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Sample records for lowest dose tested

  1. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-12-01

    A survey of past case reports concerning radiation-induced breast cancer was carried out in order to find the lowest irradiation dose. The search of literature published since 1951 revealed 10 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer. Only 5 cases had precise descriptions of the irradiation dose. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1470 rads in the case of external X-ray irradiation for tuberous angioma. All of cases of radiation-induced breast cancer had received radiation for the treatment of nonmalignant tumors, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, mastitis, and tuberous angioma. There also were three statistical studies. The first concerned atomic bomb survivors, the second, pulmoanry tuberculous patients subjected to frequent fluoroscopies, and the third, patients of acute post partum mastitis. These statistical studies had revealed a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the irradiated group, but there was little information about the lowest irradiation dose. It was noticed that radiation-induced breast cancer was more numerous in the upper inner quadrant of the breast. Most histopathological findings of radiation-induced breast cancer involved duct cell carcinoma. The latent period was about 15 years.

  2. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1975-01-01

    A survey of past case reports on radiation-induced cancer of the uterus was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of literature published since 1912 revealed 548 cases of radiation-induced cancer of the uterus. All of these cases of radiation-induced cancer had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant disease. The primary gynecological conditions which were the object of radiation therapy were functional bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, myoma, endometritis, and polyps. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1000-1450 rad in the case of external X-ray irradiation, and 100 mg.hr for intrauterine radium therapy, which corresponds to 100-1000 rad. It was noted that were more cases of corpus cancer than cervical cancer. Histopathological findings of radiation-induced uterine cancer were carcinoma, sarcoma, and mixed mesodermal tumors. The latent period was distributed in the range of 1 to 40 years, with the average of 10.1 years. (auth.)

  3. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups. (auth.)

  4. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-05-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups.

  5. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced bone tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T; Morimoto, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-04-01

    A survey of past case reports of bone tumor induced by external radiation was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1922 revealed 262 cases of radiation-induced bone tumor. These patients, except a patient with occupational exposure, had received radiation for treatment. The primary conditions as object of radiation therapy were nonmalignan bone diseases such as tuberclosis, giant cell tumor, fibrous dysplasia and bone cyst, and extra-skeletal diseases such as retinoblastoma, breast cancer and uterus cancer. The ratio of male to female patients with radiation-induced bone tumor was 1:1.3. The age of the patient ranged between 5 and 98 years, with an average of 37.6 years. Skeletal distribution of radiation-induced bone tumor was as follows: 20% the frontal and face bones, 17% the femur, 10% the humerus, 9% the vertebral column, and 44% other. The lowest absorbed dose reported was 800 rads in patients irradiated for the treatment of bone disease, but 1800 rads in patients with extra-skeletal disease. The latent period ranged between 2 and 42 years, with an average of 11.7 years. The histopathological findings were as follows: 60% osteosarcoma, 25% fibrosarcoma, 7% chondrosarcoma, and 8% other.

  6. Testing ΛCDM at the lowest redshifts with SN Ia and galaxy velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scolnic, Daniel M. [University of Chicago, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dshafer2@jhu.edu, E-mail: dscolnic@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Peculiar velocities of objects in the nearby universe are correlated due to the gravitational pull of large-scale structure. By measuring these velocities, we have a unique opportunity to test the cosmological model at the lowest redshifts. We perform this test, using current data to constrain the amplitude of the ''signal'' covariance matrix describing the velocities and their correlations. We consider a new, well-calibrated ''Supercal'' set of low-redshift SNe Ia as well as a set of distances derived from the fundamental plane relation of 6dFGS galaxies. Analyzing the SN and galaxy data separately, both results are consistent with the peculiar velocity signal of our fiducial ΛCDM model, ruling out the noise-only model with zero peculiar velocities at greater than 7σ (SNe) and 8σ (galaxies). When the two data sets are combined appropriately, the precision of the test increases slightly, resulting in a constraint on the signal amplitude of A = 1.05{sub −0.21}{sup +0.25}, where A = 1 corresponds to our fiducial model. Equivalently, we report an 11% measurement of the product of the growth rate and amplitude of mass fluctuations evaluated at z {sub eff} = 0.02, f σ{sub 8} = 0.428{sub −0.045}{sup +0.048}, valid for our fiducial ΛCDM model. We explore the robustness of the results to a number of conceivable variations in the analysis and find that individual variations shift the preferred signal amplitude by less than ∼0.5σ. We briefly discuss our Supercal SN Ia results in comparison with our previous results using the JLA compilation.

  7. Sixty women a day examined with world-unique mammography system from Sectra. Breast disease centre in Sweden offers lowest radiation dose in the world

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Sectra's digital mammography system, Sectra MicroDose Mammography(TM), has been used to examine more than 1,500 women in the Helsingborg Hospital mammography screening program. This was accomplished in the record time of two months in clinical operation. The system is now being used to examine more than sixty women every day" (1 page).

  8. Population dose near the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, R; Hill, P; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D; Kluson, J; Seisebaev, A; Smagulov, S

    1998-10-01

    To determine the consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, a pilot study was performed by an international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two villages, Mostik and Maisk. Together with Kazakh scientists, eight experts from Europe carried out a field mission in September 1995 to assess, within the framework of a NATO supported project, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man were concerned. A summary of the results obtained is presented. The actual radiological situation near the test site is characterized by fallout contaminations. Cs was found in upper soil layers in concentrations similar to those of the global fallout. Also Sr, Am and Co were observed. The resulting present dose to the population is low. Mean external doses from soil contamination for Maisk and Mostik (0.60-0.63 mSv/year) presently correspond to mean external doses in normal environments. Mean values of the annual internal doses observed in these two villages are below 2 microSv/year for 90Sr. For other radionuclides the internal doses are also negligible.

  9. Population dose near the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Hill, P.; Kluson, J.; Seisebaev, A.; Smagulov, S.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, a pilot study was performed by an international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two villages, Mostik and Maisk. Together with Kazakh scientists, eight experts from Europe carried out a field mission in September 1995 to assess, within the framework of a NATO supported project, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man were concerned. A summary of the results obtained is presented. The actual radiological situation near the test site is characterized by fallout contaminations. Cs was found in upper soil layers in concentrations similar to those of the global fallout. Also Sr, Am and Co were observed. The resulting present dose to the population is low. Mean external doses from soil contamination for Maisk and Mostik (0.60-0.63 mSv/ year) presently correspond to mean external doses in normal environments. Mean values of the annual internal doses observed in these two villages are below 2 μSv/year for 90 Sr. For other radionuclides the internal doses are also negligible. (orig.)

  10. The lowest-dose, extended-cycle combined oral contraceptive pill with continuous ethinyl estradiol in the United States: a review of the literature on ethinyl estradiol 20 µg/levonorgestrel 100 µg + ethinyl estradiol 10 µg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Krishnan, Jessica KileyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Extended-cycle oral contraceptives (OCs are increasing in popularity in the United States. A new extended-cycle OC that contains the lowest doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE and levonorgestrel (LNG + continuous EE throughout the cycle is now available. It provides 84 days of a low-dose, combined active pill containing levonorgestrel 100 µg and ethinyl estradiol 20 µg. Instead of 7 days of placebo following the active pills, the regimen delivers 7 days of ethinyl estradiol 10 µg. Existing studies reveal a similar efficacy and adverse effect profile compared with other extended-regimen OCs. Specifically, the unscheduled bleeding profile is similar to other extended-cycle OCs and improves with the increase in the duration of use. Although lower daily doses of hormonal exposure have potential benefit, to our knowledge, there are no published studies indicating that this specific regimen offers a lower incidence of hormone-related side effects or adverse events. In summary, this new extended-cycle OC provides patients a low-dose, extended-regimen OC option without sacrificing efficacy or tolerability.Keywords: continuous regimen, ethinyl estradiol, extended cycle, oral contraceptive

  11. Dose reduction for snubber inspection and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.M.; Cotton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Health physics staff members at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station have implemented several dose reduction methods for snubber inspection, testing and changeout. These methods include construction maps to permit easy location of snubbers in the drywell, painting azimuth numbers on the inside drywell wall and biological shield wall to coincide with the maps, requiring pre-job briefings for quality inspectors and craft support personnel, using job history files for work planning, using experienced inspectors and craft personnel whenever possible, designating certain craft personnel solely for snubber work, and cutting out stuck snubber pins rather than attempting intact removal. The total dose for snubber-related tasks has been significantly reduced using these methods

  12. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  13. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm 3 dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Testing of the analytical anisotropic algorithm for photon dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, Ann van; Tillikainen, Laura; Pyykkonen, Jukka; Tenhunen, Mikko; Helminen, Hannu; Siljamaeki, Sami; Alakuijala, Jyrki; Paiusco, Marta; Iori, Mauro; Huyskens, Dominique P.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) was implemented in the Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) treatment planning system to replace the single pencil beam (SPB) algorithm for the calculation of dose distributions for photon beams. AAA was developed to improve the dose calculation accuracy, especially in heterogeneous media. The total dose deposition is calculated as the superposition of the dose deposited by two photon sources (primary and secondary) and by an electron contamination source. The photon dose is calculated as a three-dimensional convolution of Monte-Carlo precalculated scatter kernels, scaled according to the electron density matrix. For the configuration of AAA, an optimization algorithm determines the parameters characterizing the multiple source model by optimizing the agreement between the calculated and measured depth dose curves and profiles for the basic beam data. We have combined the acceptance tests obtained in three different departments for 6, 15, and 18 MV photon beams. The accuracy of AAA was tested for different field sizes (symmetric and asymmetric) for open fields, wedged fields, and static and dynamic multileaf collimation fields. Depth dose behavior at different source-to-phantom distances was investigated. Measurements were performed on homogeneous, water equivalent phantoms, on simple phantoms containing cork inhomogeneities, and on the thorax of an anthropomorphic phantom. Comparisons were made among measurements, AAA, and SPB calculations. The optimization procedure for the configuration of the algorithm was successful in reproducing the basic beam data with an overall accuracy of 3%, 1 mm in the build-up region, and 1%, 1 mm elsewhere. Testing of the algorithm in more clinical setups showed comparable results for depth dose curves, profiles, and monitor units of symmetric open and wedged beams below d max . The electron contamination model was found to be suboptimal to model the dose around d max , especially for physical

  15. External doses of residents near semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nagatomo, Tsuneto

    1999-01-01

    Accumulated external radiation doses of residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of study by the thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements in 1995 and 1996. The external doses that we evaluated from exposed bricks were up to about 100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk City ranged from a background level to 60 cGy, which was remarkably high compared with the previously reported values based on military data. (author)

  16. An improved standard total dose test for CMOS space electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Pease, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The postirradiation response of hardened and commercial CMOS devices is investigated as a function of total dose, dose rate, and annealing time and temperature. Cobalt-60 irradiation at ≅ 200 rad(SiO 2 )/s followed by a 1-week 100 degrees C biased anneal and testing is shown to be an effective screen of hardened devices for space use. However, a similar screen and single-point test performed after Co-60 irradiation and elevated temperature anneal cannot be generally defined for commercial devices. In the absence of detailed knowledge about device and circuit radiation response, a two-point standard test is proposed to ensure space surviability of CMOS circuits: a Co-60 irradiation and test to screen against oxide-trapped charge related failures, and an additional rebound test to screen against interface-trap related failures. Testing implications for bipolar technologies are also discussed

  17. On the population dose around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Dederichs, H.; Ostapczuk, P.; Hille, R.; Artemev, O.; Ptitskaya, L.; Akhmetov, M.; Pivovarov, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1949 the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (NTS) was extensively used by the former Soviet government as a testing range for atomic weapons. Atmospheric and underground tests were finally stopped in 1962 and 1989, respectively. The Ministry of the Russian Federation of Atomic Energy officially counts a total of 456 tests, including 116 atmospheric tests. The total yield of the nuclear explosions carried out was 6.3 Megatons equivalent with 6.7 PetaBq of 1 37C s and 3.7 PetaBq of 9 0S r being released into the athmosphere. Some of the athmospheric radioactive tests shielded plumes, which extended far beyond the outer borders of the NTS. Already the first Soviet atomic bomb test on August 29, 1949 due to unfavourable meteorological conditions affected the villages of Dolon and Moistik. Since 1995 joint investigations performed by the Research Centre Julich in cooperation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the region of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk besides environmental measurents also involve the assessment of the current dose of the population at and around the test site in addition to the important retrospective determination of the dose of persons affected by the atmospheric tests

  18. Patch test dose-response study of p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis for the hair dye substance p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is dose dependent, but threshold concentrations have not previously been investigated. 15 PPD-sensitive patients participated in a serial dilution 48-hr patch test with PPD using 8...... concentrations of PPD ranging from 1 to 10 000 on the upper back. Petrolatum was applied as control. Three concentrations (50, 100 and 500 p.p.m. PPD) were also applied to the retroauricular area and on the lateral aspects of the upper arms. 14 of the 15 participants reacted to one or more of the test samples....... The threshold value for 10% of the tested persons (ED10) based on+or stronger reactions for PPD on the back was 38 p.p.m. (CI: 4.3-100). There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity of the three anatomical regions. The upper back is a suitable region for patch testing patients...

  19. Patient radiation dose during fluoroscopy testes with contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsalih, Abir Abdelrady El noor

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the patient radiation dose received in fluoroscopy examinations during contrast medium. The cumulative air kerma (Ck), kerma area product (KAP) and fluoroscopy time were measured for sixty ( male and female ) patients undergoing five fluoroscopy examinations KAP metre which was installed for the purpose of this study. The mean kerma area product were found to be 2.681, 5.1561, 9.85529. 5.7974 and 13.09 Gy.cm"2 for HSG, A.S and D.S, GI Track and sonogram tests, respectively. The obtained mean cumulative dose was were 6.31, 13.88, 24.61, 22.56 and 32.14 mGy for HSG, A.S, A.S and D.S , GI Track, respectively, the mean fluoroscopy time were. 0.18, 0.51,0.89,1.57 and 1.75 min, for HSG, A.S, A.S, and D.S, G1 Track and sonogram test respectively. Patient dose is mainly dependent on the patient size, procedure, equipment used exposure factor and user experience. As KV and mA were controlled by the AEC and it was found to be well calibrated, possible optimization could be achieved by radiologist by decreasing the exposure time if possible. (Author)

  20. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: Progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F.; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima (9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) method for Dolon' village (Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10 mm depth of 10 mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy (background dose has been subtracted). Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose ∼440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy (above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained

  1. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  2. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  3. Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated are“thin” compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

  4. Transcriptome profiling of mice testes following low dose irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belling, Kirstine C.; Tanaka, Masami; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is used routinely to treat testicular cancer. Testicular cells vary in radio-sensitivity and the aim of this study was to investigate cellular and molecular changes caused by low dose irradiation of mice testis and to identify transcripts from different cell types...... in the adult testis. METHODS: Transcriptome profiling was performed on total RNA from testes sampled at various time points (n = 17) after 1 Gy of irradiation. Transcripts displaying large overall expression changes during the time series, but small expression changes between neighbouring time points were...... selected for further analysis. These transcripts were separated into clusters and their cellular origin was determined. Immunohistochemistry and in silico quantification was further used to study cellular changes post-irradiation (pi). RESULTS: We identified a subset of transcripts (n = 988) where changes...

  5. The lowest Landau level in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruckmann Falk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD in external (electro-magnetic fields shows some unexpected features like inverse magnetic catalysis, which have been revealed mainly through lattice studies. Many effective descriptions, on the other hand, use Landau levels or approximate the system by just the lowest Landau level (LLL. Analyzing lattice configurations we ask whether such a picture is justified. We find the LLL to be separated from the rest by a spectral gap in the two-dimensional Dirac operator and analyze the corresponding LLL signature in four dimensions. We determine to what extent the quark condensate is LLL dominated at strong magnetic fields.

  6. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  7. Protection dose level in industrial non-destructive radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xieming; Deng Daping; Hou Jinpeng

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between scattered beams in radiation field, different tube-voltages, and thickness of steel plates was studied by experiments. The results show that radio parent ratio increases with increasing tube-voltage and decreases with the increasing thickness of steel plates. As scattering angle rises, the scattering ratio decreases slowly, and the lowest ratio is at 180 degree

  8. Utilization of urea micro dose with 14 C in breath test to detect the Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chausson, Yvon; Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga V.; Passos, Maria do Carmo F.; Andrade, Angela A.M.; Simal, Carlos J.R.; Paula Castro, Luiz de; Fernandes, M.L.; Yazaki, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    A lower dose is used in the 14 C-urea breath test to detect the Helicobacter pylori (Hp). Such dose produce trivial radiation doses. The results shown that the use of this desirable dose is possible. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  9. Inadvertent injection of succinylcholine as an epidural test dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssa Pourzitaki

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Epidural action of neuromuscular blocking agents could be explained under the light of their physicochemical characteristics and epidural space properties. In the literature there are few cases of accidental neuromuscular agent's epidural administration, manifesting mainly with neuromuscular blockade institution or fasciculations. Case report: We report a case of accidental succinylcholine administration as an epidural test dose, in a female patient undergoing scheduled laparotomy, under combined general and epidural anesthesia. Approximately 2 min after the succinylcholine injection the patient complained for shortness of breath, while mild fasciculations appeared in her trunk and face, managed by immediate general anesthesia institution. With the exception of a relatively longer duration of neuromuscular blockade compared with intravenous administration, no neurological or cardiovascular sequelae or other symptoms of local or systemic toxicity were observed. Conclusions: Oral administration of diazepam seems to lessen the adverse effects from accidental epidural administration of succinylcholine. The meticulous and discriminative labeling of syringes, as well as keeping persistent cautions during all anesthesia procedures remains of crucial importance.

  10. Performance test of a portable TLD system for accidental doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelic, M.; Stuhec, M.; Mitic, D.; Vekic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Ban, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A portable TLD measuring system was constructed at the J. Stefan Institute many years ago, motivated by the thread of a catastrophic nuclear event. It was designed for fast measurements in accidental dosimetry mainly for military and civil protection use. The system consists of a robust portable measuring unit built for measurements in field conditions, sized about 40 cm in diameter and weighting 5 kg. Dosimeters are based on CaF 2 :Mn ceramic tablets closed in water resistant plastic housings. In original design producer assured measuring range from cGy to kGy. Specially designed energy compensating filters are used to satisfy requirements for energy response from 0,1 to 3 MeV. Stability of readings is maintained with the temperature stabilized light source. Measuring time for manually driven heating-reading cycle of one dosimeter is about 30 sec. Many systems of the type with sets of dosimeters were stored unused for some years in depositories of different institutions. Modernization of equipment in last years raised questions of applicability of such measurement systems for contemporary needs. The system was thus tested in a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory for compliance with up to date requirements for accidental individual monitoring. Dosimeter characteristics as repeatability, linearity and directional response were of particular interest. As a result of the tests, technical improvements are suggested to extent systems measuring capabilities in order to meet new standards. Possibilities of its use in different fields of dosimetry are discussed, where quick in field measurements of high doses is required as for example in medicine or in civil protection motivated by the new threads of terrorist attacks. (author)

  11. Evaluation of accelerated test parameters for CMOS IC total dose hardness prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, A.V.; Nikiforov, A.Y.; Chumakov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The approach to accelerated test parameters evaluation is presented in order to predict CMOS IC total dose behavior in variable dose-rate environment. The technique is based on the analytical model of MOSFET parameters total dose degradation. The simple way to estimate model parameter is proposed using IC's input-output MOSFET radiation test results. (authors)

  12. Theoretical study of the lowest-lying electronic states of Aluminium monoiodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, F.; Kabbani, A.; Ani-El Houte, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.The spectroscopic study of Aluminium monohalides, especially the Aluminium monoiodide, is important for monitoring such species in high temperature fast-flow reactors. Theoretical calculations of AlI are not available, whereas several studies have been done for the other aluminium monohalides. In this work, CAS-SCF/MRCI calculations are performed for the lowest-lying electronic states of AlI in a range of internuclear distance between 2.30 A and 2.80 A. Ab-initio calculations have been effectuated by using the computational chemistry program Molpro. The basis set used in this study for aluminium atom is that used by Langhoff for aluminium monohalides, of contractions using atomic natural orbitals and a pseudopotential is used for iode. Accurate theoretical spectroscopic constants and potential curves are obtained for the ground state X 1 Σ + and the first excited states a 3 Π and A 1 Π. The calculated values of Te, ωe, ωexe and re of these states are compatible with the experimental results. An ordering of states is represented for the lowest five predicted singlet and lowest five predicted triplet states. These results provide a big support to determine the analogy in the ordering of the electronic states in AlF, AlBr and AlI respectively at lower energies. These theoretical results identify a set of electronic singlet and triplet states unobserved experimentally

  13. Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions: case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Dose prediction method RAPS after surface nuclear explosion has been developed by using the empirical dose function of USA nuclear test. This method which provides us external total dose, dose rate at any distant, at any time for any yield of nuclear explosion, is useful for radiation protection in case of nuclear events such as terrorism and nuclear war. The validity of RAPS has been confirmed by application to historical surface nuclear test explosions. The first test case study which was done for the first test explosion of the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on August 29th 1949, shows a good agreement with luminescence dosimetry on a brick. This dose prediction method was applied nuclear tests in Lop Nur. The results indicate dangerous nuclear radiation influences including fatal risk in the wide Uygur area. (author)

  14. Take with Food: Study Tests Lowering Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Currents Blog Cancer Currents Blog Take with Food: Study Tests Lowering Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug Subscribe April ... to this page included, e.g., “Take with Food: Study Tests Lowering Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug was originally ...

  15. Electromagnetic structure of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, L. S.; Camalich, J. Martin; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We present a calculation of the leading SU(3)-breaking O(p 3 ) corrections to the electromagnetic moments and charge radius of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory. In particular, the magnetic dipole moment of the members of the decuplet is predicted fixing the only low-energy constant (LEC) present up to this order with the well-measured magnetic dipole moment of the Ω - . We predict μ Δ ++ =6.04(13) and μ Δ + =2.84(2), which agree well with the current experimental information. For the electric quadrupole moment and the charge radius, we use state-of-the-art lattice QCD results to determine the corresponding LECs, whereas for the magnetic octupole moment there is no unknown LEC up to the order considered here, and we obtain a pure prediction. We compare our results with those reported in large N c , lattice QCD, heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, and other models.

  16. Giant angular resonance and the structure of the lowest-lying nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.N.; Usmanov, P.N.; Yuldashbaeva, Eh.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis is given of the Hamiltonian of the two-rotor model, which is based on the assumption that the giant angular resonance exists, i.e. that it is possible to rotate the neutron component of a deformed nucleus as a whole with respect to the proton component. The realization of the projections on the intrinsic axes of the angular momentum operators is found, the Hamiltonian matrix is determined in the basis convenient for the case of strong neutron-proton coupling. The spectrum of the two-rotor model is determined taking into account the nondiagonal matrix elements in the lowest order of the perturbation theory. The g factors and the probabilities of the M1 transitions are discussed

  17. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Dose Accumulation on the Histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Male Testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Shibel, M.M.; El-Dossouki, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50, 75 or 100 Gy. The effects of accumulating doses applied to these pupae through three consequent filial generations and the retarded influence on their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations progeny were examined. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes was correlated with increasing the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F 1 . Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose. The deteriorations on the testes were more evident in case of F 1 males resulting from parental males irradiated through two or three successive generations or three accumulated doses of 25 or 50 Gy

  18. Total dose tests for the PROMICS-3 instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkasalo, R.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of some analog and digital integrated circuits (IC's) to ionizing radiation was tested in order to evaluate their potential usefulness especially in the PROMICS-3 instrument. The PROMICS-3 is a plasma instrument to be flown on the Russian Interball satellites. The radiation tolerance requirement of the auroral Interball satellite is about 45 krad/year inside a shielding of 4 mm Aluminium. The IC's tested were: AD571 A/D- converter, ADDAC80 D/A-converter, LF442A and PM108A operational amplifiers, MPREF0l voltage reference, STC SPXO 6 MHZ oscillator,4N55 optocoupler, MC5lC98 and CY7C164 16k*4 static CMOS RAM. Co-60 was used as the irradiation source. The test methods and results are described in the paper. The RAM-circuits failed between 10 and 20 krad. D/A- and A/D-converters degraded only slightly after 100 krad, but one of the A/D-converters failed functionally at 190 krad. The LF442A began to degrade in the test connection at 100 krad, and PM108A at 30 krad. The output voltage of the voltage reference MPREF01 increased about 20 mV after 100 krad. No change was observed in the output frequency of the STC SPXD oscillator even after 300 krad. The current tansfer ratio of the 4N55 decreased continuously to about 75 % of the initial value after 100 krad

  19. Global dose to man from proposed NNTRP high altitude nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.R.

    1975-05-01

    Radionuclide measurements from past high altitude nuclear testing have enabled development of a model to estimate surface deposition and doses from 400 kt of fission products injected in winter within the Pacific Test Area at altitudes in excess of 50 km. The largest 30-year average dose to man is about 10 millirem and occurs at 30 0 to 50 0 N latitude. The principal contributor to this dose is external gamma radiation from gross fission products. Individual doses from 90 Sr via the forage-cow-milk pathway and 137 Cs via the pasture-meat pathway are about 1/5 the gross fission product doses. The global 30-year population dose is 3 x 10 7 person-rem, which compares with a 30-year natural background population dose of 1 X 10 10 person-rem. Due in large part to the global distribution of population, over 98 percent of the global person-rem from the proposed high altitude tests is received in the Northern Hemisphere, while about 75 percent of the total population dose occurs within the 30 0 --50 0 N latitude belt. Detonations in summer would decrease the global dose by about a factor of three. (U.S.)

  20. Estimation of radionuclide ingestion: Lessons from dose reconstruction for fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    The United States conducted atmospheric testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1963. In 1979 the U.S. Department of Energy established the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project to compile a data base related to health effects from nuclear testing and to reconstruct doses to public residing off of the Nevada Test Site. This project is the most comprehensive dose reconstruction project to date, and, since similar assessments are currently underway at several other locations within and outside the U.S., lessons from ORERP can be valuable. A major component of dose reconstruction is estimation of dose from radionuclide ingestion. The PATHWAY food-chain model was developed to estimate the amount of radionuclides ingested. For agricultural components of the human diet, PATHWAY predicts radionuclide concentrations and quantities ingested. To improve accuracy and model credibility, four components of model analysis were conducted: estimation of uncertainty in model predictions, estimation of sensitivity of model predictions to input parameters, and testing of model predictions against independent data (validation), and comparing predictions from PATHWAY with those from other models. These results identified strengths and weaknesses in the model and aided in establishing the confidence associated with model prediction, which is a critical component risk assessment and dose reconstruction. For fallout from the Nevada Test Site, by far, the largest internal doses were received by the thyroid. However, the predicted number of fatal cancers from ingestion dose was generally much smaller than the number predicted from external dose. The number of fatal cancers predicted from ingestion dose was also orders of magnitude below the normal projected cancer rate. Several lessons were learned during the study that are relevant to other dose reconstruction efforts

  1. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  2. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs...

  3. Enhanced low dose rate radiation effect test on typical bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minbo; Chen Wei; Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Huang Shaoyan; Sheng Jiangkun; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun

    2014-01-01

    Two types of bipolar transistors and nine types bipolar integrated circuit were selected in the irradiation experiment at different "6"0Co γ dose rate. The base current of bipolar transistor and input bias current of amplifier and comparator was measured, low dose enhance factor of test device was obtained. The results show that bipolar device have enhanced low dose rate sensitivity, enhancement factor of bipolar integrated circuit was bigger than that of transistor, and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity greatly varied with different structure and process of bipolar device. (authors)

  4. Thyroid nodule prevalence and radiation dose from fallout near the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Luckyanov, N.K.; Simon, S.L.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B.I.; Hartshorne, M.N.; Carr, Z.A.

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid nodule prevalence was use as a biomarker for radiation-related thyroid cancer risk associated with dose from internal and external radiation sources in fallout from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Kazakhstan. Ultrasound scans were done on the thyroid glands of 1990 current residents of 7 villages near the STS, all members of a defined study cohort established in the 1960s, and all juveniles at some time during 1949-1962. Questionnaire-guided interviews focused on residential history and childhood consumption of milk and milk products. A refined dose reconstruction algorithm, developed jointly by experts from Russia and the US, was applied to the resulting data to calculate individual estimates of thyroid dose from external and internal sources of fallout-related radiation. Individual radiation dose estimates ranged from zero to 20 Gy for total dose (0-1.7 Gy and 0-20 Gy for dose from external and internal sources, respectively). The ratio of internal to external dose generally increased with increasing distance, reflecting a shift towards smaller particle sizes at greater distances and more effective transfer of small particles through the foodchain. Dose-response analysis was focused on variation of nodule prevalence by sex, age at screening, measured thyroid volume, and reconstructed thyroid dose from external (mainly gamma-ray) and internal (mainly 131 I) radiation sources. Nodule prevalence was markedly higher among women and increased significantly with increasing age at screening and with thyroid volume. Highly significant dose responses were observed for nodule prevalence as a function of total thyroid dose and, in a separate analysis, of doses from internal and external sources as distinct independent variables; dose response was linear for total dose 131 I cf. x ray with respect to thyroid cancer as an endpoint, based on theoretical, experimental, and epidemiological data

  5. Correlation between induced embryo toxicity and absorption dose of enriched uranium in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Lun Mingyue

    1996-01-01

    Doses of enriched uranium in testes inducing dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities in offsprings are estimated. When intra-testicular injection dose is 0.4∼60 μg enriched uranium; from intake to insemination, testes could receive 9.14 x 10 -5 ∼1.38 x 10 -2 Gy radiation dose. Experimental results show that with the increase in the absorption dose, the number of living fetuses in a litter decreases, dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities rise. It should be noted that relationship between the injected dose (I in μg) and the incidence of dominant skeletal abnormalities (S in %) in the offsprings can be represented by equation: S = 28.84 + 0.84I

  6. Correlation between induced embryo toxicity and absorption dose of enriched uranium in testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1996-08-01

    Doses of enriched uranium in testes inducing dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities in offsprings are estimated. When intra-testicular injection dose is 0.4{approx}60 {mu}g enriched uranium; from intake to insemination, testes could receive 9.14 x 10{sup -5}{approx}1.38 x 10{sup -2} Gy radiation dose. Experimental results show that with the increase in the absorption dose, the number of living fetuses in a litter decreases, dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities rise. It should be noted that relationship between the injected dose (I in {mu}g) and the incidence of dominant skeletal abnormalities (S in %) in the offsprings can be represented by equation: S = 28.84 + 0.84I.

  7. Estimated of associated uncertainties of the linearity test of dose calibrators; Estimativa das incertezas associadas ao teste de linearidade de calibradores de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Carlos H.S.; Peixoto, Jose G.P., E-mail: chenrique@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Activimeters determine the activity of radioactive samples and them are validated by performance tests. This research determined the expanded uncertainties associated to the linearity test. Were used three dose calibrators and three sources of {sup 99}Tc{sup m} for testing using recommended protocol by the IAEA, which considered the decay of radioactive samples. The expanded uncertainties evaluated were not correlated with each other and their analysis considered a rectangular probability distribution. The results are also presented in graphical form by the function of normalized activity measured in terms of conventional true value. (author)

  8. A summary of estimated doses to members of the public from atmospheric nuclear tests at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Bouville, A.; Luckyanov, N.; Miller, C.W.; Beck, H.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses estimates of radiation dose to representative members of the public of the United States (U.S.) from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted from 1951 through 1962 at the Nevada Test Site. The estimates provided here summarize five studies conducted over the past two decades. From those studies, an estimate of the average deposition of 137 Cs within each of the more than 3,000 counties across the country has been derived as well as doses to representative persons in each county and to specific subpopulations. The years of the largest contributions to the collective external dose were 1952, 1953, and 1957. Those years accounted for about 70% of the 84,000 person-Gy received by the U.S. public. Irradiation of the thyroid gland of members of the U.S. public was also a consequence of dispersion of radioiodine in the fallout. Thyroid doses varied by location and by birth year. The population weighted thyroid dose for a child born in 1951 and for an adult in 1951 were 30 and 5 mGy, respectively. Maps are provided to show the geographic distribution of 137 Cs as well as the average thyroid dose received in each county from the Nevada tests. (author)

  9. Estimation of radiation dose received by the radiation workers during radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, N. A. H. O.

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted primarily to evaluate occupational radiation dose in industrial radiography during radiographic testing at Balil-Hadida, with the aim of building up baseline data on radiation exposure in the industrial radiography practice in Sudan. Dose measurements during radiographic testing were performed and compared with IAEA reference dose. In this research the doses measured by using hand held radiation survey meter and personal monitoring dosimeter. The results showed that radiation doses ranged between minimum (0.448 mSv/ 3 month) , and maximum (1.838 mSv / 3 month), with an average value (0.778 mSv/ 3 month), and the standard deviation 0.292 for the workers used gamma mat camera. The analysis of data showed that the radiation dose for all radiation worker are receives less than annual limit for exposed workers 20 mSv/ year and compare with other study found that the dose received while body doses ranging from 0.1 to 9.4 mSv/ year, work area design in all the radiography site followed the three standard rules namely putting radiation signs, reducing access to control area and making of boundaries. Thus the accidents arising from design faults not likely to occur at these site. Results suggest that adequate fundamental training of radiation workers in general radiography prior to industrial radiography work will further improve the standard of personnel radiation protection. (Author)

  10. Immediate hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media: diagnostic accuracy of skin tests and intravenous provocation test with low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, L; Gaouar, H; Autegarden, J-E; Alari, A; Amsler, E; Vial-Dupuy, A; Pecquet, C; Francès, C; Soria, A

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of HSR to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is challenging based on clinical history and skin tests. This study evaluates the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin tests and intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose ICM in patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to ICM. Thirty-seven patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM were included retrospectively. Skin tests and a single-blind placebo-controlled intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose iodinated contrast media (ICM) were performed. Skin tests with ICM were positive in five cases (one skin prick test and five intradermal test). Thirty-six patients were challenged successfully by IPT, and only one patient had a positive challenge result, with a grade I reaction by the Ring and Messmer classification. Ten of 23 patients followed up by telephone were re-exposed to a negative tested ICM during radiologic examination; two experienced a grade I immediate reaction. For immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, the NPV for skin tests and IPT with low dose was 80% (95% CI 44-97%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A step-up test procedure to find the minimum effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizhen; Peng, Jianan

    2015-01-01

    It is of great interest to find the minimum effective dose (MED) in dose-response studies. A sequence of decreasing null hypotheses to find the MED is formulated under the assumption of nondecreasing dose response means. A step-up multiple test procedure that controls the familywise error rate (FWER) is constructed based on the maximum likelihood estimators for the monotone normal means. When the MED is equal to one, the proposed test is uniformly more powerful than Hsu and Berger's test (1999). Also, a simulation study shows a substantial power improvement for the proposed test over four competitors. Three R-codes are provided in Supplemental Materials for this article. Go to the publishers online edition of Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics to view the files.

  12. Effects of linuron on a rooted aquatic macrophyte in sediment-dosed test systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buresova, H.; Crum, S.J.H.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of linuron on the sediment-rooted aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. were studied in sediment-dosed test systems following a proposed guideline with extended test duration. Sediment, pore water, overlying water and macrophyte shoots were sampled weekly for chemical analyses. Linuron

  13. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the dose-time effect of crude oil and hydro-test effluent on freshwater and brackish water habitats. The species used for the acute toxicity were freshwater fish, Tilapia guineenis (fry) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water ...

  14. The radiochromic dye film dose meter as a possible test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Jensen, M.; Katz, R.

    1980-09-01

    The response characteristic of the thin-film radiometric dye cyanide plastic dose meter to ionizing radiation of electrons and heavy charged particles is investigated as a possible test of the particle track theory worked out by Robert Katz and coworkers. Dose response curves for low-LET radiation have been investigated and are used for a quality estimation of the response for protons and oxygen ions at 16 and 4 MeV/amu, respectively. A bleaching effect on the colouration at high doses intimates that the target cannot be interpreted lieerally, but it might still be possinle to transfer the function of the macroscopic dose response to a theoretical dose response curve in a microscopic scale for a single ion. From this relation the macroscopic dose response curve can be determined qhen the film is irradiated with heavy ions. It will be shown theoretically that for protons there is no saturation in the track core, whereas calculations for oxygen ions show a heavy saturation in the track core, which means that a part of the ions loose their energy ineffectively. We can conclude that itis possible qualitatively to predict the dose response curve for high-LET particles by means of the dose response curve for low-LET radiation. (author)

  15. Dose-Weighted Adjusted Mantel-Haenszel Tests for Numeric Scaled Strata in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansky, Stuart A.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Koch, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent three-arm parallel groups randomized clinical prevention trial had a protocol deviation causing participants to have fewer active doses of an in-office treatment than planned. The original statistical analysis plan stipulated a minimal assumption randomization-based extended Mantel-Haenszel (EMH) trend test of the high frequency, low frequency, and zero frequency treatment groups and a binary outcome. Thus a dose-weighted adjusted EMH (DWAEMH) test was developed with an extra set of weights corresponding to the number of active doses actually available, in the spirit of a pattern mixture model. The method can easily be implemented using standard statistical software. A set of Monte Carlo simulations using a logistic model was undertaken with (and without) actual dose-response effects through 1000 replicates for empirical power estimates (and 2100 for empirical size). Results showed size was maintained and power was improved for DWAEMH versus EMH and logistic regression Wald tests in the presence of a dose effect and treatment by dose interaction. PMID:21709814

  16. Performance of an automatic dose control system for CT. Specifications and basic phantom tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, H.D. [Wissenschaft und Technik fuer die Radiolgoe, Dr. HD Nagel, Buchholz (Germany); Stumpp, P.; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the performance and to provide more detailed insight into the characteristics and limitations of devices for automatic dose control (ADC) in CT. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive study on DoseRight 2.0, the ADC system provided by Philips for its Brilliance CT scanners, was conducted. Phantom tests were carried out on a 64-slice scanner (Brilliance 64) using assorted quality control (QC) phantoms that allowed verification of the basic specifications. If feasible, the findings were verified by model calculations based on known specifications. Results: For all tests, the dose reductions and modulation characteristics fully met the values expected from the specifications. Adverse effects due to increased image noise were only moderate as a result of the 'adequate noise system' design that employs comparatively gentle modulation, and the additional use of adaptive filtration. Conclusion: Simple tests with QC phantoms allow evaluation of the most relevant characteristics of devices for ADC in CT. (orig.)

  17. Effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on apoptosis in spermatogenic cells of mouse testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Gong Shouliang

    2003-01-01

    To study the effects of low dose radiation (LDR) with different doses of X-rays on the apoptosis in spermatogenic cells of male Kunming mouse testes. The time-effect and dose-effect of apoptosis in the different stages of spermatogenic cell cycles of mouse testis after LDR with different doses of X-rays were studied with light microscope using the methods of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and HE staining. The apoptosis of spermatogenic cells induced by LDR had a remarkable regularity in cell types. When the dose was 0.025 Gy, spermatogonium apoptosis was taken as main. With the dose increase of irradiation (0.025-0.2 Gy), spermatocytes also showed an apoptotic change, but the apoptotic rate of spermatogonia was significantly higher than that of spermatocytes. Moreover, the apoptosis of spermatids and spermatozoa scarcely occurred after irradiation with low dose. The apoptosis of spermatogenic cells induced by LDR has a regular change, which provides a further experimental evidence for the mechanism study of hormesis by LDR

  18. New aspects in distribution of population dose loads in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Pivovarov, S.; Rukhin, A.; Seredavina, T.; Sushkova, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The question on dose loads of Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) region population is not fully solved till now. There is rather different estimations of doses, received by people of nearest to SNTS settlements. It may be explain by absence of individual dosimeters during and after nuclear weapon tests and also many various ways of radiation exposure receiving. During last some years we have done a people dose loads estimations by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) tooth enamel dosimetry method - one of the best and reliable for retrospective dosimetry. It was studied tooth enamel people from settlements Dolon, Bodene, Cheremushki, Mostik, which was irradiated mainly by the first atomic explosion 1949, settlement Sarjal, irradiated by the first thermonuclear explosion in 1953, and control settlement Maysk, which is sited close to SNTS, but there was no any radioactive traces due to east wind. The results display a not expected rather surprising picture: in all settlements, including control one Maysk, the dose loads distribution was rather similar, it has ex fast bimodal form with rather high doses in the second one. The possible reasons of such situation is discussed. The results obtained is compared with last estimations of Semipalatinsk region dose loads of population, which were specially attentively discussed at International Symposiums in Hiroshima (Japan, 2005) and Bethesda (MD, USA, 2006). (author)

  19. High-dose calcium stimulation test in a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshio; Doi, Ryuichiro; Kohno, Yasuhiro; Shimono, Dai; Kuwamura, Naomitsu; Inoue, Koichi; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    It is reported that some cases with insulinoma present with neuropsychiatric symptoms and are often misdiagnosed as psychosis. Here we report a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria, whose final diagnosis could be made using high-dose calcium stimulation test. A 28-yr-old woman was referred presenting with substupor, mutism, mannerism, restlessness, and incoherence. Laboratory examinations revealed hypoglycemia (33 mg/dL) and detectable insulin levels (9.7 microU/mL), suggesting the diagnosis of insulinoma. However, neither imaging studies nor selective arterial calcium injection (SACI) test with a conventional dose of calcium (0.025 mEq/kg) indicated the tumor. High-dose calcium injection (0.05 mEq/kg) evoked insulin secretion when injected into superior mesenteric artery. A solitary tumor in the head of the pancreas was resected, and her plasma glucose returned to normal. Postoperatively, iv injection of secretin resulted in a normal response of insulin, which was not found preoperatively. This case suggests the usefulness of the SACI test with high-dose of calcium in the case of insulinoma when the standard dose fails to detect such a tumor.

  20. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests.

  1. An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be ±35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137 Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137 Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences

  2. A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y -1 when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be ±35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137 Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137 Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences

  3. On the population dose close to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Peterson, L.; Pivovarov, S.; Rukhin, A.; Seredavina, T.; Sushkova, N.; Artemyev, O.; Abildinova, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As a result of nuclear weapon tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) radiation exposure of inhabitants in surrounding villages has occurred over a period of several decades. Despite a number of published reports the determination of cumulative doses to the associated population and its uncertainty has not been finalized yet. Among the factors complicating this task are a) the time passed, b) the lack of direct personal dosimetry within the population possibly exposed, c) significant migration (out and in), d) inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclide deposition, e) new settlers at the SNTS and f) economic activities at the SNTS. This paper reports on the contribution of the ISTC-project K-465.2 'Complex examination of Semipalatinsk Test Site Region's population by advanced dosimetry methods' in assessing the population dose. The main results have been obtained during a period of three years by using the recent methodological progress made in EPR dosimetry on tooth enamel. Tooth enamel of people from settlements Dolon, Bodene, Cheremushki, Mostik, which were affected mainly by the first atomic explosion 1949, settlement Sarjal, affected by the first thermonuclear explosion in 1953, and as a control village Maysk, where radiological and meteorological records suggest that there was no significant radionuclide deposition near this village despite its position at the borders of SNTS, were investigated. Fresh tooth samples were used, which reflect well the current radiological situation. Additional measurements included e.g. environmental monitoring and in-vivo monitoring. EPR results suggest the existence of two sub-populations with different dose distributions: One with doses in the range of expected values from both natural background and SNTS testing, and another one with still higher doses not explained by the observed radioactive contamination. This finding is rather surprising. Additional research is needed to obtain a better statistic

  4. Effect of low dose Lead (Pb) administration on tail immersion test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of low dose Lead (Pb) administration on tail immersion test and ... subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level. ... Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes (weight 150g to 200g) were used.

  5. Acceptance test procedure for K basins dose reduction project clean and coat equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the clean and coat equipment designed by Oceaneering Hanford, Inc. under purchase order MDK-XVC-406988 for use in the 105 K East Basin. The ATP provides the guidelines and criteria to test the equipment's ability to clean and coat the concrete perimeter, divider walls, and dummy elevator pit above the existing water level. This equipment was designed and built in support of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, Dose Reduction Project. The ATP will be performed at the 305 test facility in the 300 Area at Hanford. The test results will be documented in WHC-SD-SNF-ATR-020

  6. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  7. Dose assessment, radioecology, and community interaction at former nuclear test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. A total of 66 nuclear devices were tested--23 at Bikini Atoll (total yield of 77 megatons) and 43 at Enewetak Atoll (total yield of 33 megatons). This resulted in contamination of many of the islands at each atoll. The BRAVO test (yield 15 megatons) on March 1, 1954 contaminated several atolls to the east of Bikini Atoll some of which were inhabited. The author has conducted an experimental, monitoring, and dose assessment program at atolls in the northern Marshall Islands for the past 20 years. The goals have been to: (1) determine the radiological conditions at the atolls; (2) provide dose assessments for resettlement options and alternate living patterns; (3) develop and evaluate remedial measures to reduce the dose to people reinhabiting the atolls; and (4) discuss the results with each of the communities and the Republic of the Marshall Islands government officials to help them understand the data as a basis for resettlement decisions. The remaining radionuclides at the atolls that contribute any significant dose are 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, and 241 Am

  8. Lowest order Virtual Element approximation of magnetostatic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão da Veiga, L.; Brezzi, F.; Dassi, F.; Marini, L. D.; Russo, A.

    2018-04-01

    We give here a simplified presentation of the lowest order Serendipity Virtual Element method, and show its use for the numerical solution of linear magneto-static problems in three dimensions. The method can be applied to very general decompositions of the computational domain (as is natural for Virtual Element Methods) and uses as unknowns the (constant) tangential component of the magnetic field $\\mathbf{H}$ on each edge, and the vertex values of the Lagrange multiplier $p$ (used to enforce the solenoidality of the magnetic induction $\\mathbf{B}=\\mu\\mathbf{H}$). In this respect the method can be seen as the natural generalization of the lowest order Edge Finite Element Method (the so-called "first kind N\\'ed\\'elec" elements) to polyhedra of almost arbitrary shape, and as we show on some numerical examples it exhibits very good accuracy (for being a lowest order element) and excellent robustness with respect to distortions.

  9. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing...... format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth...... at chemical activity of unity was higher than expected relative to a reported hydrophobicity cut-off in toxicity, but lower than expected relative to a reported chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. The present study introduces a new effective approach for toxicity testing of an important group...

  10. Measurements of integrated components' parameters versus irradiation doses gamma radiation (60Co) dosimetry-methodology-tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuan, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used for the irradiation of the integrated components and the measurements of their parameters, using Quality Insurance of dosimetry: - Measurement of the integrated dose using the competences of the Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (LCIE): - Measurement of irradiation dose versus source/component distance, using a calibrated equipment. - Use of ALANINE dosimeters, placed on the support of the irradiated components. - Assembly and polarization of components during the irradiations. Selection of the irradiator. - Measurement of the irradiated components's parameters, using the competences of the societies: - GenRad: GR130 tests equipement placed in the DEIN/SIR-CEN SACLAY. - Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (LCIE): GR125 tests equipment and this associated programmes test [fr

  11. Surveys of radon levels in homes in the United States: A test of the linear-no-threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Radon Project for large scale measurements of radon concentrations in homes is described. Its principal research is to test the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis by determining average radon levels in the 25 U.S. counties (within certain population ranges) with highest and lowest lung cancer rates. The theory predicts that the former should have about 3 times higher average radon levels than the latter, under the assumption that any correlation between exposure to radon and exposure to other causes of lung cancer is weak. The validity of this assumption is tested with data on average radon level vs replies to items on questionnaires; there is little correlation between radon levels in houses and smoking habits, educational attainment, or economic status of the occupants, or with urban vs rural environs which is an indicator of exposure to air pollution

  12. Estimated of associated uncertainties of the linearity test of dose calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Carlos H.S.; Peixoto, Jose G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Activimeters determine the activity of radioactive samples and them are validated by performance tests. This research determined the expanded uncertainties associated to the linearity test. Were used three dose calibrators and three sources of 99 Tc m for testing using recommended protocol by the IAEA, which considered the decay of radioactive samples. The expanded uncertainties evaluated were not correlated with each other and their analysis considered a rectangular probability distribution. The results are also presented in graphical form by the function of normalized activity measured in terms of conventional true value. (author)

  13. Estimate of whole body doses for Lynette Tew and Becky Farnsworth from Nevada Test Site local fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Ng, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lynette Tew and Becky Farnsworth are decendents whose relatives are litigants in Timothy vs US. The litigants allege that the decendents were harmed by radiation doses received as a result of local fallout from the testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. We have calculated a best estimate of the whole body dose received by each decendent from external exposure and the ingestion of radionuclides with food. In each case the dose via ingestion is trivial compared to the external dose. For Lynette Tew the dose estimate is 0.28 rads. For Becky Farnsworth it is 0.0035 rads. 23 references, 4 tables

  14. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  15. Is action potential threshold lowest in the axon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    Action potential threshold is thought to be lowest in the axon, but when measured using conventional techniques, we found that action potential voltage threshold of rat cortical pyramidal neurons was higher in the axon than at other neuronal locations. In contrast, both current threshold and voltage

  16. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller

    2014-01-01

    to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved...... further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity...... exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates....

  17. Test methods of total dose effects in very large scale integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; He Baoping; Yao Yujuan; Li Yonghong; Peng Honglun; Lin Dongsheng; Zhou Hui; Chen Yusheng

    2004-01-01

    A kind of test method of total dose effects (TDE) is presented for very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). The consumption current of devices is measured while function parameters of devices (or circuits) are measured. Then the relation between data errors and consumption current can be analyzed and mechanism of TDE in VLSI can be proposed. Experimental results of 60 Co γ TDEs are given for SRAMs, EEPROMs, FLASH ROMs and a kind of CPU

  18. Quality control tests in dose calibrators used in research laboratories of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, Lilian T.; Junior, Amaury C.R.; Martins, Elaine W.; Dias, Carla R.; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to do the intercomparison between two dose calibrators used in research laboratories at IPEN-CNEN / SP, one being the Capinted NPL-CRC, of the Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos (LCI) do IPEN, and the other Capintec CRC-15R of the Centro de Radiofarmacia (CR). The standard sources used for carrying out the comparing tests between the two laboratories were 57 Co, 133 Ba and the 13 7 C s

  19. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  20. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.F.; Cohen, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, sex, age group, geographic area, and time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners over-estimates the total number of observed lung cancers in many countries in the early years of this century; the discrepancy is substantially increased if the 30-44 year age range and/or if only females are considered, and by the fact that many other causes of lung cancer are shown to have been important at that time. The degree to which changes of diagnostic efficiency with time can influence the analysis is considered at some length. It is concluded that the linear relationship substantially over-estimates effects of low radiation doses. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation, applying selectivity by age, sex, natural background level, and date, and considering other causes. It is concluded that effects substantially larger than those obtained from linear extrapolation are excluded. The use of the selectivities mentioned above is justified by the fact that the incidence of cancer or leukemia is an upper limit on the rate at which it is caused by radiation effects; in determining upper limits it is justifiable to select situations which minimize it. (author)

  1. Neutron dose rate at the SwissFEL injector test facility: first measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, E.; Frey, N.; Fuchs, A.; Harm, C.; Hoedlmoser, H.; Luescher, R.; Mayer, S.; Morath, O.; Philipp, R.; Rehmann, A.; Schietinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the new SwissFEL Free Electron Laser facility is currently in the design phase. It is foreseen to accelerate electrons up to a maximum energy of 7 GeV with a pulsed time structure. An injector test facility is operated at a maximum energy of 300 MeV and serves as the principal test and demonstration plant for the SwissFEL project. Secondary radiation is created in unavoidable interactions of the primary beam with beamline components. The resulting ambient dose-equivalent rate due to neutrons was measured along the beamline with different commercially available survey instruments. The present study compares the readings of these neutron detectors (one of them is specifically designed for measurements in pulsed fields). The experiments were carried out in both, a normal and a diagnostic mode of operation of the injector. Measurements were taken at the SwissFEL injector test facility using three different types of commercially available survey instruments for normal and diagnostic mode of operation at different positions inside the accelerator vault. During normal operation, the doses indicated by the different instruments agree within the measurement uncertainty except for the beam dump region. There, due to its limited energy range and high sensitivity, the LB6411 shows significantly lower dose values than the other instruments. The photon background in the vault associated with each pulse causes the scintillator used by the LB6419 to saturate. As a result, only the channel using the delayed 12 C(n,p)12-reaction could be used during the measurements. The highest doses per pulse were measured next to the beam dump and the bunch compressor. For the optimisation of the accelerator, luminescent screens can be inserted into the beam path causing a dose distributed over several metres depending on the screen type. The dose arise to 40 % from neutrons with energies of >20 MeV. Although the charge of each pulse were reduced to decrease

  2. Excitation of lowest electronic states of thymine by slow electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, I. V.; Kontros, E. J.; Markush, P. P.; Shpenik, O. B.

    2013-11-01

    Excitation of lowest electronic states of the thymine molecules in the gas phase is studied by elec- tron energy loss spectroscopy. In addition to dipole-allowed transitions to singlet states, transitions to the lowest triplet states were observed. The low-energy features of the spectrum at 3.66 and 4.61 eV are identified with the excitation of the first triplet states 13 A' (π → π*) and 13 A″ ( n → π*). The higher-lying features at 4.96, 5.75, 6.17, and 7.35 eV are assigned mainly to the excitation of the π → π* transitions to the singlet states of the molecule. The excitation dynamics of the lowest states is studied. It is found that the first triplet state 13 A'(π → π*) is most efficiently excited at a residual energy close to zero, while the singlet 21 A'(π → π*) state is excited with almost identical efficiency at different residual energies.

  3. Comparison of dose-responses of contact allergens using the guinea pig maximization test and the local lymph node assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Och, F.M.M. van; Vandebriel, R.J.; Prinsen, M.K.; Jong, W.H. de; Slob, W.; Loveren, H. van

    2001-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) has been used as a method for the prediction of skin sensitizing potential for over 30 years. Besides hazard identification, risk assessment of sensitizing chemicals requires the assessment of potency. For the determination of potency based on lowest effective

  4. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  5. Estimation of effective dose from the atmospheric nuclear tests due to the intake of marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide environmental protection is required by the public. A long-term environmental assessment from nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the aquatic environment also becomes more important to understand long-term risk of nuclear energy. Evaluation of long-term risk including not only in Japan but also in neighboring countries is considered to be necessary in order to develop sustainable nuclear power industry. The author successfully simulated the distribution of radionuclides in seawater and seabed sediment produced by atmospheric nuclear tests using LAMER (Long-term Assessment ModEl of Radionuclides in the oceans). A part of the LAMER calculated the advection-diffusion-scavenging processes for radionuclides in the oceans and the Japan Sea in cooperate with Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) and was validated. The author is challenging to calculate probabilistic effective dose suggested by ICRP from intake of marine products due to atmospheric nuclear tests using the Monte Carlo method in the other part of LAMER. Depending on the deviation of each parameter, the 95th percentile of the probabilistic effective dose was from one third to two thirds of the 95th percentile of the deterministic effective dose in proforma calculation. It means that probabilistic assessment can contribute to the design and optimisation of a nuclear fuel cycle facility. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the anode heel effect on the testes dose during pelvic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anode heel effect refers to reduction of radiation intensity in the anode side of X-ray tube. This variation in radiation intensity across the anode-cathode of X-ray tube can be benefited for decrease radiation exposure in some radiological examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anode heel orientation on the radiation dose received by the testes in male patients undergoing pelvic radiography. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at one of the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Science Ahvaz, Iran, from September 2015 to March 2016. In order to measure the profile of radiation intensity variation, 13 paired sets of high radiosensitive cylindrical lithium fluoride thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD aligned on the cathode-anode central axis upon the table and then irradiated using routine exposure parameters. The anode of X-ray tube was positioned toward the feet for 40 patients and toward the head for 39 patients undergoing pelvic radiography. For measure the entrance skin dose (ESD, 8 TLD chips were located on the central point of the radiation field and 5 TLDs were located on the testes position to measure the dose received. Results: Radiation intensity profile showed that radiation intensity decrease from the cathode to the anode side. Discrepancy of radiation intensity on central axis of cathode-anode was calculated about 35%. The radiation dose received by the testes was 26.74% lower for patients the anode directed toward the feet, compared to the patients in which the anode directed toward the head (FTC: 1.260±0.296 mGy, FTA: 0.923±0.167 mGy, P<0.05. There was no meaningful difference for the measured ESD of pelvis between two groups of patients (FTC: 1.256±0.315 mGy, FTA: 1.195±0.205 mGy, P=0.788. Conclusion: In pelvic radiography, positioning of testes directed to the anode of X-ray tube can decrease the receive dose.

  7. Atomic force microscopy and mechanical testing of bovine pericardium irradiated to radiotherapy doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daar, Eman; Kaabar, W.; Woods, E.; Lei, C.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of radiotherapy our work investigates the feasibility of identifying changes in structural and biomechanical properties of pericardium resulting from exposure to penetrating photon irradiation. Collagen fibres extracted from bovine pericardium were chosen as a model of pericardium extracellular matrix as these form the main fibrous component of the medium. Tests of mechanical properties, controlled by the various structural elements of the tissues, were performed on frontal pericardium, including uni-axial tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM). While the irradiated collagen fibres showed no significant change in D-band spacing up to doses of 80 Gy, the fibre width was found to increase by 34±9% at 80 Gy when compared with that for un-irradiated samples. - Highlights: • Methods for identifying changes in tissue biophysical properties following photon irradiation. • Tests made using collagen fibres extracted from bovine pericardium. • Sensitivity of uni-axial tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated. • Radiotherapy doses investigated up to 80 Gy, delivered by 6 MV photons

  8. Mixing of the lowest-lying qqq configurations with JP =1/2- in different hyperfine interaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; An, Chunsheng; Chen, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate mixing of the lowest-lying qqq configurations with JP = 1/2- caused by the hyperfine interactions between quarks mediated by Goldstone Boson Exchange, One Gluon Exchange, and both Goldstone Boson and One Gluon exchange, respectively. The first orbitally excited nucleon, Σ, Λ and Ξ states are considered. Contributions of both the contact term and tensor term are taken into account. Our numerical results show that mixing of the studied configurations in the two employed hyperfine interaction models are very different. Therefore, the present results, which should affect the strong and electromagnetic decays of baryon resonances, may be used to examine the present employed hyperfine interaction models. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675131,11645002), Chongqing Natural Science Foundation (cstc2015jcyjA00032) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (SWU115020)

  9. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  10. Peripheral dose to the testes: the design and clinical use of a practical and effective gonadal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Kinsella, T.J.; Harrington, F.S.; Galtstein, E.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and practical gonadal shield has been developed for use near megavoltage radiation fields. The lead shield encloses only the testes, allowing its use with nearly any radiation field that does not include the testes. The dose to the testes with and without the shield has been measured extensively both in phantoms and on patients. The gonadal shield allows a 3 to 10-fold reduction in dose to the testes depending primarily on the distance from the field edge to the gonads. When the shield is used, the gonadal dose is always less than 1% of the patient's prescription dose. Based on our patient studies of testicular injury following conventionally-fractionated irradiation, a dose of less than 50 cGy should preserve normal testicular function

  11. Peripheral dose to the testes: the design and clinical use of a practical and effective gonadal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraass, B A; Kinsella, T J; Harrington, F S; Glatstein, E

    1985-03-01

    A simple and practical gonadal shield has been developed for use near megavoltage radiation fields. The lead shield encloses only the testes, allowing its use with nearly any radiation field that does not include the testes. The dose to the testes with and without the shield has been measured extensively both in phantoms and on patients. The gonadal shield allows a 3 to 10-fold reduction in dose to the testes depending primarily on the distance from the field edge to the gonads. When the shield is used, the gonadal dose is always less than 1% of the patient's prescription dose. Based on our patient studies of testicular injury following conventionally-fractionated irradiation, a dose of less than 50 cGy (1% of a typical 5000 cGy treatment regimen) should preserve normal testicular function.

  12. High dose brain CT with ioxaglate and diatrizoate adverse reactions and effects on urine protein tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raininko, R.; Laivola, J.; Irjala, K.; Turku Univ. Central Hospital

    1988-01-01

    Sodium meglumine ioxaglate (320 or 306 mg I/ml) and meglumine diatrizoate (306 mg I/ml) in an intravenous dose of 2 ml/kg were compared in a randomized double-blind test on the brain CT of 209 patients. Side effects were noted in 56% of the ioxaglate group and 90% of the diatrizoate group. Diatrizoate caused a sensation of heat significantly more often and more intensely, but the frequencies of other side effects did not differ significantly. No severe reactions occurred. The quality of the CT scans was equal. Neither ioxaglate nor diatrizoate impaired renal function. False-positive strip tests and falsely elevated protein values measured by the biuretic method were found in particular in the ioxaglate group. The results of urine protein measurements and strip tests are misleading on the day of the examination with both ioxaglate and diatrizoate. (orig.)

  13. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  14. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  15. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  16. Reduction of patient doses in X-ray diagnosis using quality control tests on image and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.; Tomulescu, V.; Sorescu, Anca; Vladareanu, M.; Olteanu, B.; Enachescu, B.; Zaharia, N.; Lesaru, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of a research program under the contract with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), several patient dose measurements were performed using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) before and after application of Quality Control tests and patient dose reduction methods. The paper evidenced the practical influence factors (like the need of use of high voltage technique) and possibilities for dose reduction keeping the image quality. (authors)

  17. Reconstruction of absorbed dose by methods biological dosimetry inhabitans living in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abildinova, G.

    2010-01-01

    As a result perennial overland and atmospheric test the nucleus weapon on Semipalatinsk nucler test site (NTS) about 1,2 ml person were subjected to frequentative sharp and chronic irradiation in different range of doses. Besides a significant number of battle radioactive matters tests with radionuclei dispersion on soil surface and an atmosphere was realized also. All this activity has caused the significant radioactive contamination and damage to an environment, and the local population has received extra exposure to radiation. These circumstances have essentially complicated the economy development of the given region. Aim: Reconstruction of absorbed dose by modern methods biological dosimetry beside inhabitants living in region of influence Semipalatinsk NTS. The cytogenetically examination of population Semipalatinsk region, living in different zones radiation risk: s. Dolon, s. Sarzhal, s. Mostik. Installed that total frequency of chromosome aberrations forms 4,8/100; 2,1/100; 2,5/100 cells, accordingly. High level of chromosome aberrations is conditioned to account radiations markers - acentric fragments (2,1/100 cells in s. Dolon; 1,09/100 cells in s. Sarzhal; 0,79/100 cells in s. Mostik); dysenteric and ring chromosomes (0,6; 0,2; 0,11) and stable type chromosome aberrations (1,02; 0,3; 1,0, accordingly). Frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations are indicative of significant mutation action ionizing radiations on chromosome device of somatic cells. Studied dependency an cytogenetically of effects from dose of irradiation within before 0,5 Gr in vitro for calibrated curve standard when undertaking reconstruction efficient dose at the time of irradiations examined group of population. Dependency is described the model a*cos(x) 1 + sin (x), where x - correlation a dysenteric and ring chromosomes to acentric fragments. Dependence of cytogenetic parameters upon ESR-doses had been studied. Had been received dependences: for the total frequency of

  18. Pre-installation empirical testing of room shielding for high dose rate remote afterloaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, E.E.; Grigsby, P.W.; Williamson, J.F.; Meigooni, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many facilities are acquiring high dose rate remote afterloading units. It is economical that these units be placed in existing shielded teletherapy rooms. Scatter-radiation barriers marginally protect uncontrolled areas from a high dose rate source especially in a room that houses a non-dynamic Cobalt-60 unit. In addition the exact thickness and material composition of the barriers are unknown and therefore, a calculation technique may give misleading results. Also, it would be impossible to evaluate an entire wall barrier by taking isolated core samples in order to assist in the calculations. A quick and inexpensive measurement of dose equivalent using a rented high activity 192Ir source evaluates the barriers and locates shielding deficiencies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed transmission calculations for primary and scattered radiation based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports 49 and 51, respectively. We then rented a high activity 21.7 Ci (8.03 x 10(11) Bq) Ir-192 source to assess our existing teletherapy room shielding for adequacy and voids. This source was placed at the proposed location for clinical high dose rate treatment and measurements were performed. RESULTS: No deficiencies were found in controlled areas surrounding the room, but large differences were found between the calculated and measured values. Our survey located a region in the uncontrolled area above the room requiring augmented shielding which was not predicted by the calculations. A canopy shield was designed to potentially augment the shielding in the ceiling direction. CONCLUSION: Pre-installation testing by measurement is an invaluable method for locating shielding deficiencies and avoiding unnecessary enhancement of shielding particularly when there is lack of information of the inherent shielding

  19. Hippocampal dose volume histogram predicts Hopkins Verbal Learning Test scores after brain irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Okoukoni, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Radiation-induced cognitive decline is relatively common after treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, identifying dosimetric parameters that are predictive of radiation-induced cognitive decline is difficult due to the heterogeneity of patient characteristics. The memory function is especially susceptible to radiation effects after treatment. The objective of this study is to correlate volumetric radiation doses received by critical neuroanatomic structures to post–radiation therapy (RT memory impairment. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2011, 53 patients with primary brain malignancies were treated with conventionally fractionated RT in prospectively accrued clinical trials performed at our institution. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for the hippocampus, parahippocampus, amygdala, and fusiform gyrus. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores were obtained at least 6 months after RT. Impairment was defined as an immediate recall score ≤15. For each anatomic region, serial regression was performed to correlate volume receiving a given dose (VD(Gy with memory impairment. Results: Hippocampal V53.4Gy to V60.9Gy significantly predicted post-RT memory impairment (P < .05. Within this range, the hippocampal V55Gy was the most significant predictor (P = .004. Hippocampal V55Gy of 0%, 25%, and 50% was associated with tumor-induced impairment rates of 14.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-28.7%, 45.9% (95% CI, 24.7%-68.6%, and 80.6% (95% CI, 39.2%-96.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The hippocampal V55Gy is a significant predictor for impairment, and a limiting dose below 55 Gy may minimize radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  20. Physicians' knowledge about radiation dose and possible risks of common medical tests: a survey in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Mianji, Fereidoun; Shakeri, Mahsa; Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Recent data suggest that knowledge of radiation exposures among physicians is inadequate. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate their knowledge of the radiation doses their patients received and awareness of associated biological risks of radiation exposure. A questionnaire in multiple-choice format consisted of four sections with a total of 10 questions based on the literature review. A total of 136 questionnaires were returned from 69 general practitioners and 67 physicians in various specialties from 10 different hospitals in the capital city of Tehran, Iran. Fifty-four percent of general practitioners and twenty-five percent of specialties declared that they are not aware of biological risks of radiation exposure. Fifty-six percent of physicians did not know the correct definition of absorbed dose. Only 33% of physicians knew the dose exposure of a chest X-ray and only 31% knew the approximate doses of various procedures relative to a chest X-ray. Forty-seven percent of physicians incorrectly distinguished the stochastic effects of radiation from the deterministic effects, and thirty-eight of physicians did not know the organs of the body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation. Only 23.5% of physicians were aware of the one in 2000 risk of induction of fatal carcinoma from computed tomography of the abdomen. Seventy-nine percent of physicians incorrectly underestimated the contribution of nuclear and radiological tests in exposure of an average person. The mean score of the specialties trended toward being more accurate than general practitioners (4.18 ± 1.28 vs. 3.89 ± 1.46, respectively, from a potential accurate total score of 9), but these differences were not statistically significant. Among specialists, orthopedics had the highest scores. The present study demonstrated the limited knowledge of radiation exposures among general practitioners and specialists and a need to improve their knowledge by means of targeted training and re

  1. Quality Assurance Testing of Version 1.3 of U.S. EPA Benchmark Dose Software (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA benchmark dose software (BMDS) issued to evaluate chemical dose-response data in support of Agency risk assessments, and must therefore be dependable. Quality assurance testing methods developed for BMDS were designed to assess model dependability with respect to curve-fitt...

  2. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A.; Delaloye, B.

    1961-01-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [fr

  3. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  4. The use of TLD-700H dosemeters in the assessment of external doses at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P; Dederichs, H; Pillath, J; Schlecht, W; Hille, R; Artemev, O; Ptitskaya, L; Akhmetov, M

    2002-01-01

    The joint projects performed since 1995 by the Jülich Research Centre in co-operation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the area of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk, in eastern Kazakhstan, have assessed the current dose rate of the population at and around the test site, as well as determining retrospectively the dose rate of persons affected by the atmospheric tests. Measurements of the population by personal dosemeters depend on reliably wearing these dosemeters over prolonged periods of time, and of a sufficient dosemeter return. In the past, such measurements have been particularly successful whenever short wearing times were possible. This requires high sensitivity of the dosemeters. The suitability of the highly sensitive TLD material of the BICRON TLD 700H type for such personal dosimetry measurements was investigated. It was tested in practical field application at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in September 2000. Initial results are available from individual doses received by a group of geologists and a group of herdsmen at the test site. For the first time, the individual dose was measured directly in these population groups. Detection limits below 1 microSv permit informative measurements for wearing times of less than two weeks. Most individual doses did not arise significantly out of local fluctuations of natural background. A conservative assessment from the aspect of practical health physics yielded a mean personal dose of 0.55 microSv per day for the herdsmen, whereas the geologists received a mean personal dose of 0.45 microSv per day. For an annual exposure period of typically, about three months, the radiation dose received by the persons investigated, in addition to the natural radiation exposure, is thus well below the international limit value of 1 mSv x a(-1) for the population dose.

  5. Evaluation tests of treatment planning systems concerning 3D dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian-Sauve, M.; Smart, C.

    1998-01-01

    The development of irradiation techniques in radiotherapy shows a clear tendency towards the systematic use of three-dimensional (3D) information. Great efforts are being made to set up 3D conformal radiotherapy. Consequently, in the aim of greater coherence and accuracy, 'the dosimetric tool' must also meet the requirements of 3D radiotherapy, as it plays a role in the treatment chain. To know if the treatment planning system is a '3D', '2D', or even '1D' system, one should not be satisfied with reading the technical documentation and the program algorithm description not entirely trust the constructor's assertions. It is essential to clearly and precisely evaluate the possibilities of the treatment planning system. Even if it is proved not to satisfy perfectly all the tests which would qualify it as a real 3D calculation system, the study of the test results helps to give clear explanations of the dosimetric results. Two series of test cases are proposed. The first series allows us to understand in which conditions the treatment planning system takes into account the scatter influence in a volume. The second series is designed to inform us about the capacity of the dose calculation algorithm when the medium encloses non-homogeneities. These test cases do not constitute an exhaustive 'check-list' able to tackle completely the question of 3D calculation. They are submitted as examples and should be considered as an evaluation methodology for the software implanted in the treatment planning system. (authors)

  6. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.F.; Cohen, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, smoking habits, sex, age group, geographic area and/or time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners implies that the majority of all lung cancers among non-smokers are due to radon; since lung cancers in miners are mostly small-cell undifferentiated (SCU), a rather rare type in general, linearity over predicts the frequency of SCU lung cancers among non smokers by a factor of 10, and among non-smoking females age 25-44 by a factor of 24. Similarly, linearity predicts that the majority of all lung cancers early in this century were due to radon even after due consideration is given to cases missed by poor diagnostic efficiency (this matter is considered in some detail). For the 30-40 age range, linearity over predicts the total lung cancer rate at that time by a factor of 3-6; for SCU lung cancer, the over-prediction is by at least a factor of 10. Other causes of lung cancer are considered which further enhance the degree to which the linearity assumption over-estimates the effects of low level radiation. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation. It is concluded that the upper limit for this is not higher than estimates from the linearity hypothesis. (author)

  7. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  8. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  9. Estimation of maximum credible atmospheric radioactivity concentrations and dose rates from nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegadas, K.

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique is presented for estimating maximum credible gross beta air concentrations from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, based on aircraft sampling of radioactivity following each Chinese nuclear test from 1964 to 1976. The calculated concentration is a function of the total yield and fission yield, initial vertical radioactivity distribution, time after detonation, and rate of horizontal spread of the debris with time. calculated maximum credible concentrations are compared with the highest concentrations measured during aircraft sampling. The technique provides a reasonable estimate of maximum air concentrations from 1 to 10 days after a detonation. An estimate of the whole-body external gamma dose rate corresponding to the maximum credible gross beta concentration is also given. (author)

  10. Radiation dose to testes and risk of infertility from radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Haris; Gourtsouiannis, Nicholas

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to provide the means for testicular dose estimation from radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Rectal irradiation was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 6 MV photon beam. The effect of field size, distance from irradiated area, wedge introduction into lateral beams, tissue thickness along the beam axis and use of gonad shields on the testicular dose was examined. Testicular dose was measured in five patients undergoing radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma. For a 4500 cGy tumour dose, testicular dose was 32-216 cGy depending upon the field dimensions and the distance from the field isocenter. The presence of wedges increased the testicular dose by a factor up to 2.2. The increase of irradiated tissue thickness increased the gonadal dose up to 40% whereas the use of the appropriate gonad shield reduced the dose by >66%. A simple method was developed to estimate testicular dose. The mean difference between the in vivo gonadal doses and the doses calculated using the proposed method was 5.8%. Testicular dose can exceed the value of 100 cGy, which permits a complete recovery of spermatogenesis. The presented data can be used to estimate the gonadal dose and the associated risk of infertility attributable to rectal irradiation.

  11. Correlation between Colon Transit Time Test Value and Initial Maintenance Dose of Laxative in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung; Lee, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between colon transit time (CTT) test value and initial maintenance dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 or lactulose. Methods Of 415 children with chronic functional constipation, 190 were enrolled based on exclusion criteria using the CTT test, defecation diary, and clinical chart. The CTT test was performed with prior disimpaction. The laxative dose for maintenance was determined on the basis of the defecation diary and clinical chart. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results The overall group median value and interquartile range of the CTT test was 43.8 (31.8) hours. The average PEG 4000 dose for maintenance in the overall group was 0.68±0.18 g/kg/d; according to age, the dose was 0.73±0.16 g/kg/d (encopresis, abnormal CTT test subtype) for either laxative. Even in the largest group (overall, n=109, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000), the correlation was weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient [R]=0.268, p=0.005). Within the abnormal transit group, subgroup (n=73, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000) correlation was weak (R=0.267, p=0.022). Conclusion CTT test value cannot predict the initial maintenance dose of PEG 4000 or lactulose with linear correlation. PMID:27738600

  12. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Hampshire, Rachel; Tapert, Lisa; Chirenje, Mike; Saba, Joseph

    2012-05-23

    Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP). The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses), institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and adherence were positively correlated with the number of

  13. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladner Joël

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP. Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses, institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. Results A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and

  14. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  15. Direct dosing of preweaning rodents in toxicity testing and research: deliberations of an ILSI RSI Expert Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Virginia C; Walls, Isabel; Zoetis, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory animal studies designed to assess the effects of exposure of a test substance during postnatal development are commonly utilized in basic research and to evaluate potential hazard to children for chemical and pharmaceutical regulation. Direct dosing, defined here as the administration of a test substance directly to a preweaning mammal, has been identified as a useful tool that can be used in the conduct of such studies for regulatory purposes. The International Life Sciences Institute Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) convened an Expert Working Group to develop guidance on the design and implementation of direct dosing regulatory studies on preweaning mammals, which was published as an ILSI monograph in 2003 (Zoetis and Walls, Principles and Practices for Direct Dosing of Pre-Weaning Mammals in Toxicity Testing and Research, Washington, DC: ILSI Press, 2003). A summary of the Working Group conclusions regarding direct dosing studies with laboratory rodents are presented here, although the ILSI monograph also includes rabbits, canines, swine and nonhuman primates. Issues to be considered when designing the protocol include selection of the test species, the route of administration, dose levels, and the timing of dosing. Knowledge of the maturational status of the test species and information on critical windows of development are important in creating a valid study design. Most common routes of administration (e.g., oral, inhalation, injection) are possible with typical laboratory species; however, adjustments may be necessary due to practical considerations. Information on the pharmacokinetic profile in young animals versus adults and in the test species versus humans is very useful for determining dosing parameters. The conduct of the study and the interpretation of the data will be improved by an understanding of confounding factors as well as statistical and biological issues specific for postnatal studies. Ultimately, the success of the study will

  16. Use of remifentanil to reduce propofol injection pain and the required propofol dose in upper digestive tract endoscopy diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliana, Gustavo Nadal; Tambara, Elizabeth Milla; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) as a sedative agent has transformed the area of sedation for endoscopic procedures. However, a major drawback of sedation with the use of propofol is its high incidence of injection pain. The most widely used technique in reducing propofol injection pain is through the association of other drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of remifentanil-propofol combination on the incidence of propofol injection pain and its influence on the total dose of propofol required for sedation in upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDE) diagnostic tests. One hundred and five patients undergoing upper digestive tract endoscopy were evaluated and randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 patients each. The Control Group received propofol alone; Study-group 1 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.2mg/kg combined with propofol; Study-group 2 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.3mg/kg combined with propofol. The incidence of propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol required for the test were evaluated. The sample was very similar regarding age, weight, height, sex, and physical status. Statistical analysis was performed according to the nature of the evaluated data. Student's t-test was used to compare the mean of age, weight, height (cm), and dose (mg/kg) variables between groups. The χ(2) test was used to compare sex, physical status, and propofol injection pain between groups. The significance level was αpain and total dose of propofol (mg/kg) used. However, there were no statistical differences between the two study groups for these parameters. We conclude that the use of remifentanil at doses of 0.2mg/kg and 0.3mg/kg was effective for reducing both the propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol used. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended low-dose dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis of atypical Cushing's syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K M; Frank, L A; Morandi, F; Whittemore, J C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate extension of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test from 8 h to 12 h to detect possible hypercortisolemia associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC). Twelve client-owned dogs were enrolled in the study: 6 healthy dogs (group 1) and 6 dogs with suspected AHAC (group 2). Baseline EDTA plasma samples were collected for endogenous ACTH determination using an immunoradiometric assay. Serum samples were collected before and at 4, 8, 10, and 12 h post-administration of 0.01 mg/kg dexamethasone IV for cortisol concentration determination via chemiluminescent assay. Mean endogenous ACTH concentration did not differ between groups (group 1: 22.4 pg/mL, group 2: 20.0 pg/mL; P > 0.2). Mean baseline cortisol concentration also did not differ significantly between groups (group 1: 3.03 μg/dL, group 2: 4.95 μg/dL; P > 0.2) nor was there any difference in mean cortisol concentration between the groups at any other time point (P > 0.2). The cortisol concentration from 1 dog in group 2 suppressed to 0.7 μg/dL at 8 h but increased to 1.5 μg/dL at 10 h and 3.7 μg/dL at 12 h post-dexamethasone. Based on results of this study, use of an extended LDDS test could not differentiate between healthy dogs and dogs with AHAC. Diagnosis of AHAC should continue to be based on prior established criteria until new testing has been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shutdown dose rate analysis of European test blanket modules shields in ITER Equatorial Port #16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sauvan, Patrick; Perez, Lucia [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Panayotov, Dobromir; Vallory, Joelle; Zmitko, Milan; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis for European TBMs and shields, in ITER Equatorial Port #16, has been conducted in support of the ‘Concept Design Review’ from ITER. • The objective of the work is the characterization of the Shutdown Dose Rates at Equatorial Port #16 interspace. • The role played by the TBM and TBM shields, the equatorial port gaps and the vacuum vessel permeation, in terms of neutron flux transmission is assessed. • The role played by the TBM, TBM shields, Port Plug Frame, Pipe Forest and the machine in terms of activation is also investigated. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). An essential element of the Conceptual Design Review (CDR) of these TBSs is the demonstration of capability of Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and their shields to fulfil their function and comply with the design requirements. One of the TBM shields highly relevant design aspects is the project target for shutdown dose rates (SDDR) in the interspace. We investigated two functions of the TBMs and TBM shields—the neutron flux attenuation along the shields, and the reduction of the activation of the components contributing to SDDR. It is shown that TBMs and TBM shields reduce significantly the neutron flux in the port plug (PP). In terms of neutron flux attenuation, the TBM shield provides sufficient neutron flux reduction, being responsible for 5 × 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2} s at port interspace, while the EPP gaps and BSM gaps are responsible for 5 × 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} s each. When considering closed upper, lower and lateral neighbour equatorial ports (thus, excluding the cross-talk between ports), a SDDR of 121 μSv/h averaged near the port closure flange was obtained, out of which, only 4 μSv/h are due to the activation of TBMs and TBM shields. Maximum SDDR in the range

  19. Parameters of the lowest order chiral Lagrangian from fermion eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrand, T.; Schaefer, S.

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in Random Matrix Theory enable one to determine the pseudoscalar decay constant from the response of eigenmodes of quenched fermions to an imaginary isospin chemical potential. We perform a pilot test of this idea, from simulations with two flavors of dynamical overlap fermions. (orig.)

  20. Computational systems biology and dose-response modeling in relation to new directions in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Andersen, Melvin E; Conolly, Rory B

    2010-02-01

    The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are identified and their wiring details elucidated using traditional and high-throughput techniques, there is a pressing need to understand their qualitative and quantitative behaviors in response to perturbation by both physiological signals and exogenous stressors. The complexity of these molecular networks makes the task of understanding cellular responses merely by human intuition challenging, if not impossible. This process can be aided by mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the networks and their dynamic behaviors. A number of theoretical frameworks were developed in the last century for understanding dynamical systems in science and engineering disciplines. These frameworks, which include metabolic control analysis, biochemical systems theory, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory, can greatly facilitate the process of organizing, analyzing, and understanding toxicity pathways. Such analysis will require a comprehensive examination of the dynamic properties of "network motifs"--the basic building blocks of molecular circuits. Network motifs like feedback and feedforward loops appear repeatedly in various molecular circuits across cell types and enable vital cellular functions like homeostasis, all-or-none response, memory, and biological rhythm. These functional motifs and associated qualitative and quantitative properties are the predominant source of nonlinearities observed in cellular dose response data. Complex response behaviors can arise from toxicity pathways built upon combinations of network motifs. While the field of computational cell

  1. Testing the Capacity of the National Biological Dose Response Plan (NBDRP) EX40801

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Blood Collection All donors were volunteers that willingly responded to an advertising call for participation in a research proposal approved by...Scorers from the same laboratory are shown in the same colour . In Figure 2, the dose estimates based on QuickScan are shown. Figure 3 shows the doses

  2. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  3. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule, E-mail: marie-paule.garcia@univ-brest.fr; Villoing, Daphnée [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); McKay, Erin [St George Hospital, Gray Street, Kogarah, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); Ferrer, Ludovic [ICO René Gauducheau, Boulevard Jacques Monod, St Herblain 44805 (France); Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila [European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milano 20141 (Italy); Bardiès, Manuel [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, Toulouse 31062 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. Methods: The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit GATE offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on GATE to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user’s imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for GATE. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant GATE input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Results: Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body “step and shoot” acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry

  4. An updated dose assesment for resettlement options at Bikini atoll - A US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radio nuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, 137 Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137 Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137 Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5 % of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.8 mSv, 14 mSv, and 16 mSv, respectively. 44 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  5. An updated dose assessment for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll--a U.S. nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Bogen, K T; Conrado, C L

    1997-07-01

    On 1 March 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of 137Cs and 90Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, 137Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y

  6. The effect of chronic corticosterone on fear learning and memory depends on dose and the testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, W N; Fenton, E Y; Guskjolen, A J; Kalynchuk, L E

    2015-03-19

    Chronic exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) is known to alter plasticity within hippocampal and amygdalar circuits that mediate fear learning and memory. The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of chronic CORT on Pavlovian fear conditioning, which is dependent on intact hippocampal and amygdalar activity. In particular, we assessed whether the effect of chronic CORT on fear learning and memory is influenced by two factors-the dose of CORT and the order in which rats are tested for freezing to context versus tone cues. Male Long-Evans rats received low-dose CORT (5mg/kg), high-dose CORT (40mg/kg), or vehicle injections once daily for 21days. On day 22, the rats were trained in a fear-conditioning paradigm. On days 23 and 24, the rats were tested for the retrieval of fear memories to context and tone cues in a counterbalanced way-half the rats received context testing on day 23 and then tone testing on day 24 and half the rats received tone testing on day 23 followed by context testing on day 24. Our results revealed dose-dependent effects of CORT on memory retrieval: Rats injected with high-dose CORT froze significantly more than control rats to both context and tone cues regardless of what testing day these cues were presented. However, rats injected with low-dose CORT froze significantly more than control rats to tone cues only. We also found an order effect in that the effects of CORT on freezing were greater on the second day of testing, regardless of whether that testing was to context or tones cues. This order effect may be due to a lack of extinction in the CORT rats. Overall, these results suggest a relationship between stress intensity and testing conditions that should be taken into account when assessing the effect of stress on fear memories. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Different concentrations and volumes of p-phenylenediamine in pet. (equivalent doses) are associated with similar patch test outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hamann, Carsten R; Andersen, Klaus E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern about causing active sensitization when patch testing is performed with p-phenylenediamine (PPD) 1% pet. has led to a recommendation to use PPD 0.3% pet. as a potentially safer preparation. However, the dose per area of allergen delivered, and hence the risk of active...... sensitization, depend on the amount dispensed into the patch test chamber, which can vary widely. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patch testing with equivalent doses of different concentrations of PPD in pet. is associated with similar outcomes. METHODS: Seventeen known PPD-sensitive subjects were patch tested...... with different volumes and concentrations of PPD in pet. that deliver the same allergen dose per unit area (6 mg of PPD 1% pet. and 20 mg of PPD 0.3% pet. in Finn Chambers®, both equivalent to ∼ 0.09 mg/cm2 ). RESULTS: Eleven patients (65%) had positive reactions to both doses; 4 patients (24%) had negative...

  8. Uncertainty analysis for an updated dose assessment for a US nuclear test site: Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    A detailed analysis of uncertainty and interindividual variability in estimated doses was conducted for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Predicted doses were considered for the following fallout-related exposure pathways: ingested Cesium-137 and Strontium-90, external gamma exposure, and inhalation and ingestion of Americium-241 + Plutonium-239+240. Two dietary scenarios were considered: (1) imported foods are available (IA), and (2) imported foods are unavailable (only local foods are consumed) (IUA). Corresponding calculations of uncertainty in estimated population-average dose showed that after ∼5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to uncertainty in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its population-average value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). Corresponding calculations of interindividual variability in the expected value of dose with respect to uncertainty showed that after ∼5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to interindividual variability in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its expected value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 were estimated to be 1.6 and 5.2 cSv under the IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively

  9. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Value of desmopressin stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression testin the etiologic diagnosis of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yu, Yerong; Tan, Huiwen; Wang, Chun; Li, Jianwei; An, Zhenmei; Liu, Yuping

    2016-03-22

    To investigate the value of desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) in establishing the cause of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome. The clinical data of patients with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome at West China Hospital from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2015 was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test, HDDST, and the diagnostic accordance rate when the two tests were combined, were evaluated based on the diagnostic gold standard. A total of 85 patients with Cushing's disease and 10 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome were included. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test were 87% and 5/5, respectively, whereas those of HDDST were 79% and 8/10, respectively. The standard high dose dexamethasone suppression test showed a higher sensitivity than overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test. When the two tests had consistent results, the diagnostic accordance rate was 100%. DDAVP stimulation test and HDDST are both efficient modalities for the diagnosis of Cushing's Disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. The accuracy of diagnosis can be further improved by combining the two tests.

  11. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a first assessment of the radiological situation and the test-related radiation doses in the surrounding territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, B I; Abylkassimova, Z N; Apsalikov, K N

    1997-09-01

    As a result of atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site 'Polygon', adjacent territories were contaminated by radionuclide fallout. The population of some districts in the Semipalatinsk oblast were exposed to elevated levels of radiation. Contamination and exposure mostly resulted from early atmospheric tests. The radiological situation of the Semipalatinsk oblast is described. Effective dose estimates due to external and internal exposure attributable to the 1949 and 1953 tests in villages near the Polygon range from 70 mSv to 4470 mSv.

  12. Evaluation of patient absorbed dose in a PET-CT test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra P, F.; Mourao F, A. P.; Santana, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    Images of PET-CT has important diagnostic applications, especially in oncology. This equipment allows overlapping of functional images obtained from the administration of radionuclides and anatomical, generated by X-rays. The PET-CT technique may generate higher doses in patients due to the fact that two diagnostic modalities are used in a single examination. A whole body CT scan is performed and in sequence, a capture of the signal generated by the photons emitted is done. In this study, the absorbed and effective doses generated by the CT scan and incorporated by the administration of the radionuclide were evaluated in 19 organs. To evaluate the CT dose, 32 radiochromic film strips were correctly positioned into the anthropomorphic male phantom. The CT protocol performed was whole-body scanning and a high-resolution lung scan. This protocol is currently used in most services. The calculation of the effective dose from the injected activity in the patient was performed using the ICRP 106 Biokinetic model (ICRP 106, 2008). The activity to be injected may vary according to the patients body mass and with the sensitivity of the detector. The mass of the simulator used is 73.5 kg, then the simulation with and injected activity of 244.76 MBq was used. It was observed that 87.4% of the effective dose in examination PET/CT comes from the CT scans, being 63.8% of the whole body scan and 23.6% of high resolution lung scan. Using activity of 0.09 mCi x kg 18 F-FDG radiopharmaceutical contributes only 12.6% of the final effective dose. As a conclusion, it was observed that the dose in patients submitted to the 18 F-FDG PET-CT examination is high, being of great value efforts for its reduction, such as the use of appropriate image acquisition techniques and promoting the application of the principle of optimization of practice. (Author)

  13. [The dose estimation to the population as a result of radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk Test area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonova, S I; Mukusheva, M K; Shubina, O A; Solomatin, V M; Epifanova, I E

    2008-01-01

    The results are presented from estimation of spatial distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination densities in the areas of horses and sheep grazing within the Semipalatinsk Test Site. Dose burdens to various cohorts of the population living within the STS and consuming contaminated animal products are predicted. Doses of shepherds in the most contaminated pasture areas have been found to exceed the accepted limit (1 mSv/y). The conclusion is made about the need for further studies on the risk assessment of the STS population exposure above the accepted limits.

  14. A Performance Evaluation of a Notebook PC under a High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Wan Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test. A notebook PC, which is small and light weight, is generally used as the control unit of a robot system and loaded onto the robot body. Using TEPCO’s CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system data, the gamma ray dose rate before and after a hydrogen explosion in reactor units 1–3 of the Fukushima nuclear power plant was more than 150 Gy/h. To use a notebook PC as the control unit of a robot system entering a reactor building to mitigate the severe accident situation of a nuclear power plant, the performance of the notebook PC under such intense gamma-irradiation fields should be evaluated. Under a similar dose-rate (150 Gy/h gamma ray environment, the performances of different notebook PCs were evaluated. In addition, a simple method for a performance evaluation of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test is proposed. Three notebook PCs were tested to verify the method proposed in this paper.

  15. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...... stable exposure concentrations of triclosan (log Kow 4.8) in a 6-week multigeneration test with the benthic copepod Nitocra spinipes. The tests were performed in 10 mL vials casted with 1000 mg of silicone (DC 1-2577). Based on a previous pilot study, three triclosan concentrations were selected...... and tested (15 μg L-1; 30 μg L-1; 60 μg L-1) as well as a control (no triclosan). At test beginning, each vial contained 12 individuals consisting of 3 individuals from four different life stages. The test includes feeding with phytoplankton three times a week, which can lead to declining freely dissolved...

  16. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Computational Tool for Testing Dose-related Trend Using an Age-adjusted Bootstrap-based Poly-k Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Moon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A computational tool for testing for a dose-related trend and/or a pairwise difference in the incidence of an occult tumor via an age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test is presented in this paper. The poly-k test (Bailer and Portier 1988 is a survival-adjusted Cochran-Armitage test, which achieves robustness to effects of differential mortality across dose groups. The original poly-k test is asymptotically standard normal under the null hypothesis. However, the asymptotic normality is not valid if there is a deviation from the tumor onset distribution that is assumed in this test. Our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test assesses the significance of assumed asymptotic normal tests and investigates an empirical distribution of the original poly-k test statistic using an age-adjusted bootstrap method. A tumor of interest is an occult tumor for which the time to onset is not directly observable. Since most of the animal carcinogenicity studies are designed with a single terminal sacrifice, the present tool is applicable to rodent tumorigenicity assays that have a single terminal sacrifice. The present tool takes input information simply from a user screen and reports testing results back to the screen through a user-interface. The computational tool is implemented in C/C++ and is applied to analyze a real data set as an example. Our tool enables the FDA and the pharmaceutical industry to implement a statistical analysis of tumorigenicity data from animal bioassays via our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test which has been adopted by the National Toxicology Program as its standard statistical test.

  18. MYDOZE: Application Web for management and optimisation of doses to patients in tests radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinado Zamora, A. B.; Laguna Lobato, M. A.; Gil Agudo, A.; Zapata Jimenez, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The service of Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica del Hospital general Universitario de Ciudad Real, carried out a study whose objective is to optimize the dose to patients undergoing diagnostic scans with ionizing radiation. To address this task, is required a software tool that facilitates on the one hand the acquisition of dosimetric data acquired digital equipment and the other interface of exploitation of this data for statistics and analysis of these. the computer tool to develop should allow storing parameters with information demographic and dose of the patient in medical scans thanks to called DICOM medical image standard. (Author)

  19. Aging irradiation of polymers. Dose-rate and test sequence influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, C.; Carlin, F.; Chenion, J.; Lemaire, F.; Le Meur, M.; Petitjean, M.

    1984-05-01

    This work brings up results of the irradiation dose-rate influence on mechanical and electrical properties of technical polymer materials evolution. Polymer samples were subjected to 3.3.10 -2 Gy.s -1 and 2.8.10 -1 Gy.s -1 dose-rate. Heat and radiation simultaneous action is usualy simulated sequentialy. The hardest simulation on the polymer is the sequence of irradiation followed by thermal aging not the reverse. This study was carried out on eight polymer materials among those used in the electrical appliances for P.W.R. nuclear power plants [fr

  20. Comparison of measured and calculated radiation doses in granite around emplacement holes in the spent-fuel test: Climax, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has emplaced eleven spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site as part of the DOE Nevada Nuclear-Waste Storage Investigations. One of our objectives is to study radiation effects on the rock. The neutron and gamma-ray doses to the rock have been determined by MORSE-L Monte Carlo calculations and measurements using optical absorption and thermoluminescence dosimeters and metal foils. We compare the results to date. Generally, good agreement is found in the spatial and time dependence of the doses, but some of the absolute dose results appear to differ by more than the expected uncertainties. Although the agreement is judged to be adequate for radiation effects studies, suggestions for improving the precision of the calculations and measurements are made

  1. In-home HIV testing and nevirapine dosing by traditional birth attendants in rural Zambia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alana T; Thea, Donald M; Semrau, Katherine; Goggin, Caitlin; Scott, Nancy; Pilingana, Portipher; Botha, Belinda; Mazimba, Arthur; Hamomba, Leoda; Seidenberg, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Access to lifesaving prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services is problematic in rural Zambia. The simplest intervention used in Zambia has been 2-dose nevirapine (NVP) administration in the peripartum period, a regimen of 1 NVP tablet to the mother at the onset of labor and 1 dose in the form of syrup to the newborn within 4 to 72 hours after birth. This 2-dose regimen has been shown to reduce MTCT by nearly 50%. We set out to demonstrate that in-home HIV testing and NVP dosing by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is feasible and acceptable by women in rural Zambia. This was a pilot program using TBAs to perform rapid saliva-based HIV testing and administer single-dose NVP in tablet form to the mother at the onset of labor and syrup to the infant after birth. A total of 280 pregnant women were consented and enrolled into the program, of whom 124 (44.3%) gave birth at home with the assistance of a trained TBA. Of those, 16 (12.9%) were known to be HIV positive, and 101 of the remaining 108 (93.5%) accepted a rapid HIV test. All these women tested HIV negative. In the subset of 16 mothers who were HIV positive, 13 (81.3%) took single-dose NVP administered by a TBA between 1 and 24 hours prior to birth and 100% of exposed newborns (16 of 16) received NVP syrup within 72 hours after birth, 80% of whom were dosed in the first 24 hours of life. With the substantial shortage of human resources in public health care throughout sub-Saharan Africa, it is extremely valuable to utilize lay health care workers to help extended services beyond the level of the facility. Given the high uptake of PMTCT services we believe that TBAs with proper training and support can successfully provide country-approved PMTCT. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Manufacture research of the test equipment to measure the dose rate in high radiation medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Luong Tuan; Nguyen Van Sy; Nguyen Xuan Vinh; Dang Quang Bao; Nguyen Thanh Hung; Pham Minh Duc; Nguyen Xuan Truong

    2017-01-01

    Photodiode BPW34 is operated as a low voltage counter tubes. When the radiation rays go into the BPW34,they will create a pairs of electron and hole. If setting the reverse bias in to the BPW34, a pulse is achieved and it can be amplified and processed. The STM32 is the microcontroller family which is developed base on ARM processors. The STM32 incorporated many new features such as ADC, I2C, etc. With the connectional ability to other devices, the STM32 is proving its advantages in the development of equipment.The application of irradiation technology in the economy-society increases widespread as food irradiation, mutant irradiation, etc. Until now the calculation the high dose rate at Hanoi Irradiation Center is identified by the Fricke, ECB dosimeters. The dosimeters must be destroyed in order to serve for dose rate determination. Manufacture research the equipment for dose rate calculation support to determine dose rate directly through the equipment’s signal and this equipment can be used multiple. This equipment can be connected to other devices to control the irradiation process better via signals. (author)

  3. Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail Immersion Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail ... Acute and sub-acute effects of lead are caused by relatively large ... As such, the brain is the organ most studied in lead toxicity. ..... inflammatory Properties of Hydro-alcohol Extract of.

  4. Mouse single oral dose toxicity test of bupleuri radix aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hu; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Choi, Seong-Hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of Bupleuri Radix (BR) aqueous extracts, it has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agent, in male and female mice. BR extracts (yield = 16.52%) was administered to female and male ICR mice as an oral dose of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg/kg (body weight) according to the recommendation of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guidelines. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after dosing, upon necropsy; organ weight and histopathology of 14 principal organs were examined. As the results, no BR extracts treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principal organs were detected up to 2,000 mg/kg in both female and male mice, except for soft feces and related body weight decrease detected in male mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of BR aqueous extracts after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Although it was also observed that the possibilities of digestive disorders, like soft feces when administered over 2,000 mg/kg of BR extracts in the present study, these possibilities of digestive disorders can be disregard in clinical use because they are transient in the highest dosages male only.

  5. Evaluation of patient absorbed dose in a PET-CT test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Mourao F, A. P. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Santana, P. C., E-mail: fgpaiva92@gmail.com [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Medical School, Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, CEP 30123970, Santa Efigenia, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    Images of PET-CT has important diagnostic applications, especially in oncology. This equipment allows overlapping of functional images obtained from the administration of radionuclides and anatomical, generated by X-rays. The PET-CT technique may generate higher doses in patients due to the fact that two diagnostic modalities are used in a single examination. A whole body CT scan is performed and in sequence, a capture of the signal generated by the photons emitted is done. In this study, the absorbed and effective doses generated by the CT scan and incorporated by the administration of the radionuclide were evaluated in 19 organs. To evaluate the CT dose, 32 radiochromic film strips were correctly positioned into the anthropomorphic male phantom. The CT protocol performed was whole-body scanning and a high-resolution lung scan. This protocol is currently used in most services. The calculation of the effective dose from the injected activity in the patient was performed using the ICRP 106 Biokinetic model (ICRP 106, 2008). The activity to be injected may vary according to the patients body mass and with the sensitivity of the detector. The mass of the simulator used is 73.5 kg, then the simulation with and injected activity of 244.76 MBq was used. It was observed that 87.4% of the effective dose in examination PET/CT comes from the CT scans, being 63.8% of the whole body scan and 23.6% of high resolution lung scan. Using activity of 0.09 mCi x kg {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical contributes only 12.6% of the final effective dose. As a conclusion, it was observed that the dose in patients submitted to the {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT examination is high, being of great value efforts for its reduction, such as the use of appropriate image acquisition techniques and promoting the application of the principle of optimization of practice. (Author)

  6. Do recommended doses of glyphosate-based herbicides affect soil invertebrates? Field and laboratory screening tests to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; de Santo, Fernanda Benedet; Guerra, Naiara; Ricardo Filho, Altair Maçaneiro; Pech, Tatiani Maria

    2018-05-01

    Despite glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture, forestry and gardens, little is known about its effects on non-target organisms. The present work evaluated the ecotoxicity of four formulated products (Roundup ® Original, Trop ® , Zapp ® Qi 620 and Crucial ® ) on soil invertebrates. Screening ecotoxicity tests were carried out with soil and oat straw collected in a field experiment, besides laboratory-spiked soils. Screening tests included avoidance behaviour of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and isopods (Porcellio dilatatus) in single and multispecies tests; reproduction of collembolans (F. candida), and bait lamina in field. Non-avoidance behaviour was observed in standard tests (earthworms) in soil, neither in multispecies tests (earthworm + isopods) using oat straw, while for collembolans it occurred for the product Zapp ® Qi 620 even at the recommended dose. Reproduction of F. candida was not impaired even at high doses in laboratory-spiked soils. Feeding activity on bait lamina test was impaired in treatment corresponding to the red label product, Crucial ® . Results showed the relevance of bait lamina test on screening the impact of herbicides in the field. The findings highlight the importance of considering different formulations for the same active ingredient in risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  8. Individual dose burden evaluation in the residents of the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipikhina, A.V.; Valivach, M.N.; Kurakina, N.N.; Kosatov, V.G.; Federbush, E.G.; Bugembayeva, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The evaluation of individual dose burden can be make by an estimation method based on the following parameters: - dose rate in the concrete settlement after concrete explosion; - time of stay of an individual under a cloud; - behavior of the individual in the subsequent time; - diet. The archive and published materials available today have these input parameters. At the same time, these materials have significant gaps, and are very contradictory. For example, the available published data on the explosion made on 24.09.1951 (the main dose forming explosion in Kainar) have the following data ranges: - gamma-radiation dose rate at 24 hours after explosion (71.3-304) mR/h; out-door time in an adult man - (6-16) h/day in the summer, (3-16) h/day in the winter; - consumption of milk by an adult man - (0.2-1) l/day. The time of stay of an individual under a cloud depends on the distance from epicenter to settlement and on wind velocity at the time of explosion. For explosion 24.09.1951 the following data have been published: distance from epicenter to settlement Kainar- (139-150) km; wind velocity-(15.0-26.4) km/h. Based on these ranges of data we can obtain, for example, the effective external gamma exposure dose estimates in an adult man (office worker), which range from 2.6 to 23.4 cSv. To verify these input data, we have determined: the distance from epicenter to settlement Kainar. This was made using electronic maps of Kazakhstan (SN ISBN 5-94552-085-x), and also the data of geographic coordinates database of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations. The distance is 142.1 km; the wind velocity based on the archive data of the Kazakh Regional State Weather Center, which was 15 km /h; - the out-door time in an adult man (office worker) was determined based on the results of an interview of Kainar residents. The out-door time in the adult was 6.859 h/day in the summer and 4.598 h/day in the winter. Based on these verified data the effective external gamma

  9. Tests of the validity of a model relating frequency of contaminated items and increasing radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.; Khan, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The 60 Co radiation response of Bacillus pumilus E601 spores has been characterized when present in a laboratory test system. The suitability of test vessels to act as both containers for irradiation and culture vessels in sterility testing has been checked. Tests have been done with these spores to verify assumptions basic to the general model described in a previous paper. First measurements indicate that the model holds with this laboratory test system. (author)

  10. Dose level investigation in tests with gastrointestinal fluoroscopy as a part of a quality control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevaro, L.V.; Borges, J.C.; Kocj, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (IRD/CNEN) Brazilian and the Radiodiagnostic Service of the Rio de Janeiro Federal University Hospital, (Brazil), have been engaged in the development of quality control programs applied to radiodiagnostics, one of them concerning gastrointestinal fluoroscopy. Since fluoroscopic examinations normally deals with high doses, they represent an important fraction of public exposure. They deserve special attention and risks to patients should be considered individually, not only as a population statistics. This work describes steps followed and results obtained in the estimation of doses for patients and physicians. Examinations investigated were esofagography, gastroduodenal seriography and colon with double contrast media, using conventional equipment with fluorescent screens, carried on by physicians engaged in the first year of medical residence. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Conceptual basis for the radiometric dye film dose meter as a test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report is a summary of a lecture held at the Danish-Polish Symposium on Radiation Chemistry in Warsaw, October 1979, describing an initiated work connected to the particle track theory worked out by R. Katz and coworkers. A short description is given of the theory and the applicability of the theory in the use of the radiometric dye cyanide film dose meter as a detector in radiation of different qualities. A few experimental results are given. (author)

  12. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  13. On-Line High Dose-rate Gamma Irradiation Test of the Profibus/DP module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Koo, In Soo; Hong, Seok Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The field bus data communication is considered for application in nuclear environments. The nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants, high radioactivity waste disposals, reprocessing plants and thermonuclear fusion installations can benefit from the unique advantages of the field bus communication network for the smart field instruments and controls. A major problem which arises when dealing with one in these nuclear environments, in special circumstances such as the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, is the presence of high gamma-ray irradiation fields. Radioactive constraints for the DBA(design basis accident) qualification of the RTD transmitter installed in the inside of the RCS pump are typically on the order of 4kGy/h with total doses up to 10kGy. In order to use an industrial field bus communication network as an ad-hoc sensor data link in the vicinity of the RCS area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of these system in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore needs to be verified. We have conducted high dose-rate (up to 4kGy) gamma irradiation experiments on a profibus/DP communication module. In this paper we describe the evolution of its basic characteristics with high dose-rate gamma irradiation and shortly explain the observed phenomena.

  14. Test of tissue-equivalent scintillation detector for dose measurement of megavoltage beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geso, M.; Ackerly, T.; Clift, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The measurement of depth doses and profiles for a stereotactic radiotherapy beam presents special problems associated with the small beam size compared to the dosimeter's active detection area. In this work a locally fabricated organic plastic scintillator detector has been used to measure the depth dose and profile of a stereotactic radiotherapy beam. The 6MV beam is 1.25 cm diameter at isocentre, typical of small field stereotactic radiosurgery. The detector is a water/tissue equivalent plastic scintillator that is accompanied by Cerenkov subtraction detector. In this particular application, a negligible amount of Cerenkov light was detected. A photodiode and an electronic circuit is used instead of a photomultiplier for signal amplification. Comparison with data using a diode detector and a small size ionization chamber, indicate that the organic plastic scintillator detector is a valid detector for stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry. The tissue equivalence of the organic scintillator also holds the promise of accurate dosimetry in the build up region. Depth doses measured using our plastic scintillator agree to within about 1% with those obtained using commercially available silicon diodes. Beam profiles obtained using plastic scintillator presents correct field width to within 0.35 mm, however some artifacts are visible in the profiles. These artifacts are about 5% discrepancy which has been shown not to be a significant factor in stereotactic radiotherapy dosimetry. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Single oral dose toxicity test of platycodin d, a saponin from platycodin radix in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ho; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Seong-Hun

    2011-12-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of platycodin D, a saponin from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum in male and female mice. Platycodin D was administered to female and male mice as an oral dose of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg (body wt.). Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after treatment, upon necropsy, organ weight and histopathology of 14 principle organs were examined. As the results, no platycodin D treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principle organs were detected up to 2000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of playtcodin D after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg - the limited dosages recommended by KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009], respectively.

  16. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Toyoda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Simon, Steven L; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Sasaki, Masao S; Rosenson, Rafail I; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2006-02-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima(9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site(SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry(RLD) method for Dolon' village(Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy(background dose has been subtracted).Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose approximately 440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance(ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy(above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained by RLD and

  17. Pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel using the rapid INFINITI analyzer: a dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Patrick; White, Harvey; Voss, Jamie; Ormiston, John; Stewart, Jim; Ruygrok, Peter; Bvaldivia, Badi; Baak, Ruth; White, Catherine; Webster, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Our aim was to assess whether a higher clopidogrel maintenance dose has a greater antiplatelet effect in CYP2C19*2 allele carriers compared with noncarriers. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is biotransformed by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C19, 2C9, and 3A4, 2B6, 1A2. The CYPC219*2 loss of function variant has been associated with a reduced antiplatelet response to clopidogrel and a 3-fold risk of stent thrombosis. Forty patients on standard maintenance dosage clopidogrel (75 mg), for 9.4 +/- 9.2 weeks, were enrolled into a dose escalation study. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and after 1 week of 150 mg once daily using the VerifyNow platelet function analyzer (Accumetrics Ltd., San Diego, California). Genomic DNA was hybridized to a BioFilmChip microarray on the INFINITI analyzer (AutoGenomics Inc., Carlsbad, California) and analyzed for the CYP19*2, *4, *17, and CYP2C9*2, *3 polymorphisms. Platelet inhibition increased over 1 week, mean +8.6 +/- 13.5% (p = 0.0003). Carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele had significantly reduced platelet inhibition at baseline (median 18%, range 0% to 72%) compared with wildtype (wt) (median 59%, range 11% to 95%, p = 0.01) and at 1 week (p = 0.03). CYP2C19*2 allele carriers had an increase in platelet inhibition of (mean +9 +/- 11%, p = 0.03) and reduction in platelet reactivity (mean -26 +/- 38 platelet response unit, p = 0.04) with a higher dose. Together CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 loss of function carriers had a greater change in platelet inhibition with 150 mg daily than wt/wt (+10.9% vs. +0.7%, p = 0.04). Increasing the dose of clopidogrel in patients with nonresponder polymorphisms can increase antiplatelet response. Personalizing clopidogrel dosing using pharmacogenomics may be an effective method of optimizing treatment.

  18. Tailgate test kit for determining appropriate sediment reducing chemicals and dose rates : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study develops a Tailgate Test Kit to be used in the field to test flocculants for reducing turbidity in construction stormwater discharge. Turbidity of stormwater runoff at construction sites varies depending on which site soils are exposed to ...

  19. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water juvenile shrimps were more sensitive to the mixture of the hydro-test effluent and crude oil than the freshwater habitat. This could be ...

  20. The effects of environmental factors and experimental method on the results of low dose rate microprocessor irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, A; Gerard, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IPSN, Centre d' Etudes de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Gauthier, G; Henry, J Y; Le Meur, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1992-02-01

    As part of the safety studies of nuclear facilities, a series of experiments have been in progress over a number of years to determine the principal parameters for which allowance needs to be made in the testing of microprocessors in low dose rate nuclear irradiation environments. This paper contains a brief description of the results already published, followed by a review of the latest results obtained, specifically as concerns the effects of temperature, the origin of the batch, the angle of incidence of the radiation and the test routine used. (author)

  1. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhong Son

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze single dose toxicity and the lethal dose of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in rats. Methods:All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Scolopendrid pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 1.0 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results:No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. No significant changes in the weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry were noted between the control group and the experimental group. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion:The above findings suggest Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture is a relatively safe to use for treatment. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  2. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Mochtar, Monique H.; van Golde, Ron J. T.; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing does not improve live birth rates or reduce costs as compared to a standard FSH dose. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In IVF or ICSI, ovarian reserve testing is often used to adjust the FSH dose in order to no...

  3. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deely, A.E.; Blackwell, B.A.B.; Mylroie, J.E.; Carew, J.L.; Blickstein, J.I.B.; Skinner, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 ± 0.3 to 7.1 ± 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 ± 6 to 75 ± 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 ± 6 to 138 ± 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  4. AFM and uni-axial testing of pericardium exposed to radiotherapy doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daar, Eman, E-mail: e.daar@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lei, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Keddie, J.L. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    The pericardium, a double-layered sac that encloses the heart, is made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix (forming the extracellular matrix). Collagen fibres are aligned in multidirectional orientation layers. This free arrangement of fibres gives the pericardium its viscoelastic properties and the ability to deform in all directions. This is an important mechanical property for the heart to perform its physiological functions, acknowledging the fact that the heart is attached to different ligaments and muscles in all directions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue. This links to an interest in seeking to understand possible mechanisms underlying cardiac complications following treatment of the left breast in radiotherapy regimes. Pericardium samples were subjected to doses in the range 0-80 Gy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in characterising changes in the infrastructural and mechanical properties of the tissues. Preliminary data for doses of 80 Gy shows there was no significant change in the D-spacing period of the banded structure collagen type I but a significant increase is observed in the FWHM of the fibril widths (by between 25% and 27%) over that of unirradiated pericardium tissue.

  5. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  6. Testing equality and interval estimation in binary responses when high dose cannot be used first under a three-period crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    When comparing two doses of a new drug with a placebo, we may consider using a crossover design subject to the condition that the high dose cannot be administered before the low dose. Under a random-effects logistic regression model, we focus our attention on dichotomous responses when the high dose cannot be used first under a three-period crossover trial. We derive asymptotic test procedures for testing equality between treatments. We further derive interval estimators to assess the magnitude of the relative treatment effects. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and interval estimators in a variety of situations. We use the data taken as a part of trial comparing two different doses of an analgesic with a placebo for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea to illustrate the use of the proposed test procedures and estimators.

  7. Effect of two doses of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, H; Raoul, P; Lieury, A; LeCoz, F; Gandon, J M; d'Arbigny, P

    1993-01-01

    The subjects of this double-blind study were 18 elderly men and women (mean age, 69.3 years) with slight age-related memory impairment. In a crossover-study design, each subject received placebo or an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) (320 mg or 600 mg) 1 hour before performing a dual-coding test that measures the speed of information processing; the test consists of several coding series of drawings and words presented at decreasing times of 1920, 960, 480, 240, and 120 ms. The dual-coding phenomenon (a break point between coding verbal material and images) was demonstrated in all the tests. After placebo, the break point was observed at 960 ms and dual coding beginning at 1920 ms. After each dose of the ginkgo extract, the break point (at 480 ms) and dual coding (at 960 ms) were significantly shifted toward a shorter presentation time, indicating an improvement in the speed of information processing.

  8. Repeated Intramuscular-dose Toxicity Test of Water-soluble Carthami Flos (WCF Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-min Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Water-soluble carthami flos (WCF is a new mixture of Carthami flos (CF pharmacopuncture. We conducted a 4-week toxicity test of repeated intramuscular injections of WCF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Forty male and 40 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 male and 10 female SD rats: The control group received 0.5 mL/animal/day of normal saline whereas the three experimental groups received WCF at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal/day, respectively. For 4 weeks, the solutions were injected into the femoral muscle of the rats alternating from side to side. Clinical signs, body weights, and food consumption were observed; opthalmological examinations and urinalyses were performed. On day 29, blood samples were taken for hematological and clinical chemistry analyses. Then, necropsy was conducted in all animals to observe weights and external and histopathological changes in the bodily organs. All data were tested using a statistical analysis system (SAS. Results: No deaths were observed. Temporary irregular respiration was observed in male rats of the experimental group for the first 10 days. Body weights, food consumptions, opthalmological examinations, urinalyses, clinical chemistry analyses, organ weights and necropsy produced no findings with toxicological meaning. In the hematological analysis, delay of prothrombin time (PT was observed in male rats of the 0.25- and the 0.5-mL/animal/day groups. In the histopathological test, a dose-dependent inflammatory cell infiltration into the fascia and panniculitis in perimuscular tissues was observed in all animals of the experimental groups. However, those symptoms were limited to local injection points. No toxicological meanings, except localized changes, were noted. Conclusion: WCF solution has no significant toxicological meaning, but does produce localized symptoms. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of WCF in male and female rats is expected for doses over 0.5 mL/animal/day.

  9. The ToxBank Data Warehouse: Supporting the Replacement of In Vivo Repeated Dose Systemic Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen, Pekka; Benfenati, Emilio; Bower, David; Ceder, Rebecca; Crump, Michael; Cross, Kevin; Grafström, Roland C; Healy, Lyn; Helma, Christoph; Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Maggioni, Silvia; Miller, Scott; Myatt, Glenn; Rautenberg, Michael; Stacey, Glyn; Willighagen, Egon; Wiseman, Jeff; Hardy, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the SEURAT-1 (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing-1) research cluster, comprised of seven EU FP7 Health projects co-financed by Cosmetics Europe, is to generate a proof-of-concept to show how the latest technologies, systems toxicology and toxicogenomics can be combined to deliver a test replacement for repeated dose systemic toxicity testing on animals. The SEURAT-1 strategy is to adopt a mode-of-action framework to describe repeated dose toxicity, combining in vitro and in silico methods to derive predictions of in vivo toxicity responses. ToxBank is the cross-cluster infrastructure project whose activities include the development of a data warehouse to provide a web-accessible shared repository of research data and protocols, a physical compounds repository, reference or "gold compounds" for use across the cluster (available via wiki.toxbank.net), and a reference resource for biomaterials. Core technologies used in the data warehouse include the ISA-Tab universal data exchange format, REpresentational State Transfer (REST) web services, the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the OpenTox standards. We describe the design of the data warehouse based on cluster requirements, the implementation based on open standards, and finally the underlying concepts and initial results of a data analysis utilizing public data related to the gold compounds. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  11. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  12. Contract Source Selection: An Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    using- spss - statistics.php Lamoureux, J., Murrow, M., & Walls, C. (2015). Relationship of source selection methods to contract outcomes: an analysis ...Contract Source Selection: an Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff Strategies 15 June 2016 LCDR Jamal M. Osman, USN...ACQUISITION RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Contract Source Selection: an Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff

  13. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity...... dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120 hpf was 310 μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72 mmol/kg fresh wt and La50...... for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals....

  14. Change of notch impact strength depending on radiation dose and test temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bednarik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper has been determine the effect of radiation crosslinking on the notch impact strength of polyamides filled with fiberglass. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 66 and 132 kGy were compared and on the test temperature (23–150 °C.

  15. The utility of isotopic tests using tracer doses of 131I in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathi, N.; Prakash, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Behari, V.; Singh, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo isotopic tests, including those for thyroid uptake and discharge, in vitro hepatic counting and protein bound 131 I estimation, were done on 150 hyperthyroid and 100 euthyroid subjects. Diagnosis of thyroidal status was confirmed by clinical evaluation, radioimmunoassay of T 3 and T 4 and response to treatment. Peak thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) was reached 2, 4 or 6 h after administration of 131 I sodium iodide in 55% of the hyperthyroid cases and by 24 h in the remaining 45%. No euthyroid subject had a peak thyroid RAIU before 24 h. Hepatic counts and protein bound 131 I were elevated in respectively 75% and 93% of the hyperthyroid cases. False positive rates for these two tests were 10% and 32%, respectively. Thyroid discharge of more than 10% was present in 49% of the hyperthyroid patients (false positives, 3%). When analysed together, these in vivo isotopic tests have a high accuracy rate in diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Two alternative protocols are given to reduce the number of false positives to 8% and false negatives to 1.3%. (author)

  16. Thyroid nodules in the population living around semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Possible implications for dose-response relationships study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The risk of radiation-induced nodules is higher than the risk for radiation-induced cancer. Risk factors and specific modifiers of the dose-response relationship may vary among different populations and not be well recognized. Many thyroid studies have considered thyroid nodularity itself, but not specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. There are many specific types of thyroid nodules which follow a morphological classification of thyroid lesions, including some congenital and tumor-like conditions. Modern equipment and technique can help us to identify particular specific types of thyroid nodules. In this study we report some results of a clinically applicable approach to materials derived from three studies. From 1999 through 2002, we have screened 571 current residents from 4 exposed and 1 control village near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site area, who were of similar ages (<20) at the time of major radiation fallout events at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). Prevalent nodules were identified by ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytopathology results. Analysis of ultrasound images and cytopathology of thyroid lesions among exposed and non-exposed population allowed us to distinguish some interesting ultrasound features for specific types of thyroid nodules. We believe that it would be interesting and possibly more informative for thyroid dosimetry studies to consider specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. We need more detailed research to clarify the feasibility of applying these findings for study of the dose-response relationship. (author)

  17. Technology development on production of test specimens from irradiated capsule outer-tube and mechanical evaluation test of stainless steel with high dose carried out by the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shibata, Akira; Iwamatsu, Shigemi; Sozawa, Shizuo; Takada, Fumiki; Ohmi, Masao; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    2008-03-01

    The irradiation capsule 74M-52J was irradiated during total 136 cycles at reactor core of JMTR and the maximum neutron dose reached on 3.9x10 26 n/m 2 at the capsule outer-tube made of a type 304 stainless steel. In order to produce mechanical test specimens from the outer-tube, a punching technique was developed as a simple remote-handling method in a hot-cell. From comparison between the punching and the mechanical cutting methods, it was clarified that the punching technique was applicable to practical use. Moreover, an evaluation test of mechanical properties using specimens sampled from the 74M-52 was performed with in-water high temperature condition, less than 288degC. The result shows that the residual elongation is 18% at 150degC and 13% at 288degC. It was confirmed that the type 304 stainless steel irradiated up to such high dose shows enough ductility. (author)

  18. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm(2) ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. Objectives. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm(2) for the 12 fragrance substances......, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm(2) ) be used for aimed and screening patch testing....... that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Materials and Methods. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual...

  20. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  1. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Dose the reporting quality of diagnostic test accuracy studies, as defined by STARD 2015, affect citation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Jun; Chung, Mi Sun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Park, Seong Ho

    2016-01-01

    To determine the rate with which diagnostic test accuracy studies that are published in a general radiology journal adhere to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) 2015, and to explore the relationship between adherence rate and citation rate while avoiding confounding by journal factors. All eligible diagnostic test accuracy studies that were published in the Korean Journal of Radiology in 2011–2015 were identified. Five reviewers assessed each article for yes/no compliance with 27 of the 30 STARD 2015 checklist items (items 28, 29, and 30 were excluded). The total STARD score (number of fulfilled STARD items) was calculated. The score of the 15 STARD items that related directly to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 was also calculated. The number of times each article was cited (as indicated by the Web of Science) after publication until March 2016 and the article exposure time (time in months between publication and March 2016) were extracted. Sixty-three articles were analyzed. The mean (range) total and QUADAS-2-related STARD scores were 20.0 (14.5–25) and 11.4 (7–15), respectively. The mean citation number was 4 (0–21). Citation number did not associate significantly with either STARD score after accounting for exposure time (total score: correlation coefficient = 0.154, p = 0.232; QUADAS-2-related score: correlation coefficient = 0.143, p = 0.266). The degree of adherence to STARD 2015 was moderate for this journal, indicating that there is room for improvement. When adjusted for exposure time, the degree of adherence did not affect the citation rate

  3. Dose the reporting quality of diagnostic test accuracy studies, as defined by STARD 2015, affect citation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jun; Chung, Mi Sun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Park, Seong Ho [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To determine the rate with which diagnostic test accuracy studies that are published in a general radiology journal adhere to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) 2015, and to explore the relationship between adherence rate and citation rate while avoiding confounding by journal factors. All eligible diagnostic test accuracy studies that were published in the Korean Journal of Radiology in 2011–2015 were identified. Five reviewers assessed each article for yes/no compliance with 27 of the 30 STARD 2015 checklist items (items 28, 29, and 30 were excluded). The total STARD score (number of fulfilled STARD items) was calculated. The score of the 15 STARD items that related directly to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 was also calculated. The number of times each article was cited (as indicated by the Web of Science) after publication until March 2016 and the article exposure time (time in months between publication and March 2016) were extracted. Sixty-three articles were analyzed. The mean (range) total and QUADAS-2-related STARD scores were 20.0 (14.5–25) and 11.4 (7–15), respectively. The mean citation number was 4 (0–21). Citation number did not associate significantly with either STARD score after accounting for exposure time (total score: correlation coefficient = 0.154, p = 0.232; QUADAS-2-related score: correlation coefficient = 0.143, p = 0.266). The degree of adherence to STARD 2015 was moderate for this journal, indicating that there is room for improvement. When adjusted for exposure time, the degree of adherence did not affect the citation rate.

  4. Correlation of In Vivo Versus In Vitro Benchmark Doses (BMDs) Derived From Micronucleus Test Data: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Fellows, Mick D; Johnson, George E; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we explored the applicability of using in vitro micronucleus (MN) data from human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to derive in vivo genotoxicity potency information. Nineteen chemicals covering a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action were tested in an in vitro MN test using TK6 cells using the same study protocol. Several of these chemicals were considered to need metabolic activation, and these were administered in the presence of S9. The Benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied using the dose-response modeling program PROAST to estimate the genotoxic potency from the in vitro data. The resulting in vitro BMDs were compared with previously derived BMDs from in vivo MN and carcinogenicity studies. A proportional correlation was observed between the BMDs from the in vitro MN and the BMDs from the in vivo MN assays. Further, a clear correlation was found between the BMDs from in vitro MN and the associated BMDs for malignant tumors. Although these results are based on only 19 compounds, they show that genotoxicity potencies estimated from in vitro tests may result in useful information regarding in vivo genotoxic potency, as well as expected cancer potency. Extension of the number of compounds and further investigation of metabolic activation (S9) and of other toxicokinetic factors would be needed to validate our initial conclusions. However, this initial work suggests that this approach could be used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolations which would support the reduction of animals used in research (3Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  5. Changes of mitochondrial structure, ATPase and Ca2+ concentration in spermatogenic cells of mouse testes induced by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Liu Shuchun; Li Pengwu; Kang Shunai; Liang Shuo; Zhao Gang; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ultrastructure, ATPase activity and Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]i) of mitochondria in the sperematogenic cells of mouse testes 3-24 h after low dose radiation with 0.025-0.200 Gy X-rays, and illuminate the effects of mitochondrion structure and relative biological function on apoptosis. Methods: The ultrastructure changes of mitochondria in the spermatogenic cells were observed with transmission electron microscope; the ATPase activity was measured with protein enzymic method; [Ca 2+ ]i was measured indirectly by flow cytometry with Fluo-3 probes. Results: The mitochondria swelled and vacuolizated, and their cristae were broken in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes 12 h after irradiation, and their nuclei were karyopyknosis, the acrosomal vesicle structure was ambiguity, the membrane structure was unclear, and the mitochondria in spermatids were vacuolization. The activities of Na + -K + -ATPase in mouse testis tissue 12 h after irradiated with 0.025-0.200 Gy decreased compared with those with 0 Gy, the Na + -K + -ATPase activities of the cells irradiated with 0.05-0.200 Gy decreased significantly compared with those with 0 Gy (P 2+ -ATPase of the cells irradiated with 0.025-0.200 Gy decreased significantly compared with those with 0 Gy (P 2+ ]i in mouse testis spermatogenic cells had similar dose-response relationship, [Ca 2+ ]i after irradiated with 0.075 Gy decreased compared with those with 0 Gy (P + -K + -ATPase in mouse testis tissues decreased obviously compared with those at 0 h (P 2+ -ATPase in mouse testis tissues increased slightly at 3 h, then decreased at 6-24 h compared with those at 0 h (P 2+ ]i in mouse testis spermatogenic cells had similar time course-response relationship, [Ca 2+ ]i at 12 h decreased significantly compared with at 0 h (P 2+ ]i induced by low dose radiation. (authors)

  6. Individual dose reconstruction among residents living in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site using EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A I; Zhumadilov, Zh; Gusev, B I; Miyazawa, Ch; Jiao, L; Skvortsov, V G; Stepanenko, V F; Takada, J; Hoshi, M

    2002-08-01

    Individual accumulated doses were determined by EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel for 26 adult persons residing in territories adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). The absorbed dose values due to radiation from nuclear tests were obtained after subtracting the contribution of natural background radiation from the total accumulated dose. The determined dose values ranged up to 250 mGy, except for one person from Semipalatinsk city with a measured dose of 2.8 +/- 0.4 Gy. Increased dose values were determined for the individuals whose teeth were formed before 1962, the end of the atmospheric nuclear tests. These values were found to be significantly larger than those obtained for a group of younger residents of heavily exposed territories and the residents of territories not exposed to radioactive fallout. These increased dose values are consistent with those based on officially registered data for the Northeastern part of Kazakstan adjacent to SNTS, which was exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests in period 1949-1962.

  7. Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: In Vitro Tests and Their Correlation with In Vivo Lethal Dose Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cajado-Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are the main cause of human envenomation in Brazil and, for the treatment of victims, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of antivenoms. The first step to achieve effective antivenom is to use a good quality venom pool and to evaluate it, with LD50 determination as the most accepted procedure. It is, however, time-consuming and requires advanced technical training. Further, there are significant ethical concerns regarding the number of animals required for testing. Hence, we investigated the correspondence between LD50 results, in vitro assays, and a strong correlation with proteolytic activity levels was observed, showing, remarkably, that proteases are potential toxicity markers for Tityus serrulatus venom. The comparison of reversed-phase chromatographic profiles also has a potential application in venoms’ quality control, as there were fewer neurotoxins detected in the venom with high LD50 value. These results were confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Therefore, these methods could precede the LD50 assay to evaluate the venom excellence by discriminating—and discarding—poor-quality batches, and, consequently, with a positive impact on the number of animals used. Notably, proposed assays are fast and inexpensive, being technically and economically feasible in Tityus serrulatus venom quality control to produce effective antivenoms.

  8. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  9. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  10. Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines based on the lowest overall cost formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes pricing strategies for US pediatric combination vaccines by comparing the lowest overall cost formularies (i.e., formularies that have the lowest overall cost). Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise over the sale of monovalent and combination vaccines. Particular emphasis is placed on examining the price of Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV/HIb under different conditions. The main contribution of the paper is to provide the lowest overall cost formularies for different prices of DTaP-IPV/HIb and other Sanofi Pasteur vaccines. The resulting analysis shows that DTaP-IPV/HIb could have been more competitively priced compared with the combination vaccine DTaP-HepB-IPV, for federal contract prices in 2009, 2010 and 2011. This study also proposes the lowest overall cost formularies when shortages of monovalent vaccines occur.

  11. A test of the IAEA code of practice for absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, A.; Tiefenboeck, W.; Witzani, J.; Strachotinsky, C.

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 277 gives recommendations for absorbed dose determination in high energy photon and electron beams based on the use of ionisation chambers calibrated in terms of exposure or air kerma. The scope of the present work was to test the Code for 60 Co gamma radiation and for several radiation qualities at four different types of electron accelerators and to compare the ionisation chamber dosimetry with ferrous sulphate dosimetry. The results show agreement between the two methods within about one per cent for all the investigated qualities. In addition the response of the TLD capsules of the IAEA/WHO TL dosimetry service has been determined. (Authors) 5 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Hampshire, Rachel; Tapert, Lisa; Chirenje, Mike; Saba, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP). Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccin...

  13. Zero crossing and ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry for the dissolution tests of amlodipine and perindopril in their fixed dose formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczka Paulina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution tests of amlodipine and perindopril from their fixed dose formulations were performed in 900 mL of phosphate buffer of pH 5.5 at 37°C using the paddle apparatus. Then, two simple and rapid derivative spectrophotometric methods were used for the quantitative measurements of amlodipine and perindopril. The first method was zero crossing first derivative spectrophotometry in which measuring of amplitudes at 253 nm for amlodipine and 229 nm for perindopril were used. The second method was ratio derivative spectrophotometry in which spectra of amlodipine over the linearity range were divided by one selected standard spectrum of perindopril and then amplitudes at 242 nm were measured. Similarly, spectra of perindopril were divided by one selected standard spectrum of amlodipine and then amplitudes at 298 nm were measured. Both of the methods were validated to meet official requirements and were demonstrated to be selective, precise and accurate. Since there is no official monograph for these drugs in binary formulations, the dissolution tests and quantification procedure presented here can be used as a quality control test for amlodipine and perindopril in respective dosage forms.

  14. Dose-response testing with nickel sulphate using the TRUE test in nickel-sensitive individuals. Multiple nickel sulphate patch-test reactions do not cause an 'angry back'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lidén, C; Hansen, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ the TRUE test assay to confirm the presence or absence of the 'angry back' phenomenon, i.e. that a strong positive patch-test reaction heightens adjacent patch-test response. In addition, we wished to establish the dose-response relationship for nickel sulphate...... back' phenomenon was not apparent in this study, as the spill-over effect was not statistically significant. Strong reactions to high concentrations of nickel sulphate did not enhance the response to adjacent lower concentrations of nickel sulphate....

  15. Low-dose dental CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustemeyer, P.; Eich, H.T.; John-Mikolajewski, V.; Mueller, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The intention of this study was to reduce patient dose during dental CT in the planning for osseointegrated implants. Methods and Materials: Dental CTs were performed with a spiral CT (Somatom Plus 4, Siemens) and a dental software package. Use of the usual dental CT technique (120 kVp; 165 mA, 1 s rotation time, 165 mAs; pitch factor 1) was compared with a new protocol (120 kVp; 50 mA; 0.7 s rotation time; 35 mAs; pitch factor 2) which delivered the best image quality at the lowest possible radiation dose, as tested in a preceding study. Image quality was analysed using a human anatomic head preparation. Four radiologists analysed the images independently. A Wilcoxon rank pair-test was used for statistic evaluation. The doses to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the salivary glands, and the eye lens were determined in a tissue-equivalent phantom (Alderson-Rando Phantom) with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters at the appropriate locations. Results: By mAs reduction from 165 to 35 and using a pitch factor of 2, the radiation dose could be reduced by a factor of nine (max.) (e.g., the bone marrow dose could be reduced from 23.6 mSv to 2.9 mSv, eye lens from 0.5 mSv to 0.3 mSv, thyroid gland from 2.5 mSv to 0.5 mSv, parotid glands from 2.3 mSv to 0.4 mSv). The dose reduction did not lead to an actual loss of image quality or diagnostic information. Conclusion: A considerable dose reduction without loss of diagnostic information is achievable in dental CT. Dosereducing examination protocols like the one presented may further expand the use of preoperative dental CT. (orig.) [de

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health care concern that affects the life of millions of people around the world. The association of tuberculosis and adrenal insufficiency is well known; however, it is thought to be less prevalent every time. A spike in TB incidence and a lack of evidence of this association in patients with MDR-TB call for reassessment of an illness (adrenal dysfunction that if not diagnosed could seriously jeopardize patients’ health. Objective. To determine the prevalence of adrenocortical insufficiency in patients with MDR-TB using the low-dose (1 μg ACTH stimulation test at baseline and at 6–12 months of follow-up after antituberculosis treatment and culture conversion. Methods. A total of 48 men or women, aged ≥18 years (HIV-negative patients diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB were included in this prospective observational study. Blood samples for serum cortisol were taken at baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after 1 μg ACTH stimulation at our tertiary level university hospital before and after antituberculosis treatment. Results. Forty-seven percent of subjects had primary MDR-TB; 43.8% had type 2 diabetes; none were HIV-positive. We found at enrollment 2 cases (4.2% of adrenal insufficiency taking 500 nmol/L as the standard cutoff point value and 4 cases (8.3% alternatively, using 550 nmol/L. After antituberculosis intensive phase drug-treatment and a negative mycobacterial culture (10.2±3.6 months adrenocortical function was restored in all cases. Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical

  17. The Leoncino Dwarf: The Lowest Metallicity Star-Forming Galaxy in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are dwarf irregular galaxies with very low metallicities, traced by their gas-phase oxygen abundance. Galaxy evolution scenarios suggest three pathways to form an XMP: (1) secular evolution at low galaxy masses, (2) slow evolution in voids, or (3) dilution of measured abundances from infall of pristine gas. These scenarios have proven challenging to test because, despite concerted efforts, XMP galaxies in the nearby universe have proven hard to find. A notable exception is the recently discovered dwarf galaxy Leoncino. Leoncino has the lowest gas-phase oxygen abundance ever measured in a galaxy in the local Universe. From optical spectroscopy, the oxygen abundance is 12+log(O/H)=7.02+/-0.03, more than 40% lower than the iconic low-metallicity galaxy I Zw 18 and less than 2% Z_sun. Despite a precision oxygen abundance measurement, the evolutionary context of Leoncino remains uncertain without a secure distance. We propose HST WFC3 high-resolution optical imaging of Leoncino to accurately measure the distance to the galaxy using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. The distance will determine whether Leoncino is located in a typical field environment or in a void, and whether the galaxy is consistent with the luminosity-metallicity relation at low galaxy masses. The detailed study of Leoncino will provide benchmark results for future XMP discoveries in the nearby Universe, and an exceptionally timely comparison for studies of chemically primitive, high-redshift galaxies that will be observable in the JWST era.

  18. Concept for lowest emissions of a hydrogen internal combustion engine; Niedrigstemissionskonzept fuer einen wasserstoffbetriebenen Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Marcel Christian Thomas

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a concept with lowest emissions for a hydrogen internal combustion engine for passenger cars. With optimisation of the combustion concept the level of nitrogen oxide is below 90%, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide below 99% of the SULEV target (CARB). This concept enables a potential in power density that is comparable to current supercharged combustion engines at lowest emission level without catalytic aftertreatment. Additionally with a catalytic aftertreatment system, the emission level of a current hydrogen combustion engine (mono-fuel) is lowered to a level, that this car can be labeled as air cleaning vehicle for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  19. Assessment of the current internal dose due to 137Cs and 90Sr for people living within the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiochkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Bruk, G; Travnikova, I; Strand, P

    2004-02-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan was one of the major sites used by the USSR for testing nuclear weapons for more than 40 y. Since the early 1990's, responsibility for the site has passed to the Kazakh authorities. There has been a gradual re-establishment of agricultural use such as horse and sheep farming. Therefore, it has become important to evaluate the current and future risk to people living on and using the contaminated area. Internal dose assessment is one of the main components of the total dose when deriving risk factors for population living within the test site. Internal doses based on food monitoring and whole body measurements were calculated for adults and are in the range of 13-500 microSv y(-1) due to radiocesium and radiostrontium.

  20. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates 1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  1. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Neil A. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Mailstop 1046, Kansas City, KS (United States); The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, Donald D. [The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  2. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Neil A.; Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian; Anderson, Donald D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 ; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  3. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... it can yield similar correction while preserving more lumbar mobility and growth potential....

  4. Excitation energy of the lowest 2+ and 3- levels in 32Mg and 146Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, M.; Lombard, R.J.

    1978-06-01

    The excitation energy of the lowest 2 + and 3 - levels are calculated for neutron rich Mg-isotopes as well as for N=82 isotones. The calculations are made by assuming quadrupole-quadrupole and octupole-octupole forces. The quasi-particles energies and occupation numbers are taken from the energy density method

  5. The DTU15 MSS (Mean Sea Surface) and DTU15LAT (Lowest Astronomical Tide) reference surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Piccioni, Gaia

    in the Arctic Ocean for DTU10MSS and DTU13MSS.A new reference surface for off-shore vertical referencing is introduced. This is called the DTU15LAT.The surface is derived from the DTU15MSS and the DTU10 Global ocean tide to give a 19 year Lowest Astronomical Tide referenced to either the Mean sea surface...

  6. How Effective Are Community College Remedial Math Courses for Students with the Lowest Math Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Dadgar, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the effectiveness of remediation for community college students who are identified as having the lowest skills in math. Method: We use transcript data from a state community college system and take advantage of a regression discontinuity design that compares statistically identical students who are assigned to the…

  7. Degeneracy of the lowest Landau level and suq(2) on the Poincare half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellal, A.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of the quantum group symmetry su q (2) in the quantum Hall effect on the Poincare upper half plane the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level. It is also shown that the relation between the degeneracy and the cyclic representation of su q (2) appears in accordance with q being a kth root of unity. (Authors)

  8. Fine structure of the lowest Landau level in suspended trilayer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elferen, H. J.; Veligura, A.; Tombros, N.; Kurganova, E. V.; van Wees, B. J.; Maan, J. C.; Zeitler, U.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotransport experiments on ABC-stacked suspended trilayer graphene reveal a complete splitting of the 12-fold degenerated lowest Landau level, and, in particular, the opening of an exchange-driven gap at the charge neutrality point. A quantitative analysis of distinctness of the quantum Hall

  9. Award of Construction Contracts: Public Institutions' Authority to Select the Lowest Responsible Bidder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elsa Kircher; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the responsibilities of public colleges and universities to award construction contracts to the lowest responsible bidder; discusses the purpose of bid statutes; and lists the factors institutions should consider in determining a bidder's responsibility. Also covered are the standard of review and due process rights of the…

  10. Structure of the lowest excited 0/sup +/ rotational band of /sup 16/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikebata, Yasuhiko; Suekane, Shota

    1983-10-01

    The structure of the lowest excited 0/sup +/ rotational band is investigated by using the extended Nilsson model wave functions with angular momentum projection and the B1 interaction, two-body LS-force of the Skyrme type and the Coulomb interaction. The results obtained show good agreement with energy interval in this band.

  11. Study of four weeks repeated-dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Hae-Yon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four weeks repeated -dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLPat Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for the pilot study of four weeks repeated-dose toxicity and was injected at the level of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14 mg/kg as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of normal saline was injected as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and side effects such as hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of injection in all experiment groups, and the higher dosage in treatment, the higher occurrence in side effects. 3. Concerning weight measurement, neither male nor female groups showed significant changes compared to the control group. 4. Concerning to the CBC and biochemistry, all experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 5. Concerning weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, those such as cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney,and spinal cords were removed and we conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining.Concerning the histologocal observation of liver tissues, some fatty changes were observed around portal vein in 0.56 mg/kg experiment group. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7. The proper high dosage of SBV for the thirteen weeks repeated test in rats may be 0.28 mg

  12. Intravenous contrast medium administration at 128 multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography: Bolus tracking versus test bolus and the implications for diagnostic quality and effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.C.L.; Mathias, H.; Negus, I.S.; Manghat, N.E.; Hamilton, M.C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of a test bolus protocol contrast medium administration on diagnostic image quality in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Materials and methods: Fifty patients referred for exclusion of pulmonary embolism underwent CTPA using a test bolus protocol CTPA at 120 kVp and were compared with 50 patients undergoing CTPA using a standard bolus-tracking protocol at 120 kVp, via assessment of attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) seen in the pulmonary arteries (PAs). An additional group of 10 non-obese patients who underwent CTPA using a test bolus protocol performed at 100 kVp were also analysed. Mean effective dose was calculated from the dose–length product, using standard conversion factors. Results: The test bolus protocol showed significantly higher attenuation, SNR, and CNR in the pulmonary vasculature down to the segmental level compared to bolus-tracking CTPA (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in effective dose between the test bolus and bolus tracking cohorts. The additional group of test bolus CTPA examinations performed at 100 kVp had a significantly reduced effective dose in comparison to both test bolus CTPA at 120 kVp and bolus-tracking CTPA at 120 kVp (p < 0.005) yet maintained mean PA attenuation to segmental level significantly better than bolus-tracking CTPA performed at 120 kVp and comparable to the test bolus cohort performed at 120 kVp. Conclusion: Test bolus contrast administration should be used as an optimal protocol. Performing test bolus CTPA at 100 kVp, as opposed to 120 kVp, significantly reduces dose without compromising PA attenuation in non-obese subjects.

  13. Pathways of low carbon transition at the lowest cost. Pathways of low carbon transition in France at the lowest cost - Dynamics and average abatement costs (MACC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrissin Fabert, Baptiste; Foussard, Alexis

    2016-11-01

    The objective to divide greenhouse gas emissions in France by a factor four by 2050 implies the mobilisation at the lowest cost of the whole set of known sources of reduction of emissions in all economic sectors. In this context, this report is based on a methodology (D-CAM in French for dynamics - average abatement costs, MACC in English for Medium Abatement Cost Curves) which relies on a theoretical business-as-usual scenario, on a database on the potential, rate of development, and cost of mobilizable sources, and on a dynamic model of cost minimisation. The MACC tool is used to explore, for each sector, scenarios of de-carbonation which allow objectives of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to be reached at different time horizons. An aggregated approach of this tool modifies the distribution of efforts of emission reduction between sectors with respect to a sector-based approach. Thus, a macro-assessment of low carbon transition does not reveal any obvious over-cost with respect to the business-as-usual scenario. A second document is a Power Point presentation which contains the same information, curves and graphs

  14. Implementation of the validation testing in MPPG 5.a "Commissioning and QA of treatment planning dose calculations-megavoltage photon and electron beams".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqmin, Dustin J; Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Frigo, Sean P; Smilowitz, Jennifer B

    2017-01-01

    The AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) 5.a provides concise guidance on the commissioning and QA of beam modeling and dose calculation in radiotherapy treatment planning systems. This work discusses the implementation of the validation testing recommended in MPPG 5.a at two institutions. The two institutions worked collaboratively to create a common set of treatment fields and analysis tools to deliver and analyze the validation tests. This included the development of a novel, open-source software tool to compare scanning water tank measurements to 3D DICOM-RT Dose distributions. Dose calculation algorithms in both Pinnacle and Eclipse were tested with MPPG 5.a to validate the modeling of Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. The validation process resulted in more than 200 water tank scans and more than 50 point measurements per institution, each of which was compared to a dose calculation from the institution's treatment planning system (TPS). Overall, the validation testing recommended in MPPG 5.a took approximately 79 person-hours for a machine with four photon and five electron energies for a single TPS. Of the 79 person-hours, 26 person-hours required time on the machine, and the remainder involved preparation and analysis. The basic photon, electron, and heterogeneity correction tests were evaluated with the tolerances in MPPG 5.a, and the tolerances were met for all tests. The MPPG 5.a evaluation criteria were used to assess the small field and IMRT/VMAT validation tests. Both institutions found the use of MPPG 5.a to be a valuable resource during the commissioning process. The validation testing in MPPG 5.a showed the strengths and limitations of the TPS models. In addition, the data collected during the validation testing is useful for routine QA of the TPS, validation of software upgrades, and commissioning of new algorithms. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  15. Better management of cow's milk allergy using a very low dose food challenge test: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yu; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Low dose reactive cow's milk (CM) allergic children are at high risk of persistent CM allergy and a positive oral food challenge (OFC). The present study aimed to evaluate if the results of a very low dose (VL) OFC with these children contributes to better management of CM allergy. We retrospectively reviewed subjects with CM allergy who underwent a VL OFC with 3 mL heated CM and had a previous allergic reaction to management of some low dose reactive CM allergic children to change from complete avoidance to partial intake of CM. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Passive dosing of triclosan in multi-generation tests with copepods - Stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low µg l-1 range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribbenstedt, Anton; Mustajärvi, Lukas; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    to test the applicability of passive dosing to maintain stable concentrations of the organochlorine bacteriocide triclosan in the water phase during a 6-week multi-generation population development test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Triclosan was loaded into silicone (1000 mg), which...... was used as passive dosing phase in the exposure vials. The distribution ratio for triclosan between silicone and water (Dsilicone-water ) was 10466 ± 1927. A population development test was conducted at three concentration levels of triclosan that were measured to be 3-5 µg L(-1) , 7-11 µg L(-1) and 16...... exerted on juvenile development. Progressively lower development index values in the populations exposed to increasing triclosan concentrations suggest developmental retardation. Our results further stress the need for chronic exposure during ecotoxicity testing in chemical risk assessment as even...

  17. QT response after a test dose and during maintenance therapy with AZD1305 in patients with atrial fibrillation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, Kenneth; Bergfeldt, Lennart; Duris, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    AZD1305 is an investigational antiarrhythmic agent that prolongs refractoriness through combined potassium and sodium channel inhibition. This study aimed to explore the utility of a test dose in predicting QT interval corrected according to Fridericia's formula (QTcF) during subsequent maintenance...

  18. Validation of clinical testing for warfarin sensitivity: comparison of CYP2C9-VKORC1 genotyping assays and warfarin-dosing algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michael R; Booker, Jessica K; Evans, James P; McLeod, Howard L; Weck, Karen E

    2009-05-01

    Responses to warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulation therapy are affected by genetic variability in both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Validation of pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin responses includes demonstration of analytical validity of testing platforms and of the clinical validity of testing. We compared four platforms for determining the relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 that are associated with warfarin sensitivity (Third Wave Invader Plus, ParagonDx/Cepheid Smart Cycler, Idaho Technology LightCycler, and AutoGenomics Infiniti). Each method was examined for accuracy, cost, and turnaround time. All genotyping methods demonstrated greater than 95% accuracy for identifying the relevant SNPs (CYP2C9 *2 and *3; VKORC1 -1639 or 1173). The ParagonDx and Idaho Technology assays had the shortest turnaround and hands-on times. The Third Wave assay was readily scalable to higher test volumes but had the longest hands-on time. The AutoGenomics assay interrogated the largest number of SNPs but had the longest turnaround time. Four published warfarin-dosing algorithms (Washington University, UCSF, Louisville, and Newcastle) were compared for accuracy for predicting warfarin dose in a retrospective analysis of a local patient population on long-term, stable warfarin therapy. The predicted doses from both the Washington University and UCSF algorithms demonstrated the best correlation with actual warfarin doses.

  19. A test of high-dose verbenone for stand-level protection of lodgepole and whitebark pine from mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Bentz; S. Kegley; K. Gibson; R. Their

    2005-01-01

    The effcacy of verbenone as a stand-level protectant against mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attacks was tested in lodgepole and whitebark pine stands at five geographically separated sites, including three consecutive years at one site. Forty and 20 high-dose pouches, with a verbenone emission rate up to 50 mg/d per pouch, were spaced in a grid...

  20. Early stage cost-effectiveness analysis of a BRCA1-like test to detect triple negative breast cancers responsive to high dose alkylating chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Retel, Valesca P.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like profile may benefit from high dose alkylating chemotherapy (HDAC). This study examines whether BRCA1-like testing to target effective HDAC in TNBC patients can be more cost-effective than treating all patients with standard

  1. Determination of the source of androgen excess in functionally atypical polycystic ovary syndrome by a short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test and a low-dose ACTH test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Mortensen, Monica; Wroblewski, Kristen; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Ehrmann, David A

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients typically have 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) hyperresponsiveness to GnRH agonist (GnRHa) (PCOS-T). The objective of this study was to determine the source of androgen excess in the one-third of PCOS patients who atypically lack this type of ovarian dysfunction (PCOS-A). Aged-matched PCOS-T (n= 40), PCOS-A (n= 20) and controls (n= 39) were studied prospectively in a General Clinical Research Center. Short (4 h) and long (4-7 day) dexamethasone androgen-suppression tests (SDAST and LDAST, respectively) were compared in subsets of subjects. Responses to SDAST and low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were then evaluated in all. Testosterone post-SDAST correlated significantly with testosterone post-LDAST and 17OHP post-GnRHa (r = 0.671-0.672), indicating that all detect related aspects of ovarian dysfunction. An elevated dehydroepiandrosterone peak in response to ACTH, which defined functional adrenal hyperandrogenism, was similarly prevalent in PCOS-T (27.5%) and PCOS-A (30%) and correlated significantly with baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (r = 0.708). Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism was detected by subnormal testosterone suppression by SDAST in most (92.5%) PCOS-T, but significantly fewer PCOS-A (60%, PPCOS-A, but present in 30% of PCOS-T (P PCOS-A cases with normal testosterone suppression in response to SDAST (5/8) lacked evidence of adrenal hyperandrogenism and were obese. Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism was not demonstrable by SDAST in 40% of PCOS-A. Most of these cases had no evidence of adrenal hyperandrogenism. Obesity may account for most hyperandrogenemic anovulation that lacks a glandular source of excess androgen, and the SDAST seems useful in making this distinction.

  2. A q-Schroedinger algebra, its lowest weight representations and generalized q-deformed heat equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.; Doebner, H.D.; Mrugalla, C.

    1995-12-01

    We give a q-deformation S-perpendicular q of the centrally extended Schroedinger algebra. We construct the lowest weight representations of S-perpendicular q , starting from the Verma modules over S-perpendicular q , finding their singular vectors and factoring the Verma submodules built on the singular vectors. We also give a vector-field realization of S-perpendicular q which provides polynomial realization of the lowest weight representations and an infinite hierarchy of q-difference equations which may be called generalized q-deformed heat equations. We also apply our methods to the on-shell q-Schroedinger algebra proposed by Floreanini and Vinet. (author). 12 refs

  3. Lowest-order constrained variational method for simple many-fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, I.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Wong, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The authors study the potential energy of many-fermion systems calculated by the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV) method of Pandharipande. Two simple two-body interactions are used. For a simple hard-core potential in a dilute Fermi gas, they find that the Huang-Yang exclusion correction can be used to determine a healing distance. The result is close to the older Pandharipande prescription for the healing distance. For a hard core plus attractive exponential potential, the LOCV result agrees closely with the lowest-order separation method of Moszkowski and Scott. They find that the LOCV result has a shallow minimum as a function of the healing distance at the Moszkowski-Scott separation distance. The significance of the absence of a Brueckner dispersion correction in the LOCV result is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Study of a 13-weeks, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose, Toxicity Test of Sweet Bee Venom in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze a 13-week repeated dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV extracted from bee venom and administered in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Male and female 5-week-old SD rats were treated once daily with SBV (high-dosage group: 0.28 mg/kg; medium-dosage group: 0.14 mg/kg; or low-dosage group: 0.07 mg/kg for 13 weeks. Normal saline was administered to the control group in a similar manner (0.2 mL/kg. We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses, hematology and biochemistry tests, and histological observations using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining to identify any abnormalities caused by the SBV treatment. Results:During this study, no mortality was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia and a movement disorder were observed around the area of in all groups that received SBV treatment, with a higher occurrence in rats treated with a higher dosage. Male rats receiving in the high-dosage group showed a significant decrease in weight during the treatment period. Compared to the control group, no significant changes in the ophthalmic parameters, the urine analyses, the complete blood cell count (CBC, and the biochemistry in the groups treated with SBV. Compared to the control group, some changes in organ weights were observed in the medium-and the high-dosage groups, but the low-dosage group showed no significant changes. Histological examination of thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fiber, as well as fibrosis, in both the medium- and the high-dosage groups. Fatty liver change was observed in the periportal area of rats receiving medium and high dosages of SBV. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL of SBV is approximately 0.07 mg/kg in male and female SD rats.

  5. Three-point Green's function of massless QED in position space to lowest order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    The transverse part of the three-point Green's function of massless QED is determined to the lowest order in position space. Taken together with the evaluation of the longitudinal part in Mitra (2008) (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 315401), this gives a relation for QED which is analogous to the star-triangle relation. We relate our result to conformal-invariant three-point functions

  6. N-representability of the Jastrow wave function pair density of the lowest-order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Masahiko

    2017-08-08

    Conditions for the N-representability of the pair density (PD) are needed for the development of the PD functional theory. We derive sufficient conditions for the N-representability of the PD that is calculated from the Jastrow wave function within the lowest order. These conditions are used as the constraints on the correlation function of the Jastrow wave function. A concrete procedure to search the suitable correlation function is also presented.

  7. Chern-Simons field theory of two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a fermion Chern-Simons field theory describing two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level. This theory is constructed with a complete set of states, and the lowest-Landau-level constraint is enforced through a δ functional described by an auxiliary field λ. Unlike the field theory constructed directly with the states in the lowest Landau level, this theory allows one, utilizing the physical picture of open-quote open-quote composite fermion,close-quote close-quote to study the fractional quantum Hall states by mapping them onto certain integer quantum Hall states; but, unlike its application in the unconstrained theory, such a mapping is sensible only when interactions between electrons are present. An open-quote open-quote effective mass,close-quote close-quote which characterizes the scale of low energy excitations in the fractional quantum Hall systems, emerges naturally from our theory. We study a Gaussian effective theory and interpret physically the dressed stationary point equation for λ as an equation for the open-quote open-quote mass renormalization close-quote close-quote of composite fermions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. People In Sub-Saharan Africa Rate Their Health And Health Care Among Lowest In World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Angus S.; Tortora, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans’ perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in sub-Saharan Africa toward health. PMID:25715657

  9. Vertical Distribution and Estimated Doses from Artificial Radionuclides in Soil Samples around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides (241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides (241Am, 57Co, 137Cs, 95Zr, 95Nb, 58Co, and 60Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public. PMID:23469013

  10. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  11. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  12. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  13. Dose reduction in evacuation proctography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, C.; Halligan, S.; Bartram, C.I.; Gupta, R.; Walker, A.E.; Renfrew, I.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to reduce the patient radiation dose from evacuation proctography. Ninety-eight consecutive adult patients referred for proctography to investigate difficult rectal evacuation were studied using a digital imaging system with either a standard digital program for barium examinations, a reduced dose digital program (both with and without additional copper filtration), or Video fluoroscopy. Dose-area products were recorded for each examination and the groups were compared. All four protocols produced technically acceptable examinations. The low-dose program with copper filtration (median dose 382 cGy cm 2 ) and Video fluoroscopy (median dose 705 cGy cm 2 ) were associated with significantly less dose than other groups (p < 0.0001). Patient dose during evacuation proctography can be reduced significantly without compromising the diagnostic quality of the examination. A digital program with added copper filtration conveyed the lowest dose. (orig.)

  14. Uncertainty and variability in updated estimates of potential dose and risk at a US Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Uncertainty and interindividual variability were assessed in estimated doses for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island would be treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Doses were estimated for ingested 137 Cs and 90 Sr, external gamma-exposure, and inhalation+ingestion of 241 Am + 239+240 Pu. Two dietary scenarios were considered: imported foods are available (IA); imported foods are unavailable with only local foods consumed (IUA). After ∼5 y of Bikini residence under either IA or IUA assumptions, upper and lower 95% confidence limits on interindividual variability in calculated dose were estimated to lie within a ∼threefold factor of its in population-average value; upper and lower 95% confidence limits on uncertainty in calculated dose were estimated to lie within a ∼twofold factor of its expected value. For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 y were estimated to be 16 and 52 mSv under IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively. Under the most likely dietary scenario, involving access to imported foods, this analysis indicates that it is most likely that no additional cancer fatalities (above those normally expected) would arise from the increased radiation exposures considered. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Natural and laboratory TT-OSL dose response curves: Testing the lifetime of the TT-OSL signal in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapot, M.S.; Roberts, H.M.; Duller, G.A.T.; Lai, Z.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares natural and laboratory generated thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dose response curves (DRCs) for fine-grain quartz extracts from the Luochuan loess section in central China. Both DRCs saturate at high doses relative to the quartz OSL signal; the natural TT-OSL DRC saturates at about 2200 Gy and laboratory DRCs saturate at about 2700 Gy. However, the natural and laboratory TT-OSL DRCs deviate from one another at circa 150 Gy resulting in TT-OSL equivalent dose underestimation relative to palaeodoses expected from dose rates and independent age control. The lifetime of the TT-OSL signal at 10 °C, calculated from values of trap parameters E and s, is compared against the value for lifetime of the TT-OSL signal in nature at average burial temperature as determined from the age underestimation caused by deviation of the natural and laboratory generated DRCs. These two independent assessments of TT-OSL signal lifetime at Luochuan give similar values, suggesting that laboratory measurements of thermal stability reflect natural burial lifetimes and can potentially be used to correct TT-OSL ages for the difference between natural and laboratory dose response curves. - Highlights: • Natural and laboratory TT-OSL DRCs deviate at ∼150 Gy but saturate at higher doses. • TT-OSL signal lifetime at 10 °C calculated from measured E and s values is ∼180 ka. • TT-OSL signal lifetime at Luochuan estimated from the DRCs' deviation is ∼175 ka. • Natural and laboratory TT-OSL DRC deviation may be caused by low thermal stability. • Laboratory measurements of signal lifetime may be able to correct old TT-OSL ages.

  16. Patch test dose-response study: polysensitized individuals do not express lower elicitation thresholds than single/double-sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Fischer, Louise Arup; Sosted, H

    2009-01-01

    with nickel sulphate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in dilution series. The ratio between the doses eliciting a response in 50% of patients in the two groups was used as the measure for relative sensitivity. RESULTS: The dose-response curves of the polysensitized group...... for MDBGN and PPD were shifted to the right, and for nickel sulphate shifted to the left, compared with the single/double-sensitized group. The relative sensitivity for each of the three allergens and a combined relative sensitivity for all three allergens were not significantly different when comparing...

  17. Dose evaluation using multiple-aliquot quartz OSL: Test of methods and a new protocol for improved accuracy and precision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Singhvi, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    -dose-dependent sensitivity changes during the pre-heat, and fundamental variability in the shapes of quartz OSL (blue-green or blue-light stimulated luminescence) decay forms. A new protocol using a combination of 'elevated temperature IR cleaning' (ETIR) and 'component-specific dose normalisation' (CSDN) has been developed....... CSDN accounts for variability in the OSL decay forms and absorbs such sensitivity changes. A combination of ETIR and CSDN protocol increased palaeodose precision from +/-100% to +/-4% in quartz separates from the fluvially transported sands in the Thar desert. A comparison with palaeodose estimates...

  18. A Monte Carlo-based method to estimate radiation dose from spiral CT: from phantom testing to patient-specific models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarry, G; De Marco, J J; Beifuss, U; Cagnon, C H; McNitt-Gray, M F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and test a method to estimate the relative and absolute absorbed radiation dose from axial and spiral CT scans using a Monte Carlo approach. Initial testing was done in phantoms and preliminary results were obtained from a standard mathematical anthropomorphic model (MIRD V) and voxelized patient data. To accomplish this we have modified a general purpose Monte Carlo transport code (MCNP4B) to simulate the CT x-ray source and movement, and then to calculate absorbed radiation dose in desired objects. The movement of the source in either axial or spiral modes was modelled explicitly while the CT system components were modelled using published information about x-ray spectra as well as information provided by the manufacturer. Simulations were performed for single axial scans using the head and body computed tomography dose index (CTDI) polymethylmethacrylate phantoms at both central and peripheral positions for all available beam energies and slice thicknesses. For comparison, corresponding physical measurements of CTDI in phantom were made with an ion chamber. To obtain absolute dose values, simulations and measurements were performed in air at the scanner isocentre for each beam energy. To extend the verification, the CT scanner model was applied to the MIRD V model and compared with published results using similar technical factors. After verification of the model, the generalized source was simulated and applied to voxelized models of patient anatomy. The simulated and measured absolute dose data in phantom agreed to within 2% for the head phantom and within 4% for the body phantom at 120 and 140 kVp; this extends to 8% for the head and 9% for the body phantom across all available beam energies and positions. For the head phantom, the simulated and measured absolute dose data agree to within 2% across all slice thicknesses at 120 kVp. Our results in the MIRD phantom agree within 11% of all the different organ dose values

  19. Lowest vibrational states of 4He3He+: Non-Born-Oppenheimer calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanke, Monika; Bubin, Sergiy; Kedziera, Dariusz; Molski, Marcin; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2007-01-01

    Very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the first five vibrational states of the 4 He 3 He + molecular ion are reported. The calculations have been performed explicitly including the coupling of the electronic and nuclear motions [i.e., without assuming the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation]. The nonrelativistic non-BO wave functions were used to calculate the α 2 relativistic mass velocity, Darwin, and spin-spin interaction corrections. For the lowest vibrational transition, whose experimental energy is established with high precision, the calculated and the experimental results differ by only 0.16 cm -1

  20. Potential energies for the two lowest 1A' electronic states of H3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Akira; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Iwamoto, Osamu

    1998-11-01

    Potential energies for the two lowest 1 A' states of H 3 + at 701 different spatial geometries are tabulated. These energies have been calculated by the ab initio full configuration interaction method with a (8s6p2d1f) Gaussian type basis set. Features of avoided crossing of two surfaces as well as the potential well in the ground state can be produced by interpolating calculated energies. These ab initio energies are expressed as a function of three internuclear distances in the range from 0.6 to 10.0 bohr, and they are applicable to the molecular dynamics study for the H + + H 2 system. (author)

  1. On dose distribution comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Steve B; Sharp, Greg C; Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross I; Flampouri, Stella; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In radiotherapy practice, one often needs to compare two dose distributions. Especially with the wide clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, software tools for quantitative dose (or fluence) distribution comparison are required for patient-specific quality assurance. Dose distribution comparison is not a trivial task since it has to be performed in both dose and spatial domains in order to be clinically relevant. Each of the existing comparison methods has its own strengths and weaknesses and there is room for improvement. In this work, we developed a general framework for comparing dose distributions. Using a new concept called maximum allowed dose difference (MADD), the comparison in both dose and spatial domains can be performed entirely in the dose domain. Formulae for calculating MADD values for various comparison methods, such as composite analysis and gamma index, have been derived. For convenience in clinical practice, a new measure called normalized dose difference (NDD) has also been proposed, which is the dose difference at a point scaled by the ratio of MADD to the predetermined dose acceptance tolerance. Unlike the simple dose difference test, NDD works in both low and high dose gradient regions because it considers both dose and spatial acceptance tolerances through MADD. The new method has been applied to a test case and a clinical example. It was found that the new method combines the merits of the existing methods (accurate, simple, clinically intuitive and insensitive to dose grid size) and can easily be implemented into any dose/intensity comparison tool

  2. Collection and use of individual behavioral and consumption rate data to improve reconstruction of thyroid doses from nuclear weapons tests in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Bouville, Andre; Land, Charles; Luckyanov, Nick; Simon, Steven L.; Schwerin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Historical behavioral and consumption rate data were collected from residents of Kazakhstan exposed to nuclear weapons testing fallout using a focus group data collection strategy. These data will enable improved thyroid dose estimation in a radiation epidemiological study being carried out the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The study on the relationship of radiation exposure from weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a cohort of 2,994 subjects is now in a stage of improving earlier dose estimates based on individual information collected from a basic questionnaire administered to the study population in 1998. The study subjects of both Kazakh and Russian origin were exposed during childhood to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site between 1949 and 1962. Due to the long time since exposure, a well developed strategy is necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. Limitations of the data collected in 1998 suggested the need to obtain reliable information that is tailored specific to the requirements of the dose reconstruction algorithm and to the evaluation of individual dose uncertainties. Focus group data collection in Kazakhstan in 2007 involved four 8-person focus groups (three of women and one of men) in each of four exposed settlements where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Age-specific data on relevant childhood behaviour, including time spent indoors and consumption of milk and other dairy products from cows, goats, horses, and sheep, were collected from women's groups. Men's focus groups were interviewed about construction materials of houses and schools as well as animal grazing patterns and supplemental feed to animals. Information obtained from the focus groups are being used to derive the settlement-, ethnicity-, age-, and gender-specific (where appropriate) probability density distributions on individual consumption rates of milk and dairy products

  3. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  4. Effect of Bcl-2/Bax gene expression on apoptosis of spermatogenic cells of mouse testes induced by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Wang Chunyan; Lu Zhe; Liu Shunchun; Gong Shouliang

    2003-01-01

    The different kinds of spermatogenic cells were separated using density gradient centrifugation and their apoptosis and Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression were measured with flow cytometry and immunohistochemical method, respectively. The results showed the apoptosis in all kinds of spermatogenic cells induced by low dose radiation (LDR) had a obvious regularity. When the doses were 0.025 and 0.05 Gy, spermatogonia apoptosis was dominant. With the increase of irradiation dose (0.075-0.2 Gy), spermatocytes also showed an apoptotic change, but the apoptotic percentage of spermatogonia was significantly higher than that of spermatocytes. Moreover, the apoptosis of spermatids and spermatozoa scarcely occurred after LDR. Bax protein was primarily expressed in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and the former was significantly higher than that of the latter after LDR. With the increase of irradiation dose, Bax protein expression showed a upgrading tendency, but that of spermatids and spermatozoa scarcely occurred. Bcl-2 protein was primarily expressed in spermatids and spermatozoa, but the Bcl-2 protein expressions of spermatogonia and spermatocytes scarcely occurred after LDR. These results imply that the interacting regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression might be involved in selective apoptosis of spermatogenic cells induced by LDR, which provided an experimental evidence for further exploring the apoptotic mechanism of adaptive response of spermatogenic cells by LDR

  5. The Dose Assessment in the Vault Test Case of Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Drinking Water Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    It is generally accepted that the radionuclides contained in the radioactive wastes will be eventually released and these will be transported to the accessible environment (near-field, far-field, biosphere). Therefore, the long-term safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal should be required by modeling the expected release of radionuclides from the repository, far-field area, and biosphere. Finally, the effective dose rate should be estimated through the released radionuclides. In this study, the radiological dose was evaluated for the reference near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Vaalputs, South Africa, which has been selected as a part of IAEA coordinated research program on improvement of safety assessment methodologies(ISAM). The assessment of radiological dose was performed for drinking water scenario from a well. The release and transport of radionuclides in disposal system were simulated by GoldSim. This approach suggested the time variation of effective dose over long-term period. And the results from this approach were compared with another approach method for the same facility and scenario

  6. The Dose Assessment in the Vault Test Case of Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Drinking Water Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Park, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the radionuclides contained in the radioactive wastes will be eventually released and these will be transported to the accessible environment (near-field, far-field, biosphere). Therefore, the long-term safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal should be required by modeling the expected release of radionuclides from the repository, far-field area, and biosphere. Finally, the effective dose rate should be estimated through the released radionuclides. In this study, the radiological dose was evaluated for the reference near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Vaalputs, South Africa, which has been selected as a part of IAEA coordinated research program on improvement of safety assessment methodologies(ISAM). The assessment of radiological dose was performed for drinking water scenario from a well. The release and transport of radionuclides in disposal system were simulated by GoldSim. This approach suggested the time variation of effective dose over long-term period. And the results from this approach were compared with another approach method for the same facility and scenario

  7. Effects of secondary containment air cleanup system leakage on the accident offsite dose as determined during preop tests of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaes, L.J.; Nass, S.A.; Proctor, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Sequoyah Nuclear Plant has two secondary containments. One is the annular region between the primary containment and the shield building surrounding the primary containment. The second is the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure which is potentially subject to direct airborne radioactivity. Two air cleanup systems are provided to serve these areas. The emergency gas treatment system (EGTS) serves the annulus between the primary containment and the shield building, and the auxiliary building gas treatment system (ABGTS) serves the area inside of the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure. The major function served by these air cleanup systems is that of controlling and processing airborne contamination released in these areas during any accident up to a design basis accident. This is accomplished by (1) creating a negative pressure in the areas served to ensure that no unprocessed air is released to the atmosphere, (2) providing filtration units to process all air exhausted from the secondary containment spaces, and (3) providing a low-leakage enclosure to limit exhaust flows. Offsite dose effects due to secondary containment release rates, bypass leakage, and duct and damper leakages are presented and parameter variations are considered. For the EGTS, a recirculation system, the most important parameter is the total inleakage of the system which causes an increase in both whole body (gamma) and thyroid (iodine) doses. For the ABGTS, a once-through system, the most important paramter is the inleakage which bypasses the filters resulting in an increase in the thyroid dose only. Actual preoperational test data are utilized. Problems encountered during the preop test are summarized. Solutions incorporated to bring the EGTS and ABGTS air cleanup systems within the test acceptance criteria required to meet offsite dose limitations are discussed and the resultant calculated offsite dose is presented

  8. Pinning of fullerene lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge at the interface with standing up copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Irfan, Irfan; Turinske, Alexander J.; Gao, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure evolution of interfaces of fullerene (C 60 ) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and on native silicon oxide has been investigated with ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C 60 was found to be pinned at the interface with CuPc on SiO 2 . A substantial difference in the electron affinity of CuPc on the two substrates was observed as the orientation of CuPc is lying flat on HOPG and standing up on SiO 2 . The ionization potential and electron affinity of C 60 were not affected by the orientation of CuPc due to the spherical symmetry of C 60 molecules. We observed band bending in C 60 on the standing-up orientation of CuPc molecules, while the energy levels of C 60 on the flat lying orientation of CuPc molecules were observed to be flat. - Highlights: ► Orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on ordered graphite and silicon oxide. ► Pinning of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C60 to the Fermi level on CuPc. ► No C60 pinning or band bending was observed on flat laying CuPc. ► Results are useful for organic photovoltaic and organic light emitting diode research.

  9. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  10. Atopy patch tests in young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and controls: dose-response relationship, objective reading, reproducibility and clinical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygum, Anette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants were retested after 6 weeks. Ten of 19 (53%) evaluable patients with atopic dermatitis had at least one positive atopy patch test. However, there was no clear clinical relevance of the atopy patch test results when related to patient history and distribution of dermatitis. Reproducible and dose-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss and erythema, while measurement of capacitance did not distinguish between positive and negative reactions. The results of the present study do not support the routine use of atopy patch tests in the evaluation of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

  11. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Palermo-Neto, J

    2009-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group) sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor (18:1:1) and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight); control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg) increased (P open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P open field test.

  12. Influence of Vehicles Used for Oral Dosing of Test Molecules on the Progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shubhra; Dwivedi, Richa; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of drug-like molecules requires their oral administration to experimental animals using suitable vehicles. We studied the effect of oral dosing with corn oil, carboxymethyl cellulose, dimethyl sulfoxide, and polysorbate-80 on the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Infection was monitored by physical (survival time and body weight) and bacteriological (viable counts in lungs) parameters. Compared with water, corn oil significantly improved both ...

  13. Testing Dose-Dependent Effects of the Nectar Alkaloid Anabasine on Trypanosome Parasite Loads in Adult Bumble Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Winston E; Palmer-Young, Evan C; Leonard, Anne S; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-01-01

    The impact of consuming biologically active compounds is often dose-dependent, where small quantities can be medicinal while larger doses are toxic. The consumption of plant secondary compounds can be toxic to herbivores in large doses, but can also improve survival in parasitized herbivores. In addition, recent studies have found that consuming nectar secondary compounds may decrease parasite loads in pollinators. However, the effect of compound dose on bee survival and parasite loads has not been assessed. To determine how secondary compound consumption affects survival and pathogen load in Bombus impatiens, we manipulated the presence of a common gut parasite, Crithidia bombi, and dietary concentration of anabasine, a nectar alkaloid produced by Nicotiana spp. using four concentrations naturally observed in floral nectar. We hypothesized that increased consumption of secondary compounds at concentrations found in nature would decrease survival of uninfected bees, but improve survival and ameliorate parasite loads in infected bees. We found medicinal effects of anabasine in infected bees; the high-anabasine diet decreased parasite loads and increased the probability of clearing the infection entirely. However, survival time was not affected by any level of anabasine concentration, or by interactive effects of anabasine concentration and infection. Crithidia infection reduced survival time by more than two days, but this effect was not significant. Our results support a medicinal role for anabasine at the highest concentration; moreover, we found no evidence for a survival-related cost of anabasine consumption across the concentration range found in nectar. Our results suggest that consuming anabasine at the higher levels of the natural range could reduce or clear pathogen loads without incurring costs for healthy bees.

  14. Testing Dose-Dependent Effects of the Nectar Alkaloid Anabasine on Trypanosome Parasite Loads in Adult Bumble Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston E Anthony

    Full Text Available The impact of consuming biologically active compounds is often dose-dependent, where small quantities can be medicinal while larger doses are toxic. The consumption of plant secondary compounds can be toxic to herbivores in large doses, but can also improve survival in parasitized herbivores. In addition, recent studies have found that consuming nectar secondary compounds may decrease parasite loads in pollinators. However, the effect of compound dose on bee survival and parasite loads has not been assessed. To determine how secondary compound consumption affects survival and pathogen load in Bombus impatiens, we manipulated the presence of a common gut parasite, Crithidia bombi, and dietary concentration of anabasine, a nectar alkaloid produced by Nicotiana spp. using four concentrations naturally observed in floral nectar. We hypothesized that increased consumption of secondary compounds at concentrations found in nature would decrease survival of uninfected bees, but improve survival and ameliorate parasite loads in infected bees. We found medicinal effects of anabasine in infected bees; the high-anabasine diet decreased parasite loads and increased the probability of clearing the infection entirely. However, survival time was not affected by any level of anabasine concentration, or by interactive effects of anabasine concentration and infection. Crithidia infection reduced survival time by more than two days, but this effect was not significant. Our results support a medicinal role for anabasine at the highest concentration; moreover, we found no evidence for a survival-related cost of anabasine consumption across the concentration range found in nectar. Our results suggest that consuming anabasine at the higher levels of the natural range could reduce or clear pathogen loads without incurring costs for healthy bees.

  15. Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guixiang; Cao, Te; Fu, Hui; Ni, Leyi; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Song, Xin; Xie, Ping; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Strategies of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilisation are among the factors determining plant distribution. It has been argued that submersed macrophytes adapted to lower light environments are more efficient in maintaining C metabolic homeostasis due to their conservative C strategy and ability to balance C shortage. We studied how depth distributions of 12 submersed macrophytes in Lake Erhai, China, were linked to their C-N metabolic strategies when facing acute [Formula: see text] dosing.[Formula: see text] dosing changed C-N metabolism significantly by decreasing the soluble carbohydrate (SC) content and increasing the [Formula: see text]-N and free amino acid (FAA) content of plant tissues.The proportional changes in SC contents in the leaves and FAA contents in the stems induced by [Formula: see text] dosing were closely correlated (positive for SC and negative for FAA) with the colonising water depths of the plants in Lake Erhai, the plants adapted to lower light regimes being more efficient in maintaining SC and FAA homeostasis.These results indicate that conservative carbohydrate metabolism of submersed macrophytes allowed the plants to colonise greater water depths in eutrophic lakes, where low light availability in the water column diminishes carbohydrate production by the plants.

  16. Radioactive contamination on land and external radiation dose in residential areas around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a review of our studies since 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takada, J.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on our studies about radioactive contamination on land and external radiation doses to residents by the thermoluminescence technique, performed around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan since 1995. Surface and core soil samples have been collected from different sites around the SNTS and long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs and Pu isotopes were measured. Unlike 137 Cs, the inventories of 239,240 Pu for most of the sites we visited were several to a few hundred times higher than those (40-120 Bq/m 2 ) for global fallout observed in Japan. Pu in soil around the SNTS was found to be tightly incorporated into various sizes of particles formed in the course of the condensation of melting materials, such as vaporized soil and bomb components. Lower atomic ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu (0.03-0.05) for samples indicated that the nuclear tests conducted at the SNTS resulted in a relatively large amount of close-in fallout Pu even in the outside regions. External radiation doses to residents near the SNTS were evaluated by the thermoluminescence technique for brick samples collected from several settlements: Dolon, Semipalatinsk and Ust'-Kamenogorsk cities. The external radiation doses to population were estimated to be up to 1.0 Gy for resident in Dolon settlement. The doses in other two cities were evaluated to be several hundreds mGy. The present doses in Ust'-Kamenogorsk City were consistent with the human acute health effect on the citizens just after 1956 fallout. (author)

  17. Vitamin E can improve behavioral tests impairment, cell loss, and dendrite changes in rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by acceptable daily dose of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Jahangir, Mahboubeh; Hosseini, Leila; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2018-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in about 6000 sugar-free products. Aspartame consumption could be associated with various neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspartame onmedial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) as well as neuroprotective effects of vitamin E. The rats were divided into seven groups, including distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), and low (acceptable daily dose) and high doses of aspartame (40 and 200mg/kg/day) respectively, with or without vitamin E consumption, for 8 weeks. Behavioral tests were recorded and the brain was prepared for stereological assessments. Novel objects test and eight-arm radial maze showed impairmentoflong- and short-termmemoriesin aspartame groups. Besides, mPFC volume, infralimbic volume, neurons number, glial cells number, dendrites length per neuron,and number of spines per dendrite length were decreased by 7-61% in the rats treated with aspartame. However, neurons' number, glial cells number, and rats' performance in eight-arm radial mazes were improved by concomitant consumption of vitamin E and aspartame. Yet, the mPFC volume and infralimbic cortex were protected only in the rats receiving the low dose of aspartame+vitamin E. On the other hand, dendrites length, spines number,and novel object recognition were not protected by treatment with vitamin E+aspartame. The acceptable daily dose or higher doses of aspartame could induce memory impairments and cortical cells loss in mPFC. However, vitamin E could ameliorate some of these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B.; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10 3 mm 2 . The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. -- Highlights: •Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than 100 children. •We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar deposited surface area. •Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric Oxide tests were performed. •Negative link was found between changes in pulmonary functions and individual doses. •A child's lifestyle appeared to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes. -- The respiratory health effects of daily airborne particle dose on children through personal monitoring

  19. Direct observation of the lowest indirect exciton state in the bulk of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.; Habenicht, C.; Ahmad, M.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.

    2018-01-01

    We combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy and first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) to identify the lowest indirect exciton state in the in-plane charge response of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals. This remarkably sharp mode forms a narrow pocket with a dispersion bandwidth of ˜100 meV and, as we argue based on a comparison to our DFT calculations, is predominantly polarized along the Γ K direction of the hexagonal Brillouin zone. Our data support the recent report by Cassabois et al. [Nat. Photonics 10, 262 (2016), 10.1038/nphoton.2015.277] who indirectly inferred the existence of this mode from the photoluminescence signal, thereby establishing h-BN as an indirect semiconductor.

  20. The advantageous way of getting the lowest uncertainty values of elemental concentration by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Em.; Manea, I.; Manu, V.; Barbos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Analysts in a NAA accredited laboratory bear full responsibility for the report on the material they investigated. The document has to contain the most accurate values that can be, as confidence to further use of the material on the market. To this end, analysts are expected to use the standardization method providing the lowest element concentration uncertainty and carefully quantify every factor that may contribute to the validity of the results. The question is which method is the most advantageous one from this perspective and in what conditions. This paper presents a comparison between results of the elemental analysis of a CRM sample by INAA, as obtained through two standardization methods and three calculations variants applied to the same experimental data. The results were discussed in terms of uncertainty and of the E n statistical criterion recommended for inter-comparison exercises. The influence of the nuclear reaction and decay data was studied in several cases. (author)

  1. Change in Body Mass Index Associated With Lowest Mortality in Denmark, 1976-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-05-10

    Research has shown a U-shaped pattern in the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality. Although average BMI has increased over time in most countries, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors may also be decreasing among obese individuals over time. Thus, the BMI associated with lowest all-cause mortality may have changed. To determine whether the BMI value that is associated with the lowest all-cause mortality has increased in the general population over a period of 3 decades. Three cohorts from the same general population enrolled at different times: the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978 (n = 13,704) and 1991-1994 (n = 9482) and the Copenhagen General Population Study in 2003-2013 (n = 97,362). All participants were followed up from inclusion in the studies to November 2014, emigration, or death, whichever came first. For observational studies, BMI was modeled using splines and in categories defined by the World Health Organization. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Main outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were cause-specific mortality. The number of deaths during follow-up was 10,624 in the 1976-1978 cohort (78% cumulative mortality; mortality rate [MR], 30/1000 person-years [95%CI, 20-46]), 5025 in the 1991-1994 cohort (53%; MR, 16/1000 person-years [95%CI, 9-30]), and 5580 in the 2003-2013 cohort (6%;MR, 4/1000 person-years [95%CI, 1-10]). Except for cancer mortality, the association of BMI with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other mortality was curvilinear (U-shaped). The BMI associated with the lowest all-cause mortality increased by 3.3 from the 1976-1978 cohort compared with the 2003-2013 cohort. [table: see text] The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality for BMI of 30 or more vs BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 were 1.31 (95%CI, 1.23-1.39;MR, 46/1000 person-years [95%CI, 32-66] vs 28/1000 person-years [95%CI, 18-45]) in the 1976

  2. Lowest-order average effect of turbulence on atmospheric profiles derived from radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, V.R.; Haugstad, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Turbulence in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres causes changes in angles of refraction of radio waves used in occultation experiments. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles, and ionospheric electron concentration profiles, derived from radio occultation measurements of Doppler frequency contain errors due to such angular offsets. The lowest-order average errors are derived from a geometrical-optics treatment of the radio-wave phase advance caused by the addition of uniform turbulence to an initially homogeneous medium. It is concluded that the average profile errors are small and that precise Doppler frequency measurements at two or more wavelengths could be used to help determine characteristics of the turbulence, as well as accuracy limits and possible correction terms for the profiles. However, a more detailed study of both frequency and intensity characteristics in radio and optical occultation measurements of turbulent planetary atmospheres and ionospheres is required to realize the full potential of such measurements

  3. Preparations for an optical access to the lowest nuclear excitation in {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The isomeric lowest excited nuclear level of {sup 229}Th has been indirectly measured to be 7.6±0.5 eV (163±11 nm). In order to improve the accuracy as prerequisite of an all-optical control, {sup 229m}Th is populated via a 2% decay branch in the α decay of {sup 233}U. The Thorium ions are extracted and cooled with the help of a buffer gas stopping cell and an RFQ-cooler. In order to suppress accompanying α decay chain products other than {sup 229}Th, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is used, performance and extraction efficiency measurements were performed. Following the QMS, the Thorium isomers will be collected on a 50 μm micro electrode. The decay of these isomers can then be detected using deep UV optics, presently in the phase of preparation and adjustment. Newest results are presented.

  4. Rotational structure of the five lowest frequency fundamental vibrational states of dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Drumel, Marie-Aline Martin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the successful extended analysis of the high-frequency (200-700 GHz) part of the gas phase (sub)mm-wave spectra of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The spectrum was recorded at 100 kHz resolution using a solid state subTHz spectrometer. The five lowest energy fundamental vibrational states of DMSO with frequencies below 400 cm-1 were observed as sidebands along with the main 0←0 band. Neglecting the internal rotation of methyls, our rotational Hamiltonian reproduced the spectrum to the subMHz accuracy. We have found that the asymmetric bending state ν23 is the only low frequency fundamental vibrational state with the "anomalous" rotational structure uncovered in Cuisset et al. [1]. dmsomw 2013-09-04 15:03

  5. Projection-operator calculations of the lowest e--He resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, A.; Bhatia, A.K.; Junker, B.R.; Temkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Results for the lowest (Schulz) autodetaching state of He - [1s(2s) 2 ] are reported. The calculation utilizes the full projection-operator formalism as explicitly developed by Temkin and Bhatia [Phys. Rev. A 31, 1259 (1985)]. Eigenvalues, scrE = , are calculated using projection operators Q depending on increasingly elaborate target wave functions going up to a 10-term Hylleraas-form, and a configuration-interaction total wave function Phi of 40 configurations. Results are well converged, but our best value is --0.13 eV above the experimental position at 19.37 eV. We conclude that the shift (Δ) in the Feshbach formalism gives a large contribution (relative to the width) to the position E/sub r/ ( = scrE+Δ). An appendix is devoted to the evaluation of the most complicated type of three-center integral involved in the calculation

  6. THE LOWEST-MASS MEMBER OF THE β PICTORIS MOVING GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2010-01-01

    We present spectral and kinematic evidence that 2MASS J06085283-2753583 (M8.5γ) is a member of the β Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG, age ∼12 Myr), making it the latest-type known member of this young, nearby association. We confirm low-gravity spectral morphology at both medium and high resolutions in the near-infrared. We present new radial velocity and proper motion measurements, and use these to calculate galactic location and space motion consistent with other high-probability members of the BPMG. The predicted mass range consistent with the object's effective temperature, surface gravity, spectral type, and age is 15-35 M Jup , placing 2MASS 0608-27 well within the brown dwarf mass regime. 2MASS J06085283-2753583 is thus confidently added to the short list of very low mass, intermediate age benchmark objects that inform ongoing searches for the lowest-mass members of nearby young associations.

  7. Determination of the lowest critical power levels of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Long, Vu Hai; Binh, Do Quang; Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Vien, Luong Ba; Vinh, Le Vinh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental methods for determining critical states of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor containing an extraneous neutron source induced by gamma ray reactions on beryllium in the reactor. The lowest critical power levels are measured at various moments after the reactor is shut down following 100 hours of its continuous operation. Th power levels vary from (0.5-1.2) x 10{sup -4} of P{sub n}, i.e. (25-60)W to (1.1-1.6) x 10{sup -5} of P{sub n}, i.e. (5.5-8)W at corresponding times of 4 days to 13 days after the reactor is shut down. However the critical power must be chosen greater than 500 W to sustain the steady criticality of the reactor for a long time. (author). 3 refs. 4 figs. 1 tab.

  8. The 1st Nuclear Test in the former USSR of 29 August 1949: Comparison of individual dose estimates by modeling with EPR retrospective dosimetry and luminescence retrospective dosimetry data for Dolon village, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.F.; Hoshi, M.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Bailiff, I.K.; Zhumadilov, K.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Argembaeva, R.; Tsyb, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Three methods of individual dose reconstruction, namely dose calculations based on the available archive data and on the individual questioning of inhabitants, EPR dosimetry in human tooth enamel, and retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) with quartz inclusions in the bricks were applied for assessment of accumulated external doses in Dolon village (Kazakhstan), which is one of the most affected settlements as a result of 29.08.1949 nuclear test at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Dose values obtained by EPR and RLD methods were compared with computed dose values. The available data on soil contamination with 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in the vicinity and inside Dolon village were used for interpretation of the results of comparison. Based on a calculated value of 2260 mGy for the dose in the air along the central axis of the trace located NW of Dolon, the doses in the air over whole village and for the south-eastern part of the village containing the RLD sampling points were estimated as 775±40 and 645±70mGy, respectively, the latter correlates well with the RLD dose value of 460±92mGy. The 'upper level' of the mean 'shielding and behavior' factor of dose reduction for inhabitants of Dolon village was estimated as 0.28±0.07; this was performed by comparing the individual EPR tooth enamel doses with the calculated mean dose for the settlement. The individual dose estimates by EPR dosimetry were compared with individual dose values obtained by modeling. Uncertainties of the calculated individual doses were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The individual dose estimates by EPR method are lower in comparison with mean computed doses and with RLD data, but they are in a good consistency with computed individual dose values in Dolon village based on the results of individual questioning with account of individual 'shielding and behavior' factors

  9. The 1st Nuclear Test in the former USSR of 29 August 1949: Comparison of individual dose estimates by modeling with EPR retrospective dosimetry and luminescence retrospective dosimetry data for Dolon village, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, V.F. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: mrrc@obninsk.ru; Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, A.I. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Bailiff, I.K. [Luminescence Dating and Dosimetry Laboratory, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DHI 3LE (United Kingdom); Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Skvortsov, V.G. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Argembaeva, R. [Scientifical Research Institute for Radiation Medicine, 258, Gagarina Str., P.B. 49, Semipalatinsk 490026 (Kazakhstan); Tsyb, A.F. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    Three methods of individual dose reconstruction, namely dose calculations based on the available archive data and on the individual questioning of inhabitants, EPR dosimetry in human tooth enamel, and retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) with quartz inclusions in the bricks were applied for assessment of accumulated external doses in Dolon village (Kazakhstan), which is one of the most affected settlements as a result of 29.08.1949 nuclear test at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Dose values obtained by EPR and RLD methods were compared with computed dose values. The available data on soil contamination with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in the vicinity and inside Dolon village were used for interpretation of the results of comparison. Based on a calculated value of 2260 mGy for the dose in the air along the central axis of the trace located NW of Dolon, the doses in the air over whole village and for the south-eastern part of the village containing the RLD sampling points were estimated as 775{+-}40 and 645{+-}70mGy, respectively, the latter correlates well with the RLD dose value of 460{+-}92mGy. The 'upper level' of the mean 'shielding and behavior' factor of dose reduction for inhabitants of Dolon village was estimated as 0.28{+-}0.07; this was performed by comparing the individual EPR tooth enamel doses with the calculated mean dose for the settlement. The individual dose estimates by EPR dosimetry were compared with individual dose values obtained by modeling. Uncertainties of the calculated individual doses were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The individual dose estimates by EPR method are lower in comparison with mean computed doses and with RLD data, but they are in a good consistency with computed individual dose values in Dolon village based on the results of individual questioning with account of individual 'shielding and behavior' factors.

  10. All Electron ab initio Investigations of the Three Lowest Lying Electronic States of the RuC Molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    The three lowest-lying electronic states of RuC, (1)Sigma(+), (3)Delta, and (1)Delta, have been investigated by performing all-electron ab initio multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including relativistic corrections....... The electronic ground state is derived as (1)Sigma(+) with the spectroscopic constants r(e) = 1.616 Angstrom and omega(e) = 1085 cm(-1). The lowest-lying excited state, (3)Delta, has r(e) = 1.632 Angstrom, omega(e) = 1063 cm(-1), and T-e = 912 cm(-1). These results are consistent with recent spectroscopic values....... The chemical bonds in all three lowest-lying states are triple bonds composed of one sigma and two pi bonds. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Sleep Duration Associated with the Lowest Risk of Depression/Anxiety in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojio, Yasutaka; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-08-01

    To investigate sleep duration associated with the least depression/anxiety in adolescence. Grades 7-12 Japanese students (n = 18,250, aged 12-18 y) from public junior high/high schools were studied in a cross-sectional design. Due to missing/implausible data, 15,637 out of the 18,250 students were statistically analyzed. Relationship between sleep duration on school nights and depression/anxiety, measured using self-report questionnaires, including the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), were studied by sex and grade, controlling for bedtime regularity. When sleep duration was classified by 1-h intervals, rate of adolescents with a GHQ-12 score ≥ 4 was the lowest in males and females who slept 8.5-9.5 h and 7.5-8.5 h, respectively, (designated "references") in both grades 7-9 and 10-12. The rate was significantly higher than the references in both males and females who slept Sleep duration for the minimum GHQ-12 score was estimated to be 8.8 and 8.5 h in males, and 8.0 and 7.5 h in females, in grades 7-9 and 10-12, respectively, using the General Additive Model. Sleep duration of ≥ 8.5 h on school nights may be associated with the lowest risk of depression/anxiety on average in male adolescents. Although the duration was estimated to be shorter in females (≥ 7.5 h) than males, this should be interpreted carefully. Most adolescents may currently be sleeping less than the optimal duration. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1491. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis; Rose bengale marque. Epreuve dynamique a doses tracantes; sa valeur dans le diagnostic des icteres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C; Desgrez, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service Frederic Joliot, Service de Biologie, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Caroli, J [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Delaloye, B [Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1961-07-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [French] Les auteurs font un rappel historique de l'etude differentielle des icteres grace aux pentes semi-logarithmiques d'epuration de la bromesulfonephtaleine et grace au temps d'apparition de cette substance dans la bile recueillie par tubage duodenal. Ils resument egalement les travaux etrangers qui tendent a substituer a cette epreuve le comptage externe au niveau de la tete, du foie et de l'abdomen, apres injection intraveineuse d'une dose tracante de rose bengale marque. Ils precisent les conditions techniques de cette epreuve et rapportent une experience qui confirme sa valeur, son exactitude et l'interet de son utilisation dans les differentes categories d'icteres par hepatite et par obstruction. (auteur)

  13. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis; Rose bengale marque. Epreuve dynamique a doses tracantes; sa valeur dans le diagnostic des icteres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service Frederic Joliot, Service de Biologie, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Caroli, J. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Delaloye, B. [Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1961-07-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [French] Les auteurs font un rappel historique de l'etude differentielle des icteres grace aux pentes semi-logarithmiques d'epuration de la bromesulfonephtaleine et grace au temps d'apparition de cette substance dans la bile recueillie par tubage duodenal. Ils resument egalement les travaux etrangers qui tendent a substituer a cette epreuve le comptage externe au niveau de la tete, du foie et de l'abdomen, apres injection intraveineuse d'une dose tracante de rose bengale marque. Ils precisent les conditions techniques de cette epreuve et rapportent une experience qui confirme sa valeur, son exactitude et l'interet de son utilisation dans les differentes categories d'icteres par hepatite et par obstruction. (auteur)

  14. The dose-response relationship between the patch test and ROAT and the potential use for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Voelund, Aage; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2009-01-01

    Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is common and can be prevented. The relationship between thresholds for patch tests and the repeated open application test (ROAT) is unclear. It would be desirable if patch test and ROAT data from already sensitized individuals could be used in prevention. ...

  15. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  16. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  17. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products

  18. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  19. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...... for well-bleached samples; (ii) dose recovery experiments do not seem to be a very reliable tool to estimate the accuracy of a SAR measurement protocol for age determination....

  20. Absorbed dose in CT. Comparison by CT dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Andou, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Few reports have discussed the absorbed dose on CT units with increased scanning capacity even with the current widespread adoption of multi-slice CT units. To compare and investigate the dose indexes among CT units, we measured the absorbed dose on CT units operating in Nagano Prefecture Japan. The measurements showed proportionality between phantom absorbed dose and the exposured mAs values in conventional scanning operation. Further, the measurements showed that the absorbed dose in the center of the phantom differed by about 2.1-fold between the highest and lowest levels on individual CT units. Within a single company, multi-slice CT units of the same company gave absorbed doses of about 1.3 to 1.5 times those of conventional single-slice CT units under the same exposured conditions of conventional scanning. When the scanning pitch was reduced in helical scanning, the absorbed dose at the center of the phantom increased. (author)

  1. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 1: external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Konstantin; Shinkarev, Sergey; Ilyin, Leonid; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Simon, Steven L.; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A short analysis of all 111 atmospheric events conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in 1949-1962 with regard to significant off-site exposure (more than 5 mSv of the effective dose during the first year after the explosion) has been made. The analytical method used to assess external exposure to the residents living in settlements near the STS is described. This method makes used of the archival data on the radiological conditions, including the measurements of exposure rate. Special attention was given to the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages exposed mainly as a result of the first test, detonated on August 29, 1949. For the residents of those settlements born in 1935, the dose estimates calculated according to the analytical method, are compared to those derived from the thermoluminescence measurements in bricks and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements in teeth. The methods described in this paper were used for external dose assessment for the cohort members at an initial stage of an ongoing epidemiological study conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Recently revised methods and estimates of external exposure for that cohort are given in another paper (Simon et al.) in this conference. (author)

  2. Effects of co-treatment with mirtazapine and low doses of risperidone on immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of mirtazapine (MIR) and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on immobility time in the forced swimming test in male C57BL/6J mice. Fluoxetine (FLU) was used as a reference drug. MIR (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and FLU (5 and 10 mg/kg), or risperidone in low doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) given alone did not change the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test. Joint administration of MIR (5 and 10 mg/kg) or FLU (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like activity in the forced swimming test. WAY100636 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) inhibited, while yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of MIR and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined administration of antidepressants and risperidone failed to enhance the locomotor activity of mice. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of MIR and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A)-, and α(2)-adrenergic receptors may play a role in this effect.

  3. Protection of testes during radiation treatment by irregular and focused fields of 25 MV x-rays: in vivo evaluation of the absorbed dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcie, S; Costa, A; Lagrange, J L

    1995-01-01

    During therapeutic irradiation of subdiaphragmatic nodal areas, the gonads are exposed to radiation from the primary beam and scatter. Since young patients have a high probability of cure, limiting exposure to the gonads should be pursued. Primary shielding may be supplemented by additional shields in order to reduce this exposure. Testes dose measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) in 37 patients treated with 25 MV x-rays on subdiaphragmatic nodal areas. Each patient was measured 5 times while under treatment. In 27 cases, an additional shield was placed to protect the testes. For 9 cases, comparative measurements were performed on a phantom with and without additional shielding. The median dose received by gonads was respectively 3% with additional shielding (27 cases) and 5.8% without additional shielding (10 cases, p = 0.001 Mann Whitney test). In the 6 patients for whom the measurements were compared, the differences were also statistically significant (p = 0.028 paired Wilcoxon test). This study confirmed the benefit of additional gonadal shielding during subdiaphragmatic radiation treatment with 25 MV x-rays.

  4. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  5. Synchrotron far-infrared spectroscopy of the two lowest fundamental modes of 1,1-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy; Thompson, Christopher D.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Plathe, Ruth; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Barros, Joanna; McNaughton, Don

    2013-08-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum (50-600 cm-1) of 1,1-difluoroethane was recorded using the high-resolution infrared AILES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. A ro-vibrational assignment was performed on the lowest wavenumber, low intensity 181 0 and 171 0 modes, yielding band centres of 224.241903 (10) cm-1 and 384.252538 (13) cm-1, respectively. A total of 965 and 2031 FIR transitions were assigned to the 181 0 and 171 0 fundamentals, respectively. Previously measured pure rotational transitions from the upper states were included into the respective fits to yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. The 182 1 hot band was observed within the fundamental band, with 369 FIR transitions assigned and co-fitted with the fundamental to give a band centre of 431.956502 (39) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The 182 0 overtone was observed with 586 transitions assigned and fitted to give a band centre of 431.952763 (23) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The difference in energy is attributed to a torsional splitting of 0.003740 (45) cm-1 in the ν 18 = 2 state. Two hot bands originating from the ν 18 = 1 and ν 17 = 1 states were observed within the 171 0 fundamental.

  6. Operator product expansion of the lowest weight CPOs in N=4 SYM4 at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Frolov, Sergey; Petkou, Anastasios C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the 4-point functions of the lowest weight chiral primary operators O I ∼tr(phi (i phi j) ) in N=4 SYM 4 at strong coupling and show that their structure is compatible with the predictions of AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, all power-singular terms in the 4-point functions exactly coincide with the contributions coming from the conformal blocks of the CPOs, the R -symmetry current and the stress tensor. Operators dual to string modes decouple at strong coupling. We compute the anomalous dimensions and the leading 1/N 2 corrections to the normalization constants of the 2- and 3-point functions of scalar and vector double-trace operators with approximate dimensions 4 and 5, respectively. We also find that the conformal dimensions of certain towers of double-trace operators in the 105 , 84 and 175 irreps are non-renormalized. We show that, despite the absence of a non-renormalization theorem for the double-trace operator in the 20 irrep, its anomalous dimension vanishes. As by-products of our investigation, we derive explicit expressions for the conformal block of the stress tensor, and for the conformal partial wave amplitudes of a conserved current and of a stress tensor in d dimensions

  7. Preparations for an optical access to the lowest nuclear excitation in {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The isomeric lowest excited nuclear level of {sup 229}Th has been indirectly measured to be 7.6±0.5 eV (163±11 nm). This low transition energy, compared to energies typically involved in nuclear processes, would allow for the application of laser-spectroscopic methods. Also considering the isomeric lifetime of the excited state (estimated to be 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} s), which leads to an extremely sharp linewidth of Δω/ω ∝ 10{sup -20}, the isomer becomes a strong candidate for a nuclear-based frequency standard. In order to directly detect the isomeric ground-state decay and improve the accuracy of its energy as a prerequisite for an all-optical control, {sup 229m}Th is populated via a 2% decay branch in the α decay of {sup 233}U. The Thorium ions are extracted and cooled with the help of a buffer-gas stopping cell and an RFQ-cooler. In order to suppress accompanying α decay chain products other than {sup 229}Th, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is used. Following the QMS, the Thorium isomeric decay is expected to be detectable. Internal conversion as well as photonic decay is probed via different detection techniques. Latest results are presented.

  8. Failures of TDDFT in describing the lowest intramolecular charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroanilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.J.; Sauer, S.P.A.; Mikkelsen, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the failure of Time{Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with the CAM{B3LYP exchange{correlation (xc) functional coupled to the Polarizable Embedding (PE) scheme (PE-CAM-B3LYP) in reproducing the solvatochromic shift of the lowest intense charge{transfer excitation in para...... the electric dipole moments in the gas phase and for 100 solvent congurations. We find that CAM-B3LYP overestimates the amount of charge separation inherent in the ground state and TDDFT/CAM-B3LYP drastically underestimates this amount in the excited charge-transfer state. As the errors in the solvatochromatic...... to benchmark results of TDDFT calculations with CAM-B3LYP for intramolecular charge{transfer excitations in molecular systems similar to pNA against higher{level ab initio wave function methods, like, e.g., CCSD, prior to their use. Using the calculated change in dipole moment upon excitation as a measure...

  9. Behavioral heterogeneity affects individual performances in experimental and computational lowest unique integer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    This study computationally examines (1) how the behaviors of subjects are represented, (2) whether the classification of subjects is related to the scale of the game, and (3) what kind of behavioral models are successful in small-sized lowest unique integer games (LUIGs). In a LUIG, N (>= 3) players submit a positive integer up to M(> 1) and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. For this purpose, the author considers four LUIGs with N = {3, 4} and M = {3, 4} and uses the behavioral data obtained in the laboratory experiment by Yamada and Hanaki (Physica A 463, pp. 88–102, 2016). For computational experiments, the author calibrates the parameters of typical learning models for each subject and then pursues round robin competitions. The main findings are in the following: First, the subjects who played not differently from the mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) prediction tended to made use of not only their choices but also the game outcomes. Meanwhile those who deviated from the MSE prediction took care of only their choices as the complexity of the game increased. Second, the heterogeneity of player strategies depends on both the number of players (N) and the upper limit (M). Third, when groups consist of different agents like in the earlier laboratory experiment, sticking behavior is quite effective to win.

  10. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  11. Solar Cycle 24 UV Radiation: Lowest in more than 6 Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Klaus-Peter; Mittag, Marco; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Using spectra taken by the robotic telescope ``TIGRE'' (see Fig. 1 and the TIGRE-poster presented by Schmitt et al. at this conference) and its mid-resolution (R=20,000) HEROS double-channel echelle spectrograph, we present our measurements of the solar Ca II H&K chromospheric emission. Using moonlight, we applied the calibration and definition of the Mt. Wilson S-index , which allows a direct comparison with historic observations, reaching back to the early 1960's. At the same time, coming from the same EUV emitting plage regions, the Ca II H&K emission is a good proxy for the latter, which is of interest as a forcing factor in climate models. Our measurements probe the weak, asynchronous activity cycle 24 around its 2nd maximum during the past winter. Our S-values suggest that this maximum is the lowest in chromospheric emission since at least 60 years -- following the longest and deepest minimum since a century. Our observations suggest a similarly long-term (on a scale of decades) low of the far-UV radiation, which should be considered by the next generation of climate models. The current, very interesting activity behaviour calls for a concerted effort on long-term solar monitoring.

  12. Behavioral Heterogeneity Affects Individual Performances in Experimental and Computational Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study computationally examines (1 how the behaviors of subjects are represented, (2 whether the classification of subjects is related to the scale of the game, and (3 what kind of behavioral models are successful in small-sized lowest unique integer games (LUIGs. In a LUIG, N (≥ 3 players submit a positive integer up to M(> 1 and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. For this purpose, the author considers four LUIGs with N = {3, 4} and M = {3, 4} and uses the behavioral data obtained in the laboratory experiment by Yamada and Hanaki [1]. For computational experiments, the author calibrates the parameters of typical learning models for each subject and then pursues round robin competitions. The main findings are in the following: First, the subjects who played not differently from the mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE prediction tended to made use of not only their choices but also the game outcomes. Meanwhile those who deviated from the MSE prediction took care of only their choices as the complexity of the game increased. Second, the heterogeneity of player strategies depends on both the number of players (N and the upper limit (M. Third, when groups consist of different agents like in the earlier laboratory experiment, sticking behavior is quite effective to win.

  13. Validity of the lowest-Landau-level approximation for rotating Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Alexis G.; Feder, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy spectrum for an ultracold rotating Bose gas in a harmonic trap is calculated exactly for small systems, allowing the atoms to occupy several Landau levels. Two vortexlike states and two strongly correlated states (the Pfaffian and Laughlin) are considered in detail. In particular, their critical rotation frequencies and energy gaps are determined as a function of particle number, interaction strength, and the number of Landau levels occupied (up to three). For the vortexlike states, the lowest-Landau-level (LLL) approximation is justified only if the interaction strength decreases with the number of particles; nevertheless, the constant of proportionality increases rapidly with the angular momentum per particle. For the strongly correlated states, however, the interaction strength can increase with particle number without violating the LLL condition. The results suggest that, in large systems, the Pfaffian and Laughlin states might be stabilized at rotation frequencies below the centrifugal limit for sufficiently large interaction strengths, with energy gaps a significant fraction of the trap energy

  14. NO NEUTRON STAR COMPANION TO THE LOWEST MASS SDSS WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Camilo, Fernando; Heinke, Craig; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott F.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Freire, Paulo; Kleinman, Scot J.; Liebert, James W.

    2009-01-01

    SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 (hereafter J0917+4638) is the lowest surface gravity white dwarf (WD) currently known, with log g = 5.55 ± 0.05 (M ∼ 0.17 M sun ). Such low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to originate in binaries that evolve into WD/WD or WD/neutron star (NS) systems. An optical search for J0917+4638's companion showed that it must be a compact object with a mass ≥0.28 M sun . Here we report on Green Bank Telescope 820 MHz and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of J0917+4638 intended to uncover a potential NS companion to the LMWD. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our radio data. Our X-ray observation also failed to detect X-ray emission from J0917+4638's companion, while we would have detected any of the millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. We conclude that the companion is almost certainly another WD.

  15. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Mochtar, Monique H; van Golde, Ron J T; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing does not improve live birth rates or reduce costs as compared to a standard FSH dose. In IVF or ICSI, ovarian reserve testing is often used to adjust the FSH dose in order to normalize ovarian response and optimize live birth rates. However, no robust evidence for the (cost-)effectiveness of this practice exists. Between May 2011 and May 2014 we performed a multicentre prospective cohort study with two embedded RCTs in women scheduled for IVF/ICSI. Based on the AFC, women entered into one of the two RCTs (RCT1: AFC 15) or the cohort (AFC 11-15). The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy achieved within 18 months after randomization resulting in a live birth (delivery of at least one live foetus after 24 weeks of gestation). Data from the cohort with weight 0.5 were combined with both RCTs in order to conduct a strategy analysis. Potential half-integer numbers were rounded up. Differences in costs and effects between the two treatment strategies were compared by bootstrapping. In both RCTs women were randomized to an individualized (RCT1:450/225 IU, RCT2:100 IU) or standard FSH dose (150 IU). Women in the cohort all received the standard dose (150 IU). Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was measured to assess AMH post-hoc as a biomarker to individualize treatment. For RCT1 dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles based on pre-specified criteria in the standard group only. For RCT2 dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles in both groups. Both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the strategies were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. We included 1515 women, of whom 483 (31.9%) entered the cohort, 511 (33.7%) RCT1 and 521 (34.4%) RCT2. Live births occurred in 420/747 (56.3%) women

  16. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  17. The behavior of rats irradiated with a sublethal single dose of γ-rays on the region of head in open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Kereskenyiova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work was to establish the effects of the irradiation of head in laboratory rats on some forms of naturalistic behavior in the open field test. During a 5-day control period behavioral parameters reflecting motory and explorative activity, as well as anxiousness of animals (6 parameters in total) were followed daily in 20 male Sprague-Dowley rats in an open field test lasting 5 minutes. Fourteen animals were repeatedly tested after irradiation of head with a single dose of 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results showed statistically significant depression of motory and explorative activities during the first 3 days after irradiation in comparison with the control period. The anxiousness of animals was decreased, too. Novelty habituation was observed only in non-irradiated animals. Based on these results it is possible to presume, that the applied dose of ionizing radiation was able to influence the brain centers involved in control of naturalistic behavioral functions connected with response to new environment in rats. (authors)

  18. TRACING THE LOWEST PROPELLER LINE IN MAGELLANIC HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Yang, Jun; Fingerman, Samuel, E-mail: dimitris_christodoulou@uml.edu, E-mail: silas_laycock@uml.edu, E-mail: jun_yang@uml.edu, E-mail: fingerman.samuel@gmail.com [Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have combined the published observations of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds with a new processing of the complete archival data sets from the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories in an attempt to trace the lowest propeller line below which accretion to polar caps is inhibited by the centrifugal force and the pulsations from the most weakly magnetized pulsars cease. Previously published data reveal that some of the faster-spinning pulsars with spin periods of P {sub S} < 12 s, detected at relatively low X-ray luminosities L {sub X} , appear to define such a line in the P {sub S} – L {sub X} diagram, characterized by a magnetic moment of μ = 3 × 10{sup 29} G cm{sup 3}. This value implies the presence of surface magnetic fields of B ≥ 3 × 10{sup 11} G in the compact objects of this class. Only a few quiescent HMXBs are found below the propeller line: LXP4.40 and SXP4.78, for which XMM-Newton and Chandra null detections respectively placed firm upper limits on their X-ray fluxes in deep quiescence; and A0538-66, for which many sub-Eddington detections have never measured any pulsations. On the other hand, the data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives show clearly that, during routine observation cycles, several sources have been detected below the propeller line in extremely faint, nonpulsating states that can be understood as the result of weak magnetospheric emission when accretion to the poles is centrifugally stalled or severely diminished. We also pay attention to the anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J010043.1-721134 that was reported in HMXB surveys. Its pulsations and locations near and above the propeller line indicate that this pulsar could be accreting from a fossil disk.

  19. An isotope dependent study of acetone in its lowest excited triplet state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrtz, M.; Brauchle, C.; Voitlaender, J.

    1984-01-01

    The lowest excited triplet state T 1 of acetone-h 6 and acetone-d 6 was investigated with a pulsed dye laser equipped ODMR spectrometer. Acetone is found to be bent in T 1 and the out-of-plane distortion angle is estimated to be approx.= 38 0 . The observed zero-field splitting (ZFS) is surprisingly small. Both the spin-spin and the spin-orbit (SO) contribution to the ZFS are evaluated. The SO tensor contribution is calculated from a correlation between the deuterium effects on the ZFS parameters and the population rates. The sub-level selective kinetics of the acetone T 1 is largely determined by the mixing of the x- and z-level characteristics owing to magnetic axis rotation caused by the excited state out-of-plane distortion. Considerable deuterium effects are observed on the kinetic data and on the microwave transition frequencies. In all cases the spin-specific isotope effects (due to the promoting modes) and the global effects (due to the Franck-Condon factors) are specified. For the population rates and the SO contribution to ZFS, the inverse global isotope effects (deuterium factor > 1) was found for the first time. Based on the isotope dependence of the rates, the mechanisms of (vibrationally induced) SO coupling in acetone are discussed. It is concluded that non-adiabatic contributions have to be taken into account for the smallest population rate only, but that otherwise the adiabatic SO coupling mechanisms by far dominates in the acetone photophysics. (author)

  20. HH 1158: THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY EXTERNALLY IRRADIATED HERBIG–HARO JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.; Whelan, E. T.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a new externally irradiated Herbig–Haro (HH) jet, HH 1158, within ∼2 pc of the massive OB type stars in the σ Orionis cluster. At an L bol  ∼ 0.1 L ⊙ , HH 1158 is the lowest luminosity irradiated HH jet identified to date in any cluster. Results from the analysis of high-resolution optical spectra indicate asymmetries in the brightness, morphology, electron density, velocity, and the mass outflow rates for the blue and redshifted lobes. We constrain the position angle of the HH 1158 jet at 102° ± 5°. The mass outflow rate and the mean accretion rate for HH 1158 using multiple diagnostics are estimated to be (5.2 ± 2.6) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 , respectively. The properties for HH 1158 are notably similar to the externally irradiated HH 444–HH 447 jets previously identified in σ Orionis. In particular, the morphology is such that the weaker jet beam is tilted toward the massive stars, indicating a higher extent of photo-evaporation. The high value for the Hα/[S ii] ratio is also consistent with the ratios measured in other irradiated jets, including HH 444–HH 447. The presence of an extended collimated jet that is bipolar and the evidence of shocked emission knots make HH 1158 the first unique case of irradiated HH jets at the very low-luminosity end, and provides an opportunity to learn the physical properties of very faint HH jet sources

  1. Transfer of Sr-90 in the environment to human bone, and radiation dose due to the atomic bomb and weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sakurai, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The major source of artificial radioactivities in Japan has been the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Some results obtained for activities of Sr-90 in bone, particulary in Japanese, are mentioned, including trends in levels, distribution in bone, transfer from diet to bone and absorbed doses. Some litterature data on pathways of Sr-90 from environment to man are referred to, that is on contribution of different foods to the ingestion intake and transfer of Sr-90 from soil to crops. Recent topics of radioecological studies on soil-plant relationships are shortly introduced

  2. Overview of the Capstone Depleted Uranium Study of Aerosols from Impact with Armored Vehicles: Test Setup and Aerosol Generation, Characterization, and Application in Assessing Dose and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Guilmette, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study was conducted to generate data about DU aerosols generated during the perforation of armored combat vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, and to apply the data in assessments of human health risks to personnel exposed to these aerosols, primarily through inhalation, during the 1991 Gulf War or in future military operations. The Capstone study consisted of two components: (1) generating, sampling and characterizing DU aerosols by firing at and perforating combat vehicles and (2) applying the source-term quantities and characteristics of the aerosols to the evaluation of doses and risks. This paper reviews the background of the study including the bases for the study, previous reviews of DU particles and health assessments from DU used by the U.S. military, the objectives of the study components, the participants and oversight teams, and the types of exposures it was intended to evaluate. It then discusses exposure scenarios used in the dose and risk assessment and provides an overview of how the field tests and dose and risk assessments were conducted

  3. Quantitative relations between beta-gamma mixed-field dosimeter responses and dose-equivalent conversion factors according to the testing standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.P.

    1982-08-01

    The conventional two-element personnel dosimeters, usually having two thick TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry) ribbons, are used extensively for radiation protection dosimetry. Many of these dosimeters are used for the measurement of beta and gamma radiation doses received in mixed beta-gamma fields. Severe limitations exist, however, on the relative magnitudes and energies of these fields that may be measured simultaneously. Moreover, due to a well-known energy dependence of these dosimeters, particularly for the beta-radiations, systematic errors will occur whenever the differences in workplaces and calibration radiation energies exist. A simple mathematical approach is presented to estimate the deep and shallow dose equivalent values at different energies for such dosimeters. The formulae correlate the dosimeter responses and dose equivalent conversion factors at different energies by taking into account the guidelines of the adopted ANSI Standard N13.11 and the dosimetry practices followed by most dosimeter processors. This standard is to be used in a mandatory testing program in the United States

  4. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  5. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at

  7. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  8. ON THE BINARY FREQUENCY OF THE LOWEST MASS MEMBERS OF THE PLEIADES WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey of 11 of the lowest mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades known (25–40 M Jup ). These objects represent the predecessors to T dwarfs in the field. Using a semi-empirical binary point-spread function (PSF)-fitting technique, we are able to probe to 0.″ 03 (0.75 pixel), better than 2x the WFC3/UVIS diffraction limit. We did not find any companions to our targets. From extensive testing of our PSF-fitting method on simulated binaries, we compute detection limits which rule out companions to our targets with mass ratios of ≳0.7 and separations ≳4 AU. Thus, our survey is the first to attain the high angular resolution needed to resolve brown dwarf binaries in the Pleiades at separations that are most common in the field population. We constrain the binary frequency over this range of separation and mass ratio of 25–40 M Jup Pleiades brown dwarfs to be <11% for 1σ (<26% at 2σ). This binary frequency is consistent with both younger and older brown dwarfs in this mass range

  9. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-07-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (microg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r=0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r=0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA.

  10. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (μg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r = 0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r = 0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA

  11. Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the effect of high- and standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GIFT (Genotype Information and Functional Testing) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew J; Murray, Sarah S; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Lillie, Elizabeth; Smith, Erin N; Tisch, Rebecca L; Schork, Nicholas J; Teirstein, Paul S; Topol, Eric J

    2012-05-29

    This study sought to evaluate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the pharmacodynamic effect of high- or standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There is a lack of prospective, multicenter data regarding the effect of different genetic variants on clopidogrel pharmacodynamics over time in patients undergoing PCI. The GRAVITAS (Gauging Responsiveness with A VerifyNow assay-Impact on Thrombosis And Safety) trial screened patients with platelet function testing after PCI and randomly assigned those with high on-treatment reactivity (OTR) to either high- or standard-dose clopidogrel; a cohort of patients without high OTR were also followed. DNA samples obtained from 1,028 patients were genotyped for 41 SNPs in 17 genes related to platelet reactivity. After adjusting for clinical characteristics, the associations between the SNPs and OTR using linear regression were evaluated. CYP2C19*2 was significantly associated with OTR at 12 to 24 h (R(2) = 0.07, p = 2.2 × 10(-15)), 30 days (R(2) = 0.10, p = 1.3 × 10(-7)), and 6 months after PCI (R(2) = 0.07, p = 1.9 × 10(-11)), whereas PON1, ABCB1 3435 C→T, and other candidate SNPs were not. Carriers of 1 and 2 reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles were significantly more likely to display persistently high OTR at 30 days and 6 months, irrespective of treatment assignment. The portion of the risk of persistently high OTR at 30 days attributable to reduced-function CYP2C19 allele carriage was 5.2% in the patients randomly assigned to high-dose clopidogrel. CYP2C19, but not PON1 or ABCB1, is a significant determinant of the pharmacodynamic effects of clopidogrel, both early and late after PCI. In patients with high OTR identified by platelet function testing, the CYP2C19 genotype provides limited incremental information regarding the risk of persistently high reactivity with clopidogrel 150-mg maintenance dosing. (Genotype Information and Functional Testing Study [GIFT]; NCT

  12. [Epidural anaesthesia: Simulated intravascular test dose with S(+) ketamine, lidocaine and adrenaline. A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, R; Errando, C L; Soriano-Bru, J L

    2015-02-01

    The use of a test dose in epidural anaesthesia is a safety recommendation. However specificity and sensitivity of the drugs used with this indication have been not conclusive. The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the adverse effects of a simulated intravascular test dose of adrenaline, lidocaine and S(+)-ketamine. A prospective, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study was designed. ASA I patients scheduled for elective surgery were included. These were randomized to the following study groups: S(+)-ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (S+K group), 5% lidocaine 1.5 mg.kg-1 (L5% group), adrenaline 15μg (ADR group), and physiological saline 3 ml (SF group; control group). An evaluation was made during the first 15 minutes after the study drug was administered. Variables including heart rate (HR) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP and dBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SpO2 were recorded at 0 min (baseline) and at 2, 5, 8, 10 and 15 minutes after drug injection. An increase of at least 20 beats per minute (bpm) in relation to the baseline measurement was considered a positive result, as was an increase sBP >15 mmHg. The clinical effects described as related to iv injection of the study drugs recorded were: sedation-hypnosis, dizziness, nystagmus, metallic taste perception, perioral or facial paresthesias, tinnitus, as well as any other effect the patients mentioned. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as was the percent increase in the parameters in order to see if these were clinically useful. A total of 80 patients, 20 per group, were included. The sBP, dBP, and MAP were significantly raised at the 2, 5, 8 and 10 minutes measurements in the S(+)K group compared to the rest of the groups (Padrenaline at the scheduled doses showed low sensitivity and specificity as a simulated iv epidural test dose. S(+)-ketamine could be a feasible marker after accidental iv injection during epidural anaesthesia or analgesia

  13. RED DWARF DYNAMO RAISES PUZZLE OVER INTERIORS OF LOWEST-MASS STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered surprising evidence that powerful magnetic fields might exist around the lowest mass stars in the universe, which are near the threshold of stellar burning processes. 'New theories will have to be developed to explain how these strong fields are produced, since conventional models predict that these low mass red dwarfs should have very weak or no magnetic fields,' says Dr. Jeffrey Linsky of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colorado. 'The Hubble observations provide clear evidence that very low mass red dwarf stars must have some form of dynamo to amplify their magnetic fields.' His conclusions are based upon Hubble's detection of a high-temperature outburst, called a flare, on the surface of the extremely small, cool red dwarf star Van Biesbroeck 10 (VB10) also known as Gliese 752B. Stellar flares are caused by intense, twisted magnetic fields that accelerate and contain gasses which are much hotter than a star's surface. Explosive flares are common on the Sun and expected for stars that have internal structures similar to our Sun's. Stars as small as VB10 are predicted to have a simpler internal structure than that of the Sun and so are not expected to generate the electric currents required for magnetic fields that drive flares. Besides leading to a clearer understanding of the interior structure of the smallest red dwarf stars known, these unexpected results might possibly shed light on brown dwarf stars. A brown dwarf is a long-sought class of astronomical object that is too small to shine like a star through nuclear fusion processes, but is too large to be considered a planet. 'Since VB10 is nearly a brown dwarf, it is likely brown dwarfs also have strong magnetic fields,' says Linsky. 'Additional Hubble searches for flares are needed to confirm this prediction.' A QUARTER-MILLION DEGREE TORCH The star VB10 and its companion star Gliese 752A make up a binary system located 19 light

  14. Clinical doses of citalopram or reboxetine differentially modulate passive and active behaviors of female Wistar rats with high or low immobility time in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Serrano, Ana Gisela; Vila-Luna, María Leonor; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando José; Heredia-López, Francisco José; Góngora-Alfaro, José Luis; Pineda, Juan Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of immobility time (IT) to antidepressant-drugs differs in rats expressing high or low motor activity during the forced swimming test (FST). However, whether this heterogeneity is expressed after the administration of the most selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs, respectively) is unknown. We compared the influence of either the SSRI citalopram or the SNRI reboxetine with the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on two subgroups of female Wistar rats expressing high IT (HI; at or above the mean value) or low IT (LI; below the mean) during the initial 5 min of the first session of the FST. None of the tested drugs increased motor activity in the open field test. When vehicle was applied to either HI or LI rats, IT increased in the second session of the FST. This increment concurred with a simultaneous climbing time (CT) decrement. When amitriptyline (15 mg/kg) was tested the CT increased for both HI and LI rats. This increment was accompanied by an IT decrement in HI and LI rats. Reboxetine (0.16 or 1 mg/kg) precluded IT and CT changes in both HI and LI rats and produced a swimming time reduction. Citalopram (0.4, 1, and 3 mg/kg) essentially mimicked the influence of reboxetine on the IT and CT in LI rats, as well as in HI rats, but in the latter case only at 3 mg/kg. Yet, at the dose of 10 mg/kg citalopram lacked this effect in both subgroups. No differences were detected when the IT of LI rats was evaluated with citalopram (3 mg/kg) during estrus or diestrus stage. These results show that clinical doses of citalopram produced an antidepressant-like effect selectively in LI rats, while amitriptyline or reboxetine produced this effect in both LI and HI animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Lowest Spin and Parity Levels on Two Particle System for Odd-oddNuclei 60Co and 46K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardhani, VIS; Siagian, Toga

    2000-01-01

    For obtaining the lowest spin and parity levels of odd-odd nuclei, theanalyzing of the nuclei 60 Co and 46 K has been done using delta forcemodel. The calculation is done by theoretically and compared with experiment.To get a result optimally, the data analyzed using least square method. It isshown that the lowest spin and parity level from calculation result and theexperiment result are similar. (author)

  16. A Comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) Software Dose-Rate Contour Plots to a Sample of Local Fallout Data From Test Detonations in the Continental United States, 1945 - 1962

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chancellor, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) software dose-rate contour plots to a sample of local nuclear fallout data from test detonations in the continental United States, 1945 - 1962, is performed...

  17. The hormonal and radiological evaluation of adrenal glands, and the determination of the usefulness of low dose ACTH test in patients with renal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Z; Keleştimur, F; Durak, A C; Utaş, C; Büyükberber, M; Düşünsel, R; Kurtoğlu, S; Poyrazoglu, M H

    2001-03-01

    Amyloidosis is a multisystem disease which may cause organ loss. Renal involvement is the most common clinical problem in amyloidosis, however involvement of endocrin organs is possible. In this study to assess adrenocortical function and to evaluate the usefulness of low dose ACTH test in patients with renal amyloidosis, we determined cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesteron (17-OHP) and 11-deoxycortisol (11-DOC) responses to both 1 microg and 250 microg Synacthen. We also determined the size of adrenal glands radiologically by using computerized tomography. Twenty one patients with renal amyloidosis and 16 healthy subjects for hormonal evaluation, and 20 patients with renal amyloidosis and 22 healthy subjects for radiologic evaluation were included in the study. In four patients (19%) peak serum cortisol levels following stimulation with the low dose of Synacthen were less than 20 microg/dL (550 nmol/L). Two of them had also subnormal cortisol response to the 250 microg Synacthen stimulation test. Basal and stimulated levels of 11-DOC were lower than those of control values (p=0.000 and p<0.01 respectively). The mean 11-DOC responses to stimulation with 1 microg Synacthen were also significantly lower than the values obtained after the simulation with 250 microg Synacthen (p<0.01 and p=0.000). Cortisol responses to the stimulation with 250 microg Synacthen were also lower than the control responses (p<0.05). 17-OHP responses were similar to the control values in both tests. In the radiological evaluation the mean maximum width of right adrenal glands and the mean anterior and maximum width of left adrenal glands were significantly greater in the patient group (p<0.01). In conclusion, adrenal involvement and adrenal insufficiency is common in amyloidosis. Low 11-DOC levels in amyloidosis is a new finding and further detailed studies is required to explain its cause.

  18. Safety, immunogenicity and dose ranging of a new Vi-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: randomized clinical testing in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Damme, Pierre; Kafeja, Froukje; Anemona, Alessandra; Basile, Venere; Hilbert, Anne Katrin; De Coster, Ilse; Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Qasim Khan, Rana M; Marchetti, Elisa; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B; Podda, Audino

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM₁₉₇) for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ in European adults. Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM₁₉₇ or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen), a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen) with the polysaccharide vaccine. All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM₁₉₇ induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM₁₉₇ formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship. Vi-CRM₁₉₇ did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123941 NCT01193907.

  19. Safety, immunogenicity and dose ranging of a new Vi-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: randomized clinical testing in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre van Damme

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM₁₉₇ for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ in European adults.Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM₁₉₇ or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen, a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen with the polysaccharide vaccine.All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM₁₉₇ induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM₁₉₇ formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship.Vi-CRM₁₉₇ did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123941 NCT01193907.

  20. Indexes of carbohydrate exchange (CE) and results of toleration test to glucose after effect of low dose of ionizing radiation in late periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The indexes of tolerance test to glucose and values of generalized criterion (GC) being information index of CE system status were determined for 100 liquidators of Chernobyl accident with purpose of study of carbohydrate exchange (CE) status. Analysis of these mean values was carried out according to participation data in liquidation works, exposition duration, rate of radioactive contamination of zone, absorbed dose of external irradiation and age of examined persons. Contribution of each studied components of radiation factor on CE status is estimated. It is determined that both the absorbed dose and the exposition duration are main factors influencing on CE. In examined group there were 32 men with disorders of CE , 20 of them (GC=18.33±0.48) were placed to group of higher risk, 9 men have high tolerance of organism to glucose (GC=32.84±1.37) and 3 men have diabetes of II type (GC=68.6±2.16). Frequency of cases of liquidators' of Chernobyl accident CE disorders allows to made conclusion that ills have dis-function of endocrine section of pancreas

  1. International cooperative effort to establish ASTM [American Society for Testing and Materials] standards for the measurement of radiation dose for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1987-01-01

    A task group has been formed within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifically to develop standards for measuring radiation dose for food processing. The task group, which has 78 members, including 16 from Europe, consists of a broad cross section of food industry, government, regulatory, manufacturing, and university interests. The group is working on seven standards; three specifically for food irradiation applications, and four for using specific dosimeter types for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable methods of accomplishing the required irradiation treatment of food and other products, and will be available for adoption by regulatory agencies in food irradiation protocols. 1 tab

  2. Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazki, Adi; Weintraub, Zalman; Reich, Dan; Gershon, Edith; Leshem, Micah

    2007-04-01

    Forty-one children aged 10.5 +/- 0.2 years (range, 8.0-15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 +/- 36.6 g (range, 765-1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = -0.445, P clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

  3. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Jijun, E-mail: zhaojj@dlut.edu.cn [College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Ruifeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  4. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in the Lowest Excited State of a Pentacene–Fullerene Complex: Implications for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joseph, Saju

    2017-10-02

    We characterize the dynamic nature of the lowest excited state in a pentacene/C60 complex on the femtosecond time scale, via a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory. We analyze the correlations between the molecular vibrations of the complex and the oscillations in the electron-transfer character of its lowest excited state, which point to vibration-induced coherences between the (pentacene-based) local-excitation (LE) state and the complex charge-transfer (CT) state. We discuss the implications of our results on this model system for the exciton-dissociation process in organic solar cells.

  5. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON): a prespecified analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess the effect of screening with increasing screening intervals on lung cancer mortality. In this prespecified analysis, we aimed to assess screening test performance, and the epidemiological, radiological, and clinical characteristics of interval cancers in NELSON trial participants assigned to the screening group. Eligible participants in the NELSON trial were those aged 50-75 years, who had smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day for more than 25 years or ten or more cigarettes for more than 30 years, and were still smoking or had quit less than 10 years ago. We included all participants assigned to the screening group who had attended at least one round of screening. Screening test results were based on volumetry using a two-step approach. Initially, screening test results were classified as negative, indeterminate, or positive based on nodule presence and volume. Subsequently, participants with an initial indeterminate result underwent follow-up screening to classify their final screening test result as negative or positive, based on nodule volume doubling time. We obtained information about all lung cancer diagnoses made during the first three rounds of screening, plus an additional 2 years of follow-up from the national cancer registry. We determined epidemiological, radiological, participant, and tumour characteristics by reassessing medical files, screening CTs, and clinical CTs. The NELSON trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl, number ISRCTN63545820. 15,822 participants were enrolled in the NELSON trial, of whom 7915 were assigned to low-dose CT screening with increasing interval between screens, and 7907 to no screening. We included 7155 participants in our study, with

  6. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95 PFU, 10(1.26 PFU, 10(2.15 PFU, or 10(3.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17% robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5 of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7 of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25% than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%. Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  7. Design and testing of a phantom and instrumented gynecological applicator based on GaN dosimeter for use in high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiral, P.; Ribouton, J.; Jalade, P. [Service de Physique Médicale et Radioprotection, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Bénite F-69495 (France); Wang, R.; Galvan, J.-M.; Lu, G.-N.; Pittet, P., E-mail: patrick.pittet@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, University Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, INL UMR5270, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Rivoire, A.; Gindraux, L. [DOSILAB, 66 Boulevard Niels Bohr, Villeurbanne F-69100 (France)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) is widely used to treat gynecologic, anal, prostate, head, neck, and breast cancers. These treatments are typically administered in large dose per fraction (>5 Gy) and with high-gradient-dose-distributions, with serious consequences in case of a treatment delivery error (e.g., on dwell position and dwell time). Thus, quality assurance (QA) or quality control (QC) should be systematically and independently implemented. This paper describes the design and testing of a phantom and an instrumented gynecological applicator for pretreatment QA and in vivo QC, respectively. Methods: The authors have designed a HDR-BT phantom equipped with four GaN-based dosimeters. The authors have also instrumented a commercial multichannel HDR-BT gynecological applicator by rigid incorporation of four GaN-based dosimeters in four channels. Specific methods based on the four GaN dosimeter responses are proposed for accurate determination of dwell time and dwell position inside phantom or applicator. The phantom and the applicator have been tested for HDR-BT QA in routine over two different periods: 29 and 15 days, respectively. Measurements in dwell position and time are compared to the treatment plan. A modified position–time gamma index is used to monitor the quality of treatment delivery. Results: The HDR-BT phantom and the instrumented applicator have been used to determine more than 900 dwell positions over the different testing periods. The errors between the planned and measured dwell positions are 0.11 ± 0.70 mm (1σ) and 0.01 ± 0.42 mm (1σ), with the phantom and the applicator, respectively. The dwell time errors for these positions do not exhibit significant bias, with a standard deviation of less than 100 ms for both systems. The modified position–time gamma index sets a threshold, determining whether the treatment run passes or fails. The error detectability of their systems has been evaluated through tests on

  8. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI : A multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Mochtar, Monique H.; van Golde, Ron J. T.; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Torrance, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing

  9. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Mochtar, Monique H.; van Golde, Ron J. T.; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Torrance, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing

  10. Non-linear dose-response of aluminium hydroxide adjuvant particles: Selective low dose neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crépeaux, Guillemette; Eidi, Housam; David, Marie-Odile; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Tzavara, Eleni; Giros, Bruno; Authier, François-Jérôme; Exley, Christopher; Shaw, Christopher A.; Cadusseau, Josette

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel ® ), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain. The present study aimed at evaluating mouse brain function and Al concentration 180 days after injection of various doses of Alhydrogel ® (200, 400 and 800 μg Al/kg of body weight) in the tibialis anterior muscle in adult female CD1 mice. Cognitive and motor performances were assessed by 8 validated tests, microglial activation by Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, and Al level by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. An unusual neuro-toxicological pattern limited to a low dose of Alhydrogel ® was observed. Neurobehavioural changes, including decreased activity levels and altered anxiety-like behaviour, were observed compared to controls in animals exposed to 200 μg Al/kg but not at 400 and 800 μg Al/kg. Consistently, microglial number appeared increased in the ventral forebrain of the 200 μg Al/kg group. Cerebral Al levels were selectively increased in animals exposed to the lowest dose, while muscle granulomas had almost Completely disappeared at 6 months in these animals. We conclude that Alhydrogel ® injected at low dose in mouse muscle may selectively induce long-term Al cerebral accumulation and neurotoxic effects. To explain this unexpected result, an avenue that could be explored in the future relates to the adjuvant size since the injected suspensions corresponding to the lowest dose

  11. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pohlmann, Karl F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  12. Total solar eclipse of 16 February 1980 and the vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters in the lowest 200M

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Vertical profiles of air temperature, wind and humidity at Raichur (16 degrees 12'N and 77 degrees 21'E) in the lowest 200m of the atmosphere are presented for the period 15-18 February 1980. The effect of the total solar eclipse, on 16 February...

  13. Lowest-order corrections to the RPA polarizability and GW self-energy of a semiconducting wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de H.J.; Ummels, R.T.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; van Haeringen, W.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of the addition of lowest-order vertex and self-consistency corrections to the RPA polarizability and the GW self-energy for a semiconducting wire. It is found that, when starting from a local density approximation zeroth-order Green function and systematically including these

  14. Time-resolved resonance raman spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene in the lowest excited singlet state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, Niels-Henrik; Langkilde, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrwn of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene in its lowest excited S1 state excited in resonance with the S1 → Sn absorption band at 650 nm in non-polar solvents is reported. Three vibrational bands at 1572, 1481 and 1165 cm−1 are observed. A possible assignment of the the 1481 cm−...

  15. Motivated for Leisure in the Future: A Person-Centred Longitudinal Study in the Lowest Level of Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200 12-13 year old students attending the lowest level…

  16. Neo-adjuvant radiotherapy focused by Cyberknife in the breast cancer: phase one test of Cyberneo dose escalation; Radiotherapie neoadjuvante focalisee par Cyberknife dans le cancer du sein: essai de phase I d'escalade de dose Cyberneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondiau, P.Y.; Courdi, A.; Lallemand, M.; Peyrote, I.; Chapellier, C.; Ferrero, J.M

    2007-11-15

    The principal evaluation criterion is the maximum tolerated dose ( limiting dose if toxicity {>=} grade 3, recommended if toxicity {<=} 2). The deep cutaneous toxicity is evaluated by two independent observers by colorimetry, macro photographs and video capillaroscopy. The secondary evaluation criteria are the easiness of surgery, the therapeutical effect evaluated on the surgery piece (Sataloff classification) and the measurement of the quality of life. (N.C.)

  17. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Spiral CT and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, H.; Schibany, N.; Ba-Ssalamah, A.; Czerny, C.; Hojreh, A.; Kainberger, F.; Krestan, C.; Kudler, H.; Noebauer, I.; Nowotny, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies in the USA and Europe state that computed tomography (CT) scans compromise only 3-5% of all radiological exams, but they contribute 35-45% of total radiation dose to the patient population. These studies lead to concern by several public authorities. Basis of CT-dose measurements is the computed tomography dose index (CTDI), which was established 1981. Nowadays there are several modifications of the CTDI values, which may lead to confusion. It is suggested to use the standardized CTDI-100 w. value together with the dose length product in all CT-examinations. These values should be printed on all CT-images and allows an evaluation of the individualized patient dose. Nowadays, radiologist's aim must be to work at the lowest maximal diagnostic acceptable signal to noise ratio. To decrease radiation dose radiologist should use low kV and mA, but high pitches. Newly developed CT-dose-reduction soft-wares and filters should be installed in all CT-machines. We should critically compare the average dose used for a specific examination with the reference dose used in this country and/or Europe. Greater differences should caution the radiologist. Finally, we as radiologists must check very carefully all indications and recommend alternative imaging methods. But we have also to teach our customers--patients and medical doctors who are non-radiologists--that a 'good' image is not that which show all possible information, but that which visualize 'only' the diagnostic necessary information

  19. First clinical tests using a liquid-filled electronic portal imaging device and a convolution model for the verification of the midplane dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, R.; Herk, M. van; Uiterwaal, H.; Mijnheer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recently, algorithms have been developed to derive the patient dose from portal dose measurements using a liquid-filled electronic portal imaging device. These algorithms have already been validated for several phantom geometries irradiated under clinical conditions. It is the aim of the present study to investigate the applicability of a liquid-filled electronic portal imaging device in combination with these algorithms for two-dimensional midplane dose verification in clinical practice. Measurements and methods: Portal dose images were obtained during several patient treatments under routine clinical conditions. Measurements were performed to verify the midplane dose during radiotherapy of larynx cancer with 4 MV beams, breast and lung cancer with 8 MV beams and prostate cancer with both 8 and 18 MV beams. Midplane doses, determined from portal dose measurements and analyzed with our algorithms, were compared with midplane doses calculated with our three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system (TPS). Results: For the larynx treatment the measured 2D midplane dose agreed within 2.0% with TPS calculations in most parts of the field. Larger differences were found in a small region below the skin due to the absence of electron equilibrium, which is not taken into account in our portal dose analysis. For breast irradiations the measured midplane dose showed a homogeneous distribution in the AP direction in the axial plane, while high dose regions were observed in the cranial and caudal part of the breast. Portal dose measurements and TPS calculations agreed within 2.5% for most of the prostate and lung irradiations. For a few of the prostate and lung treatments larger local differences were found due to differences between the actual patient anatomy and the planning CT data, e.g. as a result of variable gas filling in the rectum and anatomical changes in the lung. Conclusions: Portal dose measurements with a liquid-filled electronic portal

  20. Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail Immersion Test and Formalin-induced Pain in Wistar Rats: Possible Modulatory Role of Cobalt (II) Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A H; Suleiman, I; Muhammed, H

    2017-03-06

    Lead (Pb) is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level. In this study, the possible modulatory role of cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) on low level Pb exposure on tail immersion test and formalin induced pain was investigated. Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes (weight 150g to 200g) were used. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 5) and administered Pb (5mg/kg), Pb (5mg/kg) + CoCl2 (50mg/kg) and CoCl2 (50mg/kg) orally for twenty-eight days. The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control. In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups when compared to control. This work suggested that exposure to 5mg/kg Pb for twenty-eight days do not significantly impair reaction time in tail immersion test and pain score in formalin induced pain in Wistar rats. Also, administration of 50mg/kg CoCl2 do not improve performance of the animals in the experiments.

  1. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, J.

    1995-12-31

    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs.

  3. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs

  4. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ozeki@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  5. Computer simulation of 2D grain growth using a cellular automata model based on the lowest energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yizhu; Ding Hanlin; Liu Liufa; Shin, Keesam

    2006-01-01

    The morphology, topology and kinetics of normal grain growth in two-dimension were studied by computer simulation using a cellular automata (Canada) model based on the lowest energy principle. The thermodynamic energy that follows Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics has been introduced into this model for the calculation of energy change. The transition that can reduce the system energy to the lowest level is chosen to occur when there is more than one possible transition direction. The simulation results show that the kinetics of normal grain growth follows the Burke equation with the growth exponent m = 2. The analysis of topology further indicates that normal grain growth can be simulated fairly well by the present CA model. The vanishing of grains with different number of sides is discussed in the simulation

  6. Lowest excited-state impurity binding energy in InGaN/GaN parabolic QWW: magnetic field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddou El Ghazi; Anouar Jorio; Izeddine Zorkani

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on the lowest excited-state binding energy of hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN parabolic transversal-section quantum-well wire (PQWW) using the finite-difference method within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model. The calculations are performed within the framework of the effective mass approximation. A cylindrical QWW effective radius is taken into account to describe the lateral confinement strength. The numerical results show that: (i) the probability density is the largest on a circularity whose radius is the effective radius and (ii) the lowest excited-state binding energy is the largest when an impurity is located on this circularity while it starts to decrease as the impurity is away from the circularity. (author)

  7. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  8. Low-dose effect of developmental bisphenol A exposure on sperm count and behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2016-01-01

    /day. In the offspring, growth, sexual maturation, weights and histopathology of reproductive organs, oestrus cyclicity and sperm counts were assessed. Neurobehavioural development was investigated using a behavioural testing battery including tests for motor activity, sweet preference, anxiety and spatial learning....... Decreased sperm count was found at the lowest bisphenol A dose, that is 25 μg/kg/day, but not at the higher doses. Reproductive organ weight and histology were not affected and no behavioural effects were seen in male offspring. In the female offspring, exposure to 25 μg/kg bw/day bisphenol A dose resulted...... not significantly affected. In conclusion, the present study using a robust experimental study design, has shown that developmental exposure to 25 μg/kg bw/day bisphenol A can cause adverse effects on fertility (decreased sperm count), neurodevelopment (masculinization of spatial learning in females) and lead...

  9. People in sub-Saharan Africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Angus S; Tortora, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans' perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second-lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in the region toward health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  11. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  12. Useful marker of oscillatory lung function in methacholine challenge test-comparison of reactance and resistance with dose-response slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Shin, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Chang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyeong Yun; Han, Man Yong

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies focusing on the comparison of resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) in impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in the bronchial challenge test using dose-response slope (DRS), a quantitative index of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conducted a case-control study of 144 asthmatic and 218 non-asthmatic children to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two-point linear DRS for FEV1 , Rrs5 , and Xrs5 (DRS_FEV1 , DRS_Rrs5 , and DRS_Xrs5 ) and assessed various diagnostic cut-off points of provocation concentrations (PC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. DRS_FEV1 had a stronger correlation with DRS_Xrs5 (r = 0.739, P  percent change of FEV1 (Pch_FEV1 ) (0.735) > Pch_Xrs5 (0.727) > Abs_Rrs5 (0.690) > Pch_Rrs5 (0.630). PC78 _Xrs5 and PC0.17 _Xrs5 of IOS showed considerably good sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of PC20 _FEV1 by spirometry. Additional 18 (13%) children who showed normal spirometric measures were identified as asthmatics with the use of IOS. The utility of the DRS_Xrs5 to differentiate asthmatics from controls was comparable to that of the DRS_FEV1 and better than that of the DRS_Rrs5 . In addition, IOS could detect additional asthmatic patients who did not show positive responses in spirometry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The optimal value of BMI for the lowest risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 40-88 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, A; Kozieł, S; Ignasiak, Z

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the optimal values of the body mass index (BMI) which would indicate the most favourable preservation of the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The material consists of the data of 369 healthy women aged between 40 and 88 years (mean age 67.84, SD=6.70) inhabitants of Wrocław, which were followed up between 2001 and 2006. The absolute measure of bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), expressed in g/(100mm(2)) and was transformed to T-score values. According to the value of BMI, the women were divided into eight groups, the reference group with value between 18.0 and 21.9kg/m(2) and seven other groups beginning with the value 22.0 with a 2-point interval. Postmenopausal status was defined according to the occurrence of menstruation within the last 360 days. The women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were pooled together and comprised the risk group, whereas the other women comprised the normal group (T-score values above -1.0). The adjusted odds ratio showed the highest value for intervals between 24.0 and 25.9 units of BMI, and the lowest value for interval 26.0-27.9 units of BMI. The Youden index showed the lowest value in the 26.0-27.9BMI kg/m(2) interval. For our sample the optimal value of BMI, with the lowest risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was the value of 26.9kg/m(2). A further increase of BMI does not result in a favourable effect on the bones, it rather intensifies negative phenomena in the body resulting in the onset of many diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Why low doses at Finnish NPPs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Vaehaemaa, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear power units - two BWRs (ABB Atom) and two PWRs (VVER) -are known for their high load factors. Finland's reactors have topped the world ranking list for more than ten years. This explains why their collective radiation doses are among the lowest in the world. During normal operation a collective dose of less than ten millisieverts per month is received at one site

  15. Electron mobility on the surface of liquid Helium: influence of surface level atoms and depopulation of lowest subbands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Dyugaev, A. M.; Lebedeva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electron mobility is examined. We calculate the contribution to the electron scattering rate from the surface level atoms (SLAs), proposed in [10]. This contribution is substantial at low temperatures T < 0.5, when the He vapor concentration is exponentially small. We also study the effect of depopulation of the lowest energy subband, which leads to an increase in the electron mobility at high temperature. The results explain certain long-standing discrepancies between the existing theory and experiment on electron mobility on the surface of liquid helium

  16. The constraint for the lowest Landau level and the effective field theory approach for the fractional quantum hall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongshui; Su Zhaobin.

    1992-09-01

    By applying the Dirac quantization method, we build the constraint that all electrons are in the lowest Landau level into the Chern-Simons field theory approach for the fractional quantum Hall system and show that the constraint can be transmuted from hierarchy to hierarchy. For a finite system, we derive that the action for each hierarchy can be split into two parts: a surface part provides the action for the edge excitations while the remaining part is precisely the bulk action for the next hierarchy. An the action for the edge could be decoupled from the bulk only at the hierarchy filling. (author). 16 refs

  17. Linear dose-response of acentric chromosome fragments down to 1 R of x-rays in grasshopper neuroblasts, a potential mutagen-test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaulden, M.E.; Read, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    Grasshopper-embryo neuroblasts have no spontaneous chromosome breakage; therefore they permit easy detection of agents that break chromosomes. An X-ray exposure of 1 R induces in them a detectable number of chromosome fragments. The dose-response of acentric fragment frequency fits a linear model between 0 and 128 R. Thus another cell type is added to those previously demonstrated to have no threshold dose for the induction of chromosome or gene mutations

  18. Diabetogenic action of streptozotocin: relationship of dose to metabolic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain; Lambert, André E.; Stauffacher, Werner; Renold, Albert E.

    1969-01-01

    The relationship between the dose of intravenously administered streptozotocin (a N-nitroso derivative of glucosamine) and the diabetogenic response has been explored by use of the following indices of diabetogenic action: serum glucose, urine volume, and glycosuria, ketonuria, serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and pancreatic IRI content. Diabetogenic activity could be demonstrated between the doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg, all indices used showing some degree of correlation with the dose administered. Ketonuria was only seen with the largest dose, 100 mg/kg. The most striking and precise correlation was that between the dose and the pancreatic IRI content 24 hr after administration of the drug, and it is suggested that this represents a convenient test system either for both related and unrelated beta cytotoxic compounds or for screening for modifying agents or antidiabetic substances of a novel type. Ability to produce graded depletion of pancreatic IRI storage capacity led to an analysis of the relationship between pancreatic IRI content and deranged carbohydrate metabolism. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin response were seen when pancreatic IRI was depleted by about one-third, while fasting hyperglycemia and gross glycosuria occurred when the depletion had reached two-thirds and three-quarters, respectively. The mild yet persistent anomaly produced by the lowest effective streptozotocin dose, 25 mg/kg, exhibits characteristics resembling the state of chemical diabetes in humans and might thus warrant further study as a possible model. Finally, the loss of the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin by pretreatment with nicotinamide was confirmed and was shown to be a function of the relative doses of nicotinamide and streptozotocin and of the interval between injections. PMID:4241908

  19. Very low-dose (0.15 mGy) chest CT protocols using the COPDGene 2 test object and a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with corresponding third-generation iterative reconstruction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, John D; Fuld, Matthew K; Allmendinger, Thomas; Sieren, Jered P; Chan, Kung-Sik; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ultralow radiation dose single-energy computed tomographic (CT) acquisitions with Sn prefiltration and third-generation iterative reconstruction on density-based quantitative measures of growing interest in phenotyping pulmonary disease. The effects of both decreasing dose and different body habitus on the accuracy of the mean CT attenuation measurements and the level of image noise (SD) were evaluated using the COPDGene 2 test object, containing 8 different materials of interest ranging from air to acrylic and including various density foams. A third-generation dual-source multidetector CT scanner (Siemens SOMATOM FORCE; Siemens Healthcare AG, Erlangen, Germany) running advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) software (Siemens Healthcare AG) was used.We used normal and very large body habitus rings at dose levels varying from 1.5 to 0.15 mGy using a spectral-shaped (0.6-mm Sn) tube output of 100 kV(p). Three CT scans were obtained at each dose level using both rings. Regions of interest for each material in the test object scans were automatically extracted. The Hounsfield unit values of each material using weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) at 1.5 mGy was used as the reference value to evaluate shifts in CT attenuation at lower dose levels using either WFBP or ADMIRE. Statistical analysis included basic statistics, Welch t tests, multivariable covariant model using the F test to assess the significance of the explanatory (independent) variables on the response (dependent) variable, and CT mean attenuation, in the multivariable covariant model including reconstruction method. Multivariable regression analysis of the mean CT attenuation values showed a significant difference with decreasing dose between ADMIRE and WFBP. The ADMIRE has reduced noise and more stable CT attenuation compared with WFBP. There was a strong effect on the mean CT attenuation values of the scanned materials for ring

  20. Extra-large pore zeolite (ITQ-40) with the lowest framework density containing double four- and double three-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabañas, M. J.; Jiang, J.; Afeworki, M.; Dorset, D. L.; Soled, S. L.; Strohmaier, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    The first zeolite structure (ITQ-40) that contains double four (D4) and double three (D3) member ring secondary building units has been synthesized by introducing Ge and NH4F and working in concentrated synthesis gels. It is the first time that D3-Rs have been observed in a zeolite structure. As was previously analyzed [Brunner GO, Meier, WM (1989) Nature 337:146–147], such a structure has a very low framework density (10.1 T/1,000 Å3). Indeed, ITQ-40 has the lowest framework density ever achieved in oxygen-containing zeolites. Furthermore, it contains large pore openings, i.e., 15-member rings parallel to the [001] hexagonal axis and 16-member ring channels perpendicular to this axis. The results presented here push ahead the possibilities of zeolites for uses in electronics, control delivery of drugs and chemicals, as well as for catalysis. PMID:20660773

  1. Effects of Pop III to PopII transition on the lowest metallicity stars in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimiao; Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2018-01-01

    We examine the effects of the enrichments from Population III (Pop III) stars on the formation and properties of the first generation of the Population II (Pop II) stars. Pop III stars begin to transition towards Pop II stars when the metals dispersed in Pop III supernovae pollute the nearby gas. However, details of this transition are still largely unknown. We use dwarf galaxy simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to identify the star-forming gas that is likely to be pre-enriched by Pop III supernovae and follow the stars that form in such gas. This pre-enrichment will leave the signature in the lowest metallicity stars that can be used to better constrain the details of the Pop III-to-Pop II transition.

  2. Consistency of the Hamiltonian formulation of the lowest-order effective action of the complete Horava theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellorin, Jorge; Restuccia, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    We perform the Hamiltonian analysis for the lowest-order effective action, up to second order in derivatives, of the complete Horava theory. The model includes the invariant terms that depend on ∂ i lnN proposed by Blas, Pujolas, and Sibiryakov. We show that the algebra of constraints closes. The Hamiltonian constraint is of second-class behavior and it can be regarded as an elliptic partial differential equation for N. The linearized version of this equation is a Poisson equation for N that can be solved consistently. The preservation in time of the Hamiltonian constraint yields an equation that can be consistently solved for a Lagrange multiplier of the theory. The model has six propagating degrees of freedom in the phase space, corresponding to three even physical modes. When compared with the λR model studied by us in a previous paper, it lacks two second-class constraints, which leads to the extra even mode.

  3. Non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus in the rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertion: measurement with scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirotaka; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kokubun, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    The acoustic properties of rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertions were measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. After cutting parallel to the supraspinatus tendon fibers, specimens were fixed with 10% neutralized formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Both the sound speed and the attenuation constant were measured at the insertion site. The 2-dimensional distribution of the sound speed and that of the attenuation constant were displayed with color-coded scales. The acoustic properties reflected both the histologic architecture and the collagen type. In the tendon proper and the non-mineralized fibrocartilage, the sound speed and attenuation constant gradually decreased as the predominant collagen type changed from I to II. In the mineralized fibrocartilage, they increased markedly with the mineralization of the fibrocartilaginous tissue. These results indicate that the non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus among 4 zones at the insertion site, which could be interpreted as an adaptation to various types of biomechanical stress.

  4. Lowest lying 2+ and 3- vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni isotopes in relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.; Ring, P.

    2006-01-01

    The excitation energies and electric multipole decay rates of the lowest lying 2 + and 3 - vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni nuclei are calculated following relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation formalism based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov mean field. Two sets of Lagrangian parameters, NL1 and NL3, are used to investigate the effect of the nuclear force. Overall there is good agreement with the available experimental data for a wide range of mass numbers considered here, and the NL3 set seems to be a better choice. However, strictly speaking, these studies point toward the need of a new set of force parameters that could produce more realistic single-particle levels, at least in vicinity of the Fermi surface, of a wide range of nuclear masses

  5. MYDOZE: Application Web for management and optimisation of doses to patients in tests radiodiagnostics; MYDOZE: Aplicacion Web para gestion y optimizacion de dosis a pacientes en pruebas radiodiagnosticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinado Zamora, A. B.; Laguna Lobato, M. A.; Gil Agudo, A.; Zapata Jimenez, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    The service of Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica del Hospital general Universitario de Ciudad Real, carried out a study whose objective is to optimize the dose to patients undergoing diagnostic scans with ionizing radiation. To address this task, is required a software tool that facilitates on the one hand the acquisition of dosimetric data acquired digital equipment and the other interface of exploitation of this data for statistics and analysis of these. the computer tool to develop should allow storing parameters with information demographic and dose of the patient in medical scans thanks to called DICOM medical image standard. (Author)

  6. New released DR detector (Canon CXDI 70C wireless) tested at premature neonates chest examination focusing on dose and image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle

    2011-01-01

    maintaining image quality - in accordance with the ALARA principle. Dose reduction is particularly interesting in paediatrics because of the high radiation sensitivity of children. In preterm, a dose reduction has even greater importance, and because the anatomical structures in the chest are extra small...... Carlo and analyzed in conjunction with exposure index values. Statistical analysis supported the results. Results The IQF value from the technical phantom is clearly higher at the new detector at all exposure values as well as the VGA shows great potential for improving image quality and possibilities...

  7. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  8. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, O.; Ryba, J.; Slezak, V.; Svobodova, B.; Viererbl, L.

    1984-10-01

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137 Cs, 241 Am and 109 Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10 -2 to 10 3 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  9. Test of ring, eye lens and whole body dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) to be used in interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, A.; Budzanowski, M.; Kopeć, R.

    2017-11-01

    In its statement on tissue reactions approved on 21st April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 2012) reviewed its recommendation concerning the equivalent dose limit for the eye lens and reduced the dose limits for occupationally exposed persons to 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This limit was approved and written down in the new EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) directive 2013/59 and in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) BSS (Basic Safety Standard) of July 2014. For that reason, the necessity to monitor the eye lens may become more important than it was before. However, specially dedicated dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) are using very rarely. Commonly use are only whole body personal dosemeters for the personal dose equivalent quantities Hp(10) worn on the trunk and ring dosemeters worn on finger to measure the quantity Hp(0.07). Therefore, in this work it was investigated whether dosemeters from routine use calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) and worn on thyroid collar and protective apron could deliver similar results like dedicated eye lens dosemeter worn close to the eyes. The results show that the best method if dedicated eye lens dosimeters is not used is to measure doses in terms of Hp(0.07) on the thyroid collar (Pearson product, r=0.85). Obtained results shows also importance of proper localization of eye lens dosimeter (close to the eye, from side of the X-ray source).

  10. Low dose epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter the BEIR committee has reviewed low-dose irradiation studies since the BEIR III report. They have considered the carcinogenic effectiveness of low-LET in populations exposed to radiation from a number of different sources: diagnostic radiography; fallout from nuclear weapons testing; nuclear installations; radiation in the workplace and high levels of natural background radiation

  11. Effect on moisture permeability of typewriting on unit dose package surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackson, J T; Zellhofer, M J; Birmingham, P H

    1984-10-01

    The effects of typewriting on labels of two unit dose packages with respect to moisture permeability were examined. Using an electric typewriter, a standard label format was imprinted on two different types of class A unit dose packages: (1) a heat-sealed paper-backed foil and cellofilm strip pouch, and (2) a copolyester and polyethylene multiple-cup blister with a heat-sealed paper-backed foil and cellofilm cover. The labels were typed at various typing-element impact settings. The official USP test for water permeation was then performed on typed packages and untyped control packages. The original untyped packages were confirmed to be USP class A quality. The packages for which successively harder impact settings were used showed a corresponding increase in moisture permeability. This resulted in a lowering of USP package ratings from class A to class B and D, some of which would be unsuitable for use in any unit dose system under current FDA repackaging standards. Typing directly onto the label of a unit dose package before it is sealed will most likely damage the package and possibly make it unfit for use. Pharmacists who must type labels for the unit dose packages studied should use the lowest possible typewriter impact setting and test for damage using the USP moisture-permeation test.

  12. SU-F-T-32: Evaluation of the Performance of a Multiple-Array-Diode Detector for Quality Assurance Tests in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with Ir-192 Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpool, K; De La Fuente Herman, T; Ahmad, S; Ali, I [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode- detector for geometric and dosimetric quality assurance (QA) tests of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an Ir-192-source. Methods: A phantom setup was designed that encapsulated a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode-detector (MapCheck2) and a catheter for the HDR brachytherapy Ir-192 source. This setup was used to perform both geometric and dosimetric quality assurance for the HDR-Ir192 source. The geometric tests included: (a) measurement of the position of the source and (b) spacing between different dwell positions. The dosimteric tests include: (a) linearity of output with time, (b) end effect and (c) relative dose verification. The 2D-dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 was used to perform the previous tests. The results of MapCheck2 were compared with the corresponding quality assurance testes performed with Gafchromic-film and well-ionization-chamber. Results: The position of the source and the spacing between different dwell-positions were reproducible within 1 mm accuracy by measuring the position of maximal dose using MapCheck2 in contrast to the film which showed a blurred image of the dwell positions due to limited film sensitivity to irradiation. The linearity of the dose with dwell times measured from MapCheck2 was superior to the linearity measured with ionization chamber due to higher signal-to-noise ratio of the diode readings. MapCheck2 provided more accurate measurement of the end effect with uncertainty < 1.5% in comparison with the ionization chamber uncertainty of 3%. Although MapCheck2 did not provide absolute calibration dosimeter for the activity of the source, it provided accurate tool for relative dose verification in HDR-brachytherapy. Conclusion: The 2D-array-diode-detector provides a practical, compact and accurate tool to perform quality assurance for HDR-brachytherapy with an Ir-192 source. The diodes in MapCheck2 have high radiation sensitivity and

  13. High dose rate brachytherapy for prevention of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: preliminary dosimetric tests of a new source presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popowski, Youri; Verin, Vitali; Papirov, Igor; Nouet, Philippe; Rouzaud, Michel; Grob, Eugene; Schwager, Michael; Urban, Philippe; Rutishauser, Wilhelm; Kurtz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Balloon dilatation of coronary artery stenosis has become a standard treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease. Restenosis due to excessive intimal cell proliferation, which subsequently occurs in 20-50% of patients, represents one of the major clinical problems in contemporary cardiology, and no satisfactory method for its prevention has thus far been found. Because modest doses of radiation have proved effective in preventing certain types of abnormal cellular proliferation resulting from surgical trauma, and brachytherapy has already been used successfully after dilatation of peripheral arteries, development of a radioactive source suitable for coronary artery applications would be of great interest. Methods and Materials: Nonradioactive flexible yttrum-89 wires (diameter of 0.15 and 0.26 mm) were activated within the thermal neutron flux of an experimental reactor. Standard angioplasty balloons (2 cm long, 2.5 mm in diameter when inflated) were inserted for dosimetry into a specially manufactured tissue equivalent phantom. Four wells, drilled perpendicular to the axis of the balloon, allowed for the insertion of thermal luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; 2 mm of diameter) and spacers. The angioplasty balloon was inflated with air or with contrast media. Radioactive yttrium-90 wires were left in the central lumen of the balloon for 2 min. Doses at the surface of the balloon, and at 1, 2, and 3 mm were determined from TLD readings. Results: Doses obtained at the surface of the balloon, for a 2-min exposure for the 0.26 mm wire (balloon inflated with air) and the 0.15 mm wire (air or contrast), were 56.5 Gy, 17.8 Gy, 5.4 Gy, respectively. As expected for a beta emitter, the fall-off in dose as a function of depth was rapid. External irradiation from the beta source was negligible. Conclusions: Our experiments indicate that the dose rates attainable at the surface of the angioplasty balloon using this technique allow the doses necessary for the inhibition of

  14. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  15. Total integrated dose testing of solid-state scientific CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 devices by irradiation with CO-60 gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A. R. V.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The total integrated dose response of three CMOS devices manufactured by Solid State Scientific has been measured using CO-60 gamma rays. Key parameter measurements were made and compared for each device type. The data show that the CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 produced by this manufacturers should not be used in any environments where radiation levels might exceed 1,000 rad(Si).

  16. Density functional theory, comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis of Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Gunasekaran, S.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra of Linezolid have been recorded in the regions 4,000-400 and 4,000-100 cm-1, respectively. Utilizing the observed Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound have been carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, have been calculated by density functional theory with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) levels. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of Linezolid is reported. Mulliken's net charges have also been calculated. Ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using time-dependent density functional method. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis and several thermodynamic properties have been performed by the density functional theoretical method.

  17. Emergence of liquid crystalline order in the lowest Landau level of a quantum Hall system with internal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2018-05-01

    It has now become evident that interplay between internal anisotropy parameters (such as electron mass anisotropy and/or anisotropic coupling of electrons to the substrate) and electron-electron correlation effects can create a rich variety of possibilities especially in quantum Hall systems. The electron mass anisotropy or material substrate effects (for example, the piezoelectric effect in GaAs) can lead to an effective anisotropic interaction potential between electrons. For lack of knowledge of realistic ab-initio potentials that may describe such effects, we adopt a phenomenological approach and assume that an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential mimics the internal anisotropy of the system. In this work we investigate the emergence of liquid crystalline order at filling factor ν = 1/6 of the lowest Landau level, a state very close to the point where a transition from the liquid to the Wigner solid happens. We consider small finite systems of electrons interacting with an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential and study the energy stability of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state relative to its isotropic Fermi-liquid counterpart. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation results in disk geometry show stabilization of liquid crystalline order driven by an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential at all values of the interaction anisotropy parameter studied.

  18. On the theoretical analysis of the lowest many-electron states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Collado, José R; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the optical and magnetic properties of the four lowest many-body states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs). The results have been obtained within the semi-empirical restricted frozen Hartree–Fock approximation. Firstly, we obtained one-determinant numerical and analytical coincident results. We detected the existence of two degenerate open-shell molecular orbitals (MOs) o, o’. Due to this degeneracy, some of the mentioned results do depend on any (arbitrary) orthogonal transformation between these two MOs. We have improved these preliminary results by using linear combinations of two determinants, which are eigenfunctions of the operators, which commute with the electronic Hamiltonian. These eigenfunctions represent properly the wave functions of these four electronic states. These calculations show that there are two degenerate ground states. One of them is ferromagnetic and the other state is non magnetic. Finally, we have calculated these four states to full configuration interaction level studying the dependence of their properties on the size of the GNRs. (paper)

  19. On the theoretical analysis of the lowest many-electron states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Collado, José R.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    We have calculated the optical and magnetic properties of the four lowest many-body states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs). The results have been obtained within the semi-empirical restricted frozen Hartree-Fock approximation. Firstly, we obtained one-determinant numerical and analytical coincident results. We detected the existence of two degenerate open-shell molecular orbitals (MOs) o, o’. Due to this degeneracy, some of the mentioned results do depend on any (arbitrary) orthogonal transformation between these two MOs. We have improved these preliminary results by using linear combinations of two determinants, which are eigenfunctions of the operators, which commute with the electronic Hamiltonian. These eigenfunctions represent properly the wave functions of these four electronic states. These calculations show that there are two degenerate ground states. One of them is ferromagnetic and the other state is non magnetic. Finally, we have calculated these four states to full configuration interaction level studying the dependence of their properties on the size of the GNRs.

  20. Solid hydrogen and deuterium. I. Ground-state energy calculated by a lowest order constrained-variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, G.; Oestgaard, E.

    1988-01-01

    The ground-state energy of solid hydrogen and deuterium is calculated by means of a modified variational lowest order constrained-variation (LOCV) method. Both fcc and hcp H 2 and D 2 are considered, and the calculations are done for five different two-body potentials. For solid H 2 we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -74.9 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.700 σ -3 or a molar volume of 22.3 cm 3 /mole to -91.3 K at a particle density of 0.725 σ -3 or a molar volume of 21.5 cm 3 /mole, where σ = 2.958 A. The corresponding experimental result is -92.3 K at a particle density of 0.688 σ -3 or a molar volume of 22.7 cm 3 /mole. For solid D 2 we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -125.7 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.830 σ -3 or a molar volume of 18.8 cm 3 /mole to -140.1 K at a particle density of 0.843 σ -3 or a molar volume of 18.5 cm 3 /mole. The corresponding experimental result is -137.9 K at a particle density of 0.797 σ -3 or a molar volume of 19.6 cm 3 /mole

  1. Going beyond best technology and lowest price: on renewable energy investors’ preference for service-driven business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loock, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming increasingly important for economies in many countries. But still in an emerging industry, renewable energy requires supportive energy policy helping firms to develop and protect competitive advantages in global competition. As a guideline for designing such policy, we consult well-informed stakeholders within the renewable energy industry: investors. Their preferences serve as explorative indicator for assessing which business models might succeed in competition. To contribute to only limited research on renewable energy investors’ preferences, we ask, which business models investment managers for renewable energy prefer to invest in. We report from an explorative study of 380 choices of renewable energy investment managers. Based on the stated preferences, we modelled three generic business models to calculate the share of investors’ preferences. We find exiting evidence: a “customer intimacy” business model that proposes best services is much more preferred by investors than business models that propose lowest price or best technology. Policy-makers can use those insights for designing policy that supports service-driven business models for renewable energy with a scope on customer needs rather than technology or price. Additionally, we state important implications for renewable energy entrepreneurs, managers and research.

  2. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  3. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  4. Application of low dose multi-slice helical CT in orbital trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rui; Dai Limei; Li Jianying; Wang Fengyan; Du Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the most appropriate low radiation dose in multi-slice CT (MSCT) scans for orbital trauma patients. Methods: Thirty trauma patients with suspected orbital fractures who underwent helical CT scans with a 64-MSCT using regular dose were selected. Noise was artificially introduced to the axial images using an image space noise addition tool to simulate 6 sets of lower dose scans with tube current of 30, 70, 100, 140, 170 and 200 mA, respectively. The lowest tube current with adequate image quality for confident diagnosis was determined based on the evaluation of the overall image quality and fracture detection on images at different dose levels. The determined lowest tube current was then validated using clinical scans. Radiation dose related parameters CTDIvol, DLP, ED were also recorded. Image quality was evaluated according to its low-density resolution, noise and structure clarity and characterized into 5-grades of excellent, good, fair, worse and worst. Rank sum test and χ 2 test were used for statistics. Results: In 30 trauma patients with regular dose of 300 mA, there were 30 cases of orbital fracture, 19 cases of intraorbital emphysema, 12 cases of ocular muscle injury and 1 case of intraorbital foreign body. These changes could still be clearly observed and correctly diagnosed when the tube current was reduced to as low as 70 mA. However, the overall image quality was mostly fair. At the simulated dose of 100 mA, the majority of images were characterized as excellent or good, and there was no statistical difference compared with that of regular dose scans (P>0.05). In the clinical evaluation for 20 orbital trauma patients with the reduced tube current of 100 m A , the majority of images were judged to be excellent (9 cases) or good (17 cases) and fair (4 cases). The radiation dose (0.29 mSv) was reduced by 70% compared with that of regular tube current of 300 mA (0.86 mSv). Conclusion: The tube current of MSCT may be used as low as

  5. Solid hydrogen and deuterium. II. Pressure and compressibility calculated by a lowest-order constrained-variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, G.; Ostgaard, E.

    1988-01-01

    The pressure and the compressibility of solid H 2 and D 2 are obtained from ground-state energies calculated by means of a modified variational lowest order constrained-variation (LOCV) method. Both fcc and hcp structures are considered, but results are given for the fcc structure only. The pressure and the compressibility are calculated or estimated from the dependence of the ground-state energy on density or molar volume, generally in a density region of 0.65σ -3 to 1.3σ -3 , corresponding to a molar volume of 0.65σ -3 to 1.3σ -3 , corresponding to a molar volume of 12-24 cm 3 mole, where σ = 2.958 angstrom, and the calculations are done for five different two-body potentials. Theoretical results for the pressure are 340-460 atm for solid H 2 at a particle density of 0.82σ -3 or a molar volume of 19 cm 3 /mole, and 370-490 atm for solid 4 He at a particle density of 0.92σ -3 or a molar volume of 17 cm 3 /mole. The corresponding experimental results are 650 and 700 atm, respectively. Theoretical results for the compressibility are 210 times 10 -6 to 260 times 10 -6 atm -1 for solid H 2 at a particle density of 0.82σ -3 or a molar volume of 19 cm 3 /mole, and 150 times 10 -6 to 180 times 10 -6 atm -1 for solid D 2 at a particle density of 0.92σ -3 or a molar volume of 17 cm 3 mole. The corresponding experimental results are 180 times 10 -6 and 140 times 10 -6 atm -1 , respectively. The agreement with experimental results is better for higher densities

  6. Comparison of Adsorbed Skin Dose Received by Patients in Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Spiral and Conventional Computed Tomography Scanninng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The evaluation of absorbed dose received by patients could give useful information for radiation risk estimation. This study was performed to compare the entrance skin dose received by patients in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, conventional and spiral computed tomography (CT.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 81 calibrated TLD chips were used. the TLD chips were placed on facial, thyroid and end of sternum skin surface in patients referred for CT of the paranasal sinuses(3 TLD chips for each area to estimate the absorbed dose received by central part of radiation field, thyroid and out of field areas, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The dose delivered to the center of irradiated field was about 0.79±0.09 mGy in CBCT technique compared with 16.31±3.71 and 18.84±4.12 mGy for spiral and conventional CT, respectively. The received dose by the out of field areas was about 54 percent of central area dose. There was statistical significant relationship between the imaging modalities and absorbed dose received by patients (P=0.016. The least absorbed dose was for CBCT and the greatest dose was for conventional CT imaging technique.Conclusion: The dose delivered to central area of irradiated field in conventional and spiral CT imaging modalities was about 24 times greater than of that in CBCT. Also, the highest received dose was for central area of radiated field and the lowest dose was for the out of field areas.

  7. The application of SHIELD-HIT12A computer code to calculate of absorption dose for in vitro and in vivo test in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohannes Sardjono; Hamidatul Faqqiyyah; Niels Bassler

    2014-01-01

    The projection of world population growth and increased longevity are leading to a rapid increase in the total number of middle-aged and older adults, with a corresponding increase in the number of deaths caused by non communicable diseases. It is projected that the annual number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease will increase from 17 million in 2008 to 25 million in 2030 with annual cancer deaths increasing from 7.6 million to 13 million. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a therapy that utilizes the absorption interaction of Boron-10 with thermal neutron and become He-4 particle and located in cell target and very short half life gamma emission. Studies were carried out to dose distribution in HER-2+ breast cancer therapy by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using SHIELD Heavy Ion Therapy (HIT12A) T program. The Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT1 is designed to precisely simulate therapeutic beams of protons and ions in biological tissue relevant for ion beam cancer therapy. SHIELD-HIT (Heavy Ion Therapy) evolved from the common SHIELD code that models interactions of hadrons and atomic nuclei in complex extended targets in the energy range up to 1 TeV/nucleon. Through this computer code can be applied to calculate of absorption dose in cell target. (author)

  8. Single oral dose toxicity test of polycalcium, a mixed composition of polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (G/G) in SD rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Ki-Young; Cho, Hyung-rae; Rha, Chae-hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2013-11-01

    The object of this study was to obtain acute oral toxicity information of Polycalcium, a mixed composition of Polycan and Calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (g/g), in Sprague-Dawely (SD) rats. In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, Polycalcium were once orally administered to female and male SD rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (control) mg/kg body weights. The mortality, changes on body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs and treatment sites based on the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009]. As the results of single oral treatment of Polycalcium, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders. In addition, no Polycalcium treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycalcium is non-toxic in rats. The LD50 and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of Polycalcium were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male, respectively.

  9. Linear dose response curves in fungi and tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrau, P.

    1999-07-01

    strains never approaches the expected slope of predicted for two hit events. This suggests that only particular combinations of coincident LCD and DSB lesions lead, on repair, to LOH. All the evidence suggests that DNA damage induction is linear to the lowest doses. The evidence suggests that even at the lowest doses and dose rates of low LET radiation, there is a constant probability of LOH arising from repair. The effects on cancer risk of this LOH will depend upon the genotype of the individual, and further selective mechanisms which may ameliorate or intensify the effects of the original LOH event. Radiation LOH mechanisms and organismic selective screens can be tested using mice with a defined genetic back-ground, and with genes involved in DNA repair and cancer risk, inactivated or knocked out to produce 'heterozygotes'. By selecting cancers within or outside the selective screen of the immune system the effects of immunological surveillance on the risks associated with LOH of a cancer risk gene can be measured. By knocking out genes in the RAD 52 or RAD 6 pathways, the differential effects of low and high LET radiations, the effects of repair deficiencies on RBE, and dose rate effects can be measured in heterozygotes. The interest in heterozygotes arises because they are expected to be present in the population at approximately four times the square root of the frequency of homozygotes, and because in terms of Knudson's multi-step theory of cancer risk, they have already inherited the first 'hit' from their parents in the form of one abnormal cancer risk gene. Clone 02 is abnormal, but in the same way that a heterozygous carrier of a Fanconi's anemia gene would be. As 1/77 of South African Afrikaans speakers are carriers of a Fanconi's anemia mutant gene, the Clone 02 results can be extrapolated to real human populations. It would, therefore, be expected that real humans would show linear non-threshold radiation-induced LOH and potentially cancer risk. (author)

  10. Tube potential can be lowered to 80 kVp in test bolus phase of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) to save dose without compromising diagnostic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.C.L.; Manghat, N.E.; Hamilton, M.C.K.; Joshi, D.; Lyen, S.M.; Negus, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performing the test bolus (TB) of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) at 80 kVp reduces dose without compromising diagnostic quality. An 80 kVp TB protocol for CTCA and CTPA was retrospectively compared to standard TB protocol (non-obese: 100 kVp, obese: 120 kVp). CT angiogram parameters were unchanged between cohorts. Thirty-seven consecutive 80 kVp TB CTCA images were compared to 53 standard CTCA images. Fifty consecutive CTPAs from each protocol were analysed. Diagnostic quality of the CT angiogram was assessed by: mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the ascending aorta (AA) in CTCA and in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) in CTPA, diagnostic rate, and number of repeated monitoring scans. Mean effective dose was estimated using the dose-length product. Mean TB effective doses were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) for 80 kVp scans compared to the standard in non-obese CTCA (0.15 ± 0.04 mSv Vs 0.33 ± 0.09 mSv), obese CTCA (0.17 ± 0.06 mSv Vs 0.57 ± 0.12 mSv), and CTPA patients (0.07 ± 0.03 mSv Vs 0.15 ± 0.06 mSv). No difference was demonstrated in mean attenuation, SNR (AA), SNR (MPA), diagnostic rates, or number of repeated monitoring scans between protocols. Routinely performing TB at 80 kVp, regardless of body habitus, in CTCA and CTPA results in a small but significant dose reduction, without compromising CT angiogram diagnostic quality. (orig.)

  11. Tube potential can be lowered to 80 kVp in test bolus phase of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) to save dose without compromising diagnostic quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.C.L.; Manghat, N.E.; Hamilton, M.C.K. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Joshi, D.; Lyen, S.M. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Negus, I.S. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performing the test bolus (TB) of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) at 80 kVp reduces dose without compromising diagnostic quality. An 80 kVp TB protocol for CTCA and CTPA was retrospectively compared to standard TB protocol (non-obese: 100 kVp, obese: 120 kVp). CT angiogram parameters were unchanged between cohorts. Thirty-seven consecutive 80 kVp TB CTCA images were compared to 53 standard CTCA images. Fifty consecutive CTPAs from each protocol were analysed. Diagnostic quality of the CT angiogram was assessed by: mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the ascending aorta (AA) in CTCA and in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) in CTPA, diagnostic rate, and number of repeated monitoring scans. Mean effective dose was estimated using the dose-length product. Mean TB effective doses were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) for 80 kVp scans compared to the standard in non-obese CTCA (0.15 ± 0.04 mSv Vs 0.33 ± 0.09 mSv), obese CTCA (0.17 ± 0.06 mSv Vs 0.57 ± 0.12 mSv), and CTPA patients (0.07 ± 0.03 mSv Vs 0.15 ± 0.06 mSv). No difference was demonstrated in mean attenuation, SNR (AA), SNR (MPA), diagnostic rates, or number of repeated monitoring scans between protocols. Routinely performing TB at 80 kVp, regardless of body habitus, in CTCA and CTPA results in a small but significant dose reduction, without compromising CT angiogram diagnostic quality. (orig.)

  12. Patient Dose From Megavoltage Computed Tomography Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Langen, Katja M.; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Cox, Andrea; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) can be used daily for imaging with a helical tomotherapy unit for patient alignment before treatment delivery. The purpose of this investigation was to show that the MVCT dose can be computed in phantoms, and further, that the dose can be reported for actual patients from MVCT on a helical tomotherapy unit. Methods and Materials: An MVCT beam model was commissioned and verified through a series of absorbed dose measurements in phantoms. This model was then used to retrospectively calculate the imaging doses to the patients. The MVCT dose was computed for five clinical cases: prostate, breast, head/neck, lung, and craniospinal axis. Results: Validation measurements in phantoms verified that the computed dose can be reported to within 5% of the measured dose delivered at the helical tomotherapy unit. The imaging dose scaled inversely with changes to the CT pitch. Relative to a normal pitch of 2.0, the organ dose can be scaled by 0.67 and 2.0 for scans done with a pitch of 3.0 and 1.0, respectively. Typical doses were in the range of 1.0-2.0 cGy, if imaged with a normal pitch. The maximal organ dose calculated was 3.6 cGy in the neck region of the craniospinal patient, if imaged with a pitch of 1.0. Conclusion: Calculation of the MVCT dose has shown that the typical imaging dose is approximately 1.5 cGy per image. The uniform MVCT dose delivered using helical tomotherapy is greatest when the anatomic thickness is the smallest and the pitch is set to the lowest value

  13. Lowest Q2 Measurement of the γ*p→ Δ Reaction: Probing the Pionic Contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stave, Sean C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The first excited state of the proton, the Delat, can be reached through a magnetic dipole spin flip of one of the quarks (M1) or through electric and Coulomb quadrupole terms (E2 and C2) which indicate a deviation from spherical symmetry. The quark models using the color hyperfine interaction underestimate the size of the quadrupole terms by more than an order of magnitude. Models using the pion cloud do a much better job of describing the data. This is expected due to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry which leads to a cloud of virtual p wave pions which introduce the non-spherical amplitudes. The data presented in this work fill gaps in the low Q², long distance region where the pion cloud is expected to dominate and to produce significant Q2 variation. The p(e¯, ép)π° reaction was measured in the Δ region at Q² = 0.060 (GeV/c)², the lowest Q² to date for pion electroproduction, utilizing out-of-plane magnetic spectrometers at the Mainz Microtron in Germany. This work reports results for the dominant transition magnetic dipole amplitude and the quadrupole to dipole ratios obtained from fitting the new data with models using a three parameter, resonant multipole fit: M³/²1+ = (40.33 +- 0.63stat+syst +-model)(10-³/mπ+), E2/M1=Re(E³/²1+M³/²1+) = (-2.28+- 0.29stat+syst +- 0.20model)%, and C2/M1 =Re(S³/²1+/M³/²1+) poles disagree with predictions of the quark models but are in reasonable agreement with a chiral extrapolation of lattice QCD, chiral effective field theory and dynamical model results confirming the dominance and general Q² variation of the long range pionic contribution. While there is qualitative agreement with the models, there is no quantitative agreement thus indicating the need for further improvement of the models.

  14. Health effect of low dose/low dose rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    The clarified and non-clarified scientific knowledge is discussed to consider the cause of confusion of explanation of the title subject. The low dose is defined roughly lower than 200 mGy and low dose rate, 0.05 mGy/min. The health effect is evaluated from 2 aspects of clinical symptom/radiation hazard protection. In the clinical aspect, the effect is classified in physical (early and late) and genetic ones, and is classified in stochastic (no threshold value, TV) and deterministic (with TV) ones from the radioprotection aspect. Although the absence of TV in the carcinogenic and genetic effects has not been proved, ICRP employs the stochastic standpoint from the safety aspect for radioprotection. The lowest human TV known now is 100 mGy, meaning that human deterministic effect would not be generated below this dose. Genetic deterministic effect can be observable only in animal experiments. These facts suggest that the practical risk of exposure to <100 mGy in human is the carcinogenesis. The relationship between carcinogenic risk in A-bomb survivors and their exposed dose are found fitted to the linear no TV model, but the epidemiologic data, because of restriction of subject number analyzed, do not always mean that the model is applicable even below the dose <100 mGy. This would be one of confusing causes in explanation: no carcinogenic risk at <100 mGy or risk linear to dose even at <100 mGy, neither of which is scientifically conclusive at present. Also mentioned is the scarce risk of cancer in residents living in the high background radiation regions in the world in comparison with that in the A-bomb survivors exposed to the chronic or acute low dose/dose rate. Molecular events are explained for the low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair, gene mutation and chromosome aberration, hypothesis of carcinogenesis by mutation, and non-targeting effect of radiation (bystander effect and gene instability). Further researches to elucidate the low dose

  15. Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    p-Chloro-m-cresol (PCMC) and p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. For risk assessment of skin sensitizers, information on dose-response profiles in the induction and elicitation phases and cross-reactivity with analogous chemicals are important. In the non-radioactive local lymph-node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine instead of 3 H-methyl thymidine, significant effect on lymph node cell proliferation was detected at 10% PCMC and 25% PCMX, while in the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) at least one animal tested in the group was sensitized at a 5 ppm induction dose of either chemical. When mean skin reaction score in an animal group maximally sensitized with each allergen with the GPMT was plotted against log challenge concentration, linear regression lines with high correlations were obtained in both cases. The calculated elicitation threshold was lower for PCMC than PCMX. The area under the linear regression line between the threshold point and 1% of the elicitation concentration, another index of relative elicitation potency, was also greater for PCMC. Bidirectional cross-reactivity between PCMX and PCMC was detected in the GPMT. PCMC was thus identified in both LLNA and GPMT as a stronger sensitizer than PCMX in both the induction and elicitation phases. These results suggest that the non-radioactive LLNA is a simple and useful method for evaluating allergenicity in the induction phase, while the GPMT using a maximally sensitized animal group is more suitable for assessing the dose-response profile and cross-reactivity in the elicitation phase

  16. Dose-dependent metabolic disposition of hydroxytyrosol and formation of mercapturates in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Pizarro, Nieves; Serra, Aida; Robledo, Patricia; Joglar, Jesús; Rubió, Laura; Hernaéz, Alvaro; Tormos, Carmen; Motilva, Ma José; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Farré, Magí; Saez, Guillermo; de la Torre, Rafael

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT), one of the major polyphenols present in olive oil, is known to possess a high antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate dose dependent (0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) alterations in the metabolism of HT in rats since it has been reported that metabolites may contribute to biological effects. Special attention was paid to the activation of the semiquinone-quinone oxidative cycle and the formation of adducts with potential deleterious effects. Thus, we developed a novel analytical methodology to monitor the in vivo formation of the HT mercapturate, N-acetyl-5-S-cysteinyl-hydroxytyrosol in urine samples. Biomarkers of hepatic and renal toxicity were evaluated within the dose range tested. Following HT administration, dose-dependent effects were observed for the recovery of all the metabolites studied. At the lowest dose of 1 mg/kg, the glucuronidation pathway was the most relevant (25-30%), with lower recoveries for sulfation (14%), while at the highest dose of 100 mg/kg, sulfation was the most prevalent (75%). In addition, we report for the first time the formation of the mercapturate conjugate of HT in a dose-dependent manner. The biochemical data did not reveal significant toxic effects of HT at any of the doses studied. An increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio at the highest dose was observed indicating that the products of HT autoxidation are counteracted by glutathione, resulting in their detoxification. These results indicate that the metabolic disposition of HT is highly dependent on the dose ingested. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Dose evaluation in diagnostic for computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, W.; Borges, J.C.; Mota, H.

    1998-01-01

    The patients which are subjected to computerized tomography tests are exposed to relatively high doses given as result doses on organs that are not matter to test. It was realized a dose levels raising in patients subjected to tests by T C, utilizing to measure this magnitude, TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters which were put directly on the patient, in eye regions, thyroid, breast and navel; founding doses fluctuating between 29.10-49.39 mGy in organs examined and dose values between 0.21-29.10 mGy for organs that no matter to test. The applications of ionizing radiations in medicine do not have dose limits, but paying attention to the radiological protection optimization principle, it is recommended the use of clothes to anti-rays protection for zones not examined, getting with this to reduce the level doses as low as possible, without this to diminish the test quality. (Author)

  18. Analysis simulation of tectonic earthquake impact to the lifetime of radioactive waste container and equivalent dose rate predication in Yucca Mountain geologic repository, Nevada test site, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, I.S.; Imardjoko, Y.U.; Karnawati, Dwikorita

    2003-01-01

    US policy not to recycle her spent nuclear fuels brings consequence to provide a nuclear waste repository site Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, considered the proper one. High-level radioactive waste to be placed into containers and then will be buried in three hundred meter underground tunnels. Tectonic earthquake is the main factor causing container's damage. Goldsim version 6.04.007 simulates mechanism of container's damage due to a great devastating impact load, the collapse of the tunnels. Radionuclide inventories included are U-234, C-14, Tc-99, I-129, Se-79, Pa-231, Np-237, Pu-242, and Pu-239. Simulation carried out in 100,000 years time span. The research goals are: 1). Estimating tunnels stan-up time, and 2). Predicting the equivalent dose rate contributed by the included radionuclides to the human due to radioactive polluted drinking water intake. (author)

  19. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  20. Spatial interpolation of gamma dose in radioactive waste storage facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Nazran; Fathi Sujan, Muhammad; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    External radiation measurement for a radioactive waste storage facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency is a part of Class G License requirement under Atomic Licensing Energy Board (AELB). The objectives of this paper are to obtain the distribution of radiation dose, create dose database and generate dose map in the storage facility. The radiation dose measurement is important to fulfil the radiation protection requirement to ensure the safety of the workers. There are 118 sampling points that had been recorded in the storage facility. The highest and lowest reading for external radiation recorded is 651 microSv/hr and 0.648 microSv/hour respectively. The calculated annual dose shows the highest and lowest reading is 1302 mSv/year and 1.3 mSv/year while the highest and lowest effective dose reading is 260.4 mSv/year and 0.26 mSv/year. The result shows that the ALARA concept along time, distance and shield principles shall be adopted to ensure the dose for the workers is kept below the dose limit regulated by AELB which is 20 mSv/year for radiation workers. This study is important for the improvement of planning and the development of shielding design for the facility.

  1. CT dose management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasheva, Ts.; Georgiev, E.; Kirova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In recent decades Computed Tomography established itself as one of the most common study with a very wide range of applications and techniques of scanning. Best diagnostic value of the method resist to the risks of ionizing radiation, as statistics show that CT is one of the main sources of continuously increasing dose to the population. What you will learn: The physical parameters of the X-ray tube and the principles of image reconstruction; The relationship between variables parameters and the received dose; The ratio between the force and voltage of the current to the image quality, Influence of the used contrast medium to the physical properties of the image, The ratio of patient BMI to image processing, Effective use of knowledge for the optimal CT protocol. Discussions: The goal to reduce the dose received by the patient during a CT scan while keeping the diagnostic quality of the image puts to the test as handset X-ray producers and technicians who need to master the technique of study protocol forming as well as to balance the harm - benefit ratio. Among the most popular techniques are these of dose modulation, low-dose computed tomography at the expense of a reduction of the current or voltage intensity, and control of the number of post-processing algorithms for the image reconstruction. Conclusion: The training of radiologists and X-ray technicians plays a major role in optimizing of technical parameters in view of the reduction of the dose for the patient, while maintaining the diagnostic quality of the image

  2. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  3. Estimates of radiation dose to the Australian population as a result of exposure to fallout from the French and the Chinese nuclear bomb tests over the period 1964-1972 and assessments of the adverse effects on public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.E.; Combe, Victoria.

    1973-03-01

    Measurements of fallout levels in Australia up to 1971 are reviewed and used to estimate Australian average individual dose commitments. An alternative set of numbers is given based on the most recent figures for global average dose commitments provided by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The two sets of numbers show reasonable agreement; the larger are adopted for use in estimating adverse effects. The contribution of the French and Chinese weapons tests relative to that from all tests is derived by inspection and extrapolation where necessary of data on the injection of strontium-90 into the northern and southern hemispheres and its subsequent deposition as a function of time. The risk data reviewed and summarised in the 1972 UNSCEAR and BEIR reports are used to derive estimates of adverse effects. It is concluded that the French and Chinese test series to the end of 1972 may be responsible over the next 20 years for up to 1.4 and 0.2 cases of cancer per year respectively in Australia. Of these cases, 0.25 per year would be leukaemia, 0.75 per year thyroid cancer and 0.6 per year all other forms. Available evidence on the mutagenic effects of radiation suggests that the total number of cases of severe genetic diseases produced may be of the same order as the total number of cases of cancer, with the former spread over many generations whereas the latter are not. (author)

  4. Evaluation of automatic exposure control system chamber for the dose optimization when examining pelvic in digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Lee, Hae-Kag; Lee, Yang-Sub; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We found a way to optimize the image quality and reduce the exposure dose of patients through the proper activity combination of the automatic exposure control system chamber for the dose optimization when examining the pelvic anteroposterior side using the phantom of the human body standard model. We set 7 combinations of the chamber of automatic exposure control system. The effective dose was yielded by measuring five times for each according to the activity combination of the chamber for the dose measurement. Five radiologists with more than five years of experience evaluated the image through picture archiving and communication system using double blind test while classifying the 6 anatomical sites into 3-point level (improper, proper, perfect). When only one central chamber was activated, the effective dose was found to be the highest level, 0.287 mSv; and lowest when only the top left chamber was used, 0.165 mSv. After the subjective evaluation by five panel members on the pelvic image was completed, there was no statistically meaningful difference between the 7 chamber combinations, and all had good image quality. When testing the pelvic anteroposterior side with digital radiography, we were able to reduce the exposure dose of patients using the combination of the top right side of or the top two of the chamber.

  5. Analysis of Source Selection Methods and Performance Outcomes: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable vs. Tradeoff in Air Force Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    fail the homogeneity of regression test for the PALT outcome variable. Fifth, we checked for multicollinearity by assessing the pooled within cell...tolerance for each DV (PALT and CPARS). Multicollinearity is not an issue for our data. Finally, we checked for homogeneity of covariance matrices

  6. Evaluation of patient dose during computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafalla, Elamam Yagoob Taha

    2015-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT), is an x-ray procedure that generates high quality cross sectional images of the body, and by comparison to other radiological diagnosis, CT is responsible for higher doses to patients. The evaluation of patient dose from computed tomography for pulmonary examinations the CT is responsible for higher doses to patients. The radiation dose was measured in three hospitals in Khartoum State during March 2015-October 2015 using different CT modalities. The radiation dose was higher at Alzytouna hospital than Daralelaj hospital and Alatebaa hospital was lowest. In this study, the mean effective dose for first hospital was 23.83±3.93 mSv and the mean effective dose for second hospital was 8.94±1.64 mSv and the mean effective dose for third hospital was 2.96±0.79. (author)

  7. Testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, Leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, Columba livia, and western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, with artificially weather MC252 oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K M; Cacela, D; Carney, M W; Cunningham, F L; Ellis, C; Gerson, A R; Guglielmo, C G; Hanson-Dorr, K C; Harr, K E; Healy, K A; Horak, K E; Isanhart, J P; Kennedy, L V; Link, J E; Lipton, I; McFadden, A K; Moye, J K; Perez, C R; Pritsos, C A; Pritsos, K L; Muthumalage, T; Shriner, S A; Bursian, S J

    2017-12-01

    Scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (Leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (Columba livia) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered MC252 oil and food for either a single day or 4-5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. Where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidative stress and organ weigh changes. Double-crested cormorants, laughing gulls and western sandpipers all excreted oil within 30min of dose, while pigeons regurgitated within less than one hour of dosing. There were species differences in the effectiveness of the dosing technique, with double-crested cormorants having the greatest number of responsive endpoints at the completion of the trial. Statistically significant changes in packed cell volume, white cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, uric acid, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione, spleen and liver weights were measured in double-crested cormorants. Homing pigeons had statistically significant changes in creatine phosphokinase, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione and Trolox equivalents. Laughing gulls exhibited statistically significant decreases in spleen and kidney weight, and no changes were observed in any measurement endpoints tested in western sandpipers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbeams, microdosimetry and specific dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randers-Pehrson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Dose and its usefulness as a single parameter to describe the amount of radiation absorbed are well established for most situations. The conditions where the concept of dose starts to break down are well known, mostly from the study of microdosimetry. For low doses of high LET radiation it is noted that the process of taking the limiting value of the energy absorbed within a test volume divided by the mass within that volume yields either zero or a relatively large value. The problem is further exacerbated with microbeam irradiations where the uniformity of the energy deposition is experimentally manipulated on the spatial scale of cells being irradiated. Booz introduced a quantity to deal with these problems: the unfortunately named 'mean specific energy in affected volumes'. This quantity multiplied by the probability that a test volume has received an energy deposit is equal to dose (in situations where dose can be defined). I propose that Booz's quantity be renamed 'specific dose', that is the mean energy deposited divided by the mass within a specified volume. If we believe for instance that the nucleus of a cell is the critical volume for biological effects, we can refer to the nuclear specific dose. A microbeam experiment wherein 10 per cent of the cell nuclei were targeted with 10 alpha particles would be described as delivering a nuclear specific dose of 1.6 Gy to 10 per cent of the population. (author)

  9. Switching From Age-Based Stimulus Dosing to Dose Titration Protocols in Electroconvulsive Therapy: Empirical Evidence for Better Patient Outcomes With Lower Peak and Cumulative Energy Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill-Kerr, Alex; Yassin, Anhar; Rogers, Stephen; Cornish, Janie

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the proposition that adoption of a dose titration protocol may be associated with better patient outcomes, at lower treatment dose, and with comparable cumulative dose to that in patients treated using an age-based stimulus dosing protocol. This was an analysis of data assembled from archived records and based on cohorts of patients treated respectively on an age-based stimulus dosing protocol and on a dose titration protocol in the National Health Service in England. We demonstrated a significantly better response in the patient cohort treated with dose titration than with age-based stimulus dosing. Peak doses were less and the total cumulative dose was less in the dose titration group than in the age-based stimulus dosing group. Our findings are consistent with superior outcomes in patients treated using a dose titration protocol when compared with age-based stimulus dosing in a similar cohort of patients.

  10. Does the Lowest Bid Price Evaluation Criterion Make for a More Efficient Public Procurement Selection Criterion? (Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.

  11. A flow-through passive dosing system for continuously supplying aqueous solutions of hydrophobic chemicals to bioconcentration and aquatic toxicity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Åkerman, Gun; Jahnke, Annika

    2012-01-01

    A continuous supply of water with defined stable concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals is a requirement in a range of laboratory tests such as the OECD 305 protocol for determining the bioconcentration factor in fish. Satisfying this requirement continues to be a challenge, particularly for hyd...

  12. Performance test of dosimetric services in the EU member states and Switzerland for the routine assessment of individual doses (photon, beta and neutron)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordy, J.M.; Stadtmann, H.; Ambrosi, P.

    2000-01-01

    of the dosimetry of routine services. It was assumed that each service would have already done a type test before performing routine dosimetry: the radiation fields were chosen to simulate, as far as possible, workplace radiation fields by mixing combining energies and incident angles. The results of photon...... for External Radiation. The other two papers are included in this issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry....

  13. Dependence of total dose response of bipolar linear microcircuits on applied dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, S.; Will, W.; Perry, G.; Pease, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dose rate on the total dose radiation hardness of three commercial bipolar linear microcircuits is investigated. Total dose tests of linear bipolar microcircuits show larger degradation at 0.167 rad/s than at 90 rad/s even after the high dose rate test is followed by a room temperature plus a 100 C anneal. No systematic correlation could be found for degradation at low dose rate versus high dose rate and anneal. Comparison of the low dose rate with the high dose rate anneal data indicates that MIL-STD-883, method 1019.4 is not a worst-case test method when applied to bipolar microcircuits for low dose rate space applications

  14. MINIMIZING RESIDUAL STAND DAMAGE AND FELLING COST USING LOWEST POSSIBLE FELLING TECHNIQUE (A case study in one logging company in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of felling technique in logging companies is not yet carried out efficiently and appropriately. Study on the lowest possible felling technique (LPFf is considered  to be important to  reduce residual  stand damage and felling cost. This study was carried out in a logging company in West Kalimantan in 2004. The aim of this study was to  determine the effect of LPFT on residual stand damage and felling cost. Data collected in this research include: residual stand damage, working time, timber  volume, productivity,  efficiency,  stump   height  and  felling cost.  Two categories  data were analyzed with  respect  to  their  possible  differences  using  T-test.    The  result  showed  that  the implementation   of  LPFT  was more advantage impact compared  to   that of  conventional felling technique, which is  indicated by the following factors:  (1  Trees damage decreased 2.96%;  (2 Poles damage decreased 4.75%;  (3 Felling productivity decreased 17.16%; (4 Felling efficiency  increased approximately  3.2%;  (5 Felling cost increased about Rp 327.07 /  m'; and (6 in average stump height was 40.60 cm lower.

  15. Dose effect relationships in cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdorff, B.

    1980-01-01

    The course and prognosis of radiation myelopathies are determined by 3 factors: the segmental (vertical) location of the lesion, the extent of the transverse syndrome (complete or incomplete) and the radiation dose. The median spinal dose in cervical radiation myelopathies with fatal outcome was higher than in survivals with an incomplete transverse syndrome. In thoracic radiation myelopathies a dose difference between complete and incomplete transverse syndromes could be found as well. Incomplete transverse syndromes as submaximum radiation injuries are more suitable for the determination of the spinal tolerance dose than complete transverse syndromes. The lowest threshold could be stated for cases following high-volume irradiation of the lymphatic system. (Auth.)

  16. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  17. Ultralow dose dentomaxillofacial CT imaging and iterative reconstruction techniques: variability of Hounsfield units and contrast-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Alexander; Stratis, Andreas; Kakar, Apoorv; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Puelacher, Wolfgang; Pauwels, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether application of ultralow dose protocols and iterative reconstruction technology (IRT) influence quantitative Hounsfield units (HUs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Methods: A phantom with inserts of five types of materials was scanned using protocols for (a) a clinical reference for navigated surgery (CT dose index volume 36.58 mGy), (b) low-dose sinus imaging (18.28 mGy) and (c) four ultralow dose imaging (4.14, 2.63, 0.99 and 0.53 mGy). All images were reconstructed using: (i) filtered back projection (FBP); (ii) IRT: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-50 (ASIR-50), ASIR-100 and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR); and (iii) standard (std) and bone kernel. Mean HU, CNR and average HU error after recalibration were determined. Each combination of protocols was compared using Friedman analysis of variance, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Results: Pearson's sample correlation coefficients were all >0.99. Ultralow dose protocols using FBP showed errors of up to 273 HU. Std kernels had less HU variability than bone kernels. MBIR reduced the error value for the lowest dose protocol to 138 HU and retained the highest relative CNR. ASIR could not demonstrate significant advantages over FBP. Conclusions: Considering a potential dose reduction as low as 1.5% of a std protocol, ultralow dose protocols and IRT should be further tested for clinical dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Advances in knowledge: HU as a surrogate for bone density may vary significantly in CT ultralow dose imaging. However, use of std kernels and MBIR technology reduce HU error values and may retain the highest CNR. PMID:26859336

  18. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da; Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient

  19. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  20. Time and dose in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayneord, W.V.; Clarke, R.H.

    1978-05-01

    Previous work on the implications of different forms of dose response relationships is extended to include time as a variable, not only in time of irradiation but also in the time of appearance of effects following irradiation. The forms of relationships for time distribution of tumours revealed experimentally for both radiation and chemical carcinogens are first considered. It appears that much data may be correlated in terms of a log-normal distribution of tumour yield following the insult. Further, it is noted, that there is evidence that the median time of tumour appearance may be a function of total dose received or even of dose rate for protracted exposure. Using numerical values of these parameters derived from the biological literature speculative studies have been made of the effects on dose response relationships of using a time distribution of tumour yield, considering both uniform irradiation and point sources. In addition the effects of using dose rate rather than dose to define the log-normal distribution to tumour appearance have been investigated. It is assumed that biological response is directly proportional to dose but that effect is distributed in time. From this linear assumption the appearance of non-linear dose response relationships and apparent thresholds are continually seen. Finally, both the importance of attempting analyses of biological data in terms of stochastic concepts and the need for biological data to test our hypotheses is emphasised. (author)

  1. Impurity binding energy of lowest-excited state in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD under electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, Haddou El; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine

    2013-01-01

    External electric field effect on the lowest-excited state in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot is considered. By means of a traditional Ritz variational method within the effective-mass approximation and finite potential barrier, the lowest-excited state energy with and without the presence of the impurity is investigated. The normalized binding energy under electric field effect is also performed. Our numerical results are compared with the previous theoretical findings and show a good agreement with those concerning especially the ground-state for different semiconductors materials and different QDs-shapes

  2. Impurity binding energy of lowest-excited state in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD under electric field effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Haddou El, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Sciences, Dhar EL Mehrez, B.P 1796 Atlas, Fez (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Kénitra (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine [LPS, Faculty of Sciences, Dhar EL Mehrez, B.P 1796 Atlas, Fez (Morocco)

    2013-10-01

    External electric field effect on the lowest-excited state in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot is considered. By means of a traditional Ritz variational method within the effective-mass approximation and finite potential barrier, the lowest-excited state energy with and without the presence of the impurity is investigated. The normalized binding energy under electric field effect is also performed. Our numerical results are compared with the previous theoretical findings and show a good agreement with those concerning especially the ground-state for different semiconductors materials and different QDs-shapes.

  3. The order of three lowest-energy states of the six-electron harmonium at small force constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasburger, Krzysztof [Department of Physical and Quantum Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-06-21

    The order of low-energy states of six-electron harmonium is uncertain in the case of strong correlation, which is not a desired situation for the model system being considered for future testing of approximate methods of quantum chemistry. The computational study of these states has been carried out at the frequency parameter ω = 0.01, using the variational method with the basis of symmetry-projected, explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) lobe functions. It has revealed that the six-electron harmonium at this confinement strength is an octahedral Wigner molecule, whose order of states is different than in the strong confinement regime and does not agree with the earlier predictions. The results obtained for ω = 0.5 and 10 are consistent with the findings based on the Hund’s rules for the s{sup 2}p{sup 4} electron configuration. Substantial part of the computations has been carried out on the graphical processing units and the efficiency of these devices in calculation of the integrals over ECG functions has been compared with traditional processors.

  4. Radiation dose-reduction strategies in thoracic CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J B; Sheard, S L; Edyvean, S; Vlahos, I

    2017-05-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) machines have the capability to perform thoracic CT for a range of clinical indications at increasingly low radiation doses. This article reviews several factors, both technical and patient-related, that can affect radiation dose and discusses current dose-reduction methods relevant to thoracic imaging through a review of current techniques in CT acquisition and image reconstruction. The fine balance between low radiation dose and high image quality is considered throughout, with an emphasis on obtaining diagnostic quality imaging at the lowest achievable radiation dose. The risks of excessive radiation dose reduction are also considered. Inappropriately low dose may result in suboptimal or non-diagnostic imaging that may reduce diagnostic confidence, impair diagnosis, or result in repeat examinations incurring incremental ionising radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reassessment of calculation of effective dose equivalent for the CRCN-CO Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, L.B.; Dourado, M.A.; Barbosa, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    To reassess the calculations of the effective dose equivalent to obtain data of dosimetry and the accomplishment of the analysis comparing the data of several techniques that record doses of radiation originating from the cosmogenic and terrestrial contributions that make up the so-called background radiation. the basic information to be obtained is the contribution of the difference between the terrestrial dose equivalents, even the lowest concentration of primordial radionuclides, and that of the dose equivalent, deduced from TLD readings. (author)

  6. Reassessment of calculation of effective dose equivalent for the CRCN-CO Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, L.B.; Dourado, M.A.; Barbosa, R.C., E-mail: research.photonics@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goiás, GO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    To reassess the calculations of the effective dose equivalent to obtain data of dosimetry and the accomplishment of the analysis comparing the data of several techniques that record doses of radiation originating from the cosmogenic and terrestrial contributions that make up the so-called background radiation. the basic information to be obtained is the contribution of the difference between the terrestrial dose equivalents, even the lowest concentration of primordial radionuclides, and that of the dose equivalent, deduced from TLD readings. (author)

  7. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  8. A dose error evaluation study for 4D dose calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Ullrich, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that respiration induced motion is not negligible for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. The intrafractional breathing induced motion influences the delivered dose distribution on the underlying patient geometry such as the lung or the abdomen. If a static geometry is used, a planning process for these indications does not represent the entire dynamic process. The quality of a full 4D dose calculation approach depends on the dose coordinate transformation process between deformable geometries. This article provides an evaluation study that introduces an advanced method to verify the quality of numerical dose transformation generated by four different algorithms. The used transformation metric value is based on the deviation of the dose mass histogram (DMH) and the mean dose throughout dose transformation. The study compares the results of four algorithms. In general, two elementary approaches are used: dose mapping and energy transformation. Dose interpolation (DIM) and an advanced concept, so called divergent dose mapping model (dDMM), are used for dose mapping. The algorithms are compared to the basic energy transformation model (bETM) and the energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM). For evaluation 900 small sample regions of interest (ROI) are generated inside an exemplary lung geometry (4DCT). A homogeneous fluence distribution is assumed for dose calculation inside the ROIs. The dose transformations are performed with the four different algorithms. The study investigates the DMH-metric and the mean dose metric for different scenarios (voxel sizes: 8 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm 9 different breathing phases). dDMM achieves the best transformation accuracy in all measured test cases with 3-5% lower errors than the other models. The results of dDMM are reasonable and most efficient in this study, although the model is simple and easy to implement. The EMCM model also achieved suitable results, but the approach requires a more complex

  9. Low-dose effect on blood chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Linear dose response relationships of biological effects at low doses are experimentally and theoretically disputed. Structural chromosome aberration rates at doses ranging from normal background exposures up to about 30 mGy/yr in vivo and up to 50 mGy in vitro were investigated by the author and other scientists. Results are comparable and dose effect curves reveal following shapes; within the normal burden and up to 2-10 mGy/yr in vivo rates they increase sharply to about 3-6 times the lowest values; subsequent doses either from natural, occupational or accidental exposures up to about 30 mGy/yr yield either constant aberration rates, assuming a plateau, or perhaps even a decrease. In vitro experiments show comparable results up to 50 mGy. Other biological effects seem to have similar dose dependencies. The non-linearity of low-dose effects can be explained by induction of repair enzymes at certain damage to the DNA. This hypothesis is sustained experimentally and theoretically by several papers in literature. (author). 14 refs., 5 figs

  10. Threshold dose to developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiangyan; Wang Bing; Gao Weimin; Lu Huimin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the threshold dose to the developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water. methods: Pregnant adult C 57 BL/6J strain mice and Wistar strain rats were irradiated with beta-rays from HTO by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th and 13 th days of gestation. The activities of HTO were 24.09, 48.18 and 144.54 ( x 10 4 Bq/g bw), respectively. Fifty-six parameters including postnatal growth, neutro-behavior, pathology of brain, neuropeptide contents, changes of hippocampal neurons, Ca 2+ conductance of hippocampal neurons etc were used to test the teratogenic threshold dose the lowest dose was different from that of the control). Results: Of the observed 56 parameters of rats and mice 80.4% indicated that the threshold doses for prenatal HTO exposure ranged from 0.030 Gy to 0.092 Gy, and the other 19.6% showed the threshold doses from 0.093 to 0.300 Gy. Conclusions: There exists threshold dose from the low level tritiated water irradiation of the developing central nerve system

  11. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  12. Time-dose modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian Ang, K.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in fractionation schedule can be made by various approaches. However, from the first principle, it is anticipated that strategies of hyperfractionation and/or accelerated fractionation offer the most promised in improving the therapeutic ratio. Hyperfractionation is defined as a treatment schedule in which a large number of significantly reduced dose fractions (--1.2 Gy/fraction) is used to give a greater total dose in a conventional overall time period. The results of the pilot studies testing the efficacy of hyperfractionation have been encouraging. The most valid clinical trial of pure hyperfractionation, however, is that conducted by the EORTC. This study compared 70 Gy in 35 fractions or 80.5 Gy in 70 fractions over 7 weeks in the treatment of patients with oropharyngeal carcinomas. The local tumor control was significantly improved in the hyperfractionated arm without increasing the morbidity. Accelerated fractionation is defined as a schedule in which the overall time of treatment is reduced without significant changes in the total dose and fraction size. The strategy has been used to treat patients with malignant gliomas, melanomas and Head and Neck cancers. The data in Head and Neck Cancers seem to be promising

  13. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Trap, H.C.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to indicate, for low-level exposure of conscious guinea pigs and marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour in air, the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of sarin for miosis. This is the concentration × time (C·t) value (t = 5 h) of exposure at which miosis

  14. From personnel dose to personal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Raffnsoe, R.C.; Tuyn, J.W.N.; Wittekind, D.

    1985-01-01

    From following the development of personnel doses at CERN over the past six years it has become evident that work in areas of induced radioactivity is the principal cause of exposure. The results of photon dose measurements free-in-air and around a phantom are presented and discussed in the light of new quantities in individual monitoring. The importance of these results, with respect to the practical situation, is discussed and the problem of phantom size is mentioned. Finally, the results of dose measurements in the phantom are presented, since such information is important in cases where it becomes necessary to transform personnel doses into personal doses. (author)

  15. Testing of environmental transfer models using data from the atmospheric release of Iodine-131 from the Hanford site, USA, in 1963. Report of the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of the Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Programme, Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3) radionuclide migration and accumulation in forest ecosystems. This report describes results of the studies undertaken by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group under Theme 2

  16. Magnetic moments of the lowest-lying singly heavy baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ghil-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2018-06-01

    A light baryon is viewed as Nc valence quarks bound by meson mean fields in the large Nc limit. In much the same way a singly heavy baryon is regarded as Nc - 1 valence quarks bound by the same mean fields, which makes it possible to use the properties of light baryons to investigate those of the heavy baryons. A heavy quark being regarded as a static color source in the limit of the infinitely heavy quark mass, the magnetic moments of the heavy baryon are determined entirely by the chiral soliton consisting of a light-quark pair. The magnetic moments of the baryon sextet are obtained by using the parameters fixed in the light-baryon sector. In this mean-field approach, the numerical results of the magnetic moments of the baryon sextet with spin 3/2 are just 3/2 larger than those with spin 1/2. The magnetic moments of the bottom baryons are the same as those of the corresponding charmed baryons.

  17. Genetic radiation risks: a neglected topic in the low dose debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate the accuracy and scientific validity of the current very low risk factor for hereditary diseases in humans following exposures to ionizing radiation adopted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The value is based on experiments on mice due to reportedly absent effects in the Japanese atomic bomb (Abomb survivors. Methods To review the published evidence for heritable effects after ionising radiation exposures particularly, but not restricted to, populations exposed to contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from atmospheric nuclear test fallout. To make a compilation of findings about early deaths, congenital malformations, Down’s syndrome, cancer and other genetic effects observed in humans after the exposure of the parents. To also examine more closely the evidence from the Japanese A-bomb epidemiology and discuss its scientific validity. Results Nearly all types of hereditary defects were found at doses as low as one to 10 mSv. We discuss the clash between the current risk model and these observations on the basis of biological mechanism and assumptions about linear relationships between dose and effect in neonatal and foetal epidemiology. The evidence supports a dose response relationship which is non-linear and is either biphasic or supralinear (hogs-back and largely either saturates or falls above 10 mSv. Conclusions We conclude that the current risk model for heritable effects of radiation is unsafe. The dose response relationship is non-linear with the greatest effects at the lowest doses. Using Chernobyl data we derive an excess relative risk for all malformations of 1.0 per 10 mSv cumulative dose. The safety of the Japanese A-bomb epidemiology is argued to be both scientifically and philosophically questionable owing to errors in the choice of control groups, omission of internal exposure effects and

  18. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with non-statin lipid-lowering therapy or the lowest strength of statin: ODYSSEY NIPPON study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Tamio; Kondo, Akira; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ozaki, Asuka; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Sata, Masataka

    2017-06-17

    Statins are generally well-tolerated and serious side effects are infrequent, but some patients experience adverse events and reduce their statin dose or discontinue treatment altogether. Alirocumab is a highly specific, fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which can produce substantial and sustained reductions of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 ODYSSEY NIPPON study will explore alirocumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) in 163 Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin (5 mg/day) or are receiving a non-statin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, ezetimibe, or diet therapy alone). Hypercholesterolemia is defined as LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or non-familial hypercholesterolemia with a history of documented coronary heart disease, or ≥120 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L) in patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia classified as primary prevention category III (i.e. high-risk patients). During the 12-week double-blind treatment period, patients will be randomized (1:1:1) to receive alirocumab subcutaneously (SC) 150 mg Q4W alternating with placebo for alirocumab Q4W, or alirocumab 150 mg SC every 2 weeks (Q2W), or SC placebo Q2W. The primary efficacy endpoint is the percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 12. The long-term safety and tolerability of alirocumab will also be investigated. The ODYSSEY NIPPON study will provide insights into the efficacy and safety of alirocumab 150 mg Q4W or 150 mg Q2W among Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin, or are receiving a non-statin LLT (including diet therapy alone). ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02584504.

  19. Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Dhakal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1 quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2 test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition.

  20. Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Cassidy, Elizabeth; Vitt Meyling, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1) quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2) test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition. PMID:29401652

  1. Optimizing CT radiation dose based on patient size and image quality: the size-specific dose estimate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, David B. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The principle of ALARA (dose as low as reasonably achievable) calls for dose optimization rather than dose reduction, per se. Optimization of CT radiation dose is accomplished by producing images of acceptable diagnostic image quality using the lowest dose method available. Because it is image quality that constrains the dose, CT dose optimization is primarily a problem of image quality rather than radiation dose. Therefore, the primary focus in CT radiation dose optimization should be on image quality. However, no reliable direct measure of image quality has been developed for routine clinical practice. Until such measures become available, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) can be used as a reasonable image-quality estimate. The SSDE method of radiation dose optimization for CT abdomen and pelvis consists of plotting SSDE for a sample of examinations as a function of patient size, establishing an SSDE threshold curve based on radiologists' assessment of image quality, and modifying protocols to consistently produce doses that are slightly above the threshold SSDE curve. Challenges in operationalizing CT radiation dose optimization include data gathering and monitoring, managing the complexities of the numerous protocols, scanners and operators, and understanding the relationship of the automated tube current modulation (ATCM) parameters to image quality. Because CT manufacturers currently maintain their ATCM algorithms as secret for proprietary reasons, prospective modeling of SSDE for patient populations is not possible without reverse engineering the ATCM algorithm and, hence, optimization by this method requires a trial-and-error approach. (orig.)

  2. Synergistic Effects of Ad-Libitum Low-Dose Fructose Drinking and Low-Dose Streptozotocin Treatment in Wistar Rats: A Mild Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asie Sadeghi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To develop a convenient animal model of T2D by pretreatment with low-dose 10% w/v fructose (FRC solution followed by the injection of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ in Wistar rats. For this 8-week experimental study; rats were first fed a standard chow ad-libitum diet and either tap water (n=40 or 10% w/v FRC solution (n=40 for 4 weeks. Next, rats in each category were randomly allocated to 4 subgroups (n=10 each of low-dose STZ (25,35, and 45 mg/kg. The final mean fasting blood sugar (FBG of FRC+STZ45 (197±55.87 mg/dl were significantly higher than that of the STZ45 (P=0.015 and FRC (P=0.019 groups. FRC+STZ45 showed the highest insulin resistance demonstrated by insulin tolerance test [area under the curve (AUC of insulin tolerance test; P<0.05]. AUC was not significantly different between the STZ45 and non-STZ groups and between FRC and non-FRC fed groups. Furthermore, FBG levels did not differ between FRC and non-FRC groups. Body weight measurement showed that the FRC+STZ45 group had the lowest body weight compared to all other groups. Our data provide the evidence that FRC and STZ45 synergistically could induce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Here we presented a feasible model for initial forms of T2D by employing pretreatment with low-dose FRC solution and treatment with low-dose STZ.

  3. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD 0 and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD 0 was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD 0 was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n could lead to

  4. Dose Response of MARV/Angola Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques following IM or Aerosol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sara C.; Lin, Kenny L.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.; Raymond, Jo Lynne W.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Wlazlowski, Carly B.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Botto, Miriam A.; Goff, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Marburg virus infection in humans causes a hemorrhagic disease with a high case fatality rate. Countermeasure development requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. To further characterize the cynomolgus macaque model of MARV/Angola, two independent dose response studies were performed using the intramuscular or aerosol routes of exposure. All animals succumbed at the lowest target dose; therefore, a dose effect could not be determined. For intramuscular-exposed animals, 100 PFU was the first target dose that was not significantly different than higher target doses in terms of time to disposition, clinical pathology, and histopathology. Although a significant difference was not observed between aerosol-exposed animals in the 10 PFU and 100 PFU target dose groups, 100 PFU was determined to be the lowest target dose that could be consistently obtained and accurately titrated in aerosol studies. PMID:26413900

  5. Dose Response of MARV/Angola Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques following IM or Aerosol Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Johnston

    Full Text Available Marburg virus infection in humans causes a hemorrhagic disease with a high case fatality rate. Countermeasure development requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. To further characterize the cynomolgus macaque model of MARV/Angola, two independent dose response studies were performed using the intramuscular or aerosol routes of exposure. All animals succumbed at the lowest target dose; therefore, a dose effect could not be determined. For intramuscular-exposed animals, 100 PFU was the first target dose that was not significantly different than higher target doses in terms of time to disposition, clinical pathology, and histopathology. Although a significant difference was not observed between aerosol-exposed animals in the 10 PFU and 100 PFU target dose groups, 100 PFU was determined to be the lowest target dose that could be consistently obtained and accurately titrated in aerosol studies.

  6. The Dose Response Relationship for Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric

    2008-03-01

    Recent surveys show that the collective population radiation dose from medical procedures in the U.S. has increased by 750% in the past two decades. It would be impossible to imagine the practice of medicine today without diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, but nevertheless the widespread and rapidly increasing use of a modality which is a known human carcinogen is a cause for concern. To assess the magnitude of the problem it is necessary to establish the shape of the dose response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis. Information on radiation carcinogenesis comes from the A-bomb survivors, from occupationally exposed individuals and from radiotherapy patients. The A-bomb survivor data indicates a linear relationship between dose and the risk of solid cancers up to a dose of about 2.5 Sv. The lowest dose at which there is a significant excess cancer risk is debatable, but it would appear to be between 40 and 100 mSv. Data from the occupation exposure of nuclear workers shows an excess cancer risk at an average dose of 19.4 mSv. At the other end of the dose scale, data on second cancers in radiotherapy patients indicates that cancer risk does not continue to rise as a linear function of dose, but tends towards a plateau of 40 to 60 Gy, delivered in a fractionated regime. These data can be used to estimate the impact of diagnostic radiology at the low dose end of the dose response relationship, and the impact of new radiotherapy modalities at the high end of the dose response relationship. In the case of diagnostic radiology about 90% of the collective population dose comes from procedures (principally CT scans) which involve doses at which there is credible evidence of an excess cancer incidence. While the risk to the individual is small and justified in a symptomatic patient, the same is not true of some screening procedures is asymptomatic individuals, and in any case the huge number of procedures must add up to a potential public health problem. In the

  7. Radiation dose reduction in the evaluation of scoliosis: an application of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, D.C.; Cleveland, R.H.; Herman, T.E.; Zaleske, D.J.; Ehrlich, M.G.; Correia, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the clinical testing of scanning beam digital radiography as an imaging method in patients with scoliosis. This type of digital imaging requires a skin exposure of only 2.4 mR (0.619 microC/kg) per image, compared with the lowest possible posteroanterior screen-film exposure of 10 mR (2.58 microC/kg) at the chest and 60 mR (15.48 microC/kg) at the lumbar spine. Digital radiographic and screen-film images were obtained on multiple test objects and 273 patients. Scoliosis measurements using screen-film radiographs and digital radiographs were comparable to within a mean difference of 1 degrees at many different degrees of severity. The low-dose digital images were found to be useful and accurate for the detection and measurement of scoliosis after the first screen-film radiographs have excluded tumors and structural abnormalities

  8. Dose rate and dose fractionation studies in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Schaffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) with 800-900 rads and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation according to the regimen designated by the Seattle group has induced remissions in patients with otherwise refractory acute leukemias. Relapse of leukemia after bone marrow transplantation remains the major problem, when the Seattle set up of two opposing 60 Co-sources and a low dose rate is used in TBI. Studies in dogs with TBI at various dose rates confirmed observations in mice that gastrointestinal toxicity is unlike toxicity against hemopoietic stem cells and possibly also leukemic stem cells depending on the dose rate. However, following very high single doses (2400 R) and marrow infusion acute gastrointestinal toxicity was not prevented by the lowest dose rate studied (0.5 R/min). Fractionated TBI with fractions of 600 R in addition to 1200 R (1000 rads) permitted the application of total doses up to 300 R followed by marrow infusion without irreversible toxicity. 26 dogs given 2400-3000 R have been observed for presently up to 2 years with regard to delayed radiation toxicity. This toxicity was mild in dogs given single doses at a low dose rate or fractionated TBI. Fractionated TBI is presently evaluated with allogeneic transplants in the dog before being applied to leukemic patients

  9. Effects of split fast neutron doses on the liver cells of albino Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmeguid, N.; Ramadan, A.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neutron doses from a compact D-T neutron generator on the liver cells of adult male and female albino Swiss mice was investigated. Fast neutrons (14.5 MeV) were delivered to the whole body in a single dose or in two, four, six or eight equal doses separated by 3-day intervals. The lowest dose, 100 rem, was given over an exposure time of 6 hours and was then steadily raised to 912 rem over an exposure time of 48 hours. During exposure the neutron flux was controlled by the activation foil technique. The animals were killed for testing after each irradiation. Histological examination of the hepatocytes with a light microscope showed marked degenerative changes only after the longer irradiation periods (24, 36 and 48 h). Electron microscopy showed cytological (cytoplasmic and nuclear) changes in the hepatocytes after only 12 hours' irradiation. Densitometric scans of electron micrographs of control and 12 h-irradiated livers indicated that the control hepatocyte interphase nucleus contains approximately 72% heterochromatin, while the irradiated nucleus contains only 64% heterochromatin. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  10. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  11. EGR technology for lowest emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1996-01-01

    An EGR system for turbocharged and aftercooled HD diesel engines has been demonstrated on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and a high pressure injection system. In this system exhaust gas is tapped off before the turbine, run through a cooler and mixed with the intake air after

  12. Pocket total dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1984-10-01

    Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and dose equivalent using a single tissue equivalent proportional counter. Small, pocket sized instruments are being developed to determine dose equivalent as the worker is exposed to mixed field radiation. This paper describes the electronic circuitry and computer algorithms used to determine dose equivalent in these devices

  13. Stress corrosion testing of irradiated cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Olshausen, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from two fuel rods with different cladding have been stress corrosion tested by closed-end argon-iodine pressurization at 320 0 C. The fuel rods with stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 had received burnups of 10.000 and 20.000 MWd/ton UO 2 , respectively. It was found that the SCC failure stress was unchanged or slightly higher for the irradiated than for the unirradiated control tubes. The tubes failed consistently in the end with the lowest irradiation dose. The diameter increase of the irradiated cladding during the test was 1.1% for the stress-relieved samples and 0.24% for the recrystallized samples. SEM examination revealed no major differences between irradiated and unirradiated cladding. A ''semi-ductile'' fracture zone in recrystallized material is described in some detail. (author)

  14. Emotional exhaustion and overcommitment to work are differentially associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a low-dose ACTH1-24 (Synacthen) and dexamethasone-CRH test in healthy school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for a detrimental impact of chronic work stress on health has accumulated in epidemiological research. Recent studies indicate altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation as a possible biological pathway underlying the link between stress and disease. However, the direction of dysregulation remains unclear, with reported HPA hyper- or hyporeactivity. To disentangle potential effects on different functional levels in the HPA axis, we examined responses using two pharmacological stimulation tests in 53 healthy teachers (31 females, 22 males; mean age: 49.3 years; age range: 30-64 years): a low-dose adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH(1-24), Synacthen) test was used to assess adrenal cortex sensitivity and the combined dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test to examine pituitary and adrenal cortex reactivity. Blood and saliva samples were collected at - 1,+15,+30,+45,+60,+90,+120 min. Emotional exhaustion (EE), the core dimension of burnout, was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overcommitment (OC) was assessed according to Siegrist's effort-reward-imbalance model. We found a significant association between EE and higher plasma cortisol profiles after Synacthen (p = 0.045). By contrast, OC was significantly associated with attenuated ACTH (p = 0.045), plasma cortisol (p = 0.005), and salivary cortisol (p = 0.023) concentrations following DEX-CRH. Results support the notion of altered HPA axis regulation in chronically work-stressed teachers, with differential patterns of hyper- and hyporeactivity depending on individual stress condition and the tested functional level of the HPA axis.

  15. Adapting protocols of CT imaging in a pediatric emergency department. Evaluation of image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Arce, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Casares Magaz, O.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the picture quality in relation to the radiation dose delivered in CT studies of computer tomograph Pediatric Emergency Department of Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC) in order to optimize the technical parameters used these radiological examinations so as to obtain optimal image quality at the lowest possible dose.

  16. Radio refractivity gradients in the lowest 100m of the atmosphere over Lagos, Nigeria in the rainy-harmattan transition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairo, O. F.; Kolawole, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    Radio engineers and researchers in conjunction with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have established the pivotal role of radio refractivity to the propagation of electromagnetic energy in the troposphere. In particular, the refractivity gradient statistics for the lowest 100m in the troposphere are used to determine the probability of occurrence of anomalous propagation conditions known as ducting. The major challenge to characterising the propagation condition over any environment is accessing the data of the lowest boundary layer of the atmosphere, which is highly dynamic and turbulent in evolution. High resolution radiosonde data from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) were used for a synoptic study of the rain-harmattan transition phase. The rain-harmattan transition phase marks the onset of the dry season due to the movement of the intertropical convergence zone interplay between (north-easterly and south-westerly) trade winds and monsoonal circulation. The lowest 100m data were analysed to determine the frequency of ducting per month. Progressive increase in the occurrence of ducting was observed during the rain-harmattan transition phase, which coincides with the West African Monsoon retreat. The results show significant divergence from previous studies, which reported that the tropospheric condition over Lagos (Geo. 6 . 5 °N, 3 . 3 °E), Nigeria, is predominantly super-refractive.

  17. Linear dose response curves in fungi and tradescantia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-15

    slope of LOH in Clone 02 and all other strains never approaches the expected slope of predicted for two hit events. This suggests that only particular combinations of coincident LCD and DSB lesions lead, on repair, to LOH. All the evidence suggests that DNA damage induction is linear to the lowest doses. The evidence suggests that even at the lowest doses and dose rates of low LET radiation, there is a constant probability of LOH arising from repair. The effects on cancer risk of this LOH will depend upon the genotype of the individual, and further selective mechanisms which may ameliorate or intensify the effects of the original LOH event. Radiation LOH mechanisms and organismic selective screens can be tested using mice with a defined genetic back-ground, and with genes involved in DNA repair and cancer risk, inactivated or knocked out to produce 'heterozygotes'. By selecting cancers within or outside the selective screen of the immune system the effects of immunological surveillance on the risks associated with LOH of a cancer risk gene can be measured. By knocking out genes in the RAD 52 or RAD 6 pathways, the differential effects of low and high LET radiations, the effects of repair deficiencies on RBE, and dose rate effects can be measured in heterozygotes. The interest in heterozygotes arises because they are expected to be present in the population at approximately four times the square root of the frequency of homozygotes, and because in terms of Knudson's multi-step theory of cancer risk, they have already inherited the first 'hit' from their parents in the form of one abnormal cancer risk gene. Clone 02 is abnormal, but in the same way that a heterozygous carrier of a Fanconi's anemia gene would be. As 1/77 of South African Afrikaans speakers are carriers of a Fanconi's anemia mutant gene, the Clone 02 results can be extrapolated to real human populations. It would, therefore, be expected that real humans would show linear

  18. Reducing dose in head CT: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, M.; Carvalho, A. E.; Andrade, M. E.; Khoury, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thirty two head CT scans were acquired employing an anthropomorphic phantom which contains small lesions in posterior fosse, using 2 scanners, one with 64 slices 'Siemens Sensation' and other with 6 slices P hilip Brilliance . Parameters as Tube current (I [mA]), Collimation (C [mm]), spectrum energy (kVp) and dynamic range were changed during studies, looking for the optimal acquisition/processing conditions which permit both, good lesion detectability and the lowest dose. Air kerma (mGy) was measured with a ionization chamber and the air kerma index (Ca,100 [mGy]) was calculated as dose index. Image quality was analyzed by 5 expert criteria using a 5 points-scale (1=poor, 2=fair, 3=good, 4=very good, 5=excellent) and also using 5 Figure of merit in the spatial and frequency domains: Contrast C(%), Contrast to Noise Ratio CNR, Signal to Noise Ratio SNR, Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) and the Spectral Distance (SD). Objective and subjective results were correlated. We observed that doses can be diminished until a 25% respect to the usual practice with both technologies, diminishing mainly the mAs, without affecting lesion detection. As a result, we propose an optimized protocol for each scanner as follow: The use of 250 mAs, 120 kVp and the collimation of 6 slices x 1.50 mm per rotation to detect the lesions in posterior fosse with good image quality for the Philips Brilliance 6 tested, while 150 mAs, 100 kVp and slice thickness of 3 mm were needed with the Siemens Sensation 64. (Author)

  19. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belley, Matthew D.; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Methods: Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Results: Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%–32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. Conclusions: This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigninga single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs

  20. When is a dose not a dose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There is confusion over radiation dose limits between the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the National Radiological Protection Board and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), reports a Friends of the Earth's radiation campaigner. MAFF is suggesting the inadequate ICRP public dose limit does not apply to public exposures which arise from environmental contamination from past radioactive discharges. (author)

  1. Simulation of computed tomography dose based on voxel phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyu; Lv, Xiangbo; Li, Zhaojun

    2017-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the preferred and the most valuable imaging tool used in diagnostic radiology, which provides a high-quality cross-sectional image of the body. It still causes higher doses of radiation to patients comparing to the other radiological procedures. The Monte-Carlo method is appropriate for estimation of the radiation dose during the CT examinations. The simulation of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) phantom was developed in this paper. Under a similar conditions used in physical measurements, dose profiles were calculated and compared against the measured values that were reported. The results demonstrate a good agreement between the calculated and the measured doses. From different CT exam simulations using the voxel phantom, the highest absorbed dose was recorded for the lung, the brain, the bone surface. A comparison between the different scan type shows that the effective dose for a chest scan is the highest one, whereas the effective dose values during abdomen and pelvis scan are very close, respectively. The lowest effective dose resulted from the head scan. Although, the dose in CT is related to various parameters, such as the tube current, exposure time, beam energy, slice thickness and patient size, this study demonstrates that the MC simulation is a useful tool to accurately estimate the dose delivered to any specific organs for patients undergoing the CT exams and can be also a valuable technique for the design and the optimization of the CT x-ray source.

  2. CT radiation dose and image quality optimization using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, Francis; McEntee, Mark F; Rainford, Louise

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate potential radiation dose savings and resultant image quality effects with regard to optimization of commonly performed computed tomography (CT) studies derived from imaging a porcine (pig) model. Imaging protocols for 4 clinical CT suites were developed based on the lowest milliamperage and kilovoltage, the highest pitch that could be set from current imaging protocol parameters, or both. This occurred before significant changes in noise, contrast, and spatial resolution were measured objectively on images produced from a quality assurance CT phantom. The current and derived phantom protocols were then applied to scan a porcine model for head, abdomen, and chest CT studies. Further optimized protocols were developed based on the same methodology as in the phantom study. The optimization achieved with respect to radiation dose and image quality was evaluated following data collection of radiation dose recordings and image quality review. Relative visual grading analysis of image quality criteria adapted from the European guidelines on radiology quality criteria for CT were used for studies completed with both the phantom-based or porcine-derived imaging protocols. In 5 out of 16 experimental combinations, the current clinical protocol was maintained. In 2 instances, the phantom protocol reduced radiation dose by 19% to 38%. In the remaining 9 instances, the optimization based on the porcine model further reduced radiation dose by 17% to 38%. The porcine model closely reflects anatomical structures in humans, allowing the grading of anatomical criteria as part of image quality review without radiation risks to human subjects. This study demonstrates that using a porcine model to evaluate CT optimization resulted in more radiation dose reduction than when imaging protocols were tested solely on quality assurance phantoms.

  3. Dose and Spatial Effects in Long-Distance Radiation Signaling In Vivo: Implications for Abscopal Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Giardullo, Paola; Leonardi, Simona; Pasquali, Emanuela; Casciati, Arianna; De Stefano, Ilaria; Tanori, Mirella; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dose and spatial dependence of abscopal radiation effects occurring in vivo in the mouse, along with their tumorigenic potential in the central nervous system (CNS) of a radiosensitive mouse model. Methods and Materials: Patched1 (Ptch1) +/− mice, carrying a germ-line heterozygous inactivating mutation in the Ptch1 gene and uniquely susceptible to radiation damage in neonatal cerebellum, were exposed directly to ionizing radiation (1, 2, or 3 Gy of x-rays) or treated in a variety of partial-body irradiation protocols, in which the animals' head was fully protected by suitable lead cylinders while the rest of the body was exposed to x-rays in full or in part. Apoptotic cell death was measured in directly irradiated and shielded cerebellum shortly after irradiation, and tumor development was monitored in lifetime groups. The same endpoints were measured using different shielding geometries in mice irradiated with 3 or 10 Gy of x-rays. Results: Although dose-dependent cell death was observed in off-target cerebellum for all doses and shielding conditions tested, a conspicuous lack of abscopal response for CNS tumorigenesis was evident at the lowest dose of 1 Gy. By changing the amount of exposed body volume, the shielding geometry could also significantly modulate tumorigenesis depending on dose. Conclusions: We conclude that interplay between radiation dose and exposed tissue volume plays a critical role in nontargeted effects occurring in mouse CNS under conditions relevant to humans. These findings may help understanding the mechanisms of long-range radiation signaling in harmful effects, including carcinogenesis, occurring in off-target tissues

  4. Dose assessment at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Colsher, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bikini Atoll is one of two sites in the northern Marshall Islands that was used by the United States as testing grounds for the nuclear weapons program from 1946 to 1958. In 1969 a general cleanup began at Bikini Atoll. Subsistence crops, coconut and Pandanus fruit, were planted on Bikini and Eneu Islands, and housing was constructed on Bikini Island. A second phase of housing was planned for the interior of Bikini Island. Preliminary data indicated that external gamma doses in the interior of the island might be higher than in other parts of the island. Therefore, to select a second site for housing on the island with minimum external exposure, a survey of Bikini Atoll was conducted in June 1975. External gamma measurements were made on Bikini and Eneu Islands, and soil and vegetations samples collected to evaluate the potential doses via terrestrial food chains and inhalation. Estimates of potential dose via the marine food chain were based upon data collected on previous trips to the atoll. The terrestrial pathway contributes the greater percentage, external gamma exposure contributes the next highest, and inhalation and marine pathways contribute minor fractions of the total whole body and bone marrow doses. The radionuclides contributing the major fraction of the dose are 90 Sr and 137 Cs. All living patterns involving Bikini Island exceed federal guidelines for 30-yr population doses. The Eneu Island living pattern leads to doses that are slightly less than federal guidelines. All patterns evaluated for Bikini Atoll lead to higher doses than those on the southern islands at Enewetak Atoll

  5. Dose optimization in computed tomography: ICRP 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The doses given in the use of computed tomography scans are studied, aiming to calibrate the limits of irradiation in patients who need these tests. Furthermore, a good value of computed tomography should be guaranteed by physicians and radiologists for people not being irradiated unfairly, reducing doses and unnecessary tests. A critical evaluation by an ethics committee is suggested for cases where the test is performed for medical research without a cause [es

  6. Effect of two doses of carbamylated allergoid extract of dust mite on nasal reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, G; Compalati, E; Bruno, M E; Mistrello, G

    2013-11-01

    Background and Objective. Single SLIT studies with native allergen extracts support a dose-response effect for clinical and immunological outcomes. Conversely for carbamylated allergoids this dose-response effects is less evident, likely because the threshold for efficacy is more easily reached through the enhanced bioavailability of the extract consequent to the selective chemical modification. Thus this pilot study investigates the dose-response effect on nasal specific reactivity and safety of two unusual doses of carbamylated allergoid in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mites. Methods. A prospective open randomized study involved 6-65 year-old Italian patients with clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mites and positive response to nasal provocation challenge. Monomeric carbamylated allergoid was delivered once daily at the dose of 1000 AU or 2000 AU from June to September 2009, during the lowest level of mites exposure. Primary outcomes were the change of the threshold of allergen concentration for a positive nasal provocation test (NPT) before and after the treatment and the product safety. Secondary outcome was the change  in the mean percentage fall of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) following nasal challenge. Results. Thirty-four patients were enrolled. Fifteen in group 1 and 14 in group 2 concluded the study. After 12 weeks all patients treated in group 1 and all but one in group 2 showed an increase in the threshold dose provoking a positive NPT. Those with no symptoms onset with the highest dose delivered were 80% in group 1 and 78.6% in group 2 (p=0.92). From first to second challenge, the mean percentage fall of PNIF  was reduced with no statistical difference between groups (p=0.95), and with no difference between the final mean percentage falls (p=0.65). No serious adverse reactions occurred and the frequency of events, all mild, was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. Twelve weeks of carbamylated sublingual allergoid

  7. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  8. A novel dose uncertainty model and its application for dose verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hosang; Chung Heetaek; Liu Chihray; Palta, Jatinder; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2005-01-01

    Based on statistical approach, a novel dose uncertainty model was introduced considering both nonspatial and spatial dose deviations. Non-space-oriented uncertainty is mainly caused by dosimetric uncertainties, and space-oriented dose uncertainty is the uncertainty caused by all spatial displacements. Assuming these two parts are independent, dose difference between measurement and calculation is a linear combination of nonspatial and spatial dose uncertainties. Two assumptions were made: (1) the relative standard deviation of nonspatial dose uncertainty is inversely proportional to the dose standard deviation σ, and (2) the spatial dose uncertainty is proportional to the gradient of dose. The total dose uncertainty is a quadratic sum of the nonspatial and spatial uncertainties. The uncertainty model provides the tolerance dose bound for comparison between calculation and measurement. In the statistical uncertainty model based on a Gaussian distribution, a confidence level of 3σ theoretically confines 99.74% of measurements within the bound. By setting the confidence limit, the tolerance bound for dose comparison can be made analogous to that of existing dose comparison methods (e.g., a composite distribution analysis, a γ test, a χ evaluation, and a normalized agreement test method). However, the model considers the inherent dose uncertainty characteristics of the test points by taking into account the space-specific history of dose accumulation, while the previous methods apply a single tolerance criterion to the points, although dose uncertainty at each point is significantly different from others. Three types of one-dimensional test dose distributions (a single large field, a composite flat field made by two identical beams, and three-beam intensity-modulated fields) were made to verify the robustness of the model. For each test distribution, the dose bound predicted by the uncertainty model was compared with simulated measurements. The simulated

  9. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (≥10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10 -10 scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged from

  10. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED adj ). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED adj between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED adj that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates that were not

  11. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan [Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose

  12. Radiation exposure doses of employees in reactor facilities for test and research and under research and development stages, and in facilities for nuclear fuel refining, fabrication, reprocessing and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    (1) Radiation exposure doses in reactor facilities. The owners of reactor facilities are obliged by law to control the radiation exposure doses of the employees below the permissible levels. The data based on the reports made in this connection are given in tables for the fiscal year 1978 (from April 1978 to March 1979). It was revealed that the radiation exposure doses of the employees were far below the permissible levels. The distributions of exposure doses in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and so on are presented for the whole year and the respective quarters. (2) Radiation exposure doses in facilities for nuclear fuel. The owners are similarly obliged to control radiation exposure. The data in this connection are given, and the doses were far below the permissible levels. The distributions in the private enterprises and so on are presented for the whole year. (J.P.N.)

  13. Evaluation of radiation doses from radioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, J.A.; Grove, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive new drugs are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States. Before a new drug can be marketed it must have an approved New Drug Application (NDA). Clinical investigations of a radioactive new drug are carried out under a Notice of Claimed Investigational Exemption for a New Drug (IND), submitted to the FDA. In the review of the IND, radiation doses are projected on the basis of experimental data from animal models and from calculations based upon radiation characteristics, predicted biodistribution of the drug in humans, and activity to be administered. FDA physicians review anticipated doses and prevent clinical investigations in humans when the potential risk of the use of a radioactive substance outweighs the prospect of achieving beneficial results from the administration of the drug. In the evaluation of an NDA, FDA staff attempt to assure that the intended diagnostic or therapeutic effect is achievable with the lowest practicable radiation dose. Radiation doses from radioactive new drugs are evaluated by physicians within the FDA. Important radioactive new drugs are also evaluated by the Radiopharmaceuticals Advisory Committee. FDA also supports the Center for Internal Radiation Dosimetry at Oak Ridge, to provide information regarding in vivo distribution and dosimetry to critical organs and the whole body from radioactive new drugs. The process for evaluation of radiation doses from radioactive new drugs for protection against use of unnecessary radiation exposure by patients in nuclear medicine procedures, a

  14. Determination of the lowest concentrations of aldehyde fixatives for completely fixing various cellular structures by real-time imaging and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fangfa; Yang, Wen; Huang, Jie; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2013-05-01

    The effectiveness of fixatives for fixing biological specimens has long been widely investigated. However, the lowest concentrations of fixatives needed to completely fix whole cells or various cellular structures remain unclear. Using real-time imaging and quantification, we determined the lowest concentrations of glutaraldehyde (0.001-0.005, ~0.005, 0.01-005, 0.01-005, and 0.01-0.1 %) and formaldehyde/paraformaldehyde (0.01-0.05, ~0.05, 0.5-1, 1-1.5, and 0.5-1 %) required to completely fix focal adhesions, cell-surface particles, stress fibers, the cell cortex, and the inner structures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells within 20 min. With prolonged fixation times (>20 min), the concentration of fixative required to completely fix these structures will shift to even lower values. These data may help us understand and optimize fixation protocols and understand the potential effects of the small quantities of endogenously generated aldehydes in human cells. We also determined the lowest concentration of glutaraldehyde (0.5 %) and formaldehyde/paraformaldehyde (2 %) required to induce cell blebbing. We found that the average number and size of the fixation-induced blebs per cell were dependent on both fixative concentration and cell spread area, but were independent of temperature. These data provide important information for understanding cell blebbing, and may help optimize the vesiculation-based technique used to isolate plasma membrane by suggesting ways of controlling the number or size of fixation-induced cell blebs.

  15. Communication: Systematic shifts of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital peak in x-ray absorption for a series of 3d metal porphyrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Cook, P. L.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    Porphyrins are widely used as dye molecules in solar cells. Knowing the energies of their frontier orbitals is crucial for optimizing the energy level structure of solar cells. We use near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to obtain the energy of the lowest unoccupied...... molecular orbital (LUMO) with respect to the N-1s core level of the molecule. A systematic energy shift of the N-1s to LUMO transition is found along a series of 3d metal octaethylporphyrins and explained by density functional theory. It is mainly due to a shift of the N-1s level rather than a shift...

  16. Improved Apnea-Hypopnea Index and Lowest Oxygen Saturation After Maxillomandibular Advancement With or Without Counterclockwise Rotation in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben B.; Laulund, Anne Sofie; Ingerslev, Janne

    2015-01-01

    - and postsurgical values of pharyngeal volume measured on computed tomogram or cone-beam computed tomogram and changes in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) values after surgery. Datawere subjected to a meta-analysis based on odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P...... between pharyngeal volume changes and surgical method used. Postoperative parameters included an AHI lower than 5 (OR = 14.9; 95% CI, 2.7-83.5; P = .002), an AHI lower than 20 (OR = 114.8; 95% CI, 23.5-561.1; P

  17. Retinopathy after low dose irradiation for an intracranial tumor of the frontal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaas, T.; Thorud, E.; Jetne, V.; Conradi, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    A 32-year-old man underwent an operation for an oligodendroglioma of the left frontal lobe. Postoperatively he was irradiated to a target dose of 54 Gy. One year later hedeveloped bilateral retinopathy quite similar to diabetic retinopathy. There were no clinical or biochemical signs of diabetes or hematological disease. The calcultated maximum dose to the retina was 11 Gy. This is to our knowledge the lowest retinal dose of ionizing radiation reported to produce retinopathy. (author)

  18. Threshold dose for behavioral discrimination of cigarette nicotine content in menthol vs. non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Kunkle, Nicole; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2017-04-01

    The lowest threshold content (or "dose") of nicotine discriminated in cigarettes may differ due to menthol preference. Menthol and non-menthol Spectrum research cigarettes differing in nicotine content were used to determine discrimination thresholds. Dependent smokers preferring menthol (n = 40) or non-menthol (n = 21) brands were tested on ability to discriminate cigarettes (matched for their menthol preference) with nicotine contents of 16-17, 11-12, 5, 2, and 1 mg/g, one per session, from an "ultra-low" cigarette with 0.4 mg/g. Controlled exposure to each cigarette was four puffs/trial, and the number of sessions was determined by the lowest nicotine content they could discriminate on >80% of trials (i.e., ≥5 of 6). We also assessed subjective perceptions and behavioral choice between cigarettes to relate them to discrimination responses. Controlling for Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence score, discrimination thresholds were more likely to be at higher nicotine content cigarettes for menthol vs. non-menthol smokers (p vs. 11 mg/g, respectively. Compared to the ultra-low, threshold and subthreshold (next lowest) cigarettes differed on most perceptions and puff choice, but menthol preference did not alter these associations. Notably, threshold cigarettes did, but subthreshold did not, increase choice over the ultra-low. Threshold for discriminating nicotine via smoking may be generally higher for menthol vs. non-menthol smokers. More research is needed to identify why menthol smoking is related to higher nicotine thresholds and to verify that cigarettes unable to be discriminated do not support reinforcement.

  19. Radiation doses from dental radiography at private practioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylthen, J A

    1975-10-01

    This investigation was made in January 1975 together with a seminar group from the faculty of odontology in Stockholm. Every four private practising dentists in Stockholm and its environs were selected by haphazard to get an enquiry equipment etc. Every forty private practising dentists were then selected by haphazard to get a visit. 32 x-ray plants were investigated. The radiation doses showed a great spreading. The mean value of the radiation doses to the irradiated organs had been reduced about 5 times compared to a similar investigation, which was made in 1960. The use of long metal tubes and high-speed film gave the lowest dose values, while a short cone of bakelite and a low-speed film gave the highest dose values. Fluctuations in the dose values seemed also to depend on the technique. The reasons for this may be variations in the settings of the instruments and in the dark room technique.

  20. Radiation dose of staff during positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Shoji, Yasuaki; Hagami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Yasuo; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kan, Mikio; Sasaki, Nobuo; Toyoshima, Eiji; Sugawara, Shigeki

    1989-04-01

    In this paper, the radiation dose of the PET staff including blood sampling operators (medical doctors), PET operators (radio technologists), nurses, blood analysts (medical technologists), radiochemists and cyclotron operators in the cyclotron-PET unit was evaluated. The dose was measured using the film-badges for whole body and TLD ring-badges for fingers. These data were obtained from June, 1986 to May, 1987. In the average dose per month, those with the highest dose were radiochemists. The whole body dose was 1.08 mSv (108 mrem) for /gamma/-ray, 520 /mu/Sv (52 mrem) for /beta/-ray and the dose for fingers, 7.6mSv (760 mrem). The total dose per year both for /gamma/ and /beta/-ray was 19.2 mSv (1.92 rem) for whole body and 91.2 mSv (9.12 rem) for fingers. The staff with the lowest whole body dose for /gamma/-ray per month was blood analysts whose dose was 30 /mu/Sv (3 mrem). For the staff consisting of doctors, radiotechnologists and nurses, the whole body dose per month was 70-170/mu/Sv (7-17 mrem) for /gamma/-ray, 20 /mu/Sv (2 mrem) for /beta/-ray and the dose for fingers per month was 210-540 /mu/Sv (21-54 mrem). For cyclotron operators, the dose was 90 /mu/Sv (9 mrem) for /gamma/-ray, 30 /mu/Sv (3 mrem) for /beta/-ray and the dose for fingers was 160 /mu/Sv (16 mrem). For cyclotron operators and radiochemists, the whole body dose for the neutron ray was measured by solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), but the dose was found to be negligible. (author).

  1. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce......CONTE