropical rainforest in northeast Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, David Y P; Apgaua, Deborah M G; Campbell, Mason J; Cox, Casey J; Crayn, Darren M; Ishida, Françoise Y; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Liddell, Michael J; Seager, Michael; Laurance, Susan G W

    2016-01-01

    Full floristic data, tree demography, and biomass estimates incorporating non-tree lifeforms are seldom collected and reported for forest plots in the tropics. Established research stations serve as important repositories of such biodiversity and ecological data. With a canopy crane setup within a tropical lowland rainforest estate, the 42-ha Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO) in Cape Tribulation, northern Australia is a research facility of international significance. We obtained an estimate of the vascular plant species richness for the site, by surveying all vascular plant species from various mature-phase, remnant and open vegetation patches within the site. We also integrate and report the demography and basal areas of trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) in a new 1-ha core plot, an extension to the pre-existing forest 1-ha plot under the canopy crane. In addition, we report for the canopy crane plot new demography and basal areas for smaller-size shrubs and treelets subsampled from nine 20 m(2) quadrats, and liana basal area and abundance from the whole plot. The DRO site has an estimated total vascular plant species richness of 441 species, of which 172 species (39%) are endemic to Australia, and 4 species are endemics to the Daintree region. The 2 x 1-ha plots contains a total of 262 vascular plant species of which 116 (1531 individuals) are tree species ≥ 10 cm dbh. We estimate a stem basal area of 34.9 m(2) ha(-1), of which small stems (tree saplings and shrubs analysis shows that DRO forests has a comparatively high stem density and moderate species diversity, due to the influence of cyclones. These data will provide an important foundation for ecological and conservation studies in lowland tropical forest. We present a floristic checklist, a lifeform breakdown, and demography data from two 1-ha rainforest plots from a lowland tropical rainforest study site. We also present a meta-analysis of stem densities and species diversity from

  9. Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to elevated ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation at juvenile age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliura, Alfas; Baliuckiene, Asta; Baliuckas, Virgilijus

    2008-01-01

    Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to separate and combined elevated ozone (O 3 ) concentrations and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation dozes was studied at juvenile age in the climatic chambers. Significant population and family effects were found for seedling height, lamina width, and leaf damage. The exposure to UV-B radiation decreased genetic variation at the stage of seed germination. Complex exposure to UV-B and O 3 caused an increase of genetic variation at the stage of intensive seedling growth: seedling height genetic variation in separate treatments increased from 23.7-38.6 to 33.7-65.7%, the increase for lamina width was from 10.2-13.9 to 13.6-31.8%. Different populations and families demonstrated differing response to elevated complex UV-B and O 3 exposure. Changes of genetic intra-population variation were population-specific. Such changes in genetic variation under the impact of stressors can alter adaptation, stability, and competitive ability of regenerating populations in a hardly predictive way. - Exposure to elevated UV-B and O 3 alters genetic variation of traits in progenies of silver birch populations

  10. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon along an altitudinal gradient from Norway spruce forest to the mountain birch/alpine ecotone in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, N.; Roesberg, I.; Aamlid, D.

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil water from the base of the soil organic layer were determined at three forest plots along an altitudinal gradient in eastern Norway. The lowest plot, at 830 m above sea level (a.s.l.), was in Norway spruce forest and there were additional plots at the ecotone between Norway spruce and mountain birch at 925 m a.s.l. and at the forest line (1000 m a.s.l.). DOC concentrations in soil water did not decrease uniformly with altitude although tree biomass, above-ground litterfall and the soil C pool all did so. Significant correlations between DOC and (H{sup +}) or electrical conductivity may reflect the contribution of DOC to solution acidity and the anionic charge, respectively. If mean temperature during the growing season increases, tree growth at any given altitude will tend to increase and the spruce-birch ecotone may move to a higher altitude than at present. Increased C inputs as litter to the soil might then lead to increasing DOC concentrations and fluxes in surface waters. (orig.)

  11. Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to elevated ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation at juvenile age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliura, Alfas [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Department of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu 1, Girionys LT-53101, Kaunas District (Lithuania); Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 13, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas District (Lithuania)], E-mail: genetsk@mi.lt; Baliuckiene, Asta [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Department of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu 1, Girionys LT-53101, Kaunas District (Lithuania); Baliuckas, Virgilijus [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Department of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu 1, Girionys LT-53101, Kaunas District (Lithuania); Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 13, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas District (Lithuania)

    2008-11-15

    Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to separate and combined elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation dozes was studied at juvenile age in the climatic chambers. Significant population and family effects were found for seedling height, lamina width, and leaf damage. The exposure to UV-B radiation decreased genetic variation at the stage of seed germination. Complex exposure to UV-B and O{sub 3} caused an increase of genetic variation at the stage of intensive seedling growth: seedling height genetic variation in separate treatments increased from 23.7-38.6 to 33.7-65.7%, the increase for lamina width was from 10.2-13.9 to 13.6-31.8%. Different populations and families demonstrated differing response to elevated complex UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure. Changes of genetic intra-population variation were population-specific. Such changes in genetic variation under the impact of stressors can alter adaptation, stability, and competitive ability of regenerating populations in a hardly predictive way. - Exposure to elevated UV-B and O{sub 3} alters genetic variation of traits in progenies of silver birch populations.

  12. A novel model for Time-Series Data Clustering Based on piecewise SVD and BIRCH for Stock Data Analysis on Hadoop Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibgtc Bowala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of financial markets, analyzers are paying more attention on predictions. Stock data are time series data, with huge amounts. Feasible solution for handling the increasing amount of data is to use a cluster for parallel processing, and Hadoop parallel computing platform is a typical representative. There are various statistical models for forecasting time series data, but accurate clusters are a pre-requirement. Clustering analysis for time series data is one of the main methods for mining time series data for many other analysis processes. However, general clustering algorithms cannot perform clustering for time series data because series data has a special structure and a high dimensionality has highly co-related values due to high noise level. A novel model for time series clustering is presented using BIRCH, based on piecewise SVD, leading to a novel dimension reduction approach. Highly co-related features are handled using SVD with a novel approach for dimensionality reduction in order to keep co-related behavior optimal and then use BIRCH for clustering. The algorithm is a novel model that can handle massive time series data. Finally, this new model is successfully applied to real stock time series data of Yahoo finance with satisfactory results.

  13. The mountain-lowland debate: deforestation and sediment transport in the upper Ganga catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, R J; Juyal, N; Jaiswal, M; McCulloch, M; Sarin, M M; Jain, V; Srivastava, P; Singhvi, A K

    2008-07-01

    The Himalaya-Gangetic Plain region is the iconic example of the debate about the impact on lowlands of upland land-use change. Some of the scientific aspects of this debate are revisited by using new techniques to examine the role of deforestation in erosion and river sediment transport. The approach is whole-of-catchment, combining a history of deforestation with a history of sediment sources from well before deforestation. It is shown that deforestation had some effect on one very large erosional event in 1970, in the Alaknanda subcatchment of the Upper Ganga catchment, but that both deforestation and its effects on erosion and sediment transport are far from uniform in the Himalaya. Large magnitude erosional events occur for purely natural reasons. The impact on the Gangetic Plain of erosion caused by natural events and land cover change remains uncertain.

  14. Ecological Effects of Re-introduction of Salmonid Spawning Gravel in Lowland Danish Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Kronvang, Brian

    2009-01-01

    recently been conducted in many streams and rivers. However, systematic monitoring of these spawning gravel restoration projects is limited. The overall aim of this paper was to evaluate gravel reintroduction as a long-term salmonid rehabilitation method in 32 lowland streams. Displacement of gravel......, including both restored reaches and upstream control reaches. Downstream displacement of gravel was most common at sites where gravel was reintroduced without further improvement, although these sites exhibited the highest density of YOY brown trout (Salmo trutta), evidencing that the remaining gravel...... is still functional. The intensive study of three streams showed that spawning was enhanced by the introduction of spawning gravel at the restored sites compared to control sites and that habitat quality generally were improved. Our results also suggest complex interactions exist between spawning activity...

  15. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkova, K.; Petrasova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Invasions of neophyte plant species are considered as one of the major threats to the diversity of natural ecosystems including floodplain forests. The aims of our study were to find out if there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophyte species in the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland over time. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests was evaluated from 1950 to the present time using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA. According to the analysis results, along the time gradient there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophytes among analysed periods. This result is not caused by increasing biodiversity, because the number of native species significantly decreased. Therefor it is necessary to look for reasons of this situation in deteriorating condition of floodplain biotopes. (authors)

  16. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as seasonal frugivores: use of variable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    1997-01-01

    The gorillas studied at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, between August 1990 and October 1992 consumed 239 kinds of foods from 138 species of plants and invertebrates, including the fruits of 77 species. Seeds were present in 99% of all fecal samples (n = 859). Although gorillas ate fleshy fruit whenever it was available, herbaceous plants and fibrous fruits were consumed year-round and were important during times of fleshy fruit scarcity. At Bai Hokou and across their range, resources are temporally discontinuous, and western gorilla diet exhibits marked seasonal and interannual variation. Although their large body size lends them dietary flexibility relative to chimpanzees, seasonal fruit-eating shapes the foraging and ranging patterns of western lowland gorillas.

  17. Genetic differences in hemoglobin function between highland and lowland deer mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Runck, Amy M.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    In high-altitude vertebrates, adaptive changes in blood–O2 affinity may be mediated by modifications of hemoglobin (Hb) structure that affect intrinsic O2 affinity and/or responsiveness to allosteric effectors that modulate Hb–O2 affinity. This mode of genotypic specialization is considered typical...... of mammalian species that are high-altitude natives. Here we investigated genetically based differences in Hb–O2 affinity between highland and lowland populations of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a generalist species that has the broadest altitudinal distribution of any North American mammal....... The results of a combined genetic and proteomic analysis revealed that deer mice harbor a high level of Hb isoform diversity that is attributable to allelic polymorphism at two tandemly duplicated -globin genes and two tandemly duplicated β-globin genes. This high level of isoHb diversity translates...

  18. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...... was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI's). The statistical confidence of HSI's was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22...... fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected...

  19. Wood anatomical parameters of lowland European oak and Scots pine as proxies for climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Helle, Gerd; Heinrich, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from the temperate lowlands worldwide are largely missing due to diffuse climate signals so far found in tree-ring widths. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the wood anatomies of two common European tree species, the European oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We combined core samples of living trees with archaeological wood from northern Germany and Poland. We measured approx. 46,000 earlywood oak vessels of 34 trees covering the period AD 1500 to 2016 and approx. 7.5 million pine tracheid cells of 41 trees covering the period AD 1300 to 2010. First climate growth analyses indicate that both oak earlywood vessel and pine tracheid parameters contain climate signals which are different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  20. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    North American hardwood tree species, such as alder (Alnus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), basswood (Tilia spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), black cherry (Prunus seratina), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black willow (...

  1. Technological and chemical properties of heat-treated Anatolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... heat treatment temperature and time justifies these re- sults. Cellulose ..... properties of light-irradiated wood with heat treatment: Part 1. Effect ... Norway spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens) subjected to heat ...

  2. Final Remedial Investigation Report Area of Contamination (AOC) 57. Volume I. Text Sections 1 Through 10, Figures and Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    choke cherry ( Prunus virginiana ), maleberry (Lyonia ligustrina), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Herbaceous species observed in this habitat...portion of this habitat include sheep laurel, witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana ), nannyberry, choke cherry, clubmoss (Lycopodium carolinianum), and ferns

  3. Hypoxia, blackwater and fish kills: experimental lethal oxygen thresholds in juvenile predatory lowland river fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kade Small

    Full Text Available Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99 ± 0.04 g; mean mass ±SE, the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50 in freshwater ranged from 0.25 ± 0.06 mg l(-1 in T. tandanus to 1.58 ± 0.01 mg l(-1 in M. peelii over 48 h at 25-26 °C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l(-1 to 3.1 mg l(-1 in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish

  4. Tracing oxidative weathering from the Andes to the lowland Amazon Basin using dissoved rhenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, M.; Hilton, R. G.; West, A. J.; Torres, M.; Burton, K. W.; Clark, K. E.; Baronas, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Over long timescales (>105 yrs), the abundance of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is determined by the balance of the major carbon sources and sinks. Among the major carbon sources, the oxidation of organic carbon contained within sedimentary rocks ("petrogenic" carbon, or OCpetro) is thought to result in CO2 emission of similar magnitude to that released by volcanism. Rhenium (Re) has been proposed as a proxy for tracing OCpetro oxidation. Here we investigate the source, behavior and flux of dissolved and particulate rhenium (Re) in the Madre de Dios watershed (a major Andean tributary of the Amazon River) and the lowlands, aiming to characterize the behavior of Re in river water and quantify the flux of CO2 released by OCpetro oxidation. Measured Re concentrations in Andean rivers range from 0.07 to 1.55 ppt. In the Andes, Re concentration do not change significantly with water discharge, whereas in the lowlands, Re concentration decrease at high water discharge. Mass balance calculation show that more than 70% of the dissolved Re is sourced from the oxidation of OCpetro the Andes-floodplain system. We calculate dissolved Re flux over a hydrological year to estimate the rates of oxidative weathering, and the associated CO2 release from OCpetro. Rates are high in the Andean headwaters, consistent with estimates from other mountain rivers with similar rates of physical erosion. We find evidence that a significant amount of additional oxidation (Re flux) happens during floodplain transport. These results have important implications for improving our understanding of the source and processes controlling Re in rivers, and allowing us to quantify long-term OCpetro cycling in large river basins.

  5. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Walesa Edho; Darras, Kevin; Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity.

  6. Genetic structure of the threatened Dipterocarpus costatus populations in lowland tropical rainforests of southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, N M; Duy, V D; Xuan, B T T; Thang, B V; Ha, N T H; Tam, N M

    2016-10-24

    Dipterocarpus costatus is an endangered species restricted to the lowland forests of southern Vietnam. Habitat loss and over-exploitation of D. costatus wood are the major threats to this species. We investigated the level of genetic variability within and among populations of D. costatus in order to provide guidelines for the conservation, management, and restoration of this species to the Forest Protection Department, Vietnam. Nine microsatellite markers were used to analyze 114 samples from four populations representing the natural range of D. costatus in southeast Vietnam. We indicated the low allelic diversity (N A = 2.3) and low genetic diversities with an average observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.130 and 0.151, respectively, in the lowland forests of southeast Vietnam. The low genetic diversity might be a consequence of inbreeding within the small and isolated populations of D. costatus owing to its habitat loss and over-exploitation. All populations deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showing reduced heterozygosity. Alleles were lost from the populations by genetic drift. Genetic differentiation among populations was high (average pairwise F ST = 0.405), indicating low gene flow (<1) and isolated populations due to its destructed habitat and large geographical distances (P < 0.05) among populations. Heterozygosity excess tests (except of Bu Gia Map only under infinite allele model) were negative. The high genetic variation (62.7%) was found within populations. The STRUCTURE and neighbor joining tree results suggest strong differentiation among D. costatus populations, with the three genetic clusters, Phu Quoc, Tan Phu and Bu Gia Map, and Lo Go-Xa Mat due to habitat fragmentation and isolation. The threatened status of D. costatus was related to a lack of genetic diversity, with all its populations isolated in small forest patches. We recommend the establishment of an ex situ conservation site for D. costatus with a new big population comprising

  7. Speculations on the origin and evolution of the Utopia-Elysium lowlands of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.V.; Schultz, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the overall low and variable topographic character of the northern plains is a fundamental aspect of the Martian crustal dichotomy. A model for the development of the Utopia-Elysium lowlands in eastern Mars in terms of the long-term evolution of large, overlapping impact basins is presented. The effects of relaxation of basin topography, volcanic flooding and loading of the basins with subsequent subsidence and downwarping, and the growth of a long-lived major tectonovolcanic center in the overlap region between the proposed Utopia and Elysium impact basins are qualitatively described. In an early hot, thin ( 22 P), relaxation of topographic relief was probably rapid ( 4 years) by comparison with the likely time between the two largest impacts (>10 6 years). The later Utopia Basin impact drastically altered the structure of the earlier Elysium Basin, uplifting portions of what had been the central depression. The heating and fracturing due to the impacts was most intense in the region of overlap, which probably provided an easy conduit for volcanic eruptions in this area. Loading by Early Hesperian and older basin volcanic caused widespread subsidence which may have extended beyond the basin rim and which was responsible for the generally low character of the northern plains, despite the minimum 2-3 km volcanic fill present there. Prolonged volcanism would likely keep the overlap region hotter longer, opposing later general subsidence of the impact basin floor where it had cooled. The authors suggest this model may be applicable to the origin of the northern lowlands elsewhere on Mars and that overlapping large impacts may be important in the establishment of the fundamental topographic and crustal dichtomy and the origin of major tectonovolcanic complexes on the planet

  8. Photosynthesis of amphibious and obligately submerged plants in CO2-rich lowland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Frost-Christensen, Henning

    1998-11-01

    Small unshaded streams in lowland regions receive drainage water with high concentrations of free␣CO 2 , and they support an abundant growth of amphibious and obligately submerged plants. Our first objective was to measure the CO 2 regime during summer in a wide range of small alkaline Danish streams subject to wide variation in temperature, O 2 and CO 2 during the day. The second objective was to determine the effect of these variations on daily changes in light-saturated photosynthesis in water of a homophyllous and a heterophyllous amphibious species that only used CO 2 , and an obligately submerged species capable of using both HCO - 3 and CO 2 . We found that the median CO 2 concentrations of the streams were 11 and 6 times above air saturation in the morning and the afternoon, respectively, but stream sites with dense plant growth had CO 2 concentrations approaching air saturation in the afternoon. In contrast, outlets from lakes had low CO 2 concentrations close to, or below, air saturation. The amphibious species showed a reduction of photosynthesis in water from morning to afternoon along with the decline in CO 2 concentrations, while increasing temperature and O 2 had little effect on photosynthesis. Photosynthesis of the obligately submerged species varied little with the change of CO 2 because of HCO 3 - - use, and variations were mostly due to changes in O 2 concentration. Independent measurements showed that changes in temperature, O 2 and CO 2 could account for the daily variability of photosynthesis of all three species in water. The results imply that CO 2 supersaturation in small lowland streams is important for the rich representation of amphibious species and their contribution to system photosynthesis.

  9. Analysis of energy consumption in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chee Wan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient energy is needed in the right form and at the right time for adequate crop production. One way to optimize energy consumption in agriculture is to determine the efficiency of methods and techniques used. With the current increase in world population, energy consumption needs effective planning. That is, the input elements need to be identified in order to prescribe the most efficient methods for controlling them. This study was undertaken in order to determine the direct and indirect energy consumption of field operations in a lowland rice production system of Malaysia. Field time, fuel and other energy requirements were measured for the tillage, planting, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting operations performed. Energy analysis carried out revealed the highest average operational energy consumption was for tillage (1747.33 MJ ha-1 which accounted for about 48.6% of the total operational energy consumption (3595.87 MJ ha-1, followed by harvesting (1171.44 MJ ha-1, 32.6% and planting (562.91 MJ ha-1, 15.7%. Fertilizing and pesticide spraying did not make any significant contributions to the operational energy consumption. Based on energy sources, fuel was the main consumer of direct energy with 2717.82 MJha-1 (22.2%, and fertilizer recording the highest indirect energy consumption of 7721.03 MJha-1 (63.2%. Human labour, pesticides, seeds and indirect energy for machinery use had marginal importance, contributing only 0.2%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 6.9%, respectively to the total energy consumption (12225.97 MJha-1. Average grain yield was 6470.8 kg ha-1, representing energy output of 108321.75 MJha-1, that is, 96095.78 MJ net energy gain or 8.86 MJ output per MJ input. Energy input per kilogram grain yield was 1.89 MJkg-1. The results of the study indicate energy gain in the lowland rice production system of Malaysia.

  10. Diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow in a German lowland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    The separation of runoff components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Diatoms could be a promising indicator for tile drainage flow due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats. In this study, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, TD, and 5 river sites, Ri) in a German lowland catchment at a weekly or biweekly time step from March to July 2013 with the aim of testing the suitability of diatoms for tile drainage flow, which is typical for lowland catchment. Planothidium lanceolatum , Ulnaria biceps , and Navicula gregaria dominated in TD sites with relative abundances of 22.2, 21.5, and 10.9%, respectively. For Ri sites, the most abundant species was Navicula lanceolata (20.5%), followed by Ulnaria biceps (12.9%), Cyclotella meneghiniana (9.5%), and Planothidium lanceolatum (9.3%). Compared with Ri sites, TD had a lower diatom density, biomass, species richness, and percentage of Aquatic/Riparian diatoms (AqRi%). However, the proportion of Riparian diatoms (RiZo%) increased at TD. Indicator value method (IndVal) revealed that the two groups (Ri and TD) were characterized by different indicator species. Fifteen taxa, including Cocconeis placentula , Cyclotella meneghiniana , N. lanceolata , and U. biceps , were significant indicators for Ri sites. Planothidium lanceolatum , Achnanthidium minutissimum , and Navicula gregaria were significant indicators for TD sites. A pronounced variation was found in the species lists of diatom community between Ri and TD water body types associated with different indicator species. With respect to hydrograph separation, these findings highlight the suitability of diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow. However, spatial and temporal variations of diatoms should be considered in future surveys.

  11. Quantifying landscape change in an arctic coastal lowland using repeat airborne LiDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin M; Stoker, Jason M; Gibbs, Ann E; Richmond, Bruce M; Grosse, Guido; Romanovsky, Vladimir E; Douglas, Thomas A; Kinsman, Nicole E M

    2013-01-01

    Increases in air, permafrost, and sea surface temperature, loss of sea ice, the potential for increased wave energy, and higher river discharge may all be interacting to escalate erosion of arctic coastal lowland landscapes. Here we use airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data acquired in 2006 and 2010 to detect landscape change in a 100 km 2 study area on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain of northern Alaska. We detected statistically significant change (99% confidence interval), defined as contiguous areas (>10 m 2 ) that had changed in height by at least 0.55 m, in 0.3% of the study region. Erosional features indicative of ice-rich permafrost degradation were associated with ice-bonded coastal, river, and lake bluffs, frost mounds, ice wedges, and thermo-erosional gullies. These features accounted for about half of the area where vertical change was detected. Inferred thermo-denudation and thermo-abrasion of coastal and river bluffs likely accounted for the dominant permafrost-related degradational processes with respect to area (42%) and volume (51%). More than 300 thermokarst pits significantly subsided during the study period, likely as a result of storm surge flooding of low-lying tundra (<1.4 m asl) as well as the lasting impact of warm summers in the late-1980s and mid-1990s. Our results indicate that repeat airborne LiDAR can be used to detect landscape change in arctic coastal lowland regions at large spatial scales over sub-decadal time periods. (letter)

  12. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity. PMID:27224063

  13. Phenotypic plasticity in blood–oxygen transport in highland and lowland deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Danielle M.; Revsbech, Inge G.; Cheviron, Zachary A.; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In vertebrates living at high altitude, arterial hypoxemia may be ameliorated by reversible changes in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood (regulated by erythropoiesis) and/or changes in blood–oxygen affinity (regulated by allosteric effectors of hemoglobin function). These hematological traits often differ between taxa that are native to different elevational zones, but it is often unknown whether the observed physiological differences reflect fixed, genetically based differences or environmentally induced acclimatization responses (phenotypic plasticity). Here, we report measurements of hematological traits related to blood–O2 transport in populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that are native to high- and low-altitude environments. We conducted a common-garden breeding experiment to assess whether altitude-related physiological differences were attributable to developmental plasticity and/or physiological plasticity during adulthood. Under conditions prevailing in their native habitats, high-altitude deer mice from the Rocky Mountains exhibited a number of pronounced hematological differences relative to low-altitude conspecifics from the Great Plains: higher hemoglobin concentrations, higher hematocrits, higher erythrocytic concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (an allosteric regulator of hemoglobin–oxygen affinity), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and smaller red blood cells. However, these differences disappeared after 6 weeks of acclimation to normoxia at low altitude. The measured traits were also indistinguishable between the F1 progeny of highland and lowland mice, indicating that there were no persistent differences in phenotype that could be attributed to developmental plasticity. These results indicate that the naturally occurring hematological differences between highland and lowland mice are environmentally induced and are largely attributable to physiological plasticity during adulthood. PMID

  14. Assessing the drivers of dissolved organic matter export from two contrasting lowland catchments, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christopher A; Johnes, Penny J; Spencer, Robert G M

    2016-11-01

    Two lowland catchments in the U.K. were sampled throughout 2010-11 to investigate the dominant controls on dissolved organic matter quantity and composition. The catchments had marked differences in terms of nutrient status, land cover and contrasting lithologies resulting in differences in the dominant flow pathways (groundwater vs. surface water dominated). The Upper Wylye is a chalk stream with a baseflow index of 0.98, draining a catchment dominated by intensive agricultural production. Millersford Brook is a lowland peat catchment with a baseflow index of 0.43, draining a semi-natural catchment with heather moorland and coniferous forest. Samples were collected weekly between October 2010 and September 2011 from eleven sampling locations. Samples were analysed to determine dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fractions with DOM composition evaluated via the DOC:DON ratio, DOC:DOP ratio, specific UV absorption at 254nm, absorbance ratio (a250:a365) and the spectral slope parameter between 350 and 400nm (S350-400). Significant differences were observed in all determinands between the catchments, over time, and spatially along nutrient enrichment and geoclimatic gradients. Seasonal variation in preferential flow pathways mobilising groundwater-derived DOM were identified as likely controls on the delivery of DOM in the permeable chalk dominated catchment. Steeper S350-400 values and elevated a250:a365 ratios in this catchment suggest material of a lower bulk aromatic C content and molecular weight delivered during the winter months when compared to the summer. DOC:DON ratios were markedly lower in the chalk catchment than the peatland catchment, reflecting the paucity of organic matter within the mineral soils of the chalk landscape, and higher fertiliser application rates. This manuscript highlights that DOM composition varies according to catchment landscape character and hydrological function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  15. The nitrate response of a lowland catchment and groundwater travel times

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Ype; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Rooij, Gerrit; van Geer, Frans

    2010-05-01

    Intensive agriculture in lowland catchments causes eutrophication of downstream waters. To determine effective measures to reduce the nutrient loads from upstream lowland catchments, we need to understand the origin of long-term and daily variations in surface water nutrient concentrations. Surface water concentrations are often linked to travel time distributions of water passing through the saturated and unsaturated soil of the contributing catchment. This distribution represents the contact time over which sorption, desorption and degradation takes place. However, travel time distributions are strongly influenced by processes like tube drain flow, overland flow and the dynamics of draining ditches and streams and therefore exhibit strong daily and seasonal variations. The study we will present is situated in the 6.6 km2 Hupsel brook catchment in The Netherlands. In this catchment nitrate and chloride concentrations have been intensively monitored for the past 26 years under steadily decreasing agricultural inputs. We described the complicated dynamics of subsurface water fluxes as streams, ditches and tube drains locally switch between active or passive depending on the ambient groundwater level by a groundwater model with high spatial and temporal resolutions. A transient particle tracking approach is used to derive a unique catchment-scale travel time distribution for each day during the 26 year model period. These transient travel time distributions are not smooth distributions, but distributions that are strongly spiked reflecting the contribution of past rainfall events to the current discharge. We will show that a catchment-scale mass response function approach that only describes catchment-scale mixing and degradation suffices to accurately reproduce observed chloride and nitrate surface water concentrations as long as the mass response functions include the dynamics of travel time distributions caused by the highly variable connectivity of the surface

  16. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walesa Edho Prabowo

    Full Text Available Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity.

  17. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  18. A randomized DBPC trial to determine the optimal effective and safe dose of a SLIT-birch pollen extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis : results of a phase II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaar, O.; van Twuijver, E.; Boot, J. D.; Opstelten, D. J. E.; Klimek, L.; van Ree, R.; Diamant, Z.; Kuna, P.; Panzner, P.

    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a potential efficacious and safe treatment option for patients with respiratory, IgE-mediated allergic diseases. A combined tolerability, dose-finding study with a sublingual liquid birch pollen preparation (SB) was conducted. Methods: Two hundred and

  19. Phase II Trial of Atezolizumab As First-Line or Subsequent Therapy for Patients With Programmed Death-Ligand 1-Selected Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (BIRCH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Gettinger, S.; Johnson, M.L.; Janne, P.A.; Garassino, M.C.; Christoph, D.; Toh, C.K.; Rizvi, N.A.; Chaft, J.E.; Costa, E.; Patel, J.D.; Chow, L.Q.M.; Koczywas, M.; Ho, C.; Fruh, M.; Heuvel, M. van den; Rothenstein, J.; Reck, M.; Paz-Ares, L.; Shepherd, F.A.; Kurata, T.; Li, Z.; Qiu, J.; Kowanetz, M.; Mocci, S.; Shankar, G.; Sandler, A.; Felip, E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose BIRCH was designed to examine the efficacy of atezolizumab, a humanized anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) across lines of therapy. Patients were selected on the basis of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) or

  20. A Catskill Flora and Economic Botany, III: Apetalae. Including the Poplars, Willows, Hickories, Birches, Beeches, Oaks, Elms, Nettles, Sorrels, Docks, and Smartweeds. Bulletin No. 443, New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karl L.

    This compendium deals with the ecology and economic importance of the poplars, willows, hickories, birches, beeches, oaks, elms, nettles, sorrels, docks, and smartweeds growing in New York's Catskills. Provided are keys for identifying each plant to species by flowers, foliage, or winter buds. A line drawing accompanies a summary of basic data…