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Sample records for lowers worker aggression

  1. Patient aggression perceived by community support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Christopher; Hannah, Annette; Swain, Nicola; Gray, Andrew; Coverdale, John; Oud, Nico

    2009-12-01

    Objective: Aggression by patients is a known risk factor for hospital workers. Within New Zealand, the bulk of ongoing care for physical and mental disabilities and health issues is not hospital based, but contracted to various non-governmental agencies. The rate of client aggression towards care workers from these organizations, to our knowledge, has not been assessed. Method: Two hundred and forty-two support workers in non-governmental agencies caring for people with disabilities responded to an anonymous mailed survey on client aggression, personal distress, and communication style. Results: Most support workers did experience verbal forms of aggression or destructive behaviour, fewer experienced physical aggression, and a minority were injured, sexually harassed, stalked or harassed by means of formal complaint. The median total violence score was five (interquartile range 12.25). A higher total violence score (using the POPAS-NZ) was associated with age and gender, the primary disability of clients, and the numbers of hours worked. The length of time worked was not associated with total violence risk. Communication style, after correcting for other factors, was a predictor of aggression. Almost 6% of care workers reported distress symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant stress reactions. Conclusions: Patient aggression is common among care workers, and can cause distress in the minority. We suggest that further research to clarify risk factors and develop interventions for care workers is needed.

  2. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, paggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Explaining lower educated workers' training intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Oomens, S.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Hazelzet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data

  4. Postincident Support for Healthcare Workers Experiencing Occupational Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tracey; Cooper, Brian; De Cieri, Helen; Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Lindsay, Sarah

    2018-05-10

    To investigate the relative contributions of workplace type, occupational violence and aggression (OVA) strategies and interventions along with perceptions of the occupational health and safety (OHS) environment on the likelihood of receiving postincident support following the experience of OVA. We used a cross-sectional study design with an online survey to collect data from employees in nursing and midwifery in Victoria, Australia. Survey data collected from 3,072 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 3,072 respondents who had experienced OVA in the preceding 12 months, 1,287 (42%) reported that they had received postincident support. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that the OHS environment was the dominant factor that predicted the likelihood of workers receiving postincident support. Working in a positive OHS environment characterized by higher levels of leading indicators of OHS, prioritization of OHS, supervisor support for safety, and team psychological safety was the stronger predictor of postincident support. Being employed in a workplace that offered training in the management and prevention of OVA also increased the likelihood of receiving postincident support. While training in the management and prevention of OVA contributed to the likelihood of receiving postincident support, a greater emphasis on the OHS environment was more important in predicting the likelihood that workers received support. This study identifies workplace practices that facilitate the provision of postincident support for healthcare workers. Facilitating effective postincident support could improve outcomes for workers, their patients and workplaces, and society in general. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Patient aggression towards different professional groups of healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kowalczuk

    2017-03-01

    Nurses are most exposed to different forms of patient aggression, with verbal attacks being most prevalent. Nurses employed at inpatient healthcare units experienced aggression more frequently than those working in outpatient healthcare units.

  6. Social interactions and their connection to aggression and ovarian development in orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, E D; Plowright, C M S

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the social dynamics of reproductive conflict. Orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) with comparatively high or low levels of social activity were paired to determine whether aggression and reproduction could be traced to earlier social interactions. The workers were paired according to their levels of social activity (a socially active+another socially active worker, socially active+socially inactive, and two socially inactive workers). The presence or absence of brood was also manipulated. The absence of brood increased both aggression and ovarian development, suggesting that aggression and reproduction are associated or that there is a third variable that affects both. Socially active pairs were significantly more aggressive: here, social activity can be taken as an early indicator of aggression. No such effect, however, was obtained on ovarian development as the socially active pairs did not differ on their degree of ovarian development compared to the others. Within the socially active+socially inactive pairs, the socially active worker did not have more developed ovaries and was not more aggressive than her socially inactive partner. Results highlight that environmental conditions (the absence of brood) can predict ovarian development and although social activity can be observed prior to aggression, differences in aggression do not translate into differences in ovarian development under these conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  8. Japanese care workers' perception of dementia-related physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Harvath, Theresa A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Japanese care workers' attributions, beliefs and cultural explanations of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms. Physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms by older people with dementia have been associated with occupational stress among care workers in the United States and other Western countries and may contribute to staff turnover. However, few studies related to this issue have been conducted in Japan, where care worker reaction to physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms might be different because of cultural and customary differences in how care is provided for older people. This study reports on the results of three open-ended questions that were part of a larger study that explored Japanese care workers' experiences with aggressive behaviour symptoms in persons with dementia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 137 care workers in 10 nursing homes in the northern and western areas of Japan. The answers to the open-ended questions were analysed using a content analysis. Most of the participants indicated that they believed that physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms came from residents' stress from dementia. Approximately, one-fourth of the participants responded that Japanese values such as chu (loyalty) and joge (hierarchy) influenced their work with residents with physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms. Seventeen participants (12%) commented either that they respected older people or that they respected older people as persons who had had many experiences in life. Interestingly, 43 responses (41.0%) indicated that physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms influenced quality of care positively, while, not surprisingly, about 30 responses indicated that those behaviour symptoms influenced quality of care negatively. Findings from this study indicate that the training and education needs to

  9. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  10. Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, F.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aggression, violence and deviant behavior are terms frequently used interchangeable, but relate to different theoretical concepts. Therefore, this chapter starts with a definition of aggression. Furthermore, several theories regarding the development of aggression will be presented. According to

  11. Intracolleague aggression in a group of Dutch prison workers : Negative affectivity and posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, S.; van der Laan, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined workplace aggression among a Dutch group of 174 prison workers at 10 penitentiaries in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the main and interaction effects of Type D personality and violence on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results showed a

  12. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  13. Lower amygdala volume in men is associated with childhood aggression, early psychopathic traits, and future violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A; Raine, Adrian; Erickson, Kirk; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Reduced amygdala volume has been implicated in the development of severe and persistent aggression and the development of psychopathic personality. With longitudinal data, the current study examined whether male subjects with lower amygdala volume have a history of aggression and psychopathic features dating back to childhood and are at increased risk for engaging in future aggression/violence. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study of 503 male subjects initially recruited when they were in the first grade in 1986-1987. At age 26, a subsample of 56 men with varying histories of violence was recruited for a neuroimaging substudy. Automated segmentation was used to index individual differences in amygdala volume. Analyses examined the association between amygdala volume and levels of aggression and psychopathic features of participants measured in childhood and adolescence. Analyses also examined whether amygdala volume was associated with violence and psychopathic traits assessed at a 3-year follow-up. Men with lower amygdala volume exhibited higher levels of aggression and psychopathic features from childhood to adulthood. Lower amygdala volume was also associated with aggression, violence, and psychopathic traits at a 3-year follow-up, even after controlling for earlier levels of these features. All effects remained after accounting for several potential confounds. This represents the first prospective study to demonstrate that men with lower amygdala volume have a longstanding history of aggression and psychopathic features and are at increased risk for committing future violence. Studies should further examine whether specific amygdala abnormalities might be a useful biomarker for severe and persistent aggression. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A protocol to prevent and deal with aggressive behavior against health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemir, María; Arteaga, Alfonso

    Violence against health workers is a highly prevalent phenomenon with serious psychological and labour consequences among professionals. This paper aims, first, to find out the main studies undertaken to date to describe and analyse the phenomenon, as well as to present different initiatives and protocols of action carried out. The second objective is to offer a procedure of action both to prevent aggression and to intervene in the event of receiving an aggression at work. After a bibliographic search in PubMed, Scopus and SciELO databases, the impact of the aggressions suffered by health professionals, the contexts in which aggressions are more frequent, their main consequences and different strategies and protocols conducted in Spain are reviewed. Given that rigorous reviews supporting such procedures are lacking in scientific journals, different action guidelines for professionals to prevent and to deal with hostile behaviour based on available evidence are developed and proposed. Finally, an easily consultable and applicable action procedure for health workers attacked in the workplace is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Tachykinin expression levels correlate with caste-specific aggression in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Jack; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2016-01-01

    The tachykinins are a family of neuropeptides that influence a range of behavioral phenotypes in both vertebrates and invertebrates; they appear to have a conserved role in the processing of stimuli, and in the control of aggression in a wide range of animals. Expression of tachykinin in a cluster......, a species with multiple worker castes. After correction for differences in brain size among castes, we found that the most aggressive large worker caste had the highest Tachykinin expression levels, but that no such effect was apparent for breeding and virgin queens. To further evaluate these deviating...... results for the reproductive caste, we manipulated the aggression threshold of virgin-queens by removing their wings, which is known to make them express a soldier-like behavioral phenotype. Despite heightened aggression, expression levels of Tachykinin remained unaffected, suggesting that aggression...

  16. A communication skills intervention for community healthcare workers reduces perceived patient aggression: a pretest-postest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Gale, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that healthcare workers experience high levels of aggression from patients. Prevention packages to address this have received little research support. Communication skills have been shown to influence individuals' experience of aggression and are also amenable to training. This study aims to deliver a communication skills training package that will reduce the experience of aggression in the workplace for healthcare workers. An interactive, multimedia communication skills package was developed that would be suitable for community healthcare workers. The training consisted of four workshops, including teaching, discussion and DVD illustrative examples. These were based on research and clinical experience. This intervention was delivered in two community care organisations over several months. Fifty-six community healthcare workers took part in the trial in small groups. There were 46 females and 10 males with a median age of 45-54 years. For each group a series of four communication skills workshops were given. Measurements of perceived aggression and wellbeing were taken before the workshops, at the end of the workshops, one month after and two months after. Results show statistically significant reductions in perceived aggression one and two months after baseline measures (pcommunication skills training programme is both enjoyable and shows decreases in perceived aggression, distress, and increases in general mental wellness. A full RCT of this intervention is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Posterior chain flexibility and lower back pain in farm workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Flexibility is an essential component of physical aptitude that reduces the incidence of muscle distention and improves movement efficiency and posture. Objective: To analyze posterior chain flexibility and lower back pain (LBP in farm workers from a city in western Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Methods: Quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted with 185 rural workers, average age of 44.24 (±10.83 years. The Rural Worker Health Questionnaire, containing individual issues related to work; sit and reach box, goniometer, visual analog scale (VAS and Oswestry and Roland-Morris questionnaires were used to evaluate posterior chain flexibility, hamstring muscle length, pain and lumbar spine dysfunction, respectively. Flexibility was compared with the degree of dysfunction using one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: 181 (97.8% workers reported LBP symptoms: 100% of the women and 95.2% of the men. The average Oswestry score was 7.09 (±8.25, Roland-Morris 1.22 (±1.63, and VAS 5.81 (±2.5. Average flexibility by the sit and reach test (SRT was 23.91cm (±18.81; straight leg raise (SLR, 66° (±11.77 and popliteal angle 123.21° (±12.45. There was a significant difference in the popliteal angle (p = 0.003 and SLR (0.001 when compared with the degree of dysfunction. Women showed significant differences in all tests; however, the post hoc test showed a significant difference only in the SRT (p = 0.013, and women with minimal dysfunction had greater flexibility in relation to those with severe dysfunction. Conclusion: Self-reported LBP was severe and women with higher levels of dysfunction exhibited less posterior chain flexibility.

  18. Tachykinin expression levels correlate with caste-specific aggression in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHowe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tachykinins are a family of neuropeptides that influence a range of behavioral phenotypes in both vertebrates and invertebrates; they appear to have a conserved role in the processing of stimuli, and in the control of aggression in a wide range of animals. Expression of tachykinin in a cluster of neurons was recently shown to determine the stimulus response threshold for aggressive behavior in Drosophila (1. Varying response thresholds are often implicated in division of labor within social insect colonies, so we hypothesized that Tachykinin could play a role in the organization of colony defense by affecting individual response thresholds to non-nestmate stimuli. We used quantitative-PCR in combination with behavioral assays to test for associations between the expression of Tachykinin and its receptor, and the aggressive division of labor among the castes of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, a species with multiple worker castes. After correction for differences in brain size among castes, we found that the most aggressive large worker caste had the highest Tachykinin expression levels, but that no such effect was apparent for breeding and virgin queens. To further evaluate these deviating results for the reproductive caste, we manipulated the aggression threshold of virgin-queens by removing their wings, which is known to make them express a soldier-like behavioral phenotype. Despite heightened aggression, expression levels of Tachykinin remained unaffected, suggesting that aggression levels in reproductive caste phenotypes are controlled by differential expression of other genes.

  19. Early aggressive intraocular pressure lowering, target intraocular pressure, and a novel concept for glaucoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldev; Shrivastava, Anurag

    2008-11-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage offers the potential for early treatment which may prevent vision loss from this neurodegenerative disease. Even in patients who do not begin early treatment, early diagnosis allows for better monitoring of disease at a stage where the stakes are lower relative to later stages of the disease. For these reasons, early diagnosis of glaucomatous optic nerve disease is desirable and opens the door for appropriately aggressive therapy. The target intraocular pressure (IOP) concept is widely employed by glaucoma practitioners. Although there have been no randomized clinical trials or other high-quality studies showing the benefits of setting a target IOP versus not using this approach, there is ample evidence that lowering IOP slows glaucoma progression and, in general, lower is better, regardless of disease stage and baseline IOP level. We propose an alternative approach to managing glaucoma without the use of the target IOP concept and suggest that this market IOP concept should be compared with the target IOP approach in an appropriately powered comparative clinical trial.

  20. Preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Ueba, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Motohiro; Iwata, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Kohsuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement was investigated in patients with ultra-acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Retrospective review of 248 patients (145 males, 103 females) with spontaneous ICH treated in our hospital between 2005 and 2008 identified patients with ultra-acute ICH who were directly taken to our institute by ambulance within 3 hours after onset. Patients who could not be assessed twice by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after arrival were excluded. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was aggressively controlled in all patients using intravenous nicardipine to below 140 mmHg as soon as possible after diagnosis of ICH with CT. Hematoma enlargement was defined as increase in volume of more than 33% or more than 12.5 ml in the first 24 hours. Hematoma enlargement was observed in 11 of the 73 patients (15.0%). The time course of SBP change was not significantly different in patients with and without hematoma enlargement. The incidence of hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH in this study was 15.0%, which was lower than that in other series in which blood pressure was not reduced aggressively. This finding suggests that aggressive SBP lowering to below 140 mmHg has a preventive effect on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH. (author)

  1. Models of Disease Vector Control: When Can Aggressive Initial Intervention Lower Long-Term Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Bismark; Grijalva, Mario J; Just, Winfried

    2018-04-01

    Insecticide spraying of housing units is an important control measure for vector-borne infections such as Chagas disease. As vectors may invade both from other infested houses and sylvatic areas and as the effectiveness of insecticide wears off over time, the dynamics of (re)infestations can be approximated by [Formula: see text]-type models with a reservoir, where housing units are treated as hosts, and insecticide spraying corresponds to removal of hosts. Here, we investigate three ODE-based models of this type. We describe a dual-rate effect where an initially very high spraying rate can push the system into a region of the state space with low endemic levels of infestation that can be maintained in the long run at relatively moderate cost, while in the absence of an aggressive initial intervention the same average cost would only allow a much less significant reduction in long-term infestation levels. We determine some sufficient and some necessary conditions under which this effect occurs and show that it is robust in models that incorporate some heterogeneity in the relevant properties of housing units.

  2. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Bushman, B.J.; Konijn, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored

  3. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Li Zhi [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Tang, T Y; Gillard, J H [School of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fan, Jiang; Yun, Zhang [Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2011-05-15

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085{+-}0.033 vs. 0.169{+-}0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018{+-}0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  4. Spin, Unit Climate, and Aggression: Near Term, Long Term, and Reciprocal Predictors of Violence Among Workers in Military Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    bullying, harassment, intimate partner violence) as well as physical health and mental health outcomes often associated with exposure to aggression (e.g... physical aggression, witnessing aggression in the workplace can have negative consequences for unit performance, physical health , and mental health . An...constructs (e.g., physical assault, verbal aggression, anger / rage, bullying, harassment, intimate partner violence) as well as physical health and

  5. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  6. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi Yong; Tang, T.Y.; Gillard, J.H.; Jiang Fan; Zhang Yun

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085±0.033 vs. 0.169±0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018±0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  7. Sustaining the work ability and work motivation of lower-educated older workers: Directions for work redesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Dorenbosch, L.; Grundemann, R.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines directions for work redesign which might lead to the creation of sustainable jobs for lower-educated older workers (45 years or over, ISCED 0-2) and thus motivate and enable them to extend their working lives. We use longitudinal data on 1,264 older Dutch workers collected by the

  8. Height and weight distribution of lower-middle income group of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.; Sharma, R.C.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Workers in the nuclear industry who are occasionally exposed to a radioactive environment were monitored for possible internal contamination. Calibration of the detection equipment was carried out with the help of a phantom. It is imperative that the phantom should have the physical dimensions of the subjects being monitored. As a step towards evolving a reference phantom, the height and weight distribution of the workers has been studied. The subjects included in this study are from lower middle income group drawing salaries between Rs 500 to 1000 per month. Mean weight +- SD was found to be 56.2 +- 8.70 kg and height 167 +- 5.90 cm. these averages match well with the data given by certain Life Insurance Companies in India. Although mean weight was found to be appreciably higher than the value reported in 1966, based on autopsy data, the mean weight and height are much less than the reference man values adopted by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which are based on western man (average weight = 70 kg., average height = 174 cm). (author)

  9. Which dose of bevacizumab is more effective for the treatment of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity: lower or higher dose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Dikci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare 0.5 mg and 0.625 mg of bevacizumab for treating aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP. Methods: The medical records of patients with AP-ROP who were administered intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB as a primary treatment at a university clinic were evaluated retrospectively. Five eyes of three patients (Group 1 who received 0.625 mg/0.025 ml IVB and 10 eyes of another five patients (Group 2 who received 0.5 mg/0.02 ml IVB were evaluated. Laser photocoagulation was used as additional treatment after relapses. Anatomic results and complications were evaluated in both groups. Results: We evaluated 15 eyes of eight patients (four girls and four boys with a flat demarcation line at posterior zone 2 and plus disease or stage-3 disease in this study. The mean gestational age of the three babies in Group 1 was 26 ± 1 weeks and the mean birth weight was 835.33 ± 48.01 g. The corresponding values were 25.2 ± 1.6 weeks and 724 ± 139.03 g, respectively, for the five babies in Group 2. Retinal vascularization was completed at a mean postmenstrual duration of 53.6 ± 1.5 weeks without additional treatment in the five eyes in Group 1. Laser photocoagulation for relapse was administered to five of the 10 eyes in Group 2. Retinal vascularization was completed at a mean postmenstrual duration of 47.6 ± 1.5 weeks in the remaining five eyes. None of the patients developed complications such as cataract, glaucoma, retinal tear, retinal or vitreous hemorrhage, or retinal detachment. Conclusion: Although lower IVB doses in the treatment of AP-ROP are expected to be safer in terms of local and systemic side effects in premature infants, these patients may require additional treatment with IVB or laser photocoagulation.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of lower urinary tract symptoms among expatriate male workers in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Krishna Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:0 To estimate the prevalence and determinants of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, in male expatriate workers in Qatar and to assess the impact of LUTS on the quality of life (QoL. MATERIALS AND Methods:0 A number of 570 male expatriate workers aged 20 to 63 years, mostly of Indian origin (87%, were interviewed orally by trained interviewers. The International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS questionnaire was used for the assessment of LUTS and QoL. Results:0 The mean age of the study population was 40 years (SD 9.2. Overall, 52% of the study population reported at least one urinary symptom. The most frequent symptom was nocturia (31%, and the most infrequent straining (11%. Twenty-one percent of the men had moderate or severe LUTS (IPSS score > 7. The prevalence of storage symptoms was significantly higher than that of voiding symptoms in all age groups. LUTS was not associated with nationality, smoking, or body mass index. Men with diabetes (OR= 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.3 or hypertension (OR= 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.3 were slightly at higher risk of LUTS, than those without diabetes or hypertension. Men with moderate (OR = 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.4 or severe LUTS (OR = 12.8, 95% CI 4.6-36.0, had poorer quality of life, compared to those with no or mild symptoms. Conclusions:0 Lower urinary tract symptoms, especially storage symptoms, are common in young male expatriates in Qatar. LUTS has a strong negative impact on the quality of life.

  11. Risk Factor, Job Stress and Quality of Life in Workers With Lower Extremity Pain Who Use Video Display Terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sehoon; Jang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Si-Bog; Han, Seung Hoon

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the general characteristics of video display terminal (VDT) workers with lower extremity pain, to identify the risk factors of work-related lower extremity pain, and to examine the relationship between work stress and health-related quality of life. A questionnaire about the general characteristics of the survey group and the musculoskeletal symptom was used. A questionnaire about job stress used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale and medical outcome study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess health-related quality of life. There were 1,711 subjects in the lower extremity group and 2,208 subjects in the control group. Age, sex, hobbies, and feeling of loading affected lower extremity pain as determined in a crossover analysis of all variables with and without lower extremity pain. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of job stress and SF-36 values of the pain and control groups. Job stress in VDT workers was higher than average, and the quality of life decreased as the stress increased. Factors such as younger age, women, hobbies other than exercise, and feeling of loading influenced lower extremity pain of workers. Further long-term follow-up and supplementary studies are needed to identify risk factors for future lower extremity pain, taking into account ergonomic factors such as worker's posture.

  12. Investigation of postural edema in the lower extremities of traffic control workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Nunes Pereira Brito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of postural edema and investigate whether working posture - sitting down or standing up - affect its frequency. METHODS: Sixteen traffic control agents were assessed by water displacement volumetry and the results were analyzed in two groups, depending on working posture. Those who worked standing up for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SU group and those who worked sitting down for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SD group. Each worker was assessed before and after their working shift for three consecutive days. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the test of equality of two proportions. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. The assessment showed that members of both groups had postural edema of the lower extremities (p ≤ 0.001. RESULTS: When the frequency of postural edema was compared across groups, a trend was observed for greater edema formation in the SU group than in the SD group, although without statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that traffic control agents suffer postural edema after 4 hours working in either of the postures investigated although with a predominance of edema formation among those who work standing up.

  13. Aggressive Event Incidence using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R): A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto; Whittemore, Robin; Dixon, Jane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify aggressive event incidence rates in the inpatient psychiatric setting, describe characteristics of events and differences based on aggression target and type (verbal vs. physical). A longitudinal study was carried out of aggressive events identified by workers in four inpatient psychiatric units using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) over 6 weeks. A total of 113 aggressive events were recorded resulting in a rate of 13.27 events per bed per year. Verbal aggression was demonstrated in 86 % and physical aggression in 57 % of events. Most events (70.8 %, n = 81) targeted a worker. Compared to other targets, workers were 3.4 times more likely to feel threatened (95 % CI 1.2-9.6, χ 2  = 5.08, p = 0.0242), and less likely to have a visible injury (OR 0.15, 95 % CI 0.04-0.6; χ 2  = 7.1, p = 0.0078). Event severity ranged from 0 to 21 with a mean of 9.5(SD = 5.1), with 20 % considered severe. Verbal events had lower mean severity of 6.5(SD = 3.8) versus physical events with a severity of 11.8(SD = 4.8; t = 6.5, df = 111, p Aggression incidence was similar to incidence found in other studies. Workers were the target of most aggressive events and many were identified as having no understandable provocation. Further understanding of event characteristics will promote more effective prevention and management of aggressive events.

  14. Work, Life and VET Participation amongst Lower-Paid Workers. NCVER Monograph Series 05/2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Barbara; Skinner, Natalie; McMahon, Catherine; Pritchard, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is the culmination of a three-year research program undertaken by the University of South Australia's Centre for Work+Life. It considers the barriers, support and benefit of vocational education and training (VET) for workers in the low-paid occupations (that is, those earning around $17 per hour). The research considered a wide…

  15. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  16. Rationale and Design of Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Iimuro, Satoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Yukio; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Hiro, Takafumi; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasushi; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Nagai, Ryozo

    2018-03-30

    Large-scale clinical trials in patients in Western countries with coronary artery disease (CAD) have found that aggressive lipid-lowering therapy using high-dose statins reduces cardiovascular (CV) events further than low-dose statins. However, such evidence has not yet been fully established in Asian populations, including in Japan. The Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid-Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) study addresses whether intensification of statin therapy improves clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with CAD.REAL-CAD is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, physician-initiated phase 4 trial in Japan. The study will recruit up to 12,600 patients with stable CAD. Patients are assigned to receive either pitavastatin 1 mg/day or pitavastatin 4 mg/day. LDL-C levels are expected to reach approximate mean values of 100 mg/dL in the low-dose pitavastatin group and 80 mg/dL in the high-dose group. The primary endpoint is the time to occurrence of a major CV event, including CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and unstable angina requiring emergency hospitalization during an average of 5 years. The large number of patients and the long follow-up period in the REAL-CAD study should ensure that there is adequate power to definitively determine if reducing LDL-C levels to approximately 80 mg/dL by high-dose statin can provide additional clinical benefit.After the study is completed, we will have categorical evidence on the optimal statin dose and target LDL-C level for secondary prevention in Japanese patients.

  17. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bannikova, Maria V.; Grigorieva, Evgenia S.; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P.; Azizova, Elena V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∇AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. (orig.)

  19. Expanding the knowledge on lignocellulolytic and redox enzymes of worker and soldier castes from the lower termite Coptotermes gestroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lourenço Franco Cairo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Termites are considered one of the most efficient decomposers of lignocelluloses on Earth due to their ability to produce, along with its microbial symbionts, a repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Recently, a set of Pro-oxidant, Antioxidant, and Detoxification enzymes (PAD were also correlated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lignin in termites. The lower termite Coptotermes gestroi is considered the main urban pest in Brazil, causing damage to wood constructions. Recently, analysis of the enzymatic repertoire of C. gestroi unveiled the presence of different CAZymes. Because the gene profile of CAZy/PAD enzymes endogenously synthesized by C. gestroi and also by their symbiotic protists remains unclear, the aim of this study was to explore the eukaryotic repertoire of these enzymes in worker and soldier castes of C. gestroi. Our findings showed that worker and soldier castes present similar repertoires of CAZy/PAD enzymes, and also confirmed that endo-glucanases (GH9 and beta-glucosidases (GH1 were the most important glycoside hydrolase families related to lignocellulose degradation in both castes. Classical cellulases such as exo-glucanases (GH7 and endo-glucanases (GH5 and GH45, as well as classical xylanases (GH10 and GH11, were found in both castes only taxonomically related to protists, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in C. gestroi. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of Auxiliary Activity enzyme families (AAs, which could be related to lignin modifications in termite digestomes. In conclusion, this report expanded the knowledge on genes and proteins related to CAZy/PAD enzymes from worker and soldier castes of lower termites, revealing new potential enzyme candidates for second-generation biofuel processes.

  20. Expanding the Knowledge on Lignocellulolytic and Redox Enzymes of Worker and Soldier Castes from the Lower Termite Coptotermes gestroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Cairo, João P L; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Leonardo, Flávia C; Mofatto, Luciana S; Brenelli, Lívia B; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Uchima, Cristiane A; Domingues, Romênia R; Alvarez, Thabata M; Tramontina, Robson; Vidal, Ramon O; Costa, Fernando F; Costa-Leonardo, Ana M; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Squina, Fabio M

    2016-01-01

    Termites are considered one of the most efficient decomposers of lignocelluloses on Earth due to their ability to produce, along with its microbial symbionts, a repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Recently, a set of Pro-oxidant, Antioxidant, and Detoxification enzymes (PAD) were also correlated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lignin in termites. The lower termite Coptotermes gestroi is considered the main urban pest in Brazil, causing damage to wood constructions. Recently, analysis of the enzymatic repertoire of C. gestroi unveiled the presence of different CAZymes. Because the gene profile of CAZy/PAD enzymes endogenously synthesized by C. gestroi and also by their symbiotic protists remains unclear, the aim of this study was to explore the eukaryotic repertoire of these enzymes in worker and soldier castes of C. gestroi . Our findings showed that worker and soldier castes present similar repertoires of CAZy/PAD enzymes, and also confirmed that endo-glucanases (GH9) and beta-glucosidases (GH1) were the most important glycoside hydrolase families related to lignocellulose degradation in both castes. Classical cellulases such as exo-glucanases (GH7) and endo-glucanases (GH5 and GH45), as well as classical xylanases (GH10 and GH11), were found in both castes only taxonomically related to protists, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in C. gestroi . Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of Auxiliary Activity enzyme families (AAs), which could be related to lignin modifications in termite digestomes. In conclusion, this report expanded the knowledge on genes and proteins related to CAZy/PAD enzymes from worker and soldier castes of lower termites, revealing new potential enzyme candidates for second-generation biofuel processes.

  1. Effects of load carriage and work boots on lower limb kinematics of industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Park, Huiju; Li, Jun; Koo, Heekwang; Xu, Qinwen

    2017-08-09

    Load and footwear condition are two crucial elements varying the kinematic responses during walking, which probably lead to chronic injury. Fifteen healthy male individuals with no obvious gait abnormalities participated in this study. Apart from a no-load condition, four external load conditions with two load levels were investigated. Work boots were compared with running shoes to determine footwear effects. Significant impacts were found for lower limb range of motion at certain joints when carrying loads. A greater hip and ankle flexion-extension while wearing the work boots indicated that participants needed to lift the leg higher to complete toe clearance off the walking surface. Work boots also increased the vertical excursion of the center of body mass, which may impact body balance and induce falling. No significant influencing pattern of carrying modes was found, which was probably due to the light load and relatively stable mode of shoulder carrying.

  2. Assessment of lower limbs edema in healthy workers who are exposed to long-term gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Tessari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish changes in leg volumes in healthy subjects (HS after prolonged standing and prolonged lying. The study was carried out on two HS groups: the group A (20 subjects included physicians and nurses who underwent a water plethysmography test, before and after eight hours of standing still in the operating room. The group B (20 subjects included volunteers who were assessed before and after 10 h of supine resting. Group A: baseline leg volume was 1857.5 mL±196.9 on the right and 1850 mL±194.7 on the left limb. After eight hours of hydrostatic pressure action the two lower limbs volume was significantly increased to 1945 mL±209.6, and to 1940 mL±216.2, respectively (P<0.0001. The increased volume is significantly correlated with time (R2=0.95, P<0.0001. Group B: baseline leg volume was 1875 mL±175.1 on the right, and 1862.5 mL±166.9 on the left limb. After ten hours of resting supine the volume was 1770 mL±195.6, and to 1757.5 mL±194.2, respectively (P<0.0001. The decreased volume is significantly but inverted correlated with time (R2=−0.98, P<0.0001. This study demonstrates how the hydrostatic pressure is a main determinant for fluid accumulation in the lower extremity. To counteract the gravitational gradient becomes the mandatory prophylactic approach for healthy individuals who are exposed to an increased chronic venous disease risk.

  3. Predicting return to work for lower back pain patients receiving worker's compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancourt, J; Kettelhut, M

    1992-06-01

    The results of a prospective study of 134 patients with lower back pain suggest that nonorganic factors are better predictors of return to work than organic findings. Patients who returned to work had fewer job, personal, or family related problems. There were no significant differences between patients who returned to work and those who did not when comparing myelograms, computed tomographic scans, or roentgenographs. The only significant difference in physical organic findings was for muscle atrophy. Patients who did not return to work had a statistically higher incidence rate of muscle atrophy. Length of time off from work was significantly related to outcome, but when patients were categorized according to time off the job, different factors predicted failure to return for patients off work for less than 6 months and patients off for more than 6 months. For patients off for less than 6 months, important predictors were a high Oswestry score, history of leg pain, family relocation, short tenure on the job, verbal magnification of pain, reports of moderate to severe pain on superficial palpation, and positive reaction to a "sham" sciatic tension test. None of these was a significant predictor for the group off for more than 6 months. For the group off work for more than 6 months, previous injuries, and stability of family living arrangements were among the significant predictors not significant for the group off less than 6 months. Using 21 factors selected from a larger group of 92 factors, three statistically significant (P less than or equal to 0.001) predictive measures were developed. These measures predicted return to work for the total sample, and for the two subgroups (off more than, or less than 6 months) more accurately than did the total set of 92 factors.

  4. Plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular events in the Treating to New Targets and Incremental Decrease in End-Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering trials of statins in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Ole; Holme, Ingar; Fayyad, Rana

    2009-01-01

    We determined the ability of in-trial measurements of triglycerides (TGs) to predict new cardiovascular events (CVEs) using data from the Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) and Treating to New Targets (TNT) trials. The trials compared atorvastatin 80 mg...

  5. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Asiimwe, Caroline; Nakanjako, Damalie; Nabakooza, Jane; Bajabaite, Moses; Strachan, Clare; Tibenderana, James K; Van Geetruyden, Jean Pierre

    2012-04-20

    The training of health workers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is an important component of a wider strategy to improve parasite-based malaria diagnosis at lower level health care facilities (LLHFs) where microscopy is not readily available for all patients with suspected malaria. This study describes the process and cost of training to attain competence of lower level health workers to perform malaria RDTs in a public health system setting in eastern Uganda. Health workers from 21 health facilities in Uganda were given a one-day central training on the use of RDTs in malaria case management, including practical skills on how to perform read and interpret the test results. Successful trainees subsequently integrated the use of RDTs into their routine care for febrile patients at their LLHFs and transferred their acquired skills to colleagues (cascade training model). A cross-sectional evaluation of the health workers' competence in performing RDTs was conducted six weeks following the training, incorporating observation, in-depth interviews with health workers and the review of health facility records relating to tests offered and antimalarial drug (AMD) prescriptions pre and post training. The direct costs relating to the training processes were also documented. Overall, 135 health workers were trained including 63 (47%) nursing assistants, a group of care providers without formal medical training. All trainees passed the post-training concordance test with ≥ 80% except 12 that required re-training. Six weeks after the one-day training, 51/64 (80%) of the health workers accurately performed the critical steps in performing the RDT. The performance was similar among the 10 (16%) participants who were peer-trained by their trained colleagues. Only 9 (14%) did not draw the appropriate amount of blood using pipette. The average cost of the one-day training was US$ 101 (range $92-$112), with the main cost drivers being trainee travel and per

  6. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  7. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyabayinze Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The training of health workers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs is an important component of a wider strategy to improve parasite-based malaria diagnosis at lower level health care facilities (LLHFs where microscopy is not readily available for all patients with suspected malaria. This study describes the process and cost of training to attain competence of lower level health workers to perform malaria RDTs in a public health system setting in eastern Uganda. Methods Health workers from 21 health facilities in Uganda were given a one-day central training on the use of RDTs in malaria case management, including practical skills on how to perform read and interpret the test results. Successful trainees subsequently integrated the use of RDTs into their routine care for febrile patients at their LLHFs and transferred their acquired skills to colleagues (cascade training model. A cross-sectional evaluation of the health workers’ competence in performing RDTs was conducted six weeks following the training, incorporating observation, in-depth interviews with health workers and the review of health facility records relating to tests offered and antimalarial drug (AMD prescriptions pre and post training. The direct costs relating to the training processes were also documented. Results Overall, 135 health workers were trained including 63 (47% nursing assistants, a group of care providers without formal medical training. All trainees passed the post-training concordance test with ≥ 80% except 12 that required re-training. Six weeks after the one-day training, 51/64 (80% of the health workers accurately performed the critical steps in performing the RDT. The performance was similar among the 10 (16% participants who were peer-trained by their trained colleagues. Only 9 (14% did not draw the appropriate amount of blood using pipette. The average cost of the one-day training was US$ 101 (range $92-$112, with the

  9. Estudo quantitativo das células de Langerhans em carcinomas basocelulares com maior e menor potencial de agressividade local Quantitative study of Langerhans cells in basal cell carcinoma with higher or lower potential of local aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - O carcinoma basocelular localiza-se principalmente em áreas expostas ao sol, apresentando formas clínicas e histológicas diferentes, algumas com grande e outras com pequena agressividade local. Células de Langerhans participam ativamente do sistema imune da pele. OBJETIVO - Avaliar quantitativamente as células de Langerhans sobrepostas aos carcinomas basocelulares de maior e menor potencial de agressividade local, assim como nas respectivas epidermes sãs adjacentes. MÉTODOS - Dois grupos com 14 preparações histológicas cada. No primeiro, carcinoma basocelular de menor potencial de agressividade local e, no segundo, carcinoma basocelular de maior potencial. Empregou-se a imunoistoquímica com proteína S100 para identificação das células de Langerhans. Utilizando microscópio óptico em aumento de 400 vezes e a grade morfométrica de Weibel, foram contadas as células de Langerhans presentes em sete campos, obtendo-se a média em cada lâmina. Foi utilizado teste estatístico de Wilcoxon para análise estatística. RESULTADOS - No grupo de menor potencial de agressividade local, na epiderme sã adjacente houve aumento significativo no número de células de Langerhans comparado ao da epiderme sobreposta ao carcinoma basocelular (p d 0,05. No grupo de maior potencial de agressividade local, não houve diferença com significado estatístico (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO - O maior número de células de Langerhans na epiderme sã vizinha à lesão tumoral de menor potencial de agressividade local poderia representar uma maior resistência imunológica da epiderme, limitando a agressividade da neoplasia.BACKGROUNDS - Basal cell carcinoma affects areas of the body that have been exposed to the sun, and this disorder has different clinical and histopathologic presentations. Some of these forms have a higher potential of local aggressiveness, while others have a lower potential. Langerhans cells actively participate in the skin

  10. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  11. 4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    relational aggression and the psychological well- being of perpetrators. ... Difficulties Questionnaire - Youth version. Results: Results from ... INTRODUCTION: School bullying and aggression among children and ... social isolation and lower self esteem than their peers. .... significant moderate positive relationship between.

  12. Do female sex workers have lower uptake of HIV treatment services than non-sex workers? A cross-sectional study from east Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otobo, Eloghene; Nhongo, Kundai; Takaruza, Albert; White, Peter J; Nyamukapa, Constance Anesu; Gregson, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Objective Globally, HIV disproportionately affects female sex workers (FSWs) yet HIV treatment coverage is suboptimal. To improve uptake of HIV services by FSWs, it is important to identify potential inequalities in access and use of care and their determinants. Our aim is to investigate HIV treatment cascades for FSWs and non-sex workers (NSWs) in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, and to examine the socio-demographic characteristics and intermediate determinants that might explain differences in service uptake. Methods Data from a household survey conducted in 2009–2011 and a parallel snowball sample survey of FSWs were matched using probability methods to reduce under-reporting of FSWs. HIV treatment cascades were constructed and compared for FSWs (n=174) and NSWs (n=2555). Determinants of service uptake were identified a priori in a theoretical framework and tested using logistic regression. Results HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs than in NSWs (52.6% vs 19.8%; age-adjusted OR (AOR) 4.0; 95% CI 2.9 to 5.5). In HIV-positive women, FSWs were more likely to have been diagnosed (58.2% vs 42.6%; AOR 1.62; 1.02–2.59) and HIV-diagnosed FSWs were more likely to initiate ART (84.9% vs 64.0%; AOR 2.33; 1.03–5.28). No difference was found for antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence (91.1% vs 90.5%; P=0.9). FSWs’ greater uptake of HIV treatment services became non-significant after adjusting for intermediate factors including HIV knowledge and risk perception, travel time to services, physical and mental health, and recent pregnancy. Conclusion FSWs are more likely to take up testing and treatment services and were closer to achieving optimal outcomes along the cascade compared with NSWs. However, ART coverage was low in all women at the time of the survey. FSWs’ need for, knowledge of and proximity to HIV testing and treatment facilities appear to increase uptake. PMID:29490957

  13. Do female sex workers have lower uptake of HIV treatment services than non-sex workers? A cross-sectional study from east Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhead, Rebecca; Elmes, Jocelyn; Otobo, Eloghene; Nhongo, Kundai; Takaruza, Albert; White, Peter J; Nyamukapa, Constance Anesu; Gregson, Simon

    2018-02-28

    Globally, HIV disproportionately affects female sex workers (FSWs) yet HIV treatment coverage is suboptimal. To improve uptake of HIV services by FSWs, it is important to identify potential inequalities in access and use of care and their determinants. Our aim is to investigate HIV treatment cascades for FSWs and non-sex workers (NSWs) in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, and to examine the socio-demographic characteristics and intermediate determinants that might explain differences in service uptake. Data from a household survey conducted in 2009-2011 and a parallel snowball sample survey of FSWs were matched using probability methods to reduce under-reporting of FSWs. HIV treatment cascades were constructed and compared for FSWs (n=174) and NSWs (n=2555). Determinants of service uptake were identified a priori in a theoretical framework and tested using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs than in NSWs (52.6% vs 19.8%; age-adjusted OR (AOR) 4.0; 95% CI 2.9 to 5.5). In HIV-positive women, FSWs were more likely to have been diagnosed (58.2% vs 42.6%; AOR 1.62; 1.02-2.59) and HIV-diagnosed FSWs were more likely to initiate ART (84.9% vs 64.0%; AOR 2.33; 1.03-5.28). No difference was found for antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence (91.1% vs 90.5%; P=0.9). FSWs' greater uptake of HIV treatment services became non-significant after adjusting for intermediate factors including HIV knowledge and risk perception, travel time to services, physical and mental health, and recent pregnancy. FSWs are more likely to take up testing and treatment services and were closer to achieving optimal outcomes along the cascade compared with NSWs. However, ART coverage was low in all women at the time of the survey. FSWs' need for, knowledge of and proximity to HIV testing and treatment facilities appear to increase uptake. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  14. Aggression in Women: Behavior, Brain and Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Denson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent. Women are susceptible to alcohol-related aggression, but this type of aggression may be limited to women high in trait aggression. Fear of being harmed is a robust inhibitor of direct aggression in women. There are too few studies and most are underpowered to detect unique neural mechanisms associated with aggression in women. Testosterone shows the same small, positive relationship with aggression in women as in men. The role of cortisol is unclear, although some evidence suggests that women who are high in testosterone and low in cortisol show heightened aggression. Under some circumstances, oxytocin may increase aggression by enhancing reactivity to provocation and simultaneously lowering perceptions of danger that normally inhibit many women from retaliating. There is some evidence that high levels of estradiol and progesterone are associated with low levels of aggression. We highlight that more gender-specific theory-driven hypothesis testing is needed with larger samples of women and aggression paradigms relevant to women.

  15. Dementia care worker stress associations with unit type, resident, and work environment characteristics: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Barbara; De Geest, Sabina; Fierz, Katharina; Beckmann, Sonja; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-03-01

    Although caring for residents with dementia in nursing homes is associated with various stressors for care workers, the role of the unit type, and particularly the proportion of residents with dementia, remains unclear. This study aimed to explore associations between unit type and care worker stress, taking into account additional potential stressors. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis in the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project, which included data from 3,922 care workers from 156 Swiss nursing homes. Care workers' stress was measured with a shortened version of the Health Professions Stress Inventory. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess care worker stress and its relationships with three unit types (special care units and others with high or low proportions of residents with dementia), work environment factors, and aggressive resident behavior. After including all potential stressors in the models, no significant differences between the three unit types regarding care worker stress were found. However, increased care worker stress levels were significantly related to lower ratings of staffing and resources adequacy, the experience of verbal aggression, and the observation of verbal or physical aggression among residents. Although the unit type plays only a minor role regarding care worker stress, this study confirms that work environment and aggressive behavior of residents are important factors associated with work-related stress. To prevent increases of care worker stress, interventions to improve the work environment and strengthen care workers' ability to cope with aggressive behavior are suggested.

  16. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  17. Prevalence rate of neck, shoulder and lower back pain in association with age, body mass index and gender among Malaysian office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Ardalan; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Cleland, Joshua A; Danaee, Mahmoud; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri

    2018-05-28

    Malaysian office workers often experience Musculoskeletal Discomfort (MSD) which is typically related to the low back, shoulders, and neck. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of lower back, shoulder, and neck pain among Malaysian office workers. 752 subjects (478 women and 274 men) were randomly selected from the Malaysian office workers population of 10,000 individuals. The participants were aged between 20-50 years and had at least one year of work experience. All participants completed the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ). Instructions to complete the questinnaire were given to the participants under the researchers supervision in the morning before they started a day of work. The participants were then classified into four categories based on body mas index (BMI) (BMI:≤18.4, 18.5-24.99, 25-29.99, ≥30) and age (Age: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, ≥50). There was a significant association between pain severity in gender and right (p = 0.046) and left (p = 0.041) sides of the shoulders. There was also a significant association between BMI and severity of pain in the lower back area (p = 0.047). It was revealed that total pain score in the shoulders was significantly associated with age (p = 0.041). The results of this study demonstrated that a significant correlation existed between pain servity for gender in both right and left shoulder. These findings require further scientific investigation as do the identification of effective preventative stratgies.

  18. Social, Economic, and Medical Factors Associated With Solifenacin Therapy Compliance Among Workers Who Suffer From Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill Vladimirovich; Alexandrovich, Loparev Sergay; Gennadyevna, Kuzina Irina; Viktorovna, Shakirova Olga; Sergeevna, Zhuravskaya Natalia; Ivanovich, Ankudinov Ivan

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of hyperactive-type lower urinary tract symptoms is 45.2%, with shares of overactive bladder (OAB) and urge incontinence (UI) symptoms of 10.7% and 8.2%, respectively. We investigated the possible impact of a wide range of social, economic, and medical factors on compliance with solifenacin treatment in the working population. Social, economic, and medical factors as well as the Overactive Bladder questionnaire - the OAB-q Short Form (OAB-q SF), bladder diaries, and uroflowmetry of 1,038 people who were administered solifenacin for a year were gathered from employer documentation. Among the subjects, 32% maintained their compliance with solifenacin treatment throughout the year. Only 65% of the patients had compliance exceeding 80%, and 17% of patients had compliance of ≥50%, yet less than 80% were still taking solifenacin 12 months after the beginning of this experiment. Working people whose compliance level was, at least, 80% had reliably higher (P≤0.01) average age, annual salary, and treatment efficacy, and a greater treatment satisfaction level, as well as a lack of satisfaction with other antimuscarinic treatments and higher rate of urge UI diagnosis. The same cohort also featured a lower level (P≤0.01) of caffeine abuse and lower share of salary spent purchasing solifenacin. This study has shown that compliance with solifenacin treatment is associated with a number of significant medical, social, and economic factors. The medical factors included the type of urination disorder, severity of incontinence symptoms, presence of side effects, treatment efficacy and patients' satisfaction with it, and experience using other antimuscarinic treatments. Among the social and economic factors, those with the strongest correlation to compliance were patient age, employment in medicine and education, annual income level, percentage of solifenacin purchase expenditures, and caffeine abuse. Factors with a weaker, but still significant, association were

  19. Social, Economic, and Medical Factors Associated With Solifenacin Therapy Compliance Among Workers Who Suffer From Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The prevalence of hyperactive-type lower urinary tract symptoms is 45.2%, with shares of overactive bladder (OAB and urge incontinence (UI symptoms of 10.7% and 8.2%, respectively. We investigated the possible impact of a wide range of social, economic, and medical factors on compliance with solifenacin treatment in the working population. Methods Social, economic, and medical factors as well as the Overactive Bladder questionnaire – the OAB-q Short Form (OAB-q SF, bladder diaries, and uroflowmetry of 1,038 people who were administered solifenacin for a year were gathered from employer documentation. Results Among the subjects, 32% maintained their compliance with solifenacin treatment throughout the year. Only 65% of the patients had compliance exceeding 80%, and 17% of patients had compliance of ≥50%, yet less than 80% were still taking solifenacin 12 months after the beginning of this experiment. Working people whose compliance level was, at least, 80% had reliably higher (P≤0.01 average age, annual salary, and treatment efficacy, and a greater treatment satisfaction level, as well as a lack of satisfaction with other antimuscarinic treatments and higher rate of urge UI diagnosis. The same cohort also featured a lower level (P≤0.01 of caffeine abuse and lower share of salary spent purchasing solifenacin. Conclusions This study has shown that compliance with solifenacin treatment is associated with a number of significant medical, social, and economic factors. The medical factors included the type of urination disorder, severity of incontinence symptoms, presence of side effects, treatment efficacy and patients’ satisfaction with it, and experience using other antimuscarinic treatments. Among the social and economic factors, those with the strongest correlation to compliance were patient age, employment in medicine and education, annual income level, percentage of solifenacin purchase expenditures, and caffeine abuse. Factors

  20. The General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Johnie J.; Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence

  1. Designing eLearning courses to meet the digital literacy needs of healthcare workers in lower- and middle-income countries: Experiences from the Knowledge for Health Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali J. Limaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional conceptualizations of knowledge management fail to incorporate the social aspects in which knowledge management work operates. Social knowledge management places people at the center of all knowledge management, including placing the end user at the center when developing eLearning packages, particularly within the context of digital health literacy. As many health professionals working in lower-resource settings face the digital divide, or experience unequal patterns of access and usage capabilities from computer-based information and communication technologies (ICTs, ensuring that eLearning packages are tailored for their specific needs is critical. Grounded in our conceptualization of social knowledge management, we outline two of our experiences with developing eLearning packages for health professionals working primarily in lower- and middle-income countries. The Global Health eLearning Center provides eLearning courses to health professionals primarily working in the lower- and middle-income country context. The courses have robust and exhaustive mechanisms in place to ensure that issues related to digital health literacy are not barriers to taking the courses and subsequently, applying the course material in practice. In Bangladesh, we developed a digital health package for frontline community fieldworkers that was loaded on netbook computers. To develop this package, community fieldworkers were provided support during the implementation phase to ensure that they were able to use the netbooks correctly with their clients. As new digital technologies proliferate, guaranteeing that global health workers have the prerequisite skills to utilize and apply digital health tools is essential for improving health care.

  2. Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...

  3. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  4. Violent behavior and aggression in schizophrenia: Prevalence and risk factors. A multicentric study from three Latin-America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Fond, Guillaume; Urzúa, Alfonso; Boyer, Laurent; Williams, David R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was (i) to assess the prevalence of Violent Behavior in Schizophrenia (VBS) in a sample of community-dwelling outpatients in three middle-income countries of Latin America and (ii) to determine the clinical and socio-demographical risk factors associated with VBS and aggression level. The study included 253 stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia and their principal caregivers from 3 public ambulatory psychiatric care centers in Bolivia (N=83), Chile (N=85), and Peru (N=85). VBS was defined according to the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) score and the aggression level was measured by the aggression subscore of the Agitated Behavior Scale of Corrigan. We collected socio-demographic information and clinical data. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed to determine which variables were associated with VBS and aggression level. The prevalence of VBS differed statistically between the three countries (pfactors, VBS was associated with a younger age, a more severe psychotic symptomatology, a lower family income and unemployment. After adjustment for confounding factors, aggression level was associated with a more severe psychotic symptomatology, a lower family income, a younger age at illness onset and higher number of hospitalizations in the last 3years. These results may guide future health policies to specifically provide social support and rehabilitation care to VBS patients in middle-income countries, including psychoeducation and a more integrated work between the treating medical team and the social workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  6. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  8. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  9. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  10. The General Aggression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P

    1997-01-01

    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey

  12. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  13. Microarray analysis of HIV resistant female sex workers reveal a gene expression signature pattern reminiscent of a lowered immune activation state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah M Songok

    Full Text Available To identify novel biomarkers for HIV-1 resistance, including pathways that may be critical in anti-HIV-1 vaccine design, we carried out a gene expression analysis on blood samples obtained from HIV-1 highly exposed seronegatives (HESN from a commercial sex worker cohort in Nairobi and compared their profiles to HIV-1 negative controls. Whole blood samples were collected from 43 HIV-1 resistant sex workers and a similar number of controls. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix HUG 133 Plus 2.0 micro arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara CA. Output data was analysed through ArrayAssist software (Agilent, San Jose CA. More than 2,274 probe sets were differentially expressed in the HESN as compared to the control group (fold change ≥1.3; p value ≤0.0001, FDR <0.05. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed genes readily distinguished HESNs from controls. Pathway analysis through the KEGG signaling database revealed a majority of the impacted pathways (13 of 15, 87% had genes that were significantly down regulated. The most down expressed pathways were glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, phosphatidyl inositol, natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell receptor signaling. Ribosomal protein synthesis and tight junction genes were up regulated. We infer that the hallmark of HIV-1 resistance is down regulation of genes in key signaling pathways that HIV-1 depends on for infection.

  14. The passive-aggressive organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  15. Genetics of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2012-01-01

    Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.

  16. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  18. Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas is challenging and despite advancements it continues to pose a challenge. Proponents of subtotal resection in conjunction with radiotherapy argue that this less aggressive approach can yield appropriate results with the lower morbidity. On the contrary, other argument is that gross total resection is superior. Though surgical management of craniopharyngioma is challenging due to its location and important surrounding neurovascular structures, optimal surgical results can be expected following radical surgical excision. Radical excision of craniopharyngiomas is associated with excellent long-term recurrence free survival. Radiation induced long-term complications can be altogether avoided by excising these tumors completely.

  19. Group climate, personality, and self-reported aggression in incarcerated male youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, P.; Stams, G.J.; van Genabeek, M.; van der Laan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression in youth prison is considered a major problem, probably interfering with treatment and rehabilitative goals, and creating an unsafe work environment for group workers. The present study examined how inmates’ personality (dispositional characteristics) and living group climate (situational

  20. The Influence of Community Health Resources on Effectiveness and Sustainability of Community and Lay Health Worker Programs in Lower-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H de Vries

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of practical knowledge and effective interventions required to reduce priority health problems in low-income countries, poor and vulnerable populations are often not reached. One possible solution to this problem is the use of Community or Lay Health Workers (CLHWs. So far, however, the development of sustainability in CLHW programs has failed and high attrition rates continue to pose a challenge. We propose that the roles and interests which support community health work should emerge directly from the way in which health is organized at community level. This review explores the evidence available to assess if increased levels of integration of community health resources in CLHW programs indeed lead to higher program effectiveness and sustainability.This review includes peer-reviewed articles which meet three eligibility criteria: 1 specific focus on CLHWs or equivalent; 2 randomized, quasi-randomized, before/after methodology or substantial descriptive assessment; and 3 description of a community or peer intervention health program located in a low- or middle-income country. Literature searches using various article databases led to 2930 hits, of which 359 articles were classified. Of these, 32 articles were chosen for extensive review, complemented by analysis of the results of 15 other review studies. Analysis was conducted using an excel based data extraction form. Because results showed that no quantitative data was published, a descriptive synthesis was conducted. The review protocol was not proactively registered. Findings show minimal inclusion of even basic community level indicators, such as the degree to which the program is a community initiative, community input in the program or training, the background and history of CLHW recruits, and the role of the community in motivation and retention. Results show that of the 32 studies, only one includes one statistical measure of community integration. As a result

  1. Why rapidly expanding the number of college-trained workers may not lower income inequality: The curious case of Taiwan, 1978-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Keng, Shao-Hsun; Lin, Chun-Hung; Orazem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, Taiwan increased the college share of its labor force from 7% to 28% by converting junior colleges to 4-year colleges. Such a rapid surge in skill supply should suppress college wages and lower income inequality. Instead, inequality rose steadily. The surge of weaker college graduates made them weak substitutes for better trained college graduates, increasing wage inequality within skill groups. The college premium would have been 15% higher had college quality remained unchanged ...

  2. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  3. Association between treatment for gonorrhoea and chlamydia and lower condom use in a cross-sectional study of female sex workers in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre-Dugal, Marianne; Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Lowndes, Catherine M; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-18

    To assess whether having received grey packets containing treatment for gonorrhoea and chlamydia was associated with condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in 5 districts of southern India covered by the Avahan programme where both periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) and syndromic management were used to control these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among FSWs. Cross-sectional study of FSWs recruited in the field in 5 districts of southern India (Bangalore, Belgaum, Bellary, Guntur and Mumbai) in 2006-2007. 1378 self-identified FSWs out of 1442 were approached to participate in the study (participation rate: 95.6%). The only exclusion criterion was to be aged <18 years. Consistent condom use (CCU) with new or occasional clients, and with the most recent repeat client as assessed using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews. Using the Poisson regression to model the association between the number of grey packets received in the past 3-12 months and reported CCU, adjusting for factors associated with condom use and other potential confounders in our data, CCU was lowest among FSWs who had received ≥3 grey packets in the past 3-12 months with their new or occasional clients (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR): 0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.84, p<0.001) and with the most recent repeat client (APR 0.63, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.78, p<0.001). Tests for trends showed that CCU with both types of clients decreased with the number of grey packets received (p<0.001). Since we could not distinguish grey packets used for PPT from those given for syndromic management, these results could be either due to a perception of protection conferred by PPT or by the fact that inconsistent condom users are more at risk for STIs. Further research on the potential disinhibiting effect of PPT is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachinelli C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  5. Oxytocin and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-09-02

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has a solid reputation as a facilitator of social interactions such as parental and pair bonding, trust, and empathy. The many results supporting a pro-social role of OT have generated the hypothesis that impairments in the endogenous OT system may lead to antisocial behavior, most notably social withdrawal or pathological aggression. If this is indeed the case, administration of exogenous OT could be the "serenic" treatment that psychiatrists have for decades been searching for.In the present review, we list and discuss the evidence for an endogenous "hypo-oxytocinergic state" underlying aggressive and antisocial behavior, derived from both animal and human studies. We furthermore examine the reported effects of synthetic OT administration on aggression in rodents and humans.Although the scientific findings listed in this review support, in broad lines, the link between a down-regulated or impaired OT system activity and increased aggression, the anti-aggressive effects of synthetic OT are less straightforward and require further research. The rather complex picture that emerges adds to the ongoing debate questioning the unidirectional pro-social role of OT, as well as the strength of the effects of intranasal OT administration in humans.

  6. Does brief Aikido training reduce aggression of youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva-Tauiliili, J

    1995-02-01

    Over 2 1/2 weeks, 21 youth trained in beginning principles of Aikido were not rated lower on the Teachers' Self-control Rating Scale and on aggressive behavior than 21 students on a waiting list for a class; however, the several methodological limitations suggested conclusions on the effects of brief Aikido training on youths' aggressive behaviors are premature.

  7. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early

  8. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  9. Parental attitudes and aggression in the Emo subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chęć, Magdalena; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Wąsik, Marta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    A better functioning of adolescents involves proper relationships with parents, whereas negative relationships lead to aggressive behaviour. Young members of Emo subculture, characterised by deep emotional sensitivity, are particularly vulnerable to parental influence. The aim was to specify a relationship between parental attitudes and aggression among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with a control group. 3,800 lower secondary school students took part in the introductory research. A target group constituted 41 people from the Emo subculture as well as a control group involving 48 people. A screening survey, the Parental Attitudes Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire and the author's questionnaire including questions concerning the functioning in the Emo subculture were used in the study. The results obtained in the research study suggest that there is a relationship between the indicated improper parental attitudes and aggressive behaviour among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with the control group. In the Emo subculture, teenagers'aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother's attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father's attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers' attitude of acceptance. Mothers' autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.

  10. Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

  11. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...

  12. Aggression and violence around the world: A model of CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M; Rinderu, Maria I; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide there are substantial differences within and between countries in aggression and violence. Although there are various exceptions, a general rule is that aggression and violence increase as one moves closer to the equator, which suggests the important role of climate differences. While this pattern is robust, theoretical explanations for these large differences in aggression and violence within countries and around the world are lacking. Most extant explanations focus on the influence of average temperature as a factor that triggers aggression (The General Aggression Model), or the notion that warm temperature allows for more social interaction situations (Routine Activity Theory) in which aggression is likely to unfold. We propose a new model, CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH), that helps us to understand differences within and between countries in aggression and violence in terms of differences in climate. Lower temperatures, and especially larger degrees of seasonal variation in climate, call for individuals and groups to adopt a slower life history strategy, a greater focus on the future (vs. present), and a stronger focus on self-control. The CLASH model further outlines that slow life strategy, future orientation, and strong self-control are important determinants of inhibiting aggression and violence. We also discuss how CLASH differs from other recently developed models that emphasize climate differences for understanding conflict. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and societal importance of climate in shaping individual and societal differences in aggression and violence.

  13. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  14. Aggression Against Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.

  15. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  16. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  17. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  18. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  19. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  20. An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression: Testing I3 theory and the General Aggression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I 3 theory or General Aggression Model (GAM) metatheory of human aggression. I 3 theory explains exceptional, catastrophic events of human aggression, whereas the GAM explains common human aggression behaviours. A total of 249 Australian teachers participated in this study, including 142 primary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 35-39 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 10-14 years; 84% female) and 107 secondary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 45-49 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 15-19 years; 65% female). Participants completed four online self-report questionnaires, which assessed caregiving responsiveness, trait self-control, misbehaviour provocation, and teacher aggression. Analyses revealed that the GAM most accurately captures the mechanism underlying teacher aggression, with lower caregiving responsiveness appearing to indirectly lead to teacher aggression via higher misbehaviour provocation and lower trait self-control in serial, controlling for gender, age, years teaching, and current role (primary, secondary). This study indicates that teacher aggression proceeds from 'the person in the situation'. Specifically, lower caregiving responsiveness appears to negatively shape a teacher's affective, cognitive, and arousal states, which influence how they perceive and interpret student misbehaviour. These internal states, in turn, appear to negatively influence appraisal and decision processes, leading to immediate appraisal and impulsive actions. These results raise the possibility that teacher aggression is a form of countertransference. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Anger and aggression problems in veterans are associated with an increased acoustic startle reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, Lieke; Kleber, Rolf; Häfner, Michael; van Bedaf, Laury; Eekhout, Iris; Geuze, Elbert

    Anger and aggression are frequent problems in deployed military personnel. A lowered threshold of perceiving and responding to threat can trigger impulsive aggression. This can be indicated by an exaggerated startle response. Fifty-two veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 50

  2. Anger and aggression problems in veterans are associated with an increased acoustic startle reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, L.; Kleber, R.; Häfner, M.; Bedaf, L. van; Eekhout, I.; Geuze, E.

    2017-01-01

    Anger and aggression are frequent problems in deployed military personnel. A lowered threshold of perceiving and responding to threat can trigger impulsive aggression. This can be indicated by an exaggerated startle response. Fifty-two veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 50

  3. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support

  4. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  5. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander van der Meij

    Full Text Available Fan aggression in football (soccer is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74 saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  6. Football Fan Aggression: The Importance of Low Basal Cortisol and a Fair Referee

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants’ favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result. PMID:25844939

  7. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  8. Psychological Predictors of Aggressive Behavior Among Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanile, Cristina; Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Puddu, Luisa; Raffagnino, Rosalba

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among attitude toward violence, self-esteem, emotion dysregulation, anger, and aggression in community men and women and male inmates. Overall, 166 community men, 197 community women, and 100 male inmates completed a battery of questionnaires containing self-reported measures. Self-esteem and attitude toward violence were significant predictors of aggressive behavior, with emotion dysregulation mediating the relationship between self-esteem and the criterion variable. Anger mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior only among community people. Among men, inmates reported a more favorable attitude toward violence, lower self-esteem, higher emotion dysregulation, more aggressive behaviors, and a lower tendency to get angry. Women showed a less favorable attitude toward violence, lower self-esteem, higher emotion dysregulation, and a higher tendency for anger than men, while no differences emerged for aggressive behavior. These findings suggest that self-related constructs and emotion regulation strategies represent key processes associated with aggressive behavior among all participants, while the role of anger is more prominent in community people. To reduce aggressive tendencies, treatment and prevention interventions might increase self-esteem, emotion regulation skills, and one's ability to direct anger toward other goals. Moreover, programs aimed at changing attitudes toward violence could be useful.

  9. Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-17

    Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.

  10. Effectiveness of counteraggression strategies in reducing interactive aggression by males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, C E; Fitz, D; Onorad, J R

    1977-04-01

    Studies on techniques of reducing aggression have typically examined passive, matching, and punitive strategies of counteraggression and have been remarkably inconsistent in their findings. This research was designed to resolve the contradictory results by reconceptuallzing the strategies in terms of counteraggression/aggression (cA/A) ratios. We predicted that the norm of reciprocity and the tendency to exploit weakness would make a cA/A ratio of less than but close to 1.0 (matching) most effective in reducing aggression. Ten cA/A ratios were used. One hundred male subjects set punishment level set by their opponent (a confederate) on 25 trials, and, on 13 losing trials, received punishment. The most effective cA/A ratios for reducing aggression were the lowest ones. Lower cA/A ratios reduced aggression and ratios greater than 1.0 increased aggresion. Contrary to the results of previous studies, the matching strategy was ineffective in reducing aggresion.

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.

  12. RELEVANCE OF USE OF MULTIMEDIA IN ORDER TO PREVENT JUNIOR PUPILS’ AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Oleksiuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils and reasons for its occurrence. There are determined advantages of multimedia use in the prevention of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils and described types of multimedia, which should be used to work with pupils. Problem of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils become one of the main problems of our society. As noted by the most researchers, one of the cause of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils is media, the use of video games, watching movies, cartoons that provoke aggression. One of the important areas of prevention of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils is competence improvement of teachers, social workers and psychologists on the use of multimedia in social and educational classes for junior pupils.

  13. Assessment of the 2D:4D ratio in aggression-related injuries in children attending a paediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Briain, D E; Dawson, P H; Kelly, J C; Connolly, P

    2017-05-01

    The 2D:4D ratio is a sexually dimorphic trait. A lower ratio is correlated with sporting prowess, successful financial trading, risk taking behaviour, aggression, and aggression-related injuries, such as the fifth metacarpal fractures. We aimed to assess if the ratio correlates to skeletally immature patient aggression. Radiology reports were searched for the terms "5th metacarpal" or "boxer". Of 537 X-rays, 142 had fractures. The mechanism of injury was recorded in 102 patients, differentiating aggressive and non-aggressive injury groups. Bone age and chronological age were recorded. A clear male preponderance for aggression was identified with only 60% of non-aggressive injuries occurring in males compared to 95% in the aggression group (p aggression injuries were older chronologically (14.6 vs 12.7, p Aggression injuries occur at an older age and are more common in males. In the female cohort, there was a distinct difference in digit ratio.

  14. The effects of environmental resource and security on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry Kin Shing; Chow, Tak Sang

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to different environments has been reported to change aggressive behavior, but previous research did not consider the underlying elements that caused such an effect. Based on previous work on environmental perception, we examined the role of environmental resource and security in altering aggression level. In three experiments, participants were exposed to environments that varied in resource (High vs. Low) and security (High vs. Low) levels, after which aggression was measured. The environments were presented through visual priming (Experiments 1-2) and a first-person gameplay (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent resource-security interaction effect on aggression, operationalized as the level of noise blast (Experiment 1) and number of unpleasant pictures (Experiments 2-3) delivered to strangers by the participants. High resource levels associated with higher aggression in insecure conditions, but lower aggression in secure conditions. The findings suggest that the adaptive value of aggression varies under different environmental constraints. Implications are discussed in terms of the effects of adverse environments on aggression, and the nature's effects on social behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:304-314, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. THE GIFT OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.

  16. MALDI Imaging Analysis of Neuropeptides in Africanized Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Brain: Effect of Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, Marcel; Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro da Silva; Esteves, Franciele Grego; Sato, Kenny Umino; Malaspina, Osmar; Palma, Mario Sérgio

    2018-05-18

    The aggressiveness in honeybees seems to be regulated by multiple genes, under the influence of different factors, such as polyethism of workers, environmental factors, and response to alarm pheromones, creating a series of behavioral responses. It is suspected that neuropeptides seem to be involved with the regulation of the aggressive behavior. The role of allatostatin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides in honeybee brain during the aggressive behavior is unknown; thus, worker honeybees were stimulated to attack and to sting leather targets hanged in front of the colonies. The aggressive individuals were collected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen; the heads were removed, and sliced at sagittal plan. The brain slices were submitted to MALDI-Spectral-Imaging analysis, and the results of the present study reported the processing of the precursors proteins into mature forms of the neuropeptides AmAST A (59-76) (AYTYVSEYKRLPVYNFGL-NH2), AmAST A (69-76) (LPVYNFGL-NH2), AmTRP (88 - 96) (APMGFQGMR-NH2), and AmTRP (254 - 262) (ARMGFHGMR-NH2), which apparently acted in different neuropils of honeybee brain, during the aggressive behavior, possibly playing the neuromodulation of different aspects of this complex behavior. These results were biologically validated performing aggressiveness-related behavioral assays, using young honeybee workers that received 1 ng of AmAST A (69-76) or AmTRP (88 - 96) via hemocele. The young workers that were not expected to be aggressive individuals, presented a complete series of the aggressive behaviors, in presence of the neuropeptides, corroborating the hypothesis that correlates the presence of mature AmASTs A and AmTRPs in honeybee brain with the aggressiveness of this insect.

  17. The nature of human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  18. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  19. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...

  1. Neural correlates of affect processing and aggression in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; London, Edythe D

    2011-03-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is associated with high rates of aggression but few studies have addressed the contributing neurobiological factors. To quantify aggression, investigate function in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and assess relationships between brain function and behavior in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. In a case-control study, aggression and brain activation were compared between methamphetamine-dependent and control participants. Participants were recruited from the general community to an academic research center. Thirty-nine methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (16 women) who were abstinent for 7 to 10 days and 37 drug-free control volunteers (18 women) participated in the study; subsets completed self-report and behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 25 methamphetamine-dependent and 23 control participants. We measured self-reported and perpetrated aggression and self-reported alexithymia. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI during visual processing of facial affect (affect matching) and symbolic processing (affect labeling), the latter representing an incidental form of emotion regulation. Methamphetamine-dependent participants self-reported more aggression and alexithymia than control participants and escalated perpetrated aggression more following provocation. Alexithymia scores correlated with measures of aggression. During affect matching, fMRI showed no differences between groups in amygdala activation but found lower activation in methamphetamine-dependent than control participants in the bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus. During affect labeling, participants recruited the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and exhibited decreased amygdala activity, consistent with successful emotion regulation; there was no group difference in this effect. The magnitude of decrease in amygdala activity during affect labeling correlated inversely with self-reported aggression in control participants

  2. Endogenous Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Aggression in Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the measurement of free (unbound and total (free + bound OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.

  3. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  4. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  5. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porsch, R.M.P.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Krapohl, E.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Loukola, A.; Korhonen, T.; Pulkkinen, L.; Corley, R.P.; Rhee, S.; Kaprio, J.; Rose, R.; Hewitt, J.K.; Sham, P.; Plomin, R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression

  6. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  7. [Neurochemistry of impulsiveness and aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetulani, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is the most frequent social reaction among animals and men, and plays an important role in survival of the fittest. The change of social conditions in the course of development of human civilisation rendered some forms of aggression counter-adaptive, but the neurobiological mechanism of expression of aggression have not fundamentally changed in the last stages of human evolution. The two different kinds of aggression: emotional, serving mainly as a threat, and rational, predatory, serving for the attainment of goal in the most effective way, have different anatomical and neurobiological background and reciprocally inhibit each other. Aggression is modulated by several neurotransmitter and hormonal systems, of which the key role is seemingly played by testosterone, a hormone involved in domination behaviour, and serotonin, whose deficit results in increased impulsiveness.

  8. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  10. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively.This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and

  11. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  13. Recurrent Aggressive Angiomyxoma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelene Suassuna Silvestre de Alencar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aggressive angiomyxoma is a highly aggressive, rare neoplasm of the mesen- chymal tissue with a high recurrence rate. It represents an important differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age. This study aims to describe a case of ag- gressive angiomyxoma.Case report: woman, 37 years old, complained about a bulge on the right perianal region, and anal itching and burning, bleeding, tenesmus and incontinence. The proctologic examina- tion confirmed the perianal bulge and extrinsic compression of the posterior wall of the rectum. Computed tomography (CT of the pelvis showed a well-defined pelvic mass ex- tending to the right rectal area. Exploratory laparotomy showed a mass of fibro elastic con- sistency adjacent to the pelvic organs and closely attached to the distal rectum, and per- formed a resection of the pelvic tumor afterward. Anatomopathological analysis revealed an aggressive angiomyxoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the pelvis showed signs of recurrence in the pelvic cavity on the right side of the rectum. A surgical procedure was performed to resect the lesion. After an asymptomatic period, the MRI showed solid growths located in the right ischiorectal fossa. A new surgical procedure identified only retention cysts in the pelvis and right ischiorectal fossa, only lysis of adhesions was per- formed. The patient is currently undergoing follow-up without disease recurrence. Resumo: Introdução: o angiomixoma agressivo é uma rara neoplasia do tecido mesenquimal de gran- de agressividade e alta taxa de recorrência. Representa um importante diagnóstico diferen- cial de tumorações pélvicas de mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Este estudo objetiva relatar um caso de angiomixoma agressivo.Relato de caso: mulher, 37 anos, com queixa de abaulamento em região perianal direita, além de prurido e ardor anal, sangramento, tenesmo e incontinência anal. Exame procto- lógico confirmou o abaulamento

  14. Signaling and Screening of Workers' Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a model in which workers to a certain extent like to exert effort at the workplace. We examine the implications of workers' motivation for optimal monetary incentive schemes. We show that in the optimum motivated workers work harder and are willing to work for a lower

  15. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  16. Aggression as an independent entity even in psychosis- the role of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Pathak, Kangkan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Sengupta, Soumik; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti

    2016-03-15

    Aggression is very common in psychosis (prevalence ranging from 34% to 70%) and is often the main or first symptom for which the patient receives medical attention. Studies have associated alteration in cytokine profiles among healthy persons with aggressive traits. We hypothesise that even among those with psychosis, aggression is an independent entity, irrespective of psychotic state and is associated with cytokine alterations. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the inflammatory cytokines in aggressive psychotic patients. Study included 80 participants divided into four groups viz. aggressive diseased, non aggressive diseased, aggressive non diseased and non aggressive non diseased depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Interferon gamma(IFN-G), Interleukin 10(IL10) plasma concentrations and their ratio were measured using ELISA based assay kits read at absorbance of 450 nm wavelength using Double beam spectrophotometer. The four groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, Interferon Gamma levels, Interleukin 10 levels, Proinflammatory: Antiinflammatory cytokine ratio using standard statistical instruments. In patients with psychosis, the cytokines IFN-G and IL10 were significantly lower compared to those without. The cytokines IFN-G and IL10 are both significantly associated both with aggression and psychosis. IL10, but not IFN-G is associated with aggression in absence of psychosis. The proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratio, is more significantly associated with aggression, irrespective of psychosis. In fact, there is no significant relationship between the above ratio and psychosis. Strong correlation exists between the proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratio and aggression scores, even after controlling for severity of psychosis. It may be concluded from this study that in spite of a high prevalence of aggression in patients of psychosis, it is more likely to be an

  17. Aggressive behavior prevention in a dance duet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Gant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.

  18. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Influence of school-level and family-level variables on Chinese college students' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Wang, Lin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Sui, Hong; Yang, Yanjie

    2017-08-01

    With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data. Females reported lower levels of aggression than males (p aggression, and the model was highly significant (R 2  = .233, Ad R 2  = .230, p aggression is affected by gender, family-level and school-level variables. Aggression scores are significantly correlated with not only family-level or school-level variables independently, but their combination as well. We find that the risk factors for aggression include a dissatisfying profession, higher levels of study pressure, poor parental relationships, poor interpersonal relationships, the presence of siblings, punishment, health maladjustment, less subjective support, and lower levels of utilization of social support.

  20. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  1. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  2. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Golovinski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  3. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  4. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  5. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  6. Resilience in physically abused children: protective factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-04-27

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children's internalizing well-being, children's prosocial behavior, and caregivers' well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children's internalizing well-being and children's prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  7. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  8. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Horn

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  9. Aggression in Teachers is Related to Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity as Occupational Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchika, Masaru; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konish, Akihito; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Yumi; Nakada, Akihiro; Inoue, Koki

    2015-12-01

    Aggression in the workplace is increasingly recognized as a serious problem, but there are few studies about worker aggression toward outsiders in the workplace. We investigated the association between aggression and occupational stress among teachers. This was a cross-sectional study of 1583 teachers, principals, and vice-principals. Aggression was measured using the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). The survey respondents were classified into tertiles according to the BAQ score. The high BAQ group was defined as the upper tertile for the BAQ total score (BAQ total score 625). Occupational stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire. Comparisons among the groups were performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 1583 respondents, 488 were included in the high BAQ group. After adjusting for demographic and occupational variables, high role conflict and role ambiguity were significantly associated with belonging to the high BAQ group. In subscales of the BAQ, high role conflict and role ambiguity related to high levels of hostility, and physical aggression. Occupational stress such as role conflict and role ambiguity was associated with aggression among teachers. It is necessary to reduce problems which relates to role conflict and role ambiguity for preventing teachers' aggression.

  10. A qualitative meta-synthesis of emergency department staff experiences of violence and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca Angharad; Morris, Lucy; Smith, Ian

    2018-01-08

    Patient and visitor violence or aggression against healthcare workers in the Emergency Department (ED) is a significant issue worldwide. This review synthesises existing qualitative studies exploring the first-hand experiences of staff working in the ED to provide insight into preventing this issue. A meta-ethnographic approach was used to review papers. Four concepts were identified: 'The inevitability of violence and aggression'; 'Staff judgments about why they face violence and aggression'; 'Managing in isolation'; and 'Wounded heroes'. Staff resigned themselves to the inevitability of violence and aggression, doing this due to a perceived lack of support from the organisation. Staff made judgements about the reasons for violent incidents which impacted on how they coped and subsequently tolerated the aggressor. Staff often felt isolated when managing violence and aggression. Key recommendations included: Staff training in understanding violence and aggression and clinical supervision. Violence and aggression in the ED can often be an overwhelming yet inevitable experience for staff. A strong organisational commitment to reducing violence and aggression is imperative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aggression as an independent entity even in psychosis - The role of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Sengupta, Soumik; Pathak, Kangkan; Sah, Divyashree; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Gogoi, Vijay; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti

    2018-01-01

    Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis. The present study included 80 participants divided into four groups depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability were measured using ELISA. The groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability using standard statistical instruments. The present study found lower levels of morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and cortisol variability among the aggressive group (vs. non aggressive group) and among the diseased group (vs. non diseased group). The differences were most marked for cortisol variability which was related to both aggression and psychosis independently. There were statistically significant correlation between cortisol variability and aggression, which was retained even after controlling for psychosis. There was no significant correlation of cortisol variability with psychosis severity (after controlling for aggression score) or with age, gender or duration of psychosis. We conclude that aggression, even among patients with psychosis, is an independent entity characterized by lower levels of morning cortisol and cortisol variability. The etio-pathology may lie in some altered neuro-immune parameters executed by cortisol and psychosis as trigger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia among preterm infants receiving aggressive parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener Dik, Pablo H; Galletti, María F; Bacigalupo, Leticia T; Fernández Jonusas, Silvia; L Mariani, Gonzalo

    2018-06-01

    Aggressive parenteral nutrition is the standard of care among very-low-birth weight preterm infants. However, in recent studies, its impact on short-term outcomes, has been evaluated. The objective was to compare the prevalence of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia among preterm infants receiving aggressive or standard parenteral nutrition. Observational, retrospective study comparing a group of preterm infants weighing less than 1250 grams who received aggressive parenteral nutrition with a historical control group. The prevalence of hypercalcemia was estimated and its association with aggressive parenteral nutrition was searched adjusting by confounders. The mean phosphate level was estimated for the control group by linear regression and was compared to the value in the other group. Forty patients per group were included. The prevalence of hypercalcemia was higher in the group who received aggressive parenteral nutrition (87.5% versus 35%, p= 0.001). Aggressive parenteral nutrition was associated with hypercalcemia when adjusting by birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, amino acid, and calorie intake (adjusted odds ratio: 21.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-128). The mean calcium level was different between both groups (p= 0.002). Infants who received aggressive parenteral nutrition had more sepsis without reaching statistical significance and the mean phosphate level was lower than that estimated for the control group (p= 0.04). The prevalence of hypophosphatemia in this group was 90% (95% CI: 76-97%). Our data show an association between hypercalcemia/hypophosphatemia and aggressive parenteral nutrition. It is recommended to frequently monitor calcium and phosphate levels since they might be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  13. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  14. Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on associations between social information processing and adult aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Coccaro, E. F.; Lee, R.; Jacobson, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between early life maltreatment, social information processing (SIP) and aggression in childhood and adolescence have been widely documented. Few studies have examined the importance of childhood maltreatment independent of SIP in the etiology of adult aggression. Furthermore, moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the SIP–aggression links have not been explored. Method Hierarchical, multi-level models were fitted to data from n=2752 twins aged 20–55 years from the PennTwins Cohort. Adult aggression was assessed with the Life History of Aggression questionnaire. Childhood maltreatment was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Two aspects of SIP were examined : hostile attribution biases (HAB) ; negative emotional responses (NER). Results Childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with adult aggression, independently of HAB and NER. In addition, childhood maltreatment moderated the relationships between both aspects of SIP and adult aggression. Specifically, the relationship between NER and aggression was stronger among individuals with higher levels of childhood maltreatment and NER was not associated with aggression for adults who experienced low levels of childhood maltreatment. Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the NER–aggression link were supported for total childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect and emotional abuse. In contrast, HAB was more strongly associated with adult aggression at lower levels of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Conclusions The current study provides insight into the mechanisms by which early life experiences influence adult aggression. Our findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may not only lead to increased levels of aggression in adulthood but may also modify the associations between SIP and adult aggression. PMID:22008562

  15. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades.To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030.Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  16. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  17. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  18. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  19. Partner Aggression in High-Risk Families From Birth to Age 3: Associations With Harsh Parenting and Child Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  20. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  1. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  2. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  3. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Linking Workplace Aggression to Employee Well-Being and Work: The Moderating Role of Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yragui, Nanette L; Demsky, Caitlin A; Hammer, Leslie B; Van Dyck, Sarah; Neradilek, Moni B

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) on the relationship between two types of workplace aggression (i.e., patient-initiated physical aggression and coworker-initiated psychological aggression) and employee well-being and work outcomes. Data were obtained from a field sample of 417 healthcare workers in two psychiatric hospitals. Hypotheses were tested using moderated multiple regression analyses. Psychiatric care providers' perceptions of FSSB moderated the relationship between patient-initiated physical aggression and physical symptoms, exhaustion and cynicism. In addition, FSSB moderated the relationship between coworker-initiated psychological aggression and physical symptoms and turnover intentions. Based on our findings, family-supportive supervision is a plausible boundary condition for the relationship between workplace aggression and well-being and work outcomes. This study suggests that, in addition to directly addressing aggression prevention and reduction, family-supportive supervision is a trainable resource that healthcare organizations should facilitate to improve employee work and well-being in settings with high workplace aggression. This is the first study to examine the role of FSSB in influencing the relationship between two forms of workplace aggression: patient-initiated physical and coworker- initiated psychological aggression and employee outcomes.

  5. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.

  6. Physiological reactivity in a community sample of sexually aggressive young men: a test of competing hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Men's sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men's salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men's sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris

    2013-01-01

    This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...

  8. Aggressive behaviour in sport: An application of the Aggression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that aggressive behaviour continues to be prevalent in many sporting activities despite the potential positive contribution that sport has made to athletes, society, universities and economies. The main aim of this study was to assess the application of an adapted version of the original ...

  9. Catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Russell, Jim; Luborsky, Mark; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    To identify common catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospital settings. Worker-to-worker violence and incivility are prevalent forms of mistreatment in healthcare workplaces. These are forms of counterproductive work behaviour that can lead to negative outcomes for employees, patients and the organisation overall. Identifying the factors that lead to co-worker mistreatment is a critical first step in the development of interventions targeting these behaviours. Retrospective descriptive study. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on the total sample (n = 141) of employee incident reports of worker-to-worker violence and incivility that were documented in 2011 at a large American hospital system. More than 50% of the incidents involved nurses, and the majority of incidents did not involve physical violence. Two primary themes emerged from the analysis: Work Behaviour and Work Organisation. Incidents in the Work Behaviour category were often sparked by unprofessional behaviour, disagreement over responsibilities for work tasks or methods of patient care, and dissatisfaction with a co-worker's performance. Incidents in the Work Organisation category involved conflicts or aggression arising from failure to following protocol, patient assignments, limited resources and high workload. Incidents of worker-to-worker violence and incivility stemmed from dissatisfaction with employee behaviour or from organisational practices or work constraints. These incident descriptions reflect worker dissatisfaction and frustration, resulting from poor communication and collaboration between employees, all of which threaten work productivity. Violence and incivility between hospital employees can contribute to turnover of top performers, hinder effective teamwork and jeopardise the quality of patient care. Identification of common catalysts for worker-to-worker violence and incivility informs the development of mistreatment prevention programmes that can be

  10. Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin

    2005-09-01

    We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.

  11. Aggressive Angiomyxoma Involving Penis and Urethra - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Shivashankar; Gengan, Devakannan; Walling, Sashi T

    2017-07-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign mesenchymal stromal tumour, characterized by locally infiltrative nature and a tendency for recurrence. Only a few cases of penile involvement have been reported in the literature so far. We report a case of aggressive penile angiomyxoma in a sixty-two-year-old obese, diabetic male patient. He presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and diffuse enlargement of the penis and scrotum. He was managed with excision, reduction scrotoplasty, internal urethrotomy, followed by Leuprolide therapy for prevention of recurrence. He is on follow up for 20 months without recurrence and obstructive symptoms.

  12. Aggressive Angiomyxoma Involving Penis and Urethra – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Damodaran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign mesenchymal stromal tumour, characterized by locally infiltrative nature and a tendency for recurrence. Only a few cases of penile involvement have been reported in the literature so far. We report a case of aggressive penile angiomyxoma in a sixty-two-year-old obese, diabetic male patient. He presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and diffuse enlargement of the penis and scrotum. He was managed with excision, reduction scrotoplasty, internal urethrotomy, followed by Leuprolide therapy for prevention of recurrence. He is on follow up for 20 months without recurrence and obstructive symptoms.

  13. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  14. RESEARCH OF FRUIT CONSERVES’ CORROSIVE AGGRESSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kuznecova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metal canning containers is one of the obstacles in spreading its application for packing of food. Particularly aggressive to the metal container is fruit canned medium, containing organic acids.The basic material for the production of metal canning container is white tinplate. The main advantage of white tinplate is the tin compounds are harmless to human organism. For this reason, a white badge is used widely, usually used for production of canning containers, packaging beverages. Despite the fact that recently often used containers made of aluminum badge (foil, the basic material for manufacturing metal canning containers is steel white tinplate.Now applied for coating paints and varnishes do not provide anti-corrosion protection of inner surface of metal containers during storage. Preserving of canned fruit quality in metal containers is largely defined corrosion resistance of the containers. This is due to the fact that the metal transition to canned fruit in due courses of corrosion processes is lowering the nutritional value and deterioration taste of the product, and while allocation of hydrogen is accompanied by swelling and destruction of metal containers.We have investigated a number of anti-corrosion coatings based on Fe-Cr and Fe-Sn-Ti of their behavior in aggressive mediums canned fruit. For the purpose of modeling such mediums the solutions of most widespread organic acids were used. The research allowed conclude, that in surface solid solutions Fe-Sn-Ti increase the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in aqueous solutions of malic, citric and tartaric acids. This implies that the surface solid solutions’ formation can significantly improve corrosion resistance in aggressive canning mediums.

  15. Psychosocial antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression for hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John

    2012-12-01

    To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. MANIFESTATIONS OF AGGRESSIVE ATYPICAL KAPOSI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weight loss (86.8%), skin nodules (86.4%) and diarrhoea (55.3%). Virtually, all occupational groups were affected, with students, civil servants and businessmen topping the list. Key Words: Atypical Aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma, HIV infection. African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 ...

  17. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  18. Relationship between boys' normative beliefs about aggression and their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Si Huan; Ang, Rebecca P

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of general normative beliefs about aggression and specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression in predicting physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Two hundred and forty-nine Grade 4 and Grade 5 boys completed the Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) and provided self-reports on the frequency of their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that general normative beliefs about aggression contributed significantly in predicting all three types of aggressive behaviors. When general normative beliefs about aggression were controlled for, specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against males but not specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against females, contributed significantly to predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  19. Study of insomnia in rotating shift-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Chatterjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shift-workers commonly suffer from insomnia. This study evaluates different domains of insomnia. Aim: This study was aimed to study sleep and insomnia in rotating shift-workers and compare with day-workers. Materials and Methods: This was case–control study. The sleep of rotating shift-workers is compared with day workers using Athens Insomnia Scale. Results: Rotating shift-workers had significantly higher scores on Athens insomnia scale on domains of initial, intermediate and terminal insomnia than day workers. Duration and quality of sleep and sense of well-being are lower in rotating shift-workers. Rotating shift-workers also experienced more day-time sleepiness than day workers. However, there was no difference in perceived physical and mental functioning between the two groups. Conclusion: Individuals working in rotating shifts for more than 15 days have significantly higher prevalence of insomnia than day-workers.

  20. A concept analysis of relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.

  1. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  2. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered.

  3. From provocation to aggression: the neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Repple, J.; Pawliczek, C.M.; Voss, B.; Siegel, S.; Schneider, F.; Kohn, N.; Habel, U.

    2017-01-01

    Background In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. Results Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents. Compar...

  4. Aggressive priming online: Facebook adverts can prime aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Through the process of priming, incidental stimuli in our environments can influence our thoughts, feelings and behavior. This may be true of incidental stimuli in online environments, such as adverts on websites. Two experiments (N=325, N=331) showed that the mere presence of advertisements with violent content on a simulated Facebook page induced higher levels of aggression-related cognition in comparison to non-violent adverts (d=0.56 , d=0.71). In a subsequent word recognition task, parti...

  5. Colony fusion and worker reproduction after queen loss in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    their reproductive success. We show that worker chemical recognition profiles remain similar after queen loss, but rapidly change into a mixed colony Gestalt odour after fusion, consistent with indiscriminate acceptance of alien workers that are no longer aggressive. We hypothesize that colony fusion after queen...

  6. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children’s Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP) and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were rated for 414 children with ASD (Autistic Disorder, 69%; PDD-NOS, 24%; Asperger’s Disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without ASD, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with ASD were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with ASD showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls. PMID:24497627

  7. Sleep and its association with aggression among prisoners: Quantity or quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lyndsie Fiona; Ireland, Jane L; Chu, Simon; Ireland, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    The current paper aims to examine the association between self-reported sleep quality and quantity and how these relate to aggression motivation and hostile cognition in a male prisoner sample. The cognitive component of sleep, namely perception, is consequently a variable of particular interest and one neglected by previous research. Two independent studies are presented. The first comprised 95 adult male prisoners who completed a sleep quality index along with measures of implicit and explicit aggression. The second study extended this to consider aggression motivation and hostile attribution biases using a sample of 141 young male adult prisoners. In study one, sleep quantity and indicators of sleep quality were found not to associate with aggression whereas the perception of poor sleep did; those perceiving poor sleep quality were more likely than those perceiving good sleep to report they had perpetrated aggression in the previous week and to report higher levels of implicit aggression. Study two found that while increased indicators of poor sleep quality were associated with lower prosocial attribution tendencies and higher levels of reactive and proactive aggression, sleep quantity was not associated. The perception of poor quality sleep was important; those perceiving poor sleep were more likely to report higher levels of reactive and proactive aggression than those reporting good sleep. Collectively the studies highlight the importance of accounting for the perception of sleep quality as an important cognitive component in understanding the association between sleep and aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, R.S.L.; Bartels, M.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed

  9. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  10. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  11. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province .... aggression is viewed as a response to a perceived threat. ... sive behaviour develops through emulating the aggressive actions or behaviour others ..... them (the young teachers) it is more acceptable that the children talk softly and move.

  12. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  13. Aggression in adolescents: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.

  14. The social status of aggressive students across contexts: the role of classroom status hierarchy, academic achievement, and grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C

    2011-11-01

    This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  17. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  18. The influence of treatment attendance on subsequent aggression among severely mentally ill substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yue; Bradizza, Clara M; Maisto, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagnosed with both a severe mental illness and a substance use disorder. We also tested substance use and psychiatric symptoms as mediators of this treatment-aggression relationship. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that dual diagnosis treatment was associated with lower levels of subsequent aggression. Mediational analyses indicated that greater treatment involvement was associated with reduced substance use, which was associated with lower levels of aggression; thus, substance use was found to mediate the relationship between dual diagnosis treatment and aggression. Surprisingly, severity of psychiatric symptoms did not predict later aggression. These findings suggest that targeting substance use reduction in treatment may have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of later aggression among dual diagnosis patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  20. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual

  1. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Jane Louise; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and Social Cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (PUZZLE Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current b...

  2. Social intelligence, empathy, and aggressive behavior: Is a stereotype of aggressive individual as socially incompetent inaccurate?

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vidmar; Andreja Avsec

    2012-01-01

    In the present research, which was carried out on 187 high school students (86 girls and 101 boys), we examined to what extent different aspects of social intelligence contribute to indirect and direct aggression and to what extent empathy can act as a mitigator of aggression. We used The Aggression Questionnaire to measure physical aggression, IAS-A (which includes Social Exclusion, Use of Malicious Humour and Guilt Induction sub-scales) to measure indirect aggression, TSIS (which includes S...

  3. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  4. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  5. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  6. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  7. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  8. Healthy worker effect in hairdressing apprentices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    potential healthy worker effect. Methods. During the first 2 weeks of training, 382 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in this study. All apprentices completed a self-administered questionnaire, including previously validated questions regarding, for example, previous and present hand eczema, eczema...... and by 11.9% of the controls (p worker effect, as there was a lower reported incidence of hand eczema and eczema...

  9. Baseline autonomic nervous system arousal and physical and relational aggression in preschool: the moderating role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-09-01

    The current study investigates whether established associations between physical aggression and low autonomic nervous system arousal, as indexed by heart rate and blood pressure, also apply to the study of the development of relational aggression. Baseline heart rate and blood pressure were collected in two samples of preschoolers, and teachers reported on classroom physical and relational aggression. In Study 1, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure were related to increased engagement in relational aggression among older preschoolers. In Study 2, lower heart rate and blood pressure predicted increased engagement in classroom physical and relational aggression concurrently and across a preschool year in some cases. Low baseline arousal-aggression associations were strongest for children with poorer self-regulation abilities, whereas high self-regulation appeared to protect children with low heart rate and blood pressure from engagement in aggressive classroom behavior. These findings suggest the utility of examining baseline physiological measures in the study of relational aggression as well as physical aggression. Implications for interventions targeted to physical and relational aggression in early childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Statin Effects on Aggression: Results from the UCSD Statin Study, a Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Beatrice A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Koslik, Hayley J.; Evans, Marcella A.; Lu, Xun; Rossi, Steven; Mills, Paul J.; Criqui, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low/ered cholesterol is linked to aggression in some study designs. Cases/series have reported reproducible aggression increases on statins, but statins also bear mechanisms that could reduce aggression. Usual statin effects on aggression have not been characterized. Methods 1016 adults (692 men, 324 postmenopausal women) underwent double-blind sex-stratified randomization to placebo, simvastatin 20mg, or pravastatin 40mg (6 months). The Overt-Aggression-Scale-Modified–Aggression-Subscale (OASMa) assessed behavioral aggression. A significant sex-statin interaction was deemed to dictate sex-stratified analysis. Exploratory analyses assessed the influence of baseline-aggression, testosterone-change (men), sleep and age. Results The sex-statin interaction was significant (P=0.008). In men, statins tended to decrease aggression, significantly so on pravastatin: difference=-1.0(SE=0.49)P=0.038. Three marked outliers (OASMa-change ≥40 points) offset otherwise strong significance-vs-placebo: statins:-1.3(SE=0.38)P=0.0007; simvastatin:-1.4(SE=0.43)P=0.0011; pravastatin:-1.2(SE=0.45)P=0.0083. Age≤40 predicted greater aggression-decline on statins: difference=-1.4(SE=0.64)P=0.026. Aggression-protection was emphasized in those with low baseline aggression: ageaggression (N=40) statin-difference-vs-placebo=-2.4(SE=0.71)P=0.0016. Statins (especially simvastatin) lowered testosterone, and increased sleep problems. Testosterone-drop on statins predicted aggression-decline: β=0.64(SE=0.30)P=0.034, particularly on simvastatin: β=1.29(SE=0.49)P=0.009. Sleep-worsening on statins significantly predicted aggression-increase: β=2.2(SE=0.55)Paggression-increase on statins became significant with exclusion of one younger, surgically-menopausal woman (N=310) β=0.70(SE=0.34)P=0.039. The increase was significant, without exclusions, for women of more typical postmenopausal age (≥45): (N=304) β=0.68(SE=0.34)P=0.048 – retaining significance with modified age

  11. A Longitudinal Analysis of Criminal and Aggressive Behaviors among a National Sample of Adults in Mutual-Help Recovery Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Darrin M.; Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Majer, John M.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Davis, Margaret I.; Virtue, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Criminal and aggressive behaviors are frequently observed among those recovering from substance abuse problems. In the present one-year longitudinal study, a national sample of residents from self-governed, communal living recovery homes for substance abuse completed baseline and follow-up measures of criminal and aggressive behavior. Results indicated that a length of stay of six months or longer was associated with lower levels of self-reported criminal and aggressive behaviors at the one-y...

  12. Aggression

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Robert; Brennan, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal's behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects.

  13. Aggression and violence directed toward general medicine physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov-Kiurski Miloranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the extent of aggression (verbal abuse and violence (physical abuse directed toward General Medicine physicians by their patients, to identify causes and consequences of such behaviour on physicians' professional work and to establish prevention measures. Method: All general medicine physicians who attended an educational seminar from 28 to 29 February 2015 in Belgrade were given the questionnaire and asked to complete it. Results: 411 general medicine physicians have completed the questionnaire. Both genders were included: 86.37% of them were women. Majority of the participants were in the age group of 51-60 years (45.25%, mean age was 49.27±9.32. Mean number of years in practice was 21.10±9.87. Most of them specialized in General Medicine (62.30%. 85.40% of physicians have encountered some kind of abuse during their work and there was no significant difference regarding physicians' gender or qualifications. In the preceding year 62.3% of participants have encountered aggression or violence in their workplace. Aggression was reported by 82.97% and violence by 8.83% of participants. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of physicians' gender (p=0.859, type of workplace (p=0.097, number of years in practice (p=0.640 and specialty (p=0.537. In 83.2% of cases acts of aggression or violence have been committed by patients and in 40.2% by members of their families. In 44.2% of these cases nobody tried to assist the physicians and even less so if they were male doctors (p=0.05. The most common causes were: patients' dissatisfaction (60.4%, long waiting time for examination (37.0% and patient's alcohol or drug intoxication (35.0%. The most common consequence of this on physicians was decreased satisfaction with their job (53.6%. Prevention measures for this issue would be: decreasing of the number of consultations per day (56.0%, introduction of a new 'in line of duty' status for healthcare workers (55

  14. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  15. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  16. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  17. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  18. Individual variation in social aggression and the probability of inheritance: theory and a field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A; Llop, Justine B; Field, Jeremy

    2006-06-01

    Recent theory suggests that much of the wide variation in individual behavior that exists within cooperative animal societies can be explained by variation in the future direct component of fitness, or the probability of inheritance. Here we develop two models to explore the effect of variation in future fitness on social aggression. The models predict that rates of aggression will be highest toward the front of the queue to inherit and will be higher in larger, more productive groups. A third prediction is that, in seasonal animals, aggression will increase as the time available to inherit the breeding position runs out. We tested these predictions using a model social species, the paper wasp Polistes dominulus. We found that rates of both aggressive "displays" (aimed at individuals of lower rank) and aggressive "tests" (aimed at individuals of higher rank) decreased down the hierarchy, as predicted by our models. The only other significant factor affecting aggression rates was date, with more aggression observed later in the season, also as predicted. Variation in future fitness due to inheritance rank is the hidden factor accounting for much of the variation in aggressiveness among apparently equivalent individuals in this species.

  19. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual's demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother's and adolescents' behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context.

  20. Territorial aggressiveness and predation: two possible origins of snapping in the ant Plectroctena minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Suzzoni, Jean-Pierre; Schatz, Bertrand; Orivel, Jérôme

    2002-07-01

    Plectroctena minor workers have long mandibles that can snap and deliver a sharp blow to intruders or prey, stunning or killing them. Encounters between homocolonial P. minor workers separated for 24 h or 15 days never resulted in snapping, while this behaviour was always noted during encounters between heterocolonial workers on neutral arenas or on the territory of a colony. In the latter case, only the aliens, that generally tried to escape, were snapped at. Snapping also occurred during encounters with workers belonging to sympatric ponerine species. During predation, the percentages of snapping varied according to prey nature, suggesting prey discrimination. Termite soldiers were always snapped at, while other prey were more often snapped close to rather than far from the nest entrances, indicating an intermingling of territorial aggressiveness and predatory behaviour. We discuss the adaptive value of snapping for hunting in galleries.

  1. Differences in risk and protective factors for workplace aggression between male and female clinical medical practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Danny J

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in prevalence, as well as risk and protective factors, for exposure to workplace aggression between male and female clinicians in Australian medical practice settings. Methods In a cross-sectional, self-report study in the third wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life survey (2010-11), 16327 medical practitioners were sampled, with 9449 (57.9%) respondents working in clinical practice. Using backward stepwise elimination, parsimonious logistic regression models were developed for exposure to aggression from external (patients, patients' relatives or carers and others) and internal (co-workers) sources in the previous 12 months. Results Overall, greater proportions of female than male clinicians experienced aggression from external (Pworkplace aggression between male and female clinicians, including in relation to state and rural location, need to be considered in the development and implementation of efforts to prevent and minimise workplace aggression in medical practice settings. What is known about the topic? Workplace aggression is prevalent in clinical medical settings, but there are conflicting reports about sex-based differences in the extent of exposure, and little evidence on differences in risk and protective factors for exposure to workplace aggression. What does this paper add? Differences in workplace aggression exposure rates between male and female clinicians are highlighted, including when stratified by doctor type. New evidence is reported on differences and similarities in key personal, professional and work-related factors associated with exposure to external and internal aggression. What are the implications for practitioners? In developing strategies for the prevention and minimisation of workplace aggression, consideration must be given to differences between male and female clinicians, including with regard to personality, age and professional

  2. REMOVING AGGRESSIVE CARBON DIOXIDE FROM WATER USING MELAPHYRE BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Michel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was based on filtration of the highly aggressive water through the melaphyre bed. The quartz bed was non-reactive reference material. The aim of this work was to determine the ability of the melaphyre to remove aggressive CO2 during the chemical reaction. It was noted that a decrease of acidity of the filtrate in comparison to the feed and an increase of its alkalinity and pH. It was calculated that until the moment of exhaustion of the de-acidifying properties of the melaphyre, maximum amount of bound CO2 added to the water was 29.7 g CO2/L of the bed, and maximum amount of the aggressive CO2 removed from the water was 33.3 g CO2/L of the bed. Regarding very high content of the aggressive CO2 (116 mg/L average in the feed only 28.76% of this component was subject to transformation into bound and affiliated CO2 in the filtrate. For the melaphyre bed the CO2 loss from the experiment system following from desorption was 7.80% of the total load of CO2 added with the feed. On the quartz bed the loss was slightly lower 4.56%.

  3. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  4. Exploring Personal Attitudes towards Parent Involvement as It Relates to Relational Aggression Acted out through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Karla M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression acted out through social media or cyber bullying is an ever-growing limitedly researched issue that is impacting students and parents alike. A mixed-method study was conducted using existing older and aspiring younger social workers and counselors to investigate attitudes (focus groups and text box comments) and relationships…

  5. An evaluation of an aggression management training program to cope with workplace violence in the healthcare sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Oostrom (Janneke); H. van Mierlo (Heleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWorkplace violence is a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers, generating a need for effective intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggression management training program. The evaluation design was based on the internal

  6. Aggression and Brain Asymmetries: A Theoretical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlfs , Paloma; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between aggression and brain asymmetries has not been studied enough. The association between both concepts can be approached from two different perspectives. One perspective points to brain asymmetries underlying the emotion of anger and consequently aggression in normal people. Another one is concerned with the existence of brain asymmetries in aggressive people (e.g., in the case of suicides or psychopathies). Research on emotional processing points out the confusion betw...

  7. Benzodiazepines - Their role in aggression and why GPs should prescribe with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katy A; Nielsen, Suzanne; Bruno, Raimondo; Frei, Matthew; Lubman, Dan I

    2011-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed in Australia, despite concerns about their potential for abuse and dependence. Paradoxical reactions, disinhibition and amnesia are all associated with benzodiazepine use, misuse and intoxication. While violent and aggressive behaviour may be a consequence of such disinhibition, there is limited information available regarding the links between benzodiazepine use and violence. This article aims to examine the existing evidence on the relationship between benzodiazepines, violence and aggression. While current evidence suggests that benzodiazepines rarely induce violence, it is important to note that the available literature is limited in its scope and that benzodiazepine related violence is often severe and of potential concern to frontline workers. Mediating risk factors for benzodiazepine related violence include concurrent alcohol use, benzodiazepine dose, a history of aggression and underlying impulsivity. Comprehensive assessment and alternate nonpharmacological treatment options should be considered before prescribing benzodiazepines within primary care.

  8. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  9. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtseva, N N

    2004-06-01

    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  10. Farmers develop more aggressive histologic subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. Experience from a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalla, Z; Lallas, A; Sotiriou, E; Lazaridou, E; Vakirlis, E; Trakatelli, M; Kyrgidis, A; Ioannides, D

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Outdoor workers, including farmers, experience higher exposure levels compared to the general population. Available literature data suggest that occupational ultraviolet exposure represents an independent risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma; whereas for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) this association still remains unclarified. To analyse the epidemiological, clinical and histological data of patients diagnosed with BCC, and correlate them with outdoor occupation in farmers. Individuals with histologically diagnosed BCCs, between September 2013 and September 2015, were included in the study. Their medical data, including epidemiological, clinical and histological characteristics, were recorded and analysed in conjunction with the occupation. Farmers were identified based on their specific public health insurance. Three hundred and forty patients, with 542 BCCs were included in the study. One hundred and twenty (35.3%) were farmers. Mean age of farmers was lower than non-farmers (66.0 ± 9.1 years vs. 75 ± 6.6 years, Mann-Whitney U-test, P Farmers had a sixfold higher probability for exhibiting photodamaged skin (OR = 6.02, 95% CI: 3.66-9.90, P Farmer workers were more likely to exhibit infiltrative or morpheaform BCC, but less likely to develop superficial BCC. Our results indicate a higher risk of earlier development of more aggressive histological subtypes of BCCs in farmers. Photodamage was also more common in this group. Primary and secondary prevention strategies focusing on outdoor workers, including farmers, are mandatory. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  12. Genetic background of aggressive behaviour in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Stanisław Proskura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of aggression is very complicated and the basis of its occurrence has not been well explained yet. It is thought that tendency to aggressiveness is an effect of both environmental and genetic factors. Aggression is a very undesirable behavioural trait in dogs living with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two polymorphisms: DRD4 intron II VNTR and C/T substitution in exon I HTR2B genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs. The VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification, whereas C/T substitution in the HTR2B gene was analysed using amplification created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (ACRS-PCR. A total of 121 dogs of several breeds were analyzed. All animals were classified based on a veterinary interview and observation in two groups: aggressive (n = 21 and non-aggressive (n = 100. Significant differences in DRD4 genotype frequencies between aggressive and non-aggressive dogs were observed (P DRD4 gene with the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Moreover, the findings give good justification for further research aimed at evaluation of the possibility of using this genetic marker in Marker-assisted Selection.

  13. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell Miller, M

    1997-05-01

    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  15. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  16. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  17. Aggression-related brain function assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Anine P; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Carré, Justin M

    2017-01-01

    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations and associa......The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations...... and associations with aggression within the paradigm. Twenty healthy participants completed two 12-min PSAP sessions within the scanner. We evaluated brain responses to aggressive behavior (removing points from an opponent), provocations (point subtractions by the opponent), and winning points. Our results showed...... with the involvement of these brain regions in emotional and impulsive behavior. Striatal reactivity may suggest an involvement of reward during winning and stealing points....

  18. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation by the worker. Indirect participation involves employee representation, while direct participation relates to individual involvement in management’s decision-making processes. In the Framework Dir...

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness (P.93-104)

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...

  20. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofan, O.; Paul, M.; Weich, S.; Spencer, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression.\\ud Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video\\ud games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible\\ud associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending\\ud specialist outpatient child and adolescent ...

  1. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  2. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  3. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in response to inescapable shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    The effect of exposure to inescapable long-duration shocks of moderate intensity on intershock activity and on subsequent escape or avoidance performance was studied in aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. The activity of the non-aggressive mice was severely suppressed during the inescapable

  4. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  5. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  6. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  7. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  8. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  9. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  10. Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

  11. Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, Matthew A.; Jennings, L. Candace; Mankin, Henry J.; Spiro, Ira J.; Springfield, Dempsy S.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Efird, James T.; Suit, Herman D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome analysis was based on 5-year actuarial local control rates. Results: Control rates among surgery, radiation therapy, and combined modality groups were 69%, 93%, and 72%. Multivariate analysis identified age 60 Gy was seen in patients with unresected or gross residual disease. Of the patients, 23 with disease involving the plantar region had a control rate of 62%, with significantly worse outcomes in children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with those found in the relevent literature. They support primary resection with negative margins when feasible. Radiation is a highly effective alternative in situations where surgery would result in major functional or cosmetic defects. When negative surgical margins are not achieved in recurrent tumors, radiation is recommended. Perioperative radiation should be considered in other high-risk groups (recurrent disease, positive margins, and plantar tumors in young patients). Doses of 60-65 Gy for gross disease and 50-60 Gy for microscopic residual are recommended. Observation may be considered for primary tumors with disease remaining in situ when they are located such that progression would not cause significant morbidity. Although plantar lesions in children may represent a group at high risk for recurrence or aggressive behavior, the greater potential for radiation-induced morbidity in this group must also temper its use. Given the inconsistent nature and treatment response of this tumor, it is fundamental that treatment recommendations should be made based on the risk:benefit analysis for

  12. Direct and mediated effects of nativity and other indicators of acculturation on Hispanic mothers' use of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Inna; Lee, Shawna J

    2011-11-01

    This study used data from 845 foreign-born (n = 328) and native-U.S. born (n = 517) Hispanic mothers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine four indicators of acculturation--nativity, years lived in the United States, religious attendance, and endorsement of traditional gender norms--as predictors of maternal physical aggression directed toward young children. The authors also examined whether psychosocial risk factors associated with child maltreatment and acculturation--maternal alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and intimate partner aggression and violence--mediate relationships between acculturation and maternal aggression. Foreign-born Hispanic mothers had significantly lower rates of physical aggression than native-born Hispanic mothers. In path modeling results, U.S. nativity, along with maternal alcohol use, parenting stress, and child aggressive behavior, emerged as the strongest risk factors for maternal physical aggression. Among the four acculturation indicators, only foreign birth was directly associated with lower maternal aggression. Study findings suggest immigrant status is a unique protective factor that contributes to lower levels of physical aggression among Hispanic mothers.

  13. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  14. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  15. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  16. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  17. Hurt people hurt people : Ostracism and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.; Wesselmann, E..D.; Williams, K.D.

    2018-01-01

    Because ostracism hurts, it can trigger aggression. Guided by the theoretical framework of the temporal need-threat model of ostracism, we review the existing research that investigates this ostracism-aggression link over the last two decades. Both correlational and experimental research have

  18. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  19. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  20. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  1. Aggressive fibromatosis of the mandible in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Parker, B.R.; Arkoff, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis, or infantile fibrosarcoma, is an uncommon form of juvenile fibromatosis which rarely involves the head and neck. Skeletal involvement is infrequently demonstrated by radiography in this condition. Two unusual cases with similar radiographic changes in the mandible are presented, a situation not previously described. Clinical, pathologic, and radiographic features of aggressive fibromatosis are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Understanding aggressive behaviour across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Lewis, G; Evans, L

    2013-03-01

    Aggressive behaviour is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter - and may serve as - both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behaviour in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the aetiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behaviour. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behaviour. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the aetiology of such behaviour in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behaviour across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behaviour, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  3. Aggressive fibromatosis - impact of prognostic variables on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the impact of prognostic variables on local control in patients with aggressive fibromatosis treated with or without radiation. Materials and methods. Forty-two patients presenting to the combined sarcoma clinic at Johannesburg Hospital with aggressive fibromatosis from 1990 to 2003 were analysed ...

  4. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  5. Are Aggressive Cartoons Really Funnier? A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.

  6. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  7. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  8. Focus on aggressive behaviour in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Enrico; Carlone, Cristiano; Silvestrini, Cristiana; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Aggression is a behaviour with evolutionary origins, but in today’s society it is often both destructive and maladaptive. Increase of aggressive behaviour has been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses, and it represents a clinical challenge for mental healthcare provider. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviours, including violence, thus representing a serious public health concern. Aggression is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Moreover, it has an effect on healthcare use and costs in terms of longer length of stay, more readmissions and higher drug use. In this review, based on a selective search of 2010-2016 pertinent literature on PubMed, we analyze and summarize information from original articles, reviews, and book chapters about aggression and psychiatric disorders, discussing neurobiological basis and therapy of aggressive behaviour. A great challenge has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately improve clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. The great heterogeneity of aggressive behaviour still hampers our understanding of its causal mechanisms. Still, over the past years, the identification of specific subtypes of aggression has released possibilities for new and individualized treatment approaches. Neuroimaging studies may help to further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behaviour. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. These combined approaches could improve treatment efficacy. As current pharmacological and therapeutic interventions are

  9. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  10. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relationships of Smiling and Flirtation to Aggression and 2D:4D, a Prenatal Androgen Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Burton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smiling has been reported to be a signal of submission/lower status, or a sign of cooperation. In the present study, use of smiling and flirtation to “make people receptive to my ideas” was conceptualized as mild aggression, since it is mildly manipulative of the perception of others as to one's internal emotional status. For 91 participants (55 female, 36 male, use of smiling and flirtation to make others receptive to one's ideas were associated with relational aggression and a more male-typical (smaller right 2D:4D finger length ratio. The only significant relationship in the male sample alone was the relationship between smiling and relational aggression. In the female sample alone, use of smiling and flirtation to “make people receptive to my ideas” was associated with a more male-typical 2D:4D finger length ratio pattern, and there was a trend for flirtation to be associated with greater physical aggression. Both 2D:4D and physical aggression have been associated with higher prenatal androgen level. It is concluded that deliberate smiling and flirtation are mild forms of relational aggression, and are related to prenatal androgenic activity in a manner similar to physical aggression. These findings are discussed in terms of the different evolutionary strategies of men and women to control their social environments.

  12. Trajectories of Adolescent Aggression and Family Cohesion: The Potential to Perpetuate or Ameliorate Political Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Pete; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Correlations between intergroup violence and youth aggression are often reported. Yet longitudinal research is needed to understand the developmental factors underlying this relation, including between-person differences in within-person change in aggression through the adolescent years. Multilevel modeling was used to explore developmental and contextual influences related to risk for youth aggression using 4 waves of a prospective, longitudinal study of adolescent/mother dyad reports (N = 820; 51% female; 10-20 years old) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted political conflict. Experience with sectarian (i.e., intergroup) antisocial behavior predicted greater youth aggression; however, that effect declined with age, and youth were buffered by a cohesive family environment. The trajectory of aggression (i.e., intercepts and linear slopes) related to more youth engagement in sectarian antisocial behavior; however, being female and having a more cohesive family were associated with lower levels of youth participation in sectarian acts. The findings are discussed in terms of protective and risk factors for adolescent aggression, and more specifically, participation in sectarian antisocial behavior. The article concludes with clinical and intervention implications, which may decrease youth aggression and the perpetuation of intergroup violence in contexts of ongoing conflict.

  13. Is popularity associated with aggression toward socially preferred or marginalized targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Kätlin; Hodges, Ernest V E

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to test whether aggression toward easy or challenging targets is more likely to be associated with popularity. More specifically, we tested two alternative hypotheses with a sample of 224 adolescents (12- and 13-year-olds): (a) whether aggression toward highly disliked peers is associated with popularity (the easy target hypothesis) or (b) whether aggression toward highly liked peers is associated with popularity (the challenging target hypothesis). Support was found only for the challenging target hypothesis. In particular, our results indicate that aggressiveness toward peers who are liked by many others has social benefits in the form of greater popularity (particularly for highly preferred adolescents) without social costs (i.e., is unrelated to social preference). In contrast, aggressiveness toward peers who are disliked by many others is associated with lower social preference but bears no association with popularity. These results highlight the importance of studying contextualized aggression in order to understand the conditions under which aggression is most, and least, likely to be associated with social power and dominance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ares and Babbitt in the classroom: effects of competition and reward on children's aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, R F; Rogers, R W

    1976-05-01

    In many competitive situations, aggression is one of several instrumental behaviors that can produce reinforcing consequences. Despite the fact that aggression precipitated by competition for valued resources is an increasingly important social problem, there is little evidence of a causal relationship. In a factorial experiment, dyads of 64 kindergarten and first-grade males played a game in a face-to-face setting that yielded a prize for the winner only. It was predicted that high levels of competition and high levels of reward magnitude would produce more aggressive behavior than lower levels of these variables. Additionally, children rated by their teachers as high in dispositional aggressiveness were anticipated to behave most aggressively in the game. Each of these predictions was confirmed on three different measures of aggression: verbal, interference, and physical. Furthermore, the data suggested that constructive action was sometimes abandoned in attempts to harm an opponent. Since competition for desirable objects is a social reality, it was concluded that conditions inhibiting aggression in these situations should be investigated.

  15. Aggressive and prosocial behavior: community violence, cognitive, and behavioral predictors among urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema

    2013-06-01

    We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.

  16. Aggression and welfare in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Many species of fishes are aggressive when placed in small aquaria. Aggression can negatively affect the welfare of those individuals toward whom it is directed. Animals may behave aggressively in order to defend resources such as food, shelter, mates, and offspring. The decision to defend depends on the distribution of resources and on ecological factors such as number of competitors, amount of available space, and amount of habitat complexity. This study tested the effects of these factors on aggression in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus). The study found that time spent behaving aggressively was not associated with small-scale differences in group size or available space. Aggression was significantly lower in a large aquarium with a complex habitat. Aquaria of sizes typically used in the companion animal (pet) hobby did not provide optimal welfare for cichlids housed with aggressive conspecifics. The public should be aware that this and similar species require larger aquaria with complex habitat, which elicit more natural behavior.

  17. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Aggressive Regimens for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Reduce Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Mitnick, Carole D.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Bayona, Jaime; Chalco, Katiuska; Shin, Sonya; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Recurrent tuberculosis disease occurs within 2 years in as few as 1% and as many as 29% of individuals successfully treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. A better understanding of treatment-related factors associated with an elevated risk of recurrent tuberculosis after cure is urgently needed to optimize MDR tuberculosis therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults successfully treated for MDR tuberculosis in Peru. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine whether receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion from positive to negative was associated with a reduced rate of recurrent tuberculosis. Results. Among 402 patients, the median duration of follow-up was 40.5 months (interquartile range, 21.2–53.4). Receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion was associated with a lower risk of recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.96]; P = .04). A baseline diagnosis of diabetes mellitus also predicted recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 10.47 [95% confidence interval, 2.17–50.60]; P = .004). Conclusions. Individuals who received an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion experienced a lower rate of recurrence after cure. Efforts to ensure that an aggressive regimen is accessible to all patients with MDR tuberculosis, such as minimization of sequential ineffective regimens, expanded drug access, and development of new MDR tuberculosis compounds, are critical to reducing tuberculosis recurrence in this population. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be carefully managed during initial treatment and followed closely for recurrent disease. PMID:23223591

  1. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  3. The effects of patients initiated aggression on Chinese medical students' career planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhonghui; Li, Jing; Chen, Yuhua; Cui, Kaijun

    2017-12-28

    Patient initiated aggression is common among Chinese health-care workers, reaching over 10,000 incidents annually (Jinyang web. http://6d.dxy.cn/article/55497 . 2013), and the tense doctor-patient relationship generates stress among medical students. Because of the paucity of data (few surveys pay attention to the effects of violence perpetrated by patients on medical students), this study aimed to characterize patient initiated aggression against medical students. In this cross-sectional survey conducted at a medical school in West China in 2015, 157 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire and the Short Form-36, which assesses quality of life. The associations between patient initiated aggression exposure and medical students' career planning or quality of life were assessed using a chi-square test. Of the 157 medical students, 48 (30.6%) reported having suffered patient initiated aggression at least once during the previous year in the form of mental abuse (20.4%), offensive threat (14.6%), physical violence (8.3%), sexual harassment (verbal: 8.3% or physical: 1.6%), and extreme violence (physical violence leading to surgical treatment or hospitalization) (0.6%). Insufficient communication was the primary reason cited (27.2%). Emotional attack (mental abuse and offensive threat) occurrence differed among age groups (χ 2  = 9.786, P = 0.020) and was ubiquitous among those aged >30 years old. Women were more likely than men to suffer physical violence (χ 2  = 6.796, P = 0.009). Patient initiated aggression was not significantly associated with medical students' career planning or quality of life. In this study, patient initiated aggression, albeit common, as in the rest of China, did not appear to be associated with medical students' career planning or quality of life. However, the characteristics described can inform policymaking and the design of programs to minimize patient initiated aggression occurrence.

  4. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Wage discrimination against foreign workers in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vakulenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We try to determine with the help of the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition technique whether foreign workers are discriminated against in Russia. We use the Russian Ministry of Labor (Rostrud data on migrants’ applications and the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS, provided by the Higher School of Economics for the period 2009–2013. We show that there is significant discrimination against foreign workers. The average salary of Russian workers with the same level of productivity as migrants exceeds migrants’ average salary by 40%. The industries in which the workers are employed have made most substantial contribution to the discrimination gap. Moreover, there is evidence that the lower salaries of foreign workers do not reduce the salaries of Russians employed in similar positions.

  6. Workers select mates for queens: a possible mechanism of gene flow restriction between supercolonies of the invasive Argentine ant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, Eiriki; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko; Sakamoto, Hironori; Fujii, Takeshi; Nishisue, Koji; Suzuki, Shun; Terayama, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

    2011-05-01

    Some invasive ants form large networks of mutually non-aggressive nests, i.e., supercolonies. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms much larger supercolonies in introduced ranges than in its native range. In both cases, it has been shown that little gene flow occurs between supercolonies of this species, though the mechanism of gene flow restriction is unknown. In this species, queens do not undertake nuptial flight, and males have to travel to foreign nests and cope with workers before gaining access to alien queens. In this study, we hypothesized that male Argentine ants receive interference from workers of alien supercolonies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral and chemical experiments using ants from two supercolonies in Japan. Workers attacked males from alien supercolonies but not those from their own supercolonies. The level of aggression against alien males was similar to that against alien workers. The frequency of severe aggression against alien males increased as the number of recipient workers increased. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which serve as cues for nestmate recognition, of workers and males from the same supercolony were very similar. Workers are likely to distinguish alien males from males of their own supercolony using the profiles. It is predicted that males are subject to considerable aggression from workers when they intrude into the nests of alien supercolonies. This may be a mechanism underlying the restricted gene flow between supercolonies of Argentine ants. The Argentine ant may possess a distinctive reproductive system, where workers participate in selecting mates for their queens. We argue that the aggression of workers against alien males is a novel form of reproductive interference.

  7. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  8. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-11-13

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  9. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C. M. Centifanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  10. Authoritative school climate, aggression toward teachers, and teacher distress in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-03-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. When Power Shapes Interpersonal Behavior: Low Relationship Power Predicts Men’s Aggressive Responses to Low Situational Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C.; Hammond, Matthew D.; McNulty, James K.; Finkel, Eli J.

    2016-01-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (1) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (2) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples’ observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples’ support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men’s aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive responses to their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. PMID:27442766

  12. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becht, Andrik I; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9-15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated by 2-year intervals, mothers and fathers reported on their children's aggression and rule breaking (N = 290, M age = 8.8 years at Time 1). At Time 1, parents reported on their children's personality traits and their own overreactivity. Growth mixture modeling identified three aggression trajectories (low decreasing, high decreasing, and high increasing) and two rule-breaking trajectories (low and high). Lower optimism and compliance and higher energy predicted trajectories for both aggression and rule breaking, whereas higher expressiveness and irritability and lower orderliness and perseverance were unique risk factors for increasing aggression into adolescence. Lower concentration was a unique risk factor for increasing rule breaking. Parental overreactivity predicted higher trajectories of aggression but not rule breaking. Only two Trait × Overreactivity interactions were found. Our results indicate that personality facets could differentiate children at risk for different developmental trajectories of aggression and rule breaking.

  13. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  14. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  16. Affective dependence and aggression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  17. Reciprocal moderation by Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and blood phenylalanine - tyrosine ratio of their associations with trait aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Ashwin Jacob; Lowry, Christopher A; Cook, Thomas B; Brenner, Lisa A; Brundin, Lena; Groer, Maureen W; Peng, Xiaoqing; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Fuchs, Dietmar; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T

    2016-12-01

    We previously reported that trait aggression, proposed as an endophenotype for suicidal behavior, is positively associated with Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) seropositivity in females, but not in males. Additionally, older males seropositive for T. gondii had lower scores on measures of trait aggression, including self-aggression. Trait aggression may be influenced by dopaminergic signaling, which is known to be moderated by gender and age, and potentially enhanced in T. gondii positives through the intrinsic production of dopamine by the microorganism. Therefore, we investigated associations between trait aggression and interactions between T. gondii enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) IgG titer-determined seropositivity and high-performance liquid chromatography- (HPLC-) measured blood levels of dopamine precursors phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and their ratio in a sample of 1000 psychiatrically healthy participants. Aggressive traits were assessed using the questionnaire for measuring factors of aggression (FAF), the German version of the Buss-Durkee hostility questionnaire. We found that 1) the decrease in trait aggression scores in T. gondii -positive older males was only present in individuals with a low Phe:Tyr ratio, and 2) that there was a positive correlation between Phe:Tyr ratio and total aggression and selected subscales of aggression in T. gondii -positive males, but not in T. gondii -negative males. These findings point toward a gender-specific reciprocal moderation by Phe:Tyr ratio and T. gondii seropositivity of their associations with aggression scores, and lead to experimental interventions geared to manipulating levels of dopamine precursors in selected T. gondii positive individuals with increased propensity for aggression.

  18. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. © 2013 Wiley

  19. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Youssef; Bègue, Laurent; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress was measured using cardiac coherence, defined as the synchronization of the rhythm of breathing to the rhythm of the heart. We predicted that cardiac coherence would mediate the link between exposure to violent video games and subsequent aggression. Specifically, we predicted that playing a violent video game would decrease cardiac coherence, and that cardiac coherence, in turn, would correlate negatively with aggression. Participants (N = 77) played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. Cardiac coherence was measured before and during game play. After game play, participants had the opportunity to blast a confederate with loud noise through headphones during a reaction time task. The intensity and duration of noise blasts given to the confederate was used to measure aggression. As expected, violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence levels and higher aggression levels than did nonviolent game players. Cardiac coherence, in turn, was negatively related to aggression. This research offers another possible reason why violent games can increase aggression-by inducing stress. Cardiac coherence can be a useful tool to measure stress induced by violent video games. Cardiac coherence has several desirable methodological features as well: it is noninvasive, stable against environmental disturbances, relatively inexpensive, not subject to demand characteristics, and easy to use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk and protective factors associated with being a victim of aggression in the health sector. Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Parmigiani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: aggression against healthcare workers is an alarming issue worldwide. However, there is lack of data on psychological vulnerability factors (such as personality traits, attachment style which can constitute a risk or a protective factor for being a victim of an episode of violence in the health sector. Methods/design: the present protocol is a cross-sectional study on prevalence and characteristics of violent episodes experienced by nursing students in the clinical setting. Its aim is to identify risk and protective factors for becoming a victim of verbal and/or physical aggression among healthcare workers. Participants will undergo an intensive battery of psychometric tests, dealing with episodes of aggression in the previous year, attachment style, personality traits, perceived stress, health related quality of life and job strain. Conclusions: the findings derived from this study may be of value in identifying vulnerability factors in experiencing an episode of aggression in the health sector. In this respect, it is a step towards the development of valid training and support focused on health workers, aimed at teaching them how to modulate and manage their vulnerability factors in an efficient way.

  2. Verbal Aggression from Care Recipients as a Risk Factor among Nursing Staff: A Study on Burnout in the JD-R Model Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara; Gilardi, Silvia; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Converso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Among nursing staff, the risk of experiencing violence, especially verbal aggression, is particularly relevant. The present study, developed in the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), has two main aims: (a) to examine the association between verbal aggression and job burnout in both nurses and nurse's aides and (b) to assess whether job content, social resources, and organizational resources lessen the negative impact of verbal aggression on burnout in the two professional groups. The cross-sectional study uses a dataset that consists of 630 workers (522 nurses and 108 nurse's aides) employed in emergency and medical units. High associations were found between verbal aggression and job burnout in both professional groups. Moderated hierarchical regressions showed that, among nurses, only the job content level resources moderated the effects of the verbal aggression on job burnout. Among nurse's aides, the opposite was found. Some resources on the social and organizational levels but none of the job content level resources buffered the effects of verbal aggression on workers burnout. The study highlights the crucial role of different types of resources in protecting nursing staff from the detrimental effects of verbal aggression on job burnout.

  3. Verbal Aggression from Care Recipients as a Risk Factor among Nursing Staff: A Study on Burnout in the JD-R Model Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Viotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among nursing staff, the risk of experiencing violence, especially verbal aggression, is particularly relevant. The present study, developed in the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R, has two main aims: (a to examine the association between verbal aggression and job burnout in both nurses and nurse’s aides and (b to assess whether job content, social resources, and organizational resources lessen the negative impact of verbal aggression on burnout in the two professional groups. The cross-sectional study uses a dataset that consists of 630 workers (522 nurses and 108 nurse’s aides employed in emergency and medical units. High associations were found between verbal aggression and job burnout in both professional groups. Moderated hierarchical regressions showed that, among nurses, only the job content level resources moderated the effects of the verbal aggression on job burnout. Among nurse’s aides, the opposite was found. Some resources on the social and organizational levels but none of the job content level resources buffered the effects of verbal aggression on workers burnout. The study highlights the crucial role of different types of resources in protecting nursing staff from the detrimental effects of verbal aggression on job burnout.

  4. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid measurements of Iodine-125 workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Peggie, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The accumulation of 125 I in the thyroid presents real hazards to workers who use this radionuclide. Recent assessments of the maximum permissible thyroid burden for 125 I have tended to be lower than those previously adopted. Workers using 125 I may receive small doses to a film badge monitor from external radiation while accumulating significant doses to the thyroid from internal contamination. It is therefore necessary to perform some form of thyroid monitoring on such workers. In the past two years the Australian Radiation Laboratory has monitored 125 I workers from six different institutations in the Melbourne area to determine the activity of 125 I in their thyroids. Most of the levels monitored were less than one tenth of the most recently recommended thyroid burden of 400 nanocurie. The highest levels were measured in workers who actually perform iodinations. Workers who handle the iodinate generally had lower levels than those performing the iodinations. Only a very small number of the workers measured were below the detectable limit of the system indicating that even when low activities of 125 I are handled in relatively stable forms it is still possible to accumulate 125 I in the thyroid

  6. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-11-18

    Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.

  7. Evidence of Big Five and Aggressive Personalities in Gait Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Liam; Morris, Paul; Mills, Chris; O'Reilly, Liam; Marshman, Paul; Akehurst, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral observation techniques which relate action to personality have long been neglected (Furr and Funder in Handbook of research methods in personality psychology, The Guilford Press, New York, 2007) and, when employed, often use human judges to code behavior. In the current study we used an alternative to human coding (biomechanical research techniques) to investigate how personality traits are manifest in gait. We used motion capture technology to record 29 participants walking on a treadmill at their natural speed. We analyzed their thorax and pelvis movements, as well as speed of gait. Participants completed personality questionnaires, including a Big Five measure and a trait aggression questionnaire. We found that gait related to several of our personality measures. The magnitude of upper body movement, lower body movement, and walking speed, were related to Big Five personality traits and aggression. Here, we present evidence that some gait measures can relate to Big Five and aggressive personalities. We know of no other examples of research where gait has been shown to correlate with self-reported measures of personality and suggest that more research should be conducted between largely automatic movement and personality.

  8. Developing the next generation of nuclear workers at OPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation is about developing the next generation of nuclear workers at Ontario Power Generation (OPG). Industry developments are creating urgent need to hire, train and retain new staff. OPG has an aggressive hiring campaign. Training organization is challenged to accommodate influx of new staff. Collaborating with colleges and universities is increasing the supply of qualified recruits with an interest in nuclear. Program for functional and leadership training have been developed. Knowledge retention is urgently required

  9. Ploidy, cytokinetics, and histology features of aggressive versus less aggressive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.S.; Peters, L.J.; Adelson, M.; Williamson, K.D.; Sneige, N.; Katz, R.L.; Freedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are investigating the interrelationships of flow cytometric measured ploidy, S-fraction with histology features of uterine cervical squamous cell cancers in an attempt to identify aggressive, high risk tumors and less aggressive tumors. Experimentally, pre-radiotherapy biopsy specimens are being studied using flow ploidy and cell-cycle analysis and microscopic scoring for histology features. The results to date for some 200 patients indicate that there are identifyable aggressive tumors, at high risk for 2 yr local control within each stage of disease and differentiation category (WD, MD, PD). These aggressive tumors usually have high degree DNA abnormalities (triploid or greater), high proliferative activity (%S≥20) compared to the less aggressive tumors characterized by diploid/near diploid DNA content, low to moderate %S (2-19, mean 12). Expression of high S-fraction appears to reflect high growth activity or growth potential and characterizes the aggressive tumors

  10. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  11. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology.

  12. [Aggression and mobbing among correctional officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Cebrzyńska, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of violence among correctional officers. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of exposure to violence in this professional group. The study comprised the sample of 222 correctional officers who voluntary and anonymously fulfilled the MDM questionnaire. The MDM Questionnaire allows for assessing exposure to aggression and mobbing at work. Preliminary assessment of exposure to single aggressive acts and mobbing shows a quite alarming tendency--around one third of subjects under the study experienced repetitive aggressive acts from coworkers and/or superiors. The problem of organizational aggression in correctional institutions should be recognized in details to develop effective preventive measures against violent behaviors occurring at work.

  13. Influences of Gender, Religion, Dietary Patterns, and Mixed-sex Education on Aggressiveness in Children: A Sociodemographic Study in Municipal Primary Schools of South Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Khushbu; Sharma, Schweta; Prajna, Samani Chaitanya; Jain, Viney

    2018-01-01

    Increasing antisocial and violent behaviors in adolescents and young adults present serious challenges for public health. Children with persistent high levels of aggressiveness are often associated with developing conduct disorders later in life. Early detection of highly aggressive children and sociodemographic risk-modifying factors are important for developing effective preventive strategies. The present study was undertaken to assess levels of aggressiveness for detecting highly aggressive children in sample populations of primary school children in an urban setting and determine significant biosociocultural risk-modifying factors in this scenario. The study was conducted during August-September, 2015 in 5 primary schools of South Delhi Municipal Corporation. Sociodemographic data on 2080 students were collected. Overall aggressiveness scores (OA-Scores) were estimated using a self-report questionnaire in Hindi. Categorizing students according to their OA-Scores, the data revealed that highly aggressive children constituted 4.3% of the study population. Analysis showed significant influence of (a) gender: boys displayed higher levels of aggressiveness compared to girls; (b) dietary pattern: omnivores showed higher aggressiveness than vegetarians; and (c) school environment: boys in mixed-sex (coeducational) schools displayed lower aggressiveness than from single-sex schools. Statistically significant influences of religion (Hindu/Muslim) and family type (joint/nuclear) on aggressiveness profiles were not noticeable. Vegetarian diets and mixed-sex education act as protective factors in the development of aggressiveness in children, especially among boys. Extending investigations to populations differing in geography and cultural backgrounds are warranted to verify present results.

  14. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  15. Simulation of electromagnetic aggression on components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoun, G.; Coumar, O.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)

  16. Predictors of Video Game Console Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Anthony Martin; Ferro, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the aggression levels of college students found in the Northeastern part of the United States following exposure to video games. The 59 participants played their assigned game, Mortal Kombat on Nintendo Wii or Halo 2 on the Xbox, for 45 minutes with a partner. The researchers employed twelve t-tests (alpha adjusted to .004) and three multiple linear regressions to explore the difference of aggression levels in gender, violent video game, and predictors o...

  17. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyebeh Khazaie; Alireza Saadatjoo; Samaneh Dormohamadi; Mansooreh Soleimani; Marzieh Toosinia; Fatemeh Mullah Hassan Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that increasing and complicating use of cell phones in all age groups and in both sexes is associated with aggression. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones in Iran, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and the consequences have not been investigated yet. The present study aimed at determining prevalence of mobile dependency and its relationship with aggression during adolescence in Birjand in 2011. Materials and Methods...

  18. [Injury pattern caused by aggressive inline skating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, R E; Besch, L; Behnke, B; Egbers, H-J

    2004-12-01

    In order to evaluate the special injury pattern of aggressive inline skating, a field study was conducted in a local, non-commercial skate park equipped with all the typical features like ramps, halfpipes, gully areas. 66 unselected aggressive inline skaters were randomly enrolled and interviewed concerning their skating habits and their skating injury history. Average age was 15 (10 to 41) years, skating was performed since 2.1 (0.1 to 6) years, as aggressive skating since 1.3 (0.1 to 4) years. Medical treatment in a doctor's practice or in a hospital had been necessary in 66 cases, averaging 1.4 times per skater and year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. The injury pattern reflected the regions typically injured in fitness skating, too, with a higher percentage of injuries concerning knee, tibia and ankle region. The use of protective devices varied from 41 % (wrist guards) to 94 % (knee pads), with an average of 69 %. Only 32 % of skaters wore all protective devices. As the personal thrill is an important motivation for aggressive skating, safer skating campaigns are quite unlikely to decrease the risk of injury in aggressive skaters.

  19. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  20. Social intelligence, empathy, and aggressive behavior: Is a stereotype of aggressive individual as socially incompetent inaccurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vidmar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, which was carried out on 187 high school students (86 girls and 101 boys, we examined to what extent different aspects of social intelligence contribute to indirect and direct aggression and to what extent empathy can act as a mitigator of aggression. We used The Aggression Questionnaire to measure physical aggression, IAS-A (which includes Social Exclusion, Use of Malicious Humour and Guilt Induction sub-scales to measure indirect aggression, TSIS (which includes Social Information Processing, Social Skills and Social Awareness sub-scales to measure social intelligence and IRI (Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern sub-scales. The results confirmed our expectations that the cognitive aspect of empathy acts as an inhibitor of both direct and indirect aggression. The relationship between the ability of processing social information and indirect aggresssion was positive, whereas the relationship between social awareness and indirect aggression was negative, which shows that the relationships between various aspects of social intelligence and aggression are complex. People who have a high degree of social intelligence but do not have the tendency to take the other's perspective can use their abilities (especially social information processing to performn less evident and less prosecuted forms of aggressive behaviour which still have deleterious effects on interpersonal relationships.

  1. Factors affecting aggressive behaviour of spawning migratory males towards mature male parr in masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Maekawa, K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether dominant migratory males (adopting fighter tactics) of the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou would more aggressively attack large mature male parr (adopting sneaker tactics) as large mature male parr are expected to have the potential to cause a greater decrease in fertilization success. The frequency of aggressive behaviour was not related to the body size of males, and it increased with the frequency of interactions with mature male parr. The fertilization success of mature male parr was much lower than migratory males, and no relationship was observed between fertilization success and aggressive behaviour. The low fertilization success of mature male parr, despite infrequent aggressive behaviour by migratory males, indicates that there might be little benefit for migratory males to attack mature male parr more aggressively according to their body size.

  2. Biological treatment of acute agitation or aggression with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in the inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Yu, Xin; Xiang, Yutao; Kane, John M; Masand, Prakash

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are chronic illnesses that commonly present with symptoms of acute agitation and aggression. These symptoms must be managed rapidly to prevent potential harm to the patient and others, including their caregivers, peers, and health care workers. A number of treatment options are available to clinicians to manage acute agitation and aggression, including non-pharmacologic behavioral and environmental de-escalation strategies, as well as biological treatment options such as pharmacologic agents and electroconvulsive therapy. We summarize the available biological treatment options for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder presenting with acute agitation or aggression in the inpatient setting, focusing on antipsychotics. The following searches were used in PubMed to obtain the most relevant advances in treating schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with acute agitation and aggression: (agitation, agitated, aggression, aggressive, hostile, hostility, violent, or violence) and (schizophr*, psychosis, psychot*, psychos*, mania, manic, or bipolar) and (*pharmacologic, antipsychotic*, neuroleptic*, antiepileptic*, anti-seizure*, mood stabilizer*, lithium, benzodiazepine*, beta blocker, beta-blocker, alpha2, alpha-2, *histamine*, electroconvulsive, ECT, shock, or transcranial). Individual searches were performed for each drug class. The studies were limited to peer-reviewed, English-language, and human studies. Most were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or meta-analyses. Among pharmacologic agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and lithium have been studied in randomized trials. Some typical and, more recently, atypical antipsychotics are available as both oral and short-acting intramuscular (IM) formulations, with 1 typical antipsychotic also available as an inhalable formulation. Among the pharmacologic agents studied in RCTs, atypical antipsychotics have the best evidence to support

  3. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.

  4. Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

  5. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  6. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  7. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  8. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR AND STRESS IN PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN RELATION TO THE TYPE OF HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela TAMAŠ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several research findings indicate that aggression in individuals with intellectual disability (ID is significantly associated with environmental, housing and living conditions. The aim of this study is to determine levels and forms of aggressive behaviour found among individuals with ID; also examine levels of stress experienced as a result of housing conditions and relationships between aggressive behaviours and stressful experiences encountered among individuals with ID living in different housing types. Method: A total of 122 participants participated in the study, 51 of whom reside in institutions, 38 of whom live with families and 33 of whom participate in supported housing programmes. Following instruments have been used: The Lifestress Inventory, The Adult Scale of Hostility and Aggression Reactive-Proactive (A-SHARP. Results: The results reveal that there is a connection between housing types and levels and forms of aggressive behaviour and the level of stress experienced by the individuals with ID. Aggressive behaviour is least pronounced among the participants living in supported housing programmes (verbal aggression: p=0.001; bullying: p=0.002; covert aggression; p=0.003; hostility affect: p=0.002 and physical aggression: p=0.001. Among the participants living in institutions and with families is no statistically significant difference in terms of the level of any form of aggressive behaviour. Participants from supported housing programmes showed significantly lower levels of stress in comparison to the other two sub-samples (p=0.000. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant correlation between aggressive behaviour among individuals with ID and experienced stress, depending on the type of the participants housing.

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  11. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  12. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  13. Gender symmetry in intimate aggression: an effect of intimacy or target sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Tee, William; Campbell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Men's greater use of direct aggression is not evident in studies of intimate partner aggression. In previous research, the effects of target sex and relationship intimacy have frequently been confounded. This study sought to examine these effects separately. One hundred and seventy-four participants (59 male and 115 female) read vignette scenarios in which they were provoked by a same-sex best friend, an opposite-sex best friend, and a partner. For each target, participants estimated their likely use of direct physical and verbal aggression as well as noninjurious forms of anger expression. Results showed that men lower their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and that this is an effect of the target's sex. In contrast, women raise their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and this is an effect of intimacy with the target. The use of noninjurious angry behavior did not vary between targets for either sex of the participant, which suggests that the effects of target are confined to behaviors which carry an intention to harm. Possible effects of social norms and oxytocin-mediated emotional disinhibition on intimate partner aggression are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Children's moral emotions, narratives, and aggression: relations with maternal discipline and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenio, William; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Children who attribute more positive emotions to hypothetical moral victimizers are typically more aggressive and have more behavior problems. Little is known, however, about when individual differences in these moral emotion attributions first emerge or about maternal correlates of these differences. In this study, 63 4-6-year-olds judged how they would feel after victimizing peers for gain and enacted event conclusions using narrative methods adapted from the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. In addition, children's mothers completed assessments of their disciplinary styles and social support, and children's aggressive tendencies were assessed based on ratings from mothers and a second familiar adult. Results revealed that most preschoolers expected to feel happy after their victimizing acts, but variations in happy victimization were unrelated to children's aggression. Several of children's narrative themes, including making amends (e.g., apologizing, reparations), aggressive acts, and mentions of death/killing, however, were related to children's aggression. Moreover, two maternal disciplinary dimensions, higher warmth and reasoning, as well as greater social support were also related to lower child aggression. Children's emotion attributions and moral narratives, however, were unrelated to maternal disciplinary practices or social support.

  15. Physical and verbal aggressive behavior and COMT genotype: Sensitivity to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Comasco, Erika; Andershed, Henrik; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-07-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for several psychiatric diseases as well as aggressive behavior, either directly, or in interaction with an adverse environment. The present study aimed at investigating the susceptibility properties of COMT genotype to adverse and favorable environment in relation to physical and verbal aggressive behavior. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was genotyped in a Swedish population-based cohort including 1,783 individuals, ages 20-24 years (47% males). A significant three-way interaction was found, after correction for multiple testing, between COMT genotype, exposure to violence, and parent-child relationship in association with physical but not verbal aggressive behavior. Homozygous for the Val allele reported lower levels of physical aggressive behavior when they were exposed to violence and at the same time experienced a positive parent-child relationship compared to Met carriers. Thus, susceptibility properties of COMT genotype were observed in relation to physical aggressive behavior supporting the hypothesis that COMT genotypes are modifying the sensitivity to environment that confers either risk or protection for aggressive behavior. As these are novel findings, they warrant further investigation and replication in independent samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674

  17. Pupil-class determinants of aggressive and victim behaviour in pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, T

    1998-09-01

    Aggressive behaviour in pupils is expressed in, e.g., bullying, sexual harassment, and violence. Different kinds of variables could be relevant in explaining a pupil's aggressive or victim behaviour. To develop a multilevel theoretical and empirical explanation for different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils in a classroom and school environment. A national survey was carried out to identify different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils and to assess other variables related to pupils, classes, and schools. A total of 1998 pupils from 100 third and fourth year classes attending 71 different secondary schools took part in the research. Data were analysed by a series of secondary multilevel analyses using the MLA-program. Being a boy, being more extravert, being more disagreeable, coming across fewer teachers with positive teaching behaviour, and attending a lower type of secondary school, help explain why someone is a perpetrator as such. Being a boy, being more disagreeable, being more emotionally unstable, being open to new ideas, and seeing more teachers as being strict, function as explanatory pupil variables for victim behaviour. Other pupil level variables determine more specific aggressive and victim behaviour aspects. Various other class level and school level variables are relevant, too. Personal and environmental pupil variables are more important than class variables but class variables are in turn more important than school variables in explaining a pupil's aggressive and victim behaviour.

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness (P.93-104

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, Tax Aggressiveness

  19. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2016-08-08

    Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds. We confirmed those findings using GWA in a second cohort of partially overlapping breeds. Lastly, we used the validated loci to create a model that effectively predicted fear and aggression stereotypes in a third group of dog breeds that were not involved in the mapping studies. We found that i) known IGF1 and HMGA2 loci variants for small body size are associated with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-social fear, and fear and aggression that are directed toward unfamiliar dogs and humans. All four genome loci are among the most highly evolutionarily-selected in dogs, and each of those was previously shown to be associated with morphological traits. We propose that the IGF1 and HMGA2 loci are candidates for identical variation being associated with both behavior and morphology. In contrast, we show that the GNAT3-CD36 locus has distinct variants for behavior and morphology. The chrX region is a special case due to its extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD). Our evidence strongly suggests that sociability (which we propose is associated with HS6ST2) and fear/aggression are two distinct GWA loci within this LD block on chrX, but there is almost perfect LD between the peaks for fear/aggression and animal size. We have mapped many canine fear and

  20. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Understanding maladaptive responses to rejection: Aggression with an audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Amber; Layton, Rebekah L; Freeman, Nicholas; Muraven, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Logically, responding aggressively to rejection is maladaptive because one is unlikely to seek a relationship with an aggressor. We predict that when concealed, the illogical aggressive response to rejection is more likely, whereas when the rejected individuals' aggressive responses are perceived as public, the aggressive acts may be reduced. Participants were rejected by others (Experiment 1) or were either accepted or rejected during an online ball-tossing game (Experiment 2) and were then given an opportunity to aggress publicly or privately. Across experiments, when the opportunity to aggress was made public, rejected participants exhibited less aggressive behavior. When concerned about the perception of their public aggressive responses by others, rejected individuals' aggressive responses diminished compared with those whose actions were private. Crucially, this extended to aggression visible only to neutral others, suggesting that effects cannot solely be due to fear of retribution.

  2. Physical Aggression and Mindfulness among College Students: Evidence from China and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample (N = 286, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample (N = 512, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults.

  3. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  4. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Part I. Emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  6. The effects of attitudes towards violence on violent behaviour among secondary school students: Moderation by gender and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci

  7. The personality basis of aggression: The mediating role of anger and the moderating role of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Esperanza; Dhont, Kristof; Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    High neuroticism and low agreeableness have been found to predict higher levels of aggression through an increase of negative emotions such as anger. However, previous research has only investigated these indirect associations for physical aggression, whereas evidence for such indirect effects on other types of aggression (i.e., verbal or indirect aggression) is currently lacking. Moreover, no previous work has investigated the moderating role of Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI), which may buffer against the effects of anger on aggression. The present study (N = 665) directly addresses these gaps in the literature. The results demonstrate that high neuroticism and low agreeableness were indirectly related to higher levels of physical, verbal, and indirect aggression via increased chronic accessibility to anger. Importantly however, the associations with physical aggression were significantly weaker for those higher (vs. lower) on AEI, confirming the buffering role of AEI. We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical frameworks aiming to understand and reduce aggression and violent behavior. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  9. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  11. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  12. Kindergarten children’s genetic vulnerabilities interact with friends’ aggression to promote children’s own aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Boivin, M.E.; Vitaro, F.; Brendgen, M.; Koot, H.M.; Dionne, G.; Tremblay, R.E.; Pérusse, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. METHOD: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as

  13. Relational aggression among boys: blind spots and hidden dramas

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2016-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...

  14. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  15. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

  17. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way

  18. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  19. Effects of problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviours among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ani, Cornelius; Ajuwon, Ademola J; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive patterns of behavior often start early in childhood, and tend to remain stable into adulthood. The negative consequences include poor academic performance, disciplinary problems and encounters with the juvenile justice system. Early school intervention programs can alter this trajectory for aggressive children. However, there are no studies evaluating the feasibility of such interventions in Africa. This study therefore, assessed the effect of group-based problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviors among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was an intervention study with treatment and wait-list control groups. Two public primary schools in Ibadan Nigeria were randomly allocated to an intervention group and a waiting list control group. Teachers rated male Primary five pupils in the two schools on aggressive behaviors and the top 20 highest scorers in each school were selected. Pupils in the intervention school received 6 twice-weekly sessions of group-based intervention, which included problem-solving skills, calming techniques and attribution retraining. Outcome measures were; teacher rated aggressive behaviour (TRAB), self-rated aggression scale (SRAS), strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), attitude towards aggression questionnaire (ATAQ), and social cognition and attribution scale (SCAS). The participants were aged 12 years (SD = 1.2, range 9-14 years). Both groups had similar socio-demographic backgrounds and baseline measures of aggressive behaviors. Controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group had significantly lower scores on TRAB and SRAS 1-week post intervention with large Cohen's effect sizes of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. The other outcome measures were not significantly different between the groups post-intervention. Group-based problem solving intervention for aggressive behaviors among primary school students showed significant reductions in both teachers' and students' rated aggressive behaviours

  20. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  1. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  2. Musculoskeletal disorder survey for pond workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryani, A.; Partiwi, S. G.; Dewi, H. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Mucsuloskeletal disorder will affect worker performance and become serious injury when ignored, so that workers cannot work normally. Therefore, an effective strategy plan is needed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorder. A pond worker is profession with high risk of physical complain. Four main activities are ponds preparation, seed distribution, pond maintenance, and harvesting. The methods employed in this current musculoskeletal disorder survey are questionnaire and interview. The result from 73 questionnaires shown that most of pond workers were working for 7 days a week. Prevalence physical complain are on neck, shoulders, upper back, lower back, and knees. The level of perceived complaint is moderate pain. However, most of them do not contact therapists or physicians. Therefore it is necessary to improve the working methods to be able to reduce physical complains due to musculoskeletal disorder.

  3. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  4. Born in an alien nest: how do social parasite male offspring escape from host aggression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lhomme

    Full Text Available Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social insects. Some of them exploit the host colony as a food resource or as a shelter whereas other species also exploit the brood care behavior of their social host. Some of these species have even lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to rear their offspring. To avoid host defenses and bypass their recognition code, these social parasites have developed several sophisticated chemical infiltration strategies. These infiltration strategies have been highly studied in several hymenopterans. Once a social parasite has successfully entered a host nest and integrated its social system, its emerging offspring still face the same challenge of avoiding host recognition. However, the strategy used by the offspring to survive within the host nest without being killed is still poorly documented. In cuckoo bumblebees, the parasite males completely lack the morphological and chemical adaptations to social parasitism that the females possess. Moreover, young parasite males exhibit an early production of species-specific cephalic secretions, used as sexual pheromones. Host workers might thus be able to recognize them. Here we used a bumblebee host-social parasite system to test the hypothesis that social parasite male offspring exhibit a chemical defense strategy to escape from host aggression during their intranidal life. Using behavioral assays, we showed that extracts from the heads of young cuckoo bumblebee males contain a repellent odor that prevents parasite males from being attacked by host workers. We also show that social parasitism reduces host worker aggressiveness and helps parasite offspring acceptance.

  5. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  6. The Effects of Violence and Aggression From Parents on Child Protection Workers’ Personal, Family, and Professional Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Littlechild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a survey of the experiences of child protection workers in England when working with parents who exhibit aggression and violence. This work explores the effects on workers in their professional lives, and on themselves and their families in their private lives. The article examines workers’ thoughts and experiences about the effects of parental hostility on workers’ ability to protect children. The article also details workers’ experiences of the nature and effectiveness of training and support in this area. These findings are then examined in the light of the results of an analysis of the literature, including the findings from serious case review (SCR reports in England (official inquiries into the causes of child deaths where the children are known to social and health services. The majority of the 590 respondents in the survey were social workers (n = 402; 68%, reflecting the fact that case management of child protection cases in the United Kingdom is the responsibility of social workers working in statutory agencies. This article addresses, from a consideration of the secondary analysis and the original research findings from the survey, how individual workers, managers, and agencies can best understand and then respond effectively to aggressive parental behaviors.

  7. Are part-time workers less productive and underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Garnero, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    About one in five workers across OECD countries is employed part-time, and the share has been steadily increasing since the beginning of the economic and financial crisis in 2007. Part-time options play an important economic role by providing more flexible working arrangements for both workers and firms. Part-time employment has also contributed substantially to increasing the employment rate, especially among women. However, part-time work comes at a cost of lower wages for workers, mainly b...

  8. 'We don’t need no education': video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nije Bijvank, M.; Konijn, E.A.; Bushman, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking.

  9. "We Don't Need No Education": Video Game Preferences, Video Game Motivations, and Aggressiveness among Adolescent Boys of Different Educational Ability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N =…

  10. Personality Correlates of Aggression: Evidence from Measures of the Five-Factor Model, UPPS Model of Impulsivity, and BIS/BAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Zeichner, Amos; Wilson, Lauren F.

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies of personality and aggression focus on multidimensional traits and higher order personality disorders (e.g., psychopathy), lower order, unidimensional traits may provide more precision in identifying specific aspects of personality that relate to aggression. The current study includes a comprehensive measurement of lower…

  11. Perpetration of Alcohol-Related Aggression by Male and Female College Students: An Examination of Overt and Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree

    2017-03-01

    Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression

  12. Childhood inhibitory control and adolescent impulsivity and novelty seeking as differential predictors of relational and overt aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, Katherine; Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H H

    2017-04-01

    Impulsivity is commonly conflated with novelty seeking, but these traits are conceptually independent and hold different predictive implications. Using a multi-informant, longitudinal design, we examined childhood inhibitory control, as well as adolescent impulsivity and novelty seeking, as predictors of aggression in a sample of 976 twins. Lower childhood inhibitory control and higher adolescent impulsivity predicted both overt and relational aggression in regression analyses that accounted for sex, puberty status, age, and socioeconomic status. As predicted, novelty seeking did not predict aggression, a finding that supports its independence from impulsivity.

  13. [Oxidative stress in station service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Elia, G; Petrozzi, M T; Zefferino, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify an oxidative stress in service station workers. Previous studies verified an increased incidence of leukemia and myeloma, however other authors haven't verified it. There are reports of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and lung cancer in service station workers. Our study wants to evaluate the oxidative balance in the fuel workers. We studied 44 subjects with gasoline exposure and 29 control subjects. We determined the blood concentrations of Glutathione reduced and oxidized, Protein sulfhydrylic (PSH) Vitamine E, Vitamine C, Malondialdehyde, Protein oxidized (OX-PROT) and beta carotene. The t test was performed to analyze the differences between the means, the Chi square was used to evaluate the statistical significance of associations between variable categorical (redox index). The Anova test excluded the confusing effect of age, smoke and alcohol habit. The mean age of the workers was 36.6 years, instead the control group was 38. In the workers Glutathione reduced, Vit. E and Beta carotene were lower than in the control subjects, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The Malondialdehyde concentration was higher in the workers higher than in the control group, but this difference wasn't statistically significant. Our data demonstrated Glutathione, Vit. E, and Beta carotene are useful to verify a reduction of the antioxidant activity. The only marker of the presence of oxidative injury that correlated to work exposure was the malondialdehyde. The redox index was surest marker. The limit of our study is the number of control group, it was little and lower than workers. Conclusively we believe it's useful to continue our studies and, if our results are going to be confirmed, we retain that stress oxidative determination would be verified in occupational medicine using these markers, especially to study exposure of the fuel workers who were investigated less and, in our opinion, would receive more attention.

  14. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  15. Children and adolescents facing a continuous security threat: Aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2017-07-01

    There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza. Participants filled out quantitative questionnaires, which relate to the pathological consequences of continuous exposure to security threats, and to the role of the school and the community as a protective environment against disruptive behavior resulting from such exposure. The findings revealed that PTSS responses were mainly related to the security threat, whereas interpersonal aggression resulted from other types of traumatic events. Significant differences were found between aggression and posttraumatic symptoms, by age and gender. PTSS was found to be lower for older participants and higher for girls, whereas aggression was higher for boys and higher for older participants. Furthermore, the sense of belonging to the place of residence was negatively associated with PTSS as well as with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging, the lower their levels of PTSS and aggressive responses. In contrast, the sense of belonging to the school was negatively associated only with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging to the school, the lower their aggressive responses. The findings are discussed in the light of trauma theories and in light of the results of previous research. The study contributed to knowledge about the differential consequences of exposure to a security threat, and highlighted the importance of

  16. Another account of interspecific aggression involving a Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyson F Brokaw; Jeff Clerc; Ted Weller

    2016-01-01

    We observed an incident of interspecific aggression between a male Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and a male Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The Silver-haired Bat suffered few external injuries, the most conspicuous of which were a missing lower right canine and small...

  17. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  18. Physiology of reproductive worker honey bees (Apis mellifera): insights for the development of the worker caste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists.

  19. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  20. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  1. The ''healthy worker effect'' and other determinants of mortality in workers in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.; Carpenter, L.; Booth, M.; Inskip, H.; Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    Workers in the nuclear industry has been found to have lower mortality rates than the national average. This is in part due to the ''healthy worker effect'' - the recruitment of healthy individuals into the workforce. Employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority had especially low mortality rates in the 15 years following first employment. Thereafter mortality rates remained about 20% below the national average. Social class was a clear predictor of mortality, the professional and executive classes (Social Classes I and II) having mortality rates about 40% below the national average. Mortality was not related to duration of employment. Radiation and non-radiation workers generally showed similar patterns of mortality. (author)

  2. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Insuasty Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999. The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968. In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicates, that neither of the colonies presents an extreme aggressive behavior and it is possible that they have not Africans genotypes. These results are an indirect proof of the index. Nevertheless, it could be improved by the introduction of other factors such as, climate and colony management.

  3. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  4. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bransfield RC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert C Bransfield Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD. Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation.Conclusion: LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the

  5. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  6. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2018-01-01

    No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation. LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the violence associated with LD can be avoided with better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of LD.

  7. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  8. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression.

  9. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  10. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  11. [Managing aggression and violence associated with psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila

    2015-01-01

    Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility.

  12. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  13. What makes workers happy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.; Wielers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article answers the question what makes workers happy? It does so by combining insights from micro-economics, sociology and psychology. Basis is the standard utility function of a worker that includes income and hours of work and is elaborated with job characteristics. In this way it is

  14. Conservatism amongst Nigerian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Waterman (Peter)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper (Waterman 1974) I discussed the debate that has been taking place, largely amongst socialists, over the role of workers and unions in Africa. I identified three major positions that have emerged. One was the traditional Communist position that the workers and unions are

  15. Burnout: Its Impact on Child Welfare Workers and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Srinika; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Female child welfare workers and their husbands participated in a study of burnout and the effects of work stress on family relations. Results indicated that greater feelings of burnout in the workers were associated with their depression, anxiety, and irritableness. These individuals were also likely to report lower marital satisfaction.…

  16. A Profile of the Low-Wage Immigrant Workforce. Immigrant Families and Workers. Facts and Perspectives Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Ost, Jason; Perez-Lopez, Dan

    Immigrants compose an increasingly large share of the U.S. labor force and growing share of low-wage workers. Immigrants' hourly wages are lower on average than those for natives. Immigrant workers are much more likely than native workers to drop out of high school. Three-fourths of all U.S. workers with less than a ninth grade education are…

  17. Situation determinanty of display of aggression in sporting activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maystruk V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Situation pre-conditions of development of aggression are considered. Aggression within the limits of rules of competitions is the important element of successful activity of sportsman. Aspiring to victory requires a sporting aggressiveness. Sport is a comfortable model for the scientific experimental study of the phenomenon of aggression. Existing is studied типологии of aggressiveness in sporting activity. A reactive and instrumental aggressiveness is selected. Primary objective of first consists in causing of physical or psychological trauma. A friend is pursued by a purpose is a receipt of victory and not causing of harm to the competitor.

  18. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  19. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  20. Aggressive discectomy for single level lumbar disk herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Ahsan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive open lumbar discectomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure for patients with persistent low back and leg pain. In this retrospective study,  1,380 patients were evaluated for long-term results of aggressive discectomy for the single level lumbar disk herniation. Demographic data, surgical data, complications and reherniation rate were collected and clinical outcomes were assessed using visual analogue score (VAS, Oswestry disability index (ODI and modified Mcnab criteria. The mean follow-up period was 28.8 months. According to the modified Mcnab criteria, the long-term results were excellent in 640 cases, good in 445 cases, fair in 255 cases, and poor in 40 cases. The mean VAS scores for back and radicular pains and ODI at the end of 2 years were 1.1 ± 1.0, 1.5 ± 0.5 and 6.6 ± 3.1% respectively. The complications were foot drop (n=7, dural tear (n=14, superficial wound infection (n=17, discitis (n=37 and reherniation (n=64. The dural tear and superficial wound infections resolved after treatment but 28 discitis patients were treated by conservatively and the remaining 9 underwent surgery. Among reherniation patients, 58 underwent revision discectomy and 4 underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and stabilization. Aggressive discectomy is an effective treatment of lumbar disk herniation and maintains a lower incidence of reherniation but leads to a collapse of disc height and in long run gives rise to intervertebral instability and accelerates spondylosis.

  1. Occupational Mobility of Low Income Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifman, Lawrence

    This dissertation is primarily concerned with assessing the impact of changes in the aggregate labor supply-demand balance on the upward occupational mobility of lower income workers. The empirical analysis indicates that the size of inter-occupational flows is cyclically sensitive, given relative wages. As the labor market tightens, the…

  2. The relation between sleep and violent aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients

  3. Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…

  4. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  5. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  6. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  7. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  8. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  9. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup is...

  10. Multi-modal aggression detection in trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when

  11. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  12. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  13. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  14. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  15. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  16. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  17. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  18. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  19. Psychological Determinants of Aggressive Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at investigating the psychological determinants of aggressive behaviour among adolescents in secondary schools in Awka South L.G.A. of Anambra State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. Expost facto design was adopted for the study. The population of the study ...

  20. Vertebral Hemangiomas - Aggressive Forms | Allali | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...

  1. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Aggression in Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Effect Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Widmayer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression in psychoses is of high clinical importance, and volumetric MRI techniques have been used to explore its structural brain correlates.Methods: We conducted a systematic review searching EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO through September 2017 using thesauri representing aggression, psychosis, and brain imaging. We calculated effect sizes for each study and mean Hedge's g for whole brain (WB volume. Methodological quality was established using the PRISMA checklist (PROSPERO: CRD42014014461.Results: Our sample consisted of 12 studies with 470 patients and 155 healthy controls (HC. After subtracting subjects due to cohort overlaps, 314 patients and 96 HC remained. Qualitative analyses showed lower volumes of WB, prefrontal regions, temporal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum, and higher volumes of lateral ventricles, amygdala, and putamen in violent vs. non-violent people with schizophrenia. In quantitative analyses, violent persons with schizophrenia exhibited a significantly lower WB volume than HC (p = 0.004, and also lower than non-violent persons with schizophrenia (p = 0.007.Conclusions: We reviewed evidence for differences in brain volume correlates of aggression in persons with schizophrenia. Our results point toward a reduced whole brain volume in violent as opposed to non-violent persons with schizophrenia. However, considerable sample overlap in the literature, lack of reporting of potential confounding variables, and missing research on affective psychoses limit our explanatory power. To permit stronger conclusions, further studies evaluating structural correlates of aggression in psychotic disorders are needed.

  2. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Aggression in Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Effect Size Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Sonja; Sowislo, Julia F; Jungfer, Hermann A; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Stieglitz, Rolf D; Huber, Christian G

    2018-01-01

    Background: Aggression in psychoses is of high clinical importance, and volumetric MRI techniques have been used to explore its structural brain correlates. Methods: We conducted a systematic review searching EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO through September 2017 using thesauri representing aggression, psychosis, and brain imaging. We calculated effect sizes for each study and mean Hedge's g for whole brain (WB) volume. Methodological quality was established using the PRISMA checklist (PROSPERO: CRD42014014461). Results: Our sample consisted of 12 studies with 470 patients and 155 healthy controls (HC). After subtracting subjects due to cohort overlaps, 314 patients and 96 HC remained. Qualitative analyses showed lower volumes of WB, prefrontal regions, temporal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum, and higher volumes of lateral ventricles, amygdala, and putamen in violent vs. non-violent people with schizophrenia. In quantitative analyses, violent persons with schizophrenia exhibited a significantly lower WB volume than HC ( p = 0.004), and also lower than non-violent persons with schizophrenia ( p = 0.007). Conclusions: We reviewed evidence for differences in brain volume correlates of aggression in persons with schizophrenia. Our results point toward a reduced whole brain volume in violent as opposed to non-violent persons with schizophrenia. However, considerable sample overlap in the literature, lack of reporting of potential confounding variables, and missing research on affective psychoses limit our explanatory power. To permit stronger conclusions, further studies evaluating structural correlates of aggression in psychotic disorders are needed.

  3. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  4. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  5. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014

  7. Verbal Aggressiveness Among Physicians and Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a

  8. Distinctive mood induction effects of fear or sadness on anger and aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eZhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for a need of cognition free self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other, without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing cognition free regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger or aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger or aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading the extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1 or by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2; then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and view sad, fear, or neutral materials respectively to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results found participants yielded a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was induced afterward, and a higher level of anger when fear was induced afterward. These results provided evidence supporting the hypothesis of mutual promotion or counteraction relationships among these types of emotion and implied a cognition free approach for regulating anger and aggressive behavior.

  9. Fiscal Aggressiveness: A comparison between companies listed on the NYSE and BM&FBOVESPA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risolene Alves de Macena Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Actions aimed at reducing corporate taxes through aggressive tax activities are becoming an increasingly common feature of the organizational environment in many countries around the world. In view of this, the objective of this work was to verify that the companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE are less aggressive fiscally than companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange(BM&FBOVESPA. The analysis period was from 2010 to 2014. To achieve this goal, the aggressive fiscal proxies were based on the study of Chen et al. (2010: effective rate of tax (ETR and difference between accounting profit and taxable profit (BTD. Regression techniques were used OLS Regression and Quantile regression for a sample of 501 companies, being 107 companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA and 394 listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE. The results showed that the NYSE companies are less aggressive fiscally than companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA,  except in the upper quantile (quantile 90 relating to the ETR, in which companies the NYSE showed lower ETR than companies of BM&FBOVESPA, suggesting greater fiscal aggression of these companies.

  10. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  11. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  12. Validation of a motivation-based typology of angry aggression among antisocial youths in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Howard, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the validation of the Angry Aggression Scales (AAS), the Behavior Inhibition System and the Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, the reactive aggression and proactive power scales in relation to a Norwegian sample of 101 antisocial youths with conduct problems (64 boys, 37 girls, mean age 15 ± 1.3 years) and 101 prosocial controls matched on age, gender, education, ethnicity, and school district. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analyses with oblique rotation were performed on AAS, BIS/BAS, reactive aggression and proactive power scales as well as computation of Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Tests for normality and homogeneity of variance were acceptable. Factor analyses of AAS and the proactive/reactive aggression scales suggested a hierarchical structure comprising a single higher-order angry aggression (AA) factor and four and two lower-order factors, respectively. Moreover, results suggested one BIS factor and a single higher-order BAS factor with three lower-order factors related to drive, fun-seeking and reward responsiveness. To compare scores of antisocial youths with controls, t-tests on the mean scale scores were computed. Results confirmed that antisocial youths were different from controls on the above-mentioned scales. Consistent with the idea that anger is associated with approach motivation, AAS scores correlated with behavioral activation, but only explosive/reactive and vengeful/ruminative AA correlated with behavioral inhibition. Results generally validated the quadruple typology of aggression and violence proposed by Howard (2009). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish. ... the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. ... A surprising finding highlighted by this study was the contradictory results for consistency in ...

  14. Prevalence and correlates of aggression among psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 300 subjects satisfied the inclusion criteria, but only 298 were assessed because two ... The prevalence of aggression in this study was 19.5%. ... Most of the aggressive behavior occurred without provocation (63.3%).

  15. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  16. Individual and peer group normative beliefs about relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Hill, Laura G

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational aggression and tested the hypothesis that individual and classroom-level norms predict relational aggression 1 year later. Results showed that the transition to middle school was marked by increased approval of relational aggression, and individual norms predicted future relational aggression. Importantly, a contextual model showed that students in peer groups highly supportive of relational aggression became increasingly aggressive. Findings extend social information processing theories of relational aggression to focus on the role of peer group cognitions.

  17. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  18. Patient aggression in psychiatric services: the experience of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aggression is often the focus of many research reports.1-4. Attitudes are ... Objective: Aggression is a common feature in psychiatric in-patient units in Africa. The attitudes ..... qualitative study focusing on the characterization and perception of.

  19. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to

  20. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.T.; Mishkin, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  1. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C T; Mishkin, F; Goldberg, M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy.

  2. Personality correlates of revenge-seeking: Multidimensional links to physical aggression, impulsivity, and aggressive pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2018-05-01

    People differ in how much they seek retribution for interpersonal insults, slights, rejections, and other antagonistic actions. Identifying individuals who are most prone towards such revenge-seeking is a theoretically-informative and potentially violence-reducing endeavor. However, we have yet to understand the extent to which revenge-seeking individuals exhibit specific features of aggressiveness, impulsivity, and what motivates their hunt for retribution. Toward this end, we conducted three studies (total N = 673), in which revenge-seeking was measured alongside these other constructs. Analyses repeatedly demonstrated that revenge-seeking was associated with greater physical (but not verbal) aggressiveness, anger, and hostility. Revenge-seeking's link to physical aggression was partially accounted for by impulses toward enjoying aggression and the tendency to use aggression to improve mood. Dominance analyses revealed that sadism explained the most variance in revenge-seeking. Revenge-seeking was associated with greater impulsive responses to negative and positive affect, as well as greater premeditation of behavior. These findings paint a picture of revenge-seekers as physically aggressive curators of anger, whose retributive acts are performed with planned malice and motivated by the act's entertaining and therapeutic qualities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sensation Seeking or Empathy? Physically Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors (ASBs Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Eman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.

  4. Brain structures and neurotransmitters regulating aggression in cats: implications for human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T R; Siegel, A

    2001-01-01

    1. Violence and aggression are major public health problems. 2. The authors have used techniques of electrical brain stimulation, anatomical-immunohistochemical techniques, and behavioral pharmacology to investigate the neural systems and circuits underlying aggressive behavior in the cat. 3. The medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray are the most important structures mediating defensive rage behavior, and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus clearly mediates predatory attack behavior. The hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septal area, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex project to these structures directly or indirectly and thus can modulate the intensity of attack and rage. 4. Evidence suggests that several neurotransmitters facilitate defensive rage within the PAG and medial hypothalamus, including glutamate, Substance P, and cholecystokinin, and that opioid peptides suppress it; these effects usually depend on the subtype of receptor that is activated. 5. A key recent discovery was a GABAergic projection that may underlie the often-observed reciprocally inhibitory relationship between these two forms of aggression. 6. Recently, Substance P has come under scrutiny as a possible key neurotransmitter involved in defensive rage, and the mechanism by which it plays a role in aggression and rage is under investigation. 7. It is hoped that this line of research will provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms and substrates regulating aggression and rage and thus establish a rational basis for treatment of disorders associated with these forms of aggression.

  5. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  6. Definition of aggressive periodontitis in periodontal research. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Valeria; Hach, Maria; López, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    . Consequently, considerable variation in the understanding of aggressive periodontitis can be anticipated. AIM: To systematically asses, the definitions of aggressive periodontitis reported in original periodontal research. METHODS: A systematic review of original research on aggressive periodontitis published.......7% of the publications no information is provided as to how the cases were defined. Many combinations of criteria for case definition were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed significant heterogeneity in the understanding and use of the term aggressive periodontitis in original research and poor documentation...

  7. Nurses' experience and attitudes towards inpatient aggression on psychiatric wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tomagová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the incidence rate of forms of inpatient aggression towards nurses who working on psychiatric wards; to identify their attitude to patient aggression, to the factors that condition the occurrence and management of aggression. To determine the differences between nurses in relation to educational training aimed at the issue of patient aggression. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional study. Methods: Selection of respondents was deliberate. The sample comprised 223 nurses with an average of 21.27 (± 11.41 years of clinical practice. Data collection was implemented by means of the self-assessment scales: Violence and Aggression of Patients Scale (VAPS, Attitude Towards Aggression Scale (ATAS, The Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale-Likert (MAVAS-L. Results: 98.58% experienced inpatient aggression in the course of the previous year. Negative attitudes to patient aggression predominated in the sample. Nurses expressed strongest agreement with the idea that internal factors foster patient aggression. Regarding methods of aggression management, nurses expressed strongest agreement with the use of medical therapy and restraints. They held a neutral attitude towards the use of non-physical methods. The age of nurses had an effect on how strongly they agreed with the importance of internal factors in prompting patient aggression and with the use of medical therapy and restraints. Conclusion: A high percentage of nurses have had personal experience of various forms of patient aggression. Negative attitudes to aggression predominated in our sample of nurses, emphasizing the influence of internal factors. The attitude of nurses towards patient aggression influences the selection of aggression management strategies.

  8. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    recognized as one of the most serious occupational health hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... Using a self- ... Kan D, Yu X. Occupational Stress, Work-Family. Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese.

  9. Risks for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection; methods for determining dose limits to workers; use of data from survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for estimating risk factors; use of data from survivors of nuclear explosions in Marshall Islands, uranium miners, and patients exposed to diagnostic and therapeutic radiation; risk factors for radioinduced malignancies; evidence that risk factors for persons exposed to partial-body radiation and Japanese survivors are too low; greater resistance of A-bomb survivors to radiation; and radiation doses received by U.K. medical workers and by U.K. fuel reprocessing workers. It is suggested that the dose limit for radiation workers should be reduced by a factor of 5

  10. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  11. Social Workers Versus Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Wilbur A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on the conflict between professional autonomy and bureaucratic controls is extensive. The author examines this literature in detail and concludes that the trend is toward further intrusions on worker autonomy.

  12. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  13. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  14. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls' relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents' peer rejection and promoting adolescents' peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  15. Forms of Aggression, Peer Relationships, and Relational Victimization among Chinese Adolescent girls and boys: Roles of Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls, we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  16. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  17. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of…

  18. Amygdala reactivity to fearful faces correlates positively with impulsive aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M; Hjordt, Liv V

    2018-01-01

    Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate...

  19. Relational Aggression among Boys: Blind Spots and Hidden Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2018-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a 'girl problem', we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression…

  20. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  1. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  2. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  3. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  4. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  5. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected Schools in Lusaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School bullying and aggression among children and adolescents have been a source of concern for many researchers globally in the past few decades. Limited research exists regarding relational aggression, largely because research has focused historically on direct verbal and physical aggression, which is ...

  6. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we

  7. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  8. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  9. Aggressive desmoid fibromatosis: First case in a Rwandan child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumours are a rare group of locally aggressive, non-malignant tumours of broblastic origin that can result in signicant morbidity due to local invasion. Facial involvement in children with aggressive bromatosis is uncommon. We present the case of a 14-month-old Rwandan child with an aggressive desmoid tumour ...

  10. Radiation monitoring of uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    In order to manage radiological hazards in the workplace, it is necessary to have reliable measurements of workplace radiation levels and estimates of exposures and doses to workers. Over the past several years there have been many changes not only to the science of monitoring and dose assessment, but also to the regulatory framework. New International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations on dose in ICRP Publication 60 (1991) and the implications of the ICRP's new respiratory tract model in ICRP Publication 66 (1994) are of particular importance. In addition, triggered by the act establishing the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which will replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), there is considerable activity in the review and development of regulatory guidance. Concurrent with these activities is the introduction of innovative mining procedures in Saskatchewan in order to extract uranium ore of particularly high grade. In view of these developments, the ACRP considered that a formal review of current monitoring practices would benefit both the CNSC and its licensees. In this report, 'uranium workers' refers to workers at uranium mines and mills, and workers at natural-uranium refineries, conversion, and fuel fabrication facilities; issues relating to long-term tailings management and to the handling of enriched materials are not addressed in this document. The report will have some relevance to workers in non-uranium mines and in industries handling naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) since, in some circumstances, these activities can present similar workplace radiation hazards. The report outlines the radiological hazards encountered in the Canadian uranium industry, and reviews current radiological monitoring practices and options; appendices include a glossary, a more technical discussion of monitoring methods, and an examination of errors and uncertainties in measurements of radon progeny and long

  11. Worker in nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    Juridical aspects with respect to the workers in nuclear activity are presented. Special emphasis is given to the clauses of the statute of workers (Consolidacao das Leis do Trabalho) the rules of the Ministerio do Trabalho and the rules of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. The performance of the international authorities is also emphasized such as the International Labour Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Radiological Protection Commission. (Author) [pt

  12. Losing one’s Cool: Social Competence as a Novel Inverse Predictor of Provocation-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Hopkins, Kay; Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup

    2013-01-01

    Provocations and frustrating events can trigger an urge to act aggressively. Such behaviors can be controlled, but perhaps more so for people who can better distinguish effective from ineffective courses of action. The present three studies (total N = 285) introduce a scenario-based measure of this form of social competence. In Study 1, higher levels of social competence predicted lower levels of trait anger. Study 2 presented provocation scenarios and asked people whether they would engage in direct, indirect, and symbolic forms of aggression when provoked. Social competence was inversely predictive of all forms of aggressive responding. Study 3 focused on reactions to frustrating events in daily life. Such events were predictive of hostile behavior and cognitive failures particularly at low levels of social competence. The research establishes that social competence can be assessed in an objective manner and that variations in it are systematically predictive of reactive aggression. PMID:23754040

  13. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.

  14. An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression : Testing I3 theory and the General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression

  15. The observation of early childhood physical aggression: A psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression (SCEPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van Zeijl, J.; Stolk, M.N.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical

  16. COMT Val158 Met moderates the link between rank and aggression in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutleb, D R; Roos, C; Noll, A; Ostner, J; Schülke, O

    2018-04-01

    The COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is one of the most widely studied genetic polymorphisms in humans implicated in aggression and the moderation of stressful life event effects. We screened a wild primate population for polymorphisms at the COMT Val 158 Met site and phenotyped them for aggression to test whether the human polymorphism exists and is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. Subjects were all adults from 4 study groups (37 males, 40 females) of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in their natural habitat (Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand). We collected focal animal behavioral data (27 males, 36 females, 5964 focal hours) and fecal samples for non-invasive DNA analysis. We identified the human COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism (14 Met/Met, 41 Val/Met and 22 Val/Val). Preliminary results suggest that COMT genotype and dominance rank interact to influence aggression rates. Aggression rates increased with rank in Val/Val, but decreased in Met/Met and Val/Met individuals, with no significant main effect of COMT genotype on aggression. Further support for the interaction effect comes from time series analyses revealing that when changing from lower to higher rank position Val/Val individuals decreased, whereas Met/Met individuals increased their aggression rate. Contradicting the interpretation of earlier studies, we show that the widely studied Val 158 Met polymorphism in COMT is not unique to humans and yields similar behavioral phenotypes in a non-human primate. This study represents an important step towards understanding individual variation in aggression in a wild primate population and may inform human behavioral geneticists about the evolutionary roots of inter-individual variation in aggression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  18. Radiation haunts shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, L.

    1978-01-01

    The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)

  19. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  20. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  1. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.J.; Arntz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the

  2. Global network structure of dominance hierarchy of ant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Abe, Masato S; Tsuji, Kazuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-10-06

    Dominance hierarchy among animals is widespread in various species and believed to serve to regulate resource allocation within an animal group. Unlike small groups, however, detection and quantification of linear hierarchy in large groups of animals are a difficult task. Here, we analyse aggression-based dominance hierarchies formed by worker ants in Diacamma sp. as large directed networks. We show that the observed dominance networks are perfect or approximate directed acyclic graphs, which are consistent with perfect linear hierarchy. The observed networks are also sparse and random but significantly different from networks generated through thinning of the perfect linear tournament (i.e. all individuals are linearly ranked and dominance relationship exists between every pair of individuals). These results pertain to global structure of the networks, which contrasts with the previous studies inspecting frequencies of different types of triads. In addition, the distribution of the out-degree (i.e. number of workers that the focal worker attacks), not in-degree (i.e. number of workers that attack the focal worker), of each observed network is right-skewed. Those having excessively large out-degrees are located near the top, but not the top, of the hierarchy. We also discuss evolutionary implications of the discovered properties of dominance networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  5. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales).

  6. Emotionsregulationsstrategien und aggressives Verhalten im Kindergartenalter

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsen, Johanna; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Studie (N = 193) wurde untersucht, ob sich körperlich und relational aggressive Kinder im Kindergartenalter (mittleres Alter: 55 Monate) in ihren Emotionsregulationsstrategien von ihren unauffälligen Altersgenossen unterscheiden. Zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation wurde eine strukturierte, videografierte Verhaltensbeobachtung durchgeführt, in der gezielt Frustration ausgelöst wurde. Anschließend wurden Regulationsstrategien in sieben verschiedenen Kategorien ausgewertet. ...

  7. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  8. Callous-unemotional traits, proactive aggression, and treatment outcomes of aggressive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Joseph C; Pliszka, Steven R; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A; Crowell, Judith A; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sauder, Colin L; Margulies, David M; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L; Bailey, Brigitte Y; Daviss, W Burleson

    2013-12-01

    Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  9. Limbic control of aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E; Stark-Adamec, C I

    1983-01-01

    Over a decade of work by Flynn and colleagues has delineated a network of limbic circuits which function to modulate the expression of predatory aggression and defence in the cat, and aspects of this work are reviewed. In particular, Flynn's work revealed a circuit involving the basomedial amygdala which functions to suppress attack, and at the same time facilitates defence. A second circuit, involving the ventral hippocampus, is involved in attack facilitation. Studies relating stable differences in excitability in these two circuits to developmentally determined behavioural dispositions toward aggression or defence are summarized. Finally, the impact of experimentally induced limbic seizures on interictally maintained expression of aggression and defence behaviourally, and on limbic excitability are reviewed. Taken together, the data indicate that the behavioural balance of attack and defence is under the tonic control of opponent limbic circuits, which are themselves biased in a measureable manner. Developmental studies indicate that adult defensiveness is determined early in life, so early as to suggest some pre-programmed neuro-developmental process. Experimentally induced seizures alter behaviour lastingly, producing an increase in defensive disposition. At the same time there is an equally lasting potentiation of interictal transmission of neural activity from the amygdala to the hypothalamus. Moreover, seizures may reduce interictal transmission of activity through the ventral hippocampus by potentiating recurrent inhibition. These effects of seizures are of interest since seizures reproduce naturally occurring differences in limbic excitability seen in naturally defensive cats.

  10. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  11. Aggression and substance abuse in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Nichols, C Matthew; Caldeira, Nathilee A; Sher, Leo; Dervic, Kanita; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to examine factors differentiating persons with bipolar disorder who did or did not have comorbid lifetime substance use disorders (SUD) at an index assessment. We also explored the chronology of onset of mood and SUD. We studied 146 subjects with DSM-defined bipolar disorder. Subgroups with and without lifetime SUD were compared on demographic and clinical measures. Substance abuse disorders in this bipolar sample were associated with male sex, impulsive-aggressive traits, comorbid conduct and Cluster B personality disorders, number of suicide attempts and earlier age at onset of a first mood episode. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, male sex and aggression and possibly earlier age at mood disorder onset were associated with SUD. In those with or without SUD, the first mood episode tended to be depressive and to precede the onset of SUD. In persons with bipolar disorder, an earlier age of onset and aggressive traits appear to be factors associated with later development of comorbid SUD.

  12. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Treatment of impulsive aggression in correctional settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Sampl, Susan; Kesten, Karen L; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the implementation of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) for difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive correctional populations. Participants were English-speaking women (n = 18) and men (n = 45) of diverse cultural backgrounds between the ages of 16 and 59 years old retained in state-run prisons in Connecticut. Following consent, and a psychological assessment battery, twice-weekly DBT-CM groups were held over 16 weeks followed by random assignment to DBT coaching or case management condition, with sessions taking place individually for eight weeks. Data analysis. A mixed effects regression model was used to test the hypotheses: participants will show decreased aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathology, as well as improved coping, after completing the DBT-CM groups; and will show greater reduction in targeted behaviors than those receiving case management at the six month and 12 month follow-up assessment periods. Significant reduction in targeted behavior was found from baseline to following the 16 week DBT-CM skills treatment groups. Both case management and DBT coaching were significant at 12 month follow-up. A significant difference was found for adult men and women. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of aggressive behaviors in prison settings. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes.

  15. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. DATA SOURCES: Clinical...... for any of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.......93, 1.26 to 2.95). For adults, the odds ratios were 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) for suicidality, 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) for aggression, and 2.00 (0.79 to 5.04) for akathisia. The corresponding values for children and adolescents were 2.39 (1.31 to 4.33), 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81), and 2.15 (0.48 to 9.65). In the summary...

  16. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  17. Longitudinal effects of increases and decreases in intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Julia F; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2018-04-01

    Interventions aimed at reducing interpartner aggression assume that within-couple declines in aggression enhance individual and relational outcomes, yet reductions in aggression may fail to yield these benefits when other risk-generating mechanisms remain intact. The present study evaluates this possibility by investigating whether naturally observed within-couple changes in aggression are associated with improved individual and relational outcomes in the manner assumed by intervention programs. Drawing upon 4 waves of data collected at 9-month intervals from a community sample of 431 newlywed couples (76% Hispanic) living in low-income neighborhoods, Actor-Partner-Interdependence Modeling (APIM) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that levels of aggression at the outset of marriage had limited associations with later outcomes. Changes in aggression, however, were associated with subsequent marital outcomes, such that decreases in aggression were beneficial and increases in aggression were costly. Individuals who experienced increases in aggression worsened in their observed communication over time and reported greater increases in stress. Reports of stress early in marriage predicted escalations in aggression over time. Thus, helping couples to contain increases in aggression might be particularly consequential for their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  19. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  20. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.