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Sample records for lowered oxidative stress

  1. Oxidative stress and lowered total antioxidant status are associated with a history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas; Pizzo de Castro, Marcia; Bortolasci, Chiara Cristina; Sabbatini Barbosa, Décio; Kaminami Morimoto, Helena; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Berk, Michael

    2013-09-25

    There is evidence that depression is accompanied by inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and metabolic disorders. However links between oxidative stress and suicide attempts in depressed patients are poorly understood. This study examines whether a history of suicide attempts is associated with inflammation, O&NS and metabolic disorders. Blood specimens were collected from study participants aged 18-60 (N=342) recruited at the State University of Londrina, Brazil, and measured for oxidative stress biomarkers: nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products and plasma total antioxidant potential (TRAP); inflammatory biomarkers: fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α; and metabolic variables. Subjects were divided into those with (n=141) and without (n=201) a history of suicidal attempts. Individuals with a history of suicide attempts had significantly higher levels of NOx and lipid hydroperoxides and lowered TRAP as compared to individuals without suicide attempts. There were no significant associations between a history of suicide attempts and inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression showed that both unipolar and bipolar disorder, female gender, smoking behavior and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly associated with a history of suicide attempts. The combined effects of oxidative stress, smoking, depression, female gender were independent from classical risk factors, including marital status, years of education and anxiety. O&NS as well as lowered antioxidant levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior independently from the effects of depression and smoking, both of which are associated with increased O&NS, and classical suicide predictors, such as years of education and marital status. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

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    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  3. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

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    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  5. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  6. Altered serum copper homeostasis suggests higher oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capability in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

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    Huang, Yansong; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Zhexuan; Han, Ming; Cheng, Hongqiu

    2018-06-01

    Copper homeostasis can be altered by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the alteration of serum copper homeostasis and to explore its clinical significance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).Thirty-two patients with CHB and 10 aged- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Analyses included serum levels of total copper (TCu), copper ions (Cu), small molecule copper (SMC), ceruloplasmin (CP), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), urinary copper, and the activities of serum CP and SOD1.The serum TCu and urinary copper levels in patients with CHB were significantly higher than the controls (P = .04 and .003), while the serum Cu was lower than the controls (P = .0002). CP and SOD1 activities in the serum were significantly lower in patients with CHB compared to controls (P = .005) despite higher serum concentrations. In addition, serum alanine aminotransferase inversely correlated with serum CP activity (P = .0318, r = -0.4065).Serum copper homeostasis was altered in this cohort of patients with CHB. The results suggest increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capability in patients with CHB, in addition to necroinflammation. These results may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of patients with CHB.

  7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Comorbid Major Depression with GAD Are Characterized by Enhanced Nitro-oxidative Stress, Increased Lipid Peroxidation, and Lowered Lipid-Associated Antioxidant Defenses.

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    Maes, Michael; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Morelli, Nayara Rampazzo; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; St Stoyanov, Drozdstoy; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-05-07

    Accumulating evidence shows that nitro-oxidative pathways play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) and maybe anxiety disorders. The current study aims to examine superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and uric acid (UA) in participants with and without generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring or not with BD, MDD, or tobacco use disorder. Z unit-weighted composite scores were computed as indices of nitro-oxidative stress driving lipid and protein oxidation. SOD1, LOOH, NOx, and uric acid were significantly higher and HDL and PON1 significantly lower in participants with GAD than in those without GAD. GAD was more adequately predicted by increased SOD + LOOH + NOx and lowered HDL + PON1 composite scores. Composite scores of nitro-oxidative stress coupled with aldehyde and AOPP production were significantly increased in participants with comorbid GAD + MDD as compared with all other study groups, namely MDD, GAD + BD, BD, GAD, and healthy controls. In conclusion, GAD is characterized by increased nitro-oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses, while increased uric acid levels in GAD may protect against aldehyde production and protein oxidation. This study suggests that increased nitro-oxidative stress and especially increased SOD1 activity, NO production, and lipid peroxidation as well as lowered HDL-cholesterol and PON1 activity could be novel drug targets for GAD especially when comorbid with MDD.

  8. Oxidative Stress in BPH

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    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  9. Lowered quality of life in mood disorders is associated with increased neuro-oxidative stress and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and use of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers.

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    Nunes, Caroline Sampaio; Maes, Michael; Roomruangwong, Chutima; Moraes, Juliana Brum; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Anderson, George; de Melo, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli; Drozdstoj, Stoyanov; Moreira, Estefania; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-04-17

    Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-BREF scale was used to assess 4 QoL subdomains. Peripheral blood malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products, paraoxonaxe/CMPAase activity, a composite index of nitro-oxidative stress, and basal TSH were measured. In the total WHOQoL score, 17.3% of the variance was explained by increased advanced oxidation protein products and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity and male gender. Physical HRQoL (14.4%) was associated with increased MDA and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity. Social relations HRQoL (17.4%) was predicted by higher nitro-oxidative index and TSH values, while mental and environment HRQoL were independently predicted by CMPAase activity. Finally, 73.0% of the variance in total HRQoL was explained by severity of depressive symptoms, use of anticonvulsants, lower income, early lifetime emotional neglect, MDA levels, the presence of mood disorders, and suicidal ideation. These data show that lowered HRQoL in major affective disorders could at least in part result from the effects of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, lowered antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher levels of TSH. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

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    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  11. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  12. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  13. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

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    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  14. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

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    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  16. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

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    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apple Polyphenol Suppresses Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Damage in Experimental Animals by Lowering Oxidative Stress Status and Modulating the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Lee, Huei-Jane; Chu, Huei-Chuien

    2017-11-01

    Indomethacin is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine. Previous studies indicated that NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal mucosal complications, and it is associated with mucosal lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage. Based on the evidences, decreasing oxidative stress may be an ideal therapeutic strategy for preventing gastrointestinal ulcer. Apple (Rosaceae Malus sp.) is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. The abundant polyphenolic constituents have received increasing attention for decades. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the reports showed that apple polyphenol (AP) seems to provide an indirect antioxidant protection by activating cellular antioxidant enzymes to defend against oxidative stress. To address this issue and develop AP into a healthy improvement supplement, we studied the effect and potential mechanisms of AP in indomethacin-treated animal. The results showed AP can decelerate the gastric lesion, significantly suppress lipid peroxidation, increase the level of glutathione and the activity of catalase, and regulate the MAPK signaling proteins. These findings imply that AP protects the gastric mucosa from indomethacin-caused lesions and the protection is at least partially attributable to its antioxidative properties. This alternative medical function of AP may be a safe and effective intervention for preventing indomethacin-induced gastric complications.

  18. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P B vitamins, which was partially explained by differences in the proportion of uMMA (indirect effect β: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). Conclusions: Among New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress and potential risk

  19. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Bae, Insoo, E-mail: ib42@georgetown.edu [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2014-04-03

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers.

  20. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

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    Parvin Sabeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions

  1. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

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    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  2. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  3. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Obesity, reproduction and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Zhuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and overweight is one of the most pressing problems nowadays. Obesity as a comorbid condition affects all body systems. Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor not only for cardiovascular diseases and oncopathology, but also for fertility problems, many obstetric and perinatal complications worsening the maternal and infant health. The balance between the oxidative and antioxidant system is one of the indicators of the state of human homeostasis. Today it is proved that obesity is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in antioxidant protection. This review reveals a close relationship between obesity, oxidative stress and reproductive problems.

  5. Stress fractures in the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Ferco H.; Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Stress fractures are fatigue injuries of bone usually caused by changes in training regimen in the population of military recruits and both professional and recreational athletes. Raised levels of sporting activity in today's population and refined imaging technologies have caused a rise in reported incidence of stress fractures in the past decades, now making up more than 10% of cases in a typical sports medicine practice. Background information (including etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment and prevention) as well as state of the art imaging of stress fractures will be discussed to increase awareness amongst radiologists, providing the tools to play an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of stress fractures. Specific fracture sites in the lower extremity will be addressed, covering the far majority of stress fracture incidence. Proper communication between treating physician, physical therapist and radiologist is needed to obtain a high index of suspicion for this easily overlooked entity. Radiographs are not reliable for detection of stress fractures and radiologist should not falsely be comforted by them, which could result in delayed diagnosis and possibly permanent consequences for the patient. Although radiographs are mandatory to rule out differentials, they should be followed through when negative, preferably by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as this technique has proven to be superior to bone scintigraphy. CT can be beneficial in a limited number of patients, but should not be used routinely

  6. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  7. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  8. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguori I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilaria Liguori,1 Gennaro Russo,1 Francesco Curcio,1 Giulia Bulli,1 Luisa Aran,1 David Della-Morte,2,3 Gaetano Gargiulo,4 Gianluca Testa,1,5 Francesco Cacciatore,1,6 Domenico Bonaduce,1 Pasquale Abete1 1Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 3San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Internal Medicine, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi di Aragona, Salerno, Italy; 5Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy; 6Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Heart Transplantation Unit, Naples, Italy Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages. At the same time, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer, including sarcopenia and frailty. Different types of oxidative stress biomarkers have been identified and may provide important information about the efficacy of the treatment, guiding the selection of the most effective drugs/dose regimens for patients and, if particularly relevant from a pathophysiological point of view, acting on a specific therapeutic target. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and aging, antioxidant therapy could positively affect the natural history of

  9. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino ac....... The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker.......SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino...... acids. RECENT ADVANCES: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. CRITICAL ISSUES: The literature is very heterogeneous...

  10. Wet-cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol

    2014-12-01

    Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  12. [Oxidative stress in station service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Elia, G; Petrozzi, M T; Zefferino, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify an oxidative stress in service station workers. Previous studies verified an increased incidence of leukemia and myeloma, however other authors haven't verified it. There are reports of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and lung cancer in service station workers. Our study wants to evaluate the oxidative balance in the fuel workers. We studied 44 subjects with gasoline exposure and 29 control subjects. We determined the blood concentrations of Glutathione reduced and oxidized, Protein sulfhydrylic (PSH) Vitamine E, Vitamine C, Malondialdehyde, Protein oxidized (OX-PROT) and beta carotene. The t test was performed to analyze the differences between the means, the Chi square was used to evaluate the statistical significance of associations between variable categorical (redox index). The Anova test excluded the confusing effect of age, smoke and alcohol habit. The mean age of the workers was 36.6 years, instead the control group was 38. In the workers Glutathione reduced, Vit. E and Beta carotene were lower than in the control subjects, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The Malondialdehyde concentration was higher in the workers higher than in the control group, but this difference wasn't statistically significant. Our data demonstrated Glutathione, Vit. E, and Beta carotene are useful to verify a reduction of the antioxidant activity. The only marker of the presence of oxidative injury that correlated to work exposure was the malondialdehyde. The redox index was surest marker. The limit of our study is the number of control group, it was little and lower than workers. Conclusively we believe it's useful to continue our studies and, if our results are going to be confirmed, we retain that stress oxidative determination would be verified in occupational medicine using these markers, especially to study exposure of the fuel workers who were investigated less and, in our opinion, would receive more attention.

  13. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  15. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  16. Implantation of Neural Probes in the Brain Elicits Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical implantation of intracortical microelectrodes has been hindered, at least in part, by the perpetual inflammatory response occurring after device implantation. The neuroinflammatory response observed after device implantation has been correlated to oxidative stress that occurs due to neurological injury and disease. However, there has yet to be a definitive link of oxidative stress to intracortical microelectrode implantation. Thus, the objective of this study is to give direct evidence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation. This study also aims to identify potential molecular targets to attenuate oxidative stress observed postimplantation. Here, we implanted adult rats with silicon non-functional microelectrode probes for 4 weeks and compared the oxidative stress response to no surgery controls through postmortem gene expression analysis and qualitative histological observation of oxidative stress markers. Gene expression analysis results at 4 weeks postimplantation indicated that EH domain-containing 2, prion protein gene (Prnp, and Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1 were all significantly higher for animals implanted with intracortical microelectrode probes compared to no surgery control animals. To the contrary, NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1 relative gene expression was significantly lower for implanted animals compared to no surgery control animals. Histological observation of oxidative stress showed an increased expression of oxidized proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids concentrated around the implant site. Collectively, our results reveal there is a presence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation compared to no surgery controls. Further investigation targeting these specific oxidative stress linked genes could be beneficial to understanding potential mechanisms and downstream therapeutics that can be utilized to reduce oxidative stress-mediated damage

  17. Oxidative Stress in Cystinosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Vaisbich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephropathic cystinosis (NC is a severe systemic disease and cysteamine improves its prognosis. Lysosomal cystine accumulation is the hallmark of cystinosis and is regarded as the primary defect due to mutations in the CTNS gene. However, there is great evidence that cystine accumulation itself is not responsible for all abnormalities observed in NC. Studies have demonstrated altered ATP metabolism, increased apoptosis, and cell oxidation. An increased number of autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles have been observed in cystinotic fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells, suggesting that altered autophagy plays a role in NC, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cystinosis patients can be more susceptible to oxidative stress (OS and it can contribute to the progression of the renal disease. Our goal was to evaluate a marker of OS (serum TBARS in NC children, and to compare the results with those observed in healthy controls and correlated with renal function parameters. Methods: The study included patients aged under 18 years, with good adherence to the treatment and out of renal replacement therapy. The following parameters were evaluated: serum creatinine, BUN, creatinine clearance estimated by stature and serum TBARS levels. Results: We selected 20 patients aged 8.0 ±3.6 years and observed serum TBARS levels of 4.03 ±1.02 nmol/ml. Serum TBARS levels in the 43 healthy controls, aged 7.4 ±1.1 years, were 1.60 ±0.04 nmol/ml. There was a significant difference between the plasma TBARS levels among the 2 groups (p Conclusion: An increased level of serum TBARS in patients with NC was observed and this abnormality was not correlated with the renal function status degree. This is the first report that shows increased oxidative stress in serum of NC patients.

  18. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Loren P.; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

  19. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  20. Music class lower students' stress level

    OpenAIRE

    服部, 安里; 豊島, 久美子; 福井, 一

    2015-01-01

    This study has researched on psychological and steroid hormonal effect upon junior-high school students through school music lesson: 1. Music listening, 2. Choir singing. The result showed a significant decrease in cortisol. The study also had conducted a survey about participants' musical preference and their stress level (STAIC – II), which resulted that higher the stress level, more musical activity was willingly conducted. These outcomes suggest that school music lessons can lessen stude...

  1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  2. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  3. Smog induces oxidative stress and microbiota disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tit-Yee

    2017-04-01

    Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic. These microbes not only provide nutrients, vitamins, and protection against other pathogens, they also influence human's physical, immunological, nutritional, and mental developments. Elements in smog can induce oxidative stress to these microbes, leading to community collapse. Disruption of these mutualistic microbiota may introduce unexpected health risks, especially among the newborns and young children. Besides reducing the burning of fossil fuels as the ultimate solution of smog formation, advanced methods by using various physical, chemical, and biological means to reduce sulfur and nitrogen contains in fossil fuels could lower smog formation. Additionally, information on microbiota disruption, based on functional genomics, culturomics, and general ecological principles, should be included in the risk assessment of prolonged smog exposure to the health of human populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  5. Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui

    2018-01-01

    There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF- κ B-) mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  6. Oxidative stress in primary glomerular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markan, Suchita; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sud, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure.......To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure....

  7. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  8. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  9. Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Ling Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF-κB- mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  10. A STUDY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non - enzymatic free radical mediated oxidation of biological molecules, membranes and tissues is associated with a variety of pathological events such as cancer, aging and diabetes mellitus . [1] Increased oxidative stress is seen in both types of diabetes me llitus namely type 1 and type 2, irrespective of duration, complications and treatment. In diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress seems primarily due to both an increased plasma free radical concentration and a sharp decline in antioxidant defences . [1] Among the causes of enhanced free radical production, hyperglycemia and hyper insulinemia seem to play a major role , [2,3] Hyperglycemia is the more easily modifiable factor among the two and good glycemic control can reduce the oxidative stress. Controversy pers ists regarding the other possible mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and whether oxidative stress normalizes with adequate metabolic control alone. The role of oxidative stress and diabetic complications has been extensively investigated. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the genesis of both macro and micro angiopathy [4,5] Prospective trials are now underway addressing the controversial issues of possible role of pharmacological antioxidants in preventing or at least de laying the onset of diabetic complications.

  11. Is the Oxidative Stress Really a Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarasi Erzsébet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals or other reactive species and the antioxidant activity of the organism. Oxidative stress can induce several illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson. The biomarkers of oxidative stress are used to test oxidative injury of biomolecules. The indicators of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy- 2-nonenal, 2-propenal, isoprostanes, of protein oxidation (carbonylated proteins, tyrosine derivatives, of oxidative damage of DNA, and other biomarkers (glutathione level, metallothioneins, myeloperoxidase activity are the most used oxidative stress markers. Diseases caused by oxidative stress can be prevented with antioxidants. In human body are several enzymes with antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and spin traps. Antioxidants are synthetized in the organism (glutathione or arrive in the body by nutrition (ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, resveratrol, xanthones. Different therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress with the use of synthetic molecules such as nitrone-based antioxidants (phenyl-α-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN, 2,4-disulphophenyl- N-tert-butylnitrone (NXY-059, stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN, which scavenge a wide variety of free radical species, increase endogenous antioxidant levels and inhibits free radical generation are also tested in animal models.

  12. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Tomofuji; Koichiro Irie; Toshihiro Sanbe; Tetsuji Azuma; Daisuke Ekuni; Naofumi Tamaki; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Manabu Morita

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress). Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. Fo...

  13. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

  14. Nutrigenetics and modulation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Laura A; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress develops as a result of an imbalance between the production and accumulation of reactive species and the body's ability to manage them using exogenous and endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants obtained from the diet, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids, have important roles in preventing and reducing oxidative stress. Individual genetic variation affecting proteins involved in the uptake, utilization and metabolism of these antioxidants may alter their serum levels, exposure to target cells and subsequent contribution to the extent of oxidative stress. Endogenous antioxidants include the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, paraoxanase, and glutathione S-transferase. These enzymes metabolize reactive species and their by-products, reducing oxidative stress. Variation in the genes coding these enzymes may impact their enzymatic antioxidant activity and, thus, the levels of reactive species, oxidative stress, and risk of disease development. Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic disease, including osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Indeed, polymorphisms in most of the genes that code for antioxidant enzymes have been associated with several types of cancer, although inconsistent findings between studies have been reported. These inconsistencies may, in part, be explained by interactions with the environment, such as modification by diet. In this review, we highlight some of the recent studies in the field of nutrigenetics, which have examined interactions between diet, genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Tomofuji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  16. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  17. Oxidative Stress ‑a Phenotypic Hallmark of Fanconi Anemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Down syndrome, Oxidative DNA damage, Oxidative stress. Access this ... higher MDA levels (P < 0.01) and non significantly lower total antioxidant .... in their study that carotenoids and carotenoid-rich foods can influence DNA ...

  18. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  20. Effect of Free Radicals & Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Shinde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently free radicals have attracted tremendous importance in the field of medicine including dentistry and molecular biology. Free radicals can be either harmful or helpful to the body. When there is an imbalance between formation and removal of free radicals then a condition called as oxidative stress is developed in body. To counteract these free radicals body has protective antioxidant mechanisms which have abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities and mortalities. Many research groups in the past have tried to study and confirm oxidative stress. Many authors also have studied role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress. They have come across with controversial results and furthermore it is not yet fully confirmed whether oxidative stress increases the need for dietary antioxidants. Recently, an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has received considerable attention. Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. The implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of many chronic and degenerative diseases suggests that antioxidant therapy represents a promising avenue for treatment. This study was conducted with the objective of reviewing articles relating to this subject. A Pub Med search of all articles containing key words free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants was done. A review of these articles was undertaken.

  1. Rehabilitation and return to running after lower limb stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Brian C; Truswell, Hallie J; Harrast, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Lower limb stress fractures are common injuries in runners. In terms of treatment, much of the medical literature has focused primarily on rest and cessation of running, but little has been written about the rehabilitation and functional progression of runners following a lower limb stress fracture. This article reviews the scientific evidence behind common rehabilitation concepts used for runners recovering from these injuries and also discusses sport-specific training modalities such as deep water running and antigravity treadmill training. Overall this article is intended to be a practical resource for clinicians to guide runners in functional rehabilitation and return to running following lower limb stress injury.

  2. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: ... Oxidative stress has been proposed as a pos- sible mechanism involved .... to the Natural Health Institute of Health Guidelines for. Animal Care and ..... Journal of American College of.

  3. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Basak, Chandra; Das, Arup; Chakraborty, Chandrima; Ray, Sudipta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH ⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation () upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H 2 O 2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT) or vector transformed (VT) plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the () directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of () thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Anesthesia in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivandi Yazdi A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radical and peroxide production lead to intracellular damage. On the other hand, free radicals are used by the human immune system to defend against pathogens. The aging process could be limited by oxidative stress in the short term. Chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM are full-stress conditions in which remarkable metabolic functional destructions might happen. There is strong evidence regarding antioxidant impairment in diabetes. Performing a particular method for anesthesia in diabetic patients might prevent or modify excessive free radical formation and oxidative stress. It seems that prescribing antioxidant drugs could promote wound healing in diabetics.  

  5. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.

  6. Simvastatin and oxidative stress in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne Tofte; Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Nielsen, Torben Kjær

    2016-01-01

    in mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and II and might thereby reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that simvastatin may reduce oxidative stress in humans in vivo. We conducted a randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which subjects were treated with either 40 mg of simvastatin or placebo for 14 days. The endpoints were six biomarkers for oxidative stress, which represent intracellular oxidative stress to nucleic acids, lipid peroxidation and plasma antioxidants, that were measured in urine.......1% in the placebo group for DNA oxidation and 7.3% in the simvastatin group compared to 3.4% in the placebo group. The differences in biomarkers related to plasma were not statistically significant between the treatments groups, with the exception of total vitamin E levels, which, as expected, were reduced...

  7. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  8. Oxygen and oxidative stress in the perinatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Torres-Cuevas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes.In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage. Hence, clinical trials have shown that the use of 100% oxygen given with positive pressure in the airways of the newborn infant during resuscitation causes more oxidative stress than using air, and increases mortality.Preterm infants are endowed with an immature lung and antioxidant system. Clinical stabilization of preterm infants after birth frequently requires positive pressure ventilation with a gas admixture that contains oxygen to achieve a normal heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation. In randomized controlled trials the use high oxygen concentrations (90% to 100% has caused more oxidative stress and clinical complications that the use of lower oxygen concentrations (30–60%. A correlation between the amount of oxygen received during resuscitation and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress and clinical outcomes was established. Thus, based on clinical outcomes and analytical results of oxidative stress biomarkers relevant changes were introduced in the resuscitation policies. However, it should be underscored that analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers in biofluids has only been used in experimental and clinical research but not in clinical routine. The complexity of the technical procedures, lack of automation, and cost of these determinations have hindered the routine use of biomarkers in the clinical setting. Overcoming these technical and economical difficulties

  9. Pathogenesis of Chronic Hyperglycemia: From Reductive Stress to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jun Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overnutrition creates chronic hyperglycemia that can gradually induce insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment. These disorders, if not intervened, will eventually be followed by appearance of frank diabetes. The mechanisms of this chronic pathogenic process are complex but have been suggested to involve production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. In this review, I highlight evidence that reductive stress imposed by overflux of NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the source of oxidative stress, which is based on establishments that more NADH recycling by mitochondrial complex I leads to more electron leakage and thus more ROS production. The elevated levels of both NADH and ROS can inhibit and inactivate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, respectively, resulting in blockage of the glycolytic pathway and accumulation of glycerol 3-phospate and its prior metabolites along the pathway. This accumulation then initiates all those alternative glucose metabolic pathways such as the polyol pathway and the advanced glycation pathways that otherwise are minor and insignificant under euglycemic conditions. Importantly, all these alternative pathways lead to ROS production, thus aggravating cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, reductive stress followed by oxidative stress comprises a major mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced metabolic syndrome.

  10. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata eChaudhari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturb fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways has been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and others. In this review we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial signaling events which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  11. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Nongenital Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Sasmaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P<.05. However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress.

  12. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  13. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy (DN is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin, aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat, advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine, the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine, inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril. The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials.

  14. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

  15. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  17. Chaperones, but not oxidized proteins, are ubiquitinated after oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästle, Marc; Reeg, Sandra; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    of these proteins by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI MS/MS). As a result we obtained 24 different proteins which can be categorized into the following groups: chaperones, energy metabolism, cytoskeleton/intermediate filaments, and protein translation/ribosome biogenesis. The special set of identified......, ubiquitinated proteins confirm the thesis that ubiquitination upon oxidative stress is no random process to degrade the mass of oxidized proteins, but concerns a special group of functional proteins....

  18. Oxidative stress resistance in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Leroy G; McKenzie, Rachelle ME; Robles, Antonette; Fletcher, Hansel M

    2012-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a black-pigmented, Gram-negative anaerobe, is an important etiologic agent of periodontal disease. The harsh inflammatory condition of the periodontal pocket implies that this organism has properties that will facilitate its ability to respond and adapt to oxidative stress. Because the stress response in the pathogen is a major determinant of its virulence, a comprehensive understanding of its oxidative stress resistance strategy is vital. We discuss multiple mechanisms and systems that clearly work in synergy to defend and protect P. gingivalis against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. The involvement of multiple hypothetical proteins and/or proteins of unknown function in this process may imply other unique mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22439726

  19. Oxidative stress markers imbalance in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S; Mendes-Silva, Ana Paula; Silva, Lucelia Barroso; Bertola, Laiss; Vieira, Monica Costa; Ferreira, Jessica Diniz; Nicolau, Mariana; Bristot, Giovana; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Teixeira, Antonio L; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2018-03-20

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in young adults. However, there is few data to support its role in the elderly. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether subjects with late-life depression (LLD) presented with changes in oxidative stress response in comparison with the non-depressed control group. We then explored how oxidative stress markers associated with specific features of LLD, in particular cognitive performance and age of onset of major depressive disorder in these individuals. We included a convenience sample of 124 individuals, 77 with LLD and 47 non-depressed subjects (Controls). We measure the plasma levels of 6 oxidative stress markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonil content (PCC), free 8-isoprostane, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. We found that participants with LLD had significantly higher free 8-isoprostane levels (p = 0.003) and lower glutathione peroxidase activity (p = 0.006) compared to controls. Free 8-isoprostane levels were also significantly correlated with worse scores in the initiation/perseverance (r = -0.24, p = 0.01), conceptualization (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) sub-scores, and the total scores (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) on the DRS. Our study provides robust evidence of the imbalance between oxidative stress damage, in particular lipid peroxidation, and anti-oxidative defenses as a mechanism related to LLD, and cognitive impairment in this population. Interventions aiming to reduce oxidative stress damage can have a potential neuroprotective effect for LLD subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional Memory Formation Under Lower Versus Higher Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Inna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2010-01-01

    An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under higher versus lower stress conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was de...

  1. Oxidative stress parameters in localized scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, F; Sener, S; Akbaş, A; Metin, A; Kirbaş, S; Neselioglu, S; Erel, O

    2016-11-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) (morphea) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease with unknown cause that progresses with sclerosis in the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Oxidative stress is suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma. We have aimed to determine the relationship of morphea lesions with oxidative stress. The total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paroxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) activity parameters of PON 1 enzyme levels in the serum were investigated in 13 LS patients (generalized and plaque type) and 13 healthy controls. TOC values of the patient group were found higher than the TOC values of the control group (p < 0.01). ARES values of the patient group was found to be higher than the control group (p < 0.0001). OSI was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to the control (p < 0.005). Oxidative stress seems to be effective in the pathogenesis. ARES levels have increased in morphea patients regarding to the oxidative stress and its reduction. Further controlled studies are required in wider series.

  2. Oxygen and oxidative stress in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Parra-Llorca, Anna; Sánchez-Illana, Angel; Nuñez-Ramiro, Antonio; Kuligowski, Julia; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo; Cernada, María; Escobar, Justo; Vento, Máximo

    2017-08-01

    Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage. Hence, clinical trials have shown that the use of 100% oxygen given with positive pressure in the airways of the newborn infant during resuscitation causes more oxidative stress than using air, and increases mortality. Preterm infants are endowed with an immature lung and antioxidant system. Clinical stabilization of preterm infants after birth frequently requires positive pressure ventilation with a gas admixture that contains oxygen to achieve a normal heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation. In randomized controlled trials the use high oxygen concentrations (90% to 100%) has caused more oxidative stress and clinical complications that the use of lower oxygen concentrations (30-60%). A correlation between the amount of oxygen received during resuscitation and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress and clinical outcomes was established. Thus, based on clinical outcomes and analytical results of oxidative stress biomarkers relevant changes were introduced in the resuscitation policies. However, it should be underscored that analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers in biofluids has only been used in experimental and clinical research but not in clinical routine. The complexity of the technical procedures, lack of automation, and cost of these determinations have hindered the routine use of biomarkers in the clinical setting. Overcoming these technical and economical difficulties constitutes a

  3. Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azahara I. Rupérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  4. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding...

  5. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S. Bosch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites cause infectious diseases that are either a severe public health problem or an economic burden. In this paper we will shed light on how oxidative stress can influence the host-pathogen relationship by focusing on three major diseases: babesiosis, coccidiosis, and toxoplasmosis.

  6. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Methyl-thiophanate (MT), a fungicide largely used in agriculture throughout the world including Tunisia, protects many vegetables, fruits and field crops against a wide spectrum of fungal diseases. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in MT toxicity on non-target organism.

  7. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p < 0.0001) in...

  8. Genetics of oxidative stress in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2014-02-20

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  9. Mitochondrial oxidative stress causes hyperphosphorylation of tau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Melov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related neurodegenerative disease has been mechanistically linked with mitochondrial dysfunction via damage from reactive oxygen species produced within the cell. We determined whether increased mitochondrial oxidative stress could modulate or regulate two of the key neurochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD: tau phosphorylation, and beta-amyloid deposition. Mice lacking superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 die within the first week of life, and develop a complex heterogeneous phenotype arising from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Treatment of these mice with catalytic antioxidants increases their lifespan and rescues the peripheral phenotypes, while uncovering central nervous system pathology. We examined sod2 null mice differentially treated with high and low doses of a catalytic antioxidant and observed striking elevations in the levels of tau phosphorylation (at Ser-396 and other phospho-epitopes of tau in the low-dose antioxidant treated mice at AD-associated residues. This hyperphosphorylation of tau was prevented with an increased dose of the antioxidant, previously reported to be sufficient to prevent neuropathology. We then genetically combined a well-characterized mouse model of AD (Tg2576 with heterozygous sod2 knockout mice to study the interactions between mitochondrial oxidative stress and cerebral Ass load. We found that mitochondrial SOD2 deficiency exacerbates amyloid burden and significantly reduces metal levels in the brain, while increasing levels of Ser-396 phosphorylated tau. These findings mechanistically link mitochondrial oxidative stress with the pathological features of AD.

  10. Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological Changes Induced By Nicotine In A Gender Based Study In Adult Rats. ... Antioxidant status was assessed in liver by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and ...

  11. IGF-1, oxidative stress, and atheroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which early endothelial dysfunction and subintimal modified lipoprotein deposition progress to complex, advanced lesions that are predisposed to erosion, rupture and thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a critical role not only in initial lesion formation but also in lesion progression and destabilization. While growth factors are thought to promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, thereby increasing neointima, recent animal studies indicate that IGF-1 exerts pleiotropic anti-oxidant effects along with anti-inflammatory effects that together reduce atherosclerotic burden. This review discusses the effects of IGF-1 in vascular injury and atherosclerosis models, emphasizing the relationship between oxidative stress and potential atheroprotective actions of IGF-1. PMID:20071192

  12. Endogenous ROS levels in C. elegans under exogenous stress support revision of oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samson W; Latta, Leigh C; Denver, Dee R; Estes, Suzanne

    2014-07-24

    The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory.

  13. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 μM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 μM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. Piracetam treatment (100–500 mg kg−1 daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients. PMID:16284628

  14. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  15. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Kreuz, Sarah; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences

  16. Study on the serum oxidative stress status in silicosis patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... oxidative stress parameters were investigated in silicosis patients and controls group. 128 silicosis ... to help clinicians to further delineate the role of oxidative- stress .... in age, working duration smoking, total cholesterol, ALT,.

  17. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    581. Keywords. Apoptosis; D. discoideum; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation ..... multiple toxic effects of oxidative stress that is related to several pathological conditions ... culture. This work was supported by a grant to RB.

  19. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress

  20. Plant Polyphenol Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES URQUIAGA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a remarkable increment in scientific articles dealing with oxidative stress. Several reasons justify this trend: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species metabolism; definition of markers for oxidative damage; evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress; identification of flavonoids and other dietary polyphenol antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and data supporting the idea that health benefits associated with fruits, vegetables and red wine in the diet are probably linked to the polyphenol antioxidants they contain.In this review we examine some of the evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress, the distribution and basic structure of plant polyphenol antioxidants, some biological effects of polyphenols, and data related to their bioavailability and the metabolic changes they undergo in the intestinal lumen and after absorption into the organism.Finally, we consider some of the challenges that research in this area currently faces, with particular emphasis on the contributions made at the International Symposium "Biology and Pathology of Free Radicals: Plant and Wine Polyphenol Antioxidants" held July 29-30, 1999, at the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile and collected in this special issue of Biological Research

  1. Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Uchino

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation are proposed to be involved in an age-related functional decline of exocrine glands. However, the molecular mechanism of how oxidative stress affects the secretory function of exocrine glands is unclear. We developed a novel mev-1 conditional transgenic mouse model (Tet-mev-1 using a modified tetracycline system (Tet-On/Off system. This mouse model demonstrated decreased tear production with morphological changes including leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis. We found that the mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, which is the cytochrome b(560 large subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase in complex II of mitochondria (homologous to succinate dehydrogenase C subunit (SDHC in humans. The mev-1 gene induced excessive oxidative stress associated with ocular surface epithelial damage and a decrease in protein and aqueous secretory function. This new model provides evidence that mitochondrial oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland induces lacrimal dysfunction resulting in dry eye disease. Tear volume in Tet-mev-1 mice was lower than in wild type mice and histopathological analyses showed the hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation by intense mononuclear leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal gland of Tet-mev-1 mice. These findings strongly suggest that oxidative stress can be a causative factor for the development of dry eye disease.

  2. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  3. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerobic organisms experience oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species during normal aerobic metabolism. In addition, several chemicals also generate reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress. Thus oxidative stress constitutes a major threat to organisms living in aerobic environments.

  4. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  5. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  7. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eBlesa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neurotoxins, insecticides like rotenone, pesticides like Paraquat, dopamine itself and genetic mutations in Parkinson’s Disease related proteins contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes reactive oxygen species formation. In this mini review, we give an update of the classical pathways involving these mechanisms of neurodegeneration, the biochemical and molecular events that mediate or regulate DA neuronal vulnerability, and the role of PD-related gene products in modulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in the course of the neurodegenerative process.

  8. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  9. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Manasa; R. Vani

    2016-01-01

    Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platele...

  10. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Javier eBlesa; Javier eBlesa; Javier eBlesa; Ines eTrigo-Damas; Ines eTrigo-Damas; Anna eQuiroga-Varela; Vernice Ruffin Jackson-Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neuro...

  11. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging.Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction fol...

  12. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Aitken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1. The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1 needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceivedin vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line.

  13. Chrononutrition against Oxidative Stress in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and oxidative stress have been recognized as important factors in the biology of aging and in many age-associated degenerative diseases. Antioxidant systems deteriorate during aging. It is, thus, considered that one way to reduce the rate of aging and the risk of chronic disease is to avoid the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress by strengthening antioxidant defences. Phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. Some dietary components of foods possess biological activities which influence circadian rhythms in humans. Chrononutrition studies have shown that not only the content of food, but also the time of ingestion contributes to the natural functioning of the circadian system. Dietary interventions with antioxidant-enriched foods taking into account the principles of chrononutrition are of particular interest for the elderly since they may help amplify the already powerful benefits of phytochemicals as natural instruments with which to prevent or delay the onset of common age-related diseases.

  14. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.

  15. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  16. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  17. Oxidative costs of reproduction: Oxidative stress in mice fed standard and low antioxidant diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaanholt, L M; Milne, A; Zheng, Y; Hambly, C; Mitchell, S E; Valencak, T G; Allison, D B; Speakman, J R

    2016-02-01

    Lactation is one of the most energetically expensive behaviours, and trade-offs may exist between the energy devoted to it and somatic maintenance, including protection against oxidative damage. However, conflicting data exist for the effects of reproduction on oxidative stress. In the wild, a positive relationship is often observed, but in laboratory studies oxidative damage is often lower in lactating than in non-breeding animals. We hypothesised that this discrepancy may exist because during lactation food intake increases many-fold resulting in a large increase in the intake of dietary antioxidants which are typically high in laboratory rodent chow where they are added as a preservative. We supplied lactating and non-breeding control mice with either a standard or low antioxidant diet and studied how this affected the activity of endogenous antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and glutathione peroxidise; GPx) and oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls, PC) in liver and brain tissue. The low antioxidant diet did not significantly affect activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain or liver, and generally did not result in increased protein damage, except in livers of control mice on low antioxidant diet. Catalase activity, but not GPx or SOD, was decreased in both control and lactating mice on the low antioxidant diet. Lactating mice had significantly reduced oxidative damage to both liver and brain compared to control mice, independent of the diet they were given. In conclusion, antioxidant content of the diet did not affect oxidative stress in control or reproductive mice, and cannot explain the previously observed reduction in oxidative stress in lactating mammals studied in the laboratory. The reduced oxidative stress in the livers of lactating mice even under low antioxidant diet treatment was consistent with the 'shielding' hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Bereavement and Lower Stress Resilience in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Beatrice; Chen, Ruoqing; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Montgomery, Scott; Fang, Fang; Fall, Katja

    2018-04-30

    Although childhood traumatic experiences are recognized as important determinants for adolescent psychiatric health in general, our objective was to explore the specific influence of childhood bereavement on the stress resilience development trajectory. In this national register-based cohort study, we identified 407,639 men born in Sweden between 1973 and 1983, who underwent compulsory military enlistment examinations in late adolescence, including measures of psychological stress resilience. We defined exposure as loss of a first-degree family member in childhood, and estimated relative risk ratios (RRRs) for reduced (moderate or low), compared with high, stress resilience with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multinomial logistic regression. Loss of a parent or sibling in childhood conferred a 49% increased risk of subsequent low stress resilience (RRR, 1.49, 95% CI, 1.41-1.57) and an 8% increased risk of moderate stress resilience (RRR, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13) in late adolescence. There was also a graded increase in risk with increasing age at loss; teenagers were at higher risk for low resilience (RRR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.52-1.77) than children aged 7-12 (RRR, 1.47, 95% CI, 1.34-1.61) and ≤6 years (RRR, 1.16 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). The excess risk was observed for all causes of death, including suicide and unexpected deaths as well as deaths due to other illnesses. The associations remained after exclusion of parents with a history of hospitalization for psychiatric diagnoses. The long-term consequences of childhood bereavement may include lower stress resilience in late adolescence. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  1. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  2. Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Siegel

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ treatment of wild type mice and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/- models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  3. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  4. Strategies for Lowering Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tarancón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs to the intermediate range (500–700 ºC has become one of the main SOFC research goals. High operating temperatures put numerous requirements on materials selection and on secondary units, limiting the commercial development of SOFCs. The present review first focuses on the main effects of reducing the operating temperature in terms of materials stability, thermo-mechanical mismatch, thermal management and efficiency. After a brief survey of the state-of-the-art materials for SOFCs, attention is focused on emerging oxide-ionic conductors with high conductivity in the intermediate range of temperatures with an introductory section on materials technology for reducing the electrolyte thickness. Finally, recent advances in cathode materials based on layered mixed ionic-electronic conductors are highlighted because the decreasing temperature converts the cathode into the major source of electrical losses for the whole SOFC system. It is concluded that the introduction of alternative materials that would enable solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate range of temperatures would have a major impact on the commercialization of fuel cell technology.

  5. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  6. Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50% resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS.

  7. Associations of oxidative stress status parameters with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Milovanović, Srđan; Ðorđević, Brižita; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica; Spasić, Slavica

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress status parameters and their possible associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, as well as their potential for patient-control discrimination. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress status parameters were assessed in 30 schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotic therapy and 60 control subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) were significantly higher whereas total sulfhydryl (SH) groups were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients vs. control group. Higher serum PAB values showed an independent association with schizophrenia. The addition of PAB to conventional risk factors improved discrimination between healthy control subjects and patients. Increased oxidative stress and changed lipid profile parameters are associated in schizophrenic patients and may indicate risk for atherosclerosis. The serum PAB level may reflect the levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia and improve discrimination of patients from controls.

  8. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  9. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  10. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and its classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-12-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initially considered as only damaging agents in living organisms further were found to play positive roles also. This paper describes ROS homeostasis, principles of their investigation and technical approaches to investigate ROS-related processes. Especial attention is paid to complications related to experimental documentation of these processes, their diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, relationships with physiological state of the organisms. Imbalance between ROS generation and elimination in favor of the first with certain consequences for cell physiology has been called "oxidative stress". Although almost 30years passed since the first definition of oxidative stress was introduced by Helmut Sies, to date we have no accepted classification of oxidative stress. In order to fill up this gape here classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed. Due to that oxidative stress may be classified as basal oxidative stress (BOS), low intensity oxidative stress (LOS), intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS), and high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). Another classification of potential interest may differentiate three categories such as mild oxidative stress (MOS), temperate oxidative stress (TOS), and finally severe (strong) oxidative stress (SOS). Perspective directions of investigations in the field include development of sophisticated classification of oxidative stresses, accurate identification of cellular ROS targets and their arranged responses to ROS influence, real in situ functions and operation of so-called "antioxidants", intracellular spatiotemporal distribution and effects of ROS, deciphering of molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular response to ROS attacks, and ROS involvement in realization of normal cellular functions in cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pC18:2) ratios. Greater vitaminE/triglyceride (TG) ratio, however, appeared in the control group. The corresponding vitamin A ratios (vitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected.

  12. Oxidative stress in ischemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Christoph; Westermann, Dirk; Clemmensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress remains a major contributor to myocardial injury after ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) as the reperfusion of the myocardial infarction (MI) area inevitably leads to a cascade of I/R injury. This review focused on concepts of the antioxidative defense system and elucidates......, the different mechanisms through which myocardial protection can be addressed, like ischemic postconditioning in myocardial infarction or adjunctive measures like targeted temperature management as well as new theories, including the role of iron in I/R injury, will be discussed....

  13. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  14. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  15. Poststroke Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: Relationships with IL-17 and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Swardfager

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke variably activates interleukin- (IL- 17 expression, reduces regulatory T cells, and induces oxidative stress, which may support neurodegeneration. Ischemic stroke patients were screened for depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D and cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-23, and interferon- [IFN-] γ, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPH, a measure of oxidative stress, were assayed from fasting serum. Of 47 subjects (age 71.8 ± 14.4 years, 36% female, 19 had depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16, which was associated with poorer cognitive status (F1,46=8.44, P=0.006. IL-17 concentrations did not differ between subjects with and without depressive symptoms (F1,46=8.44, P=0.572; however, IL-17 was associated with poorer cognitive status in subjects with depressive symptoms (F1,46=9.29, P=0.004. In those subjects with depressive symptoms, IL-17 was associated with higher LPH (ρ=0.518, P=0.023 and lower IL-10 (ρ=-0.484, P=0.036, but not in those without. In conclusion, poststroke depressive symptoms may be associated with cognitive vulnerability to IL-17 related pathways, involving an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity and increased oxidative stress.

  16. Oxidative stress and plasma lipoproteins in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Fernanda Maria Machado; Santos, Emanuelly Barbosa; Reis, Germana Elias [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the relation between oxidative stress and lipid profile in patients with different types of cancer. This was an observational cross-sectional. A total of 58 subjects were evaluated, 33 males, divided into two groups of 29 patients each: Group 1, patients with cancer of the digestive tract and accessory organs; Group 2 patients with other types of cancers, all admitted to a public hospital. The plasma levels (lipoproteins and total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides, for example) were analyzed by enzymatic kits, and oxidative stress based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, by assessing the formation of malondialdehyde. In general the levels of malondialdehyde of patients were high (5.00μM) as compared to 3.31μM for healthy individuals. The median values of lipids exhibited normal triacylglycerol (138.78±89.88mg/dL), desirable total cholesterol values (163.04±172.38mg/dL), borderline high LDL (151.30±178.25mg/dL) and low HDL (31.70±22.74mg/dL). Median HDL levels in Group 1 were lower (31.32mg/dL) than the cancer patients in Group 2 (43.67mg/dL) (p=0.038). Group 1 also showed higher levels of oxidative stress (p=0.027). The lipid profile of patients with cancer was not favorable, which seems to have contributed to higher lipid peroxidation rate, generating a significant oxidative stress.

  17. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  18. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  19. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  20. Laboratory assessment of oxidative stress in semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different laboratory assessments of oxidative stress (OS in semen and identify a cost-efficient and highly sensitive instrument capable of providing a comprehensive measure of OS in a clinical setting, as early intervention and an accurate diagnostic test are important because they help maintain a balance of free radicals and antioxidants; otherwise, excessive OS could lead to sperm damage and result in male infertility. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through a MedLine database search using the keywords ‘semen’ AND ‘oxygen reduction potential’. We also reviewed the references of retrieved articles to search for other potentially relevant research articles and additional book chapters discussing laboratory assessments for OS, ranging from 1994 to 2017. A total of 29 articles and book chapters involving OS-related laboratory assays were included. We excluded animal studies and articles written in languages other than English. Results: Direct laboratory techniques include: chemiluminescence, nitro blue tetrazolium, cytochrome C reduction test, fluorescein probe, electron spin resonance and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP. Indirect laboratory techniques include: measurement of Endtz test, lipid peroxidation, chemokines, antioxidants/micronutrients/vitamins, ascorbate, total antioxidant capacity, or DNA damage. Each of these laboratory techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion: Traditional OS laboratory assessments have their limitations. Amongst the prevalent laboratory techniques, ORP is novel and better option as it can be easily used in a clinical setting to provide a comprehensive review of OS. However, more studies are needed to evaluate its reproducibility across various laboratory centres. Keywords: Semen, male infertility, Oxidative stress, Chemiluminescence, Total antioxidant capacity, Oxidation-reduction potential

  1. Effects of l-carnitine on oxidative stress parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emel Peri Canbolat

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative stress .... Erel's method was used for measuring TOS.19 TOS was ..... antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS.

  2. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidative stress in patients with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total ofof ... seriously affects the quality of life and prognosis. [6]. ... balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant ..... original work is properly credited.

  3. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Tsaluchidu Sofia; Puri Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categ...

  4. A meta-analysis of biomarkers related to oxidative stress and nitric oxide pathway in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Monica; Frustaci, Alessandra; Milic, Mirta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fini, Massimo; Bonassi, Stefano; Barbanti, Piero

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress are considered key events in the still unclear pathophysiology of migraine. Studies comparing the level of biomarkers related to nitric oxide (NO) pathway/oxidative stress in the blood/urine of migraineurs vs. unaffected controls were extracted from the PubMed database. Summary estimates of mean ratios (MR) were carried out whenever a minimum of three papers were available. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analyses, accounting for more than 1000 patients and controls, and compared with existing literature. Most studies measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed lower activity in cases, although the meta-analysis in erythrocytes gave null results. On the contrary, plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an aspecific biomarker of oxidative damage, showed a meta-MR of 2.20 (95% CI: 1.65-2.93). As for NOs, no significant results were found in plasma, serum and urine. However, higher levels were shown during attacks, in patients with aura, and an effect of diet was found. The analysis of glutathione precursor homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NO synthase inhibitor, gave inconclusive results. The role of the oxidative pathway in migraine is still uncertain. Interesting evidence emerged for TBARS and SOD, and concerning the possible role of diet in the control of NOx levels. © International Headache Society 2015.

  5. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanova, Nela; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Herman, David; Dlabkova, Alzbeta; Jun, Daniel

    2018-08-01

    Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP-induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP-mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches (including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs) in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Lack of effect of sleep apnea on oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Simiakakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant-antioxidant status. METHODS: A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5. The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p = 0.005 in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. CONCLUSION: Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.

  7. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

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    L'ubomíra Tóthová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a research setting, analysis of a palette of oxidative stress markers is needed to cover lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidant status. The source of reactive oxygen species and their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Interventional experiments indicate that oxidative stress might be more than just a simple consequence of the inflammation. Small studies have confirmed that some antioxidants could have therapeutic value at least as an addition to the standard non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A clear evidence for the efficiency of antioxidant treatment in large patient cohorts is lacking. Potentially, because lowering of oxidative stress markers might be a secondary effect of anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agents. As the field of research of oxidative stress in periodontitis gains attraction and the number of relevant published papers is increasing a systematic overview of the conducted observational and interventional studies is needed. This review summarizes the currently available literature linking oxidative stress and periodontitis and points toward the potential of adjuvant antioxidant treatment, especially in cases where standard treatment fails to improve the periodontal status.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Celec, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a research setting, analysis of a palette of oxidative stress markers is needed to cover lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidant status. The source of reactive oxygen species and their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Interventional experiments indicate that oxidative stress might be more than just a simple consequence of the inflammation. Small studies have confirmed that some antioxidants could have therapeutic value at least as an addition to the standard non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A clear evidence for the efficiency of antioxidant treatment in large patient cohorts is lacking. Potentially, because lowering of oxidative stress markers might be a secondary effect of anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agents. As the field of research of oxidative stress in periodontitis gains attraction and the number of relevant published papers is increasing a systematic overview of the conducted observational and interventional studies is needed. This review summarizes the currently available literature linking oxidative stress and periodontitis and points toward the potential of adjuvant antioxidant treatment, especially in cases where standard treatment fails to improve the periodontal status. PMID:29311982

  9. Intermittent fasting decreases oxidative stress parameters in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Titis Nurmasitoh; Shindy Yudha Utami; Endah Kusumawardani; Abdulhalim Ahmad Najmuddin; Ika Fidianingsih

    2018-01-01

    Background Chronic and degenerative diseases are closely related to modern lifestyles that tend to be deficient in physical activity but excessive in food intake. One method used to overcome this problem is dietary restriction through intermittent fasting. Intermittent fasting decreases the risk of chronic and degenerative diseases, e.g. by lowering oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be determined from the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and lipid profile in the blood. The present study a...

  10. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengerfeldt V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Veiko Vengerfeldt,1 Reet Mändar,2,3 Mare Saag,1 Anneli Piir,2 Tiiu Kullisaar2 1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 3Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia Background: Apical periodontitis (AP is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful.Purpose: To compare oxidative stress (OxS levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects.Patients and methods: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP, 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP, eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to −80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI] were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. Results: The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0

  11. Relationships between Psychosocial Difficulties and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Women Subject to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Song, Hyang Joo; Kim, Dong Goo; Yim, Yeong Shin

    2017-02-01

    Women subject to violence by their intimate partners often experience a range of psychosocial problems such as depression, excessive alcohol use, and stressful life events that, in turn, lead to health issues. This study examined psychosocial difficulties and oxidative stress levels in abused and non-abused Korean women and analyzed the relationship between psychosocial outcomes and oxidative stress levels. Markers were determined in 16 women (seven abused, nine non-abused). The two groups of women (abused and non-abused) were compared with respect to scores in depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers were tested by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The abused women had significantly higher levels of oxidative stress markers and significantly lower levels of antioxidants than the non-abused women. Life stress events and oxidative biomarker levels were significantly correlated. These findings have implications for both social services providers and medical personnel when assessing abused women to ensure that they receive the most appropriate service. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  12. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  13. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased......Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several...

  14. Oxidative stress and inflammation in liver carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Olaya

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Inflammation is a common response in the human liver. It is involved in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, steatosis, ischemiareperfusion damage, hepatocarcinomas and in the development of metastasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is part of the inflammatory processes. It is implicated in many physiological and pathological situations and can induce mutations in key cancer genes. Normally, this process is prevented by DNA repair enzymatic systems that maintain sequence fidelity during DNA replication. However, overproduction of free radicals in chronic inflammatory diseases is thought to saturate the ability of the cell to repair DNA damage prior to replications. Inflammation-induced genetic damage is not unique to the liver, and it might contribute to the development of mutations in several organs. An example is the chronic inflammatory response in ulcerative colitis that ultimately could lead to neoplasia.

    There is compelling evidence to suggest that most known environmental risk factors for HCC development lead to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Indeed, hepatitis C virus (HCV, alcohol and hepatitis B virus (HBV have all been associated with oxidative stress. Direct production of oxidative stress by HCV core protein has been shown. A link between oxidative stress and liver pathogenesis is also supported by the successful use of antioxidant therapy to treat liver injury caused by chronic HCV infection, although it is not currently used for effective therapy. Ethanol metabolism via the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway and microsomal ethanol oxidizing system contribute substantially to the production of acetaldehyde and generation of ROS. HBx via its association with mitochondria has been shown to induce oxidative stress which in turn leads to activation of a

  15. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  16. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and cardiac ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Gredilla, Ricardo

    According with different international organizations, cardiovascular diseases are becoming the first cause of death in western countries. Although exposure to different risk factors, particularly those related to lifestyle, contribute to the etiopathogenesis of cardiac disorders, the increase in average lifespan and aging are considered major determinants of cardiac diseases events. Mitochondria and oxidative stress have been pointed out as relevant factors both in heart aging and in the development of cardiac diseases such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During aging, cellular processes related with mitochondrial function, such as bioenergetics, apoptosis and inflammation are altered leading to cardiac dysfunction. Increasing our knowledge about the mitochondrial mechanisms related with the aging process, will provide new strategies in order to improve this process, particularly the cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative Stress and DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of fruits, vegetables, and other foods on prostate cancer may be due to their antioxidant properties. An imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status is observed in prostate cancer patients. Genome oxidative damage in prostate cancer patients is associated with higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels. Oxygen radicals are associated with different steps of carcinogenesis, including structural DNA damage, epigenetic changes, and protein and lipid alterations. Epigenetics affects genetic regulation, cellular differentiation, embryology, aging, cancer, and other diseases. DNA methylation is perhaps the most extensively studied epigenetic modification, which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin architecture, in association with histone modification and other chromatin-associated proteins. This review will provide a broad overview of the interplay of oxidative stress and DNA methylation, DNA methylation changes in regulation of gene expression, lifestyle changes for prostate cancer prevention, DNA methylation as biomarkers for prostate cancer, methods for detection of methylation, and clinical application of DNA methylation inhibitors for epigenetic therapy.

  18. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  19. Sport and oxidative stress in oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, K; Schwan, R; Bongartz, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Baumann, F

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be an important factor in the onset, progression and recurrence of cancer. In order to investigate how it is influenced by physical activity, we measured oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity (aoC) in 12 women with breast cancer and 6 men with prostate cancer, before and after long hiking trips. Before the hike, the men had a ROS-concentration of 1.8±0.6 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 0.7±0.6 mM Trolox-equivalent (Tro), while the women had a ROS-concentration of 3.1±0.7 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 1.2±0.2 mM Tro. After the hike, women showed no significant change in ROS and a significant increase in aoC (1.3±0.2 mM Tro), while the ROS concentration in men increased significantly (2.1±0.3 mM H2O2) and their aoC decreased (0.25±0.1 mM Tro). After a regenerative phase, the ROS concentration of the men decreased to 1.7±0.4 mM H2O2 and their aoC recovered significantly (1.2±0.4 mM Tro), while the women presented no significant change in the concentration of H2O2 but showed an ulterior increase in antioxidant capacity (2.05±0.43 mM Tro). From this data we conclude that physical training programs as for example long distance hiking trips can improve the aoC in the blood of oncological patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Influence of oxidative stress on disease development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ever increasing data indicating the vmast contribution of oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and others. Thus, in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis the primary role is held by reactive oxygen species that are synthetized by endothelial cells of arterial blood vessels, leukocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, native particles of lipoproteins of small density become atherogenic through oxidation caused by reactive oxygen species. The oxidation of small-density lipoproteins stimulates the inflammatory process, and it in turn steps up adhesion and the inflow of monocytes and affects the synthesis and release of numerous proinflammatory cytokines involved in the further course of the process. One of the reasons for the development of arterial hypertension is the simultaneous activation of NAD(PH oxidase and 12/15-lipoxygenase, since it results in the stepped up production of reactive oxygen species. These stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which lead to vascular remodelling and to increased apoptosis of heart muscle cells. Stepped up apoptosis is linked with myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies and the development of heart failure. The sensitivity of β-cells of the endocrine part of the pancreas to reactive oxygen species favor the naturally low concentrations of the collectors of free radicals in them, as well as an increase in the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, glucosis and lipids that induce a reduction in the mass and function of β-cells. Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus causes tissue damage through non-enzyme glycosylation of intracellular and extracellular proteins, which results in: reduced enzyme activity, damaged nucleic acid, disrupted natural decomposition of proteins, and activation of cytotoxic pathways. These processes are the basis of the pathogenesis of numerous

  1. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.

  2. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Busra; Kara, Ozgur; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Arik, Gunes; Aycicek, Gozde Sengul; Sumer, Fatih; Civelek, Ramazan; Demirtas, Canan; Ulger, Zekeriya

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the presence of low muscle mass and function. Possible mechanisms underlying sarcopenia include oxidative stress and elevation of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and biomarkers that may be involved in its pathogenesis and hence early detection. A total of 72 patients (36 sarcopenic and 36 non-sarcopenic) were included in the study. An experienced geriatric team applied comprehensive geriatric assessment to all patients. Anthropometric measures, gait speed and handgrip strength were recorded. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess skeletal muscle mass. In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests, serum adiponectin, thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older Adults as the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function or muscle performance. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be functionally dependent and had lower scores on comprehensive geriatric assessment tools. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the sarcopenic group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3. Sarcopenic patients had lower levels of hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, calcium, triglycerides, uric acid and adiponectin (p sarcopenia whereas ESR was positively correlated. The present study demonstrated an association of sarcopenia with inflammatory markers CRP, ESR and adiponectin. Long-term prospective studies are warranted to confirm the relationship between markers oxidative stress and age related muscle decline.

  3. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mônica Cruvinel de; Marks, Guido; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Cônsolo, Lourdes Zélia Zanoni; Nogueira, Gabriel Bogalho

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA) and exercise (GB), each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB) were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201).The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009), with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (pstress in mice which were undergone a single session of aerobic exercise.

  4. Challenge for lowering concentration polarization in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    In the scope of electrochemical phenomena, concentration polarization at electrodes is theoretically inevitable, and lowering the concentration overpotential to improve the performance of electrochemical cells has been a continuing challenge. Electrodes with highly controlled microstructure, i.e., high porosity and uniform large pores are therefore essential to achieve high performance electrochemical cells. In this study, state-of-the-art technology for controlling the microstructure of electrodes has been developed for realizing high performance support electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The key is controlling the porosity and pore size distribution to improve gas diffusion, while maintaining the integrity of the electrolyte and the structural strength of actual sized electrode supports needed for the target application. Planar anode-supported SOFCs developed in this study realize 5 μm thick dense electrolyte (yttria-stabilized zirconia: YSZ) and the anode substrate (Ni-YSZ) of 53.6 vol.% porosity with a large median pore diameter of 0.911 μm. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the performance of the anode-supported SOFCs improves with increasing anode porosity. This Ni-YSZ anode minimizes the concentration polarization, resulting in a maximum power density of 3.09 W cm-2 at 800 °C using humidified hydrogen fuel without any electrode functional layers.

  5. Serum oxidative-anti-oxidative stress balance is dysregulated in patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mamoru; Takaki, Akinobu; Tamaki, Naofumi; Maruyama, Takayuki; Onishi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sayo; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Koike, Kazuko; Hagihara, Hiroaki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Fusao; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with progression of chronic liver disease (CLD). This association is best established in chronic hepatitis C. However, the anti-oxidative state is not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to investigate the balance of oxidative and anti-oxidative stress in CLD patients. We recruited a study population of 208 patients, including healthy volunteers (HV; n = 15), patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related CLD without or with hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-non-HCC, n = 25, and HBV-HCC, n = 50, respectively), and patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related CLD without or with HCC (HCV-non-HCC, n = 49, and HCV-HCC, n = 69, respectively). Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and anti-oxidative markers (OXY-adsorbent test; OXY) were determined, and the balance of these values was used as the oxidative index. Correlations among ROM, OXY, oxidative index and clinical characteristics were investigated. Patients with CLD exhibited elevated ROM and oxidative index compared to HV. Among patients with CLD, HCV positive status correlated with increased ROM. In CLD, HCV-HCC patients exhibited the highest ROM levels. Among HCV-related CLD patients, lower OXY correlated with HCC positive status, but was recovered by eradication of HCC. In HCV-HCC, lower OXY correlated with high PT-INR. HCV positive CLD patients displayed higher oxidative stress and HCV-HCC patients displayed lower anti-oxidative state. Anti-oxidative state depression was associated with liver reservoir-related data in HCV-HCC and could be reversed with HCC eradication. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Lower limb ischaemia and reperfusion injury in healthy volunteers measured by oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halladin, N. L.; Busch, Sarah Victoria Ekeløf; Alamili, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is partly caused by the release of reactive oxygen species and cytokines and may result in remote organ injury. Surgical patients are exposed to surgical stress and anaesthesia, both of which can influence the IR response. An IR model without these int......OBJECTIVE: Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is partly caused by the release of reactive oxygen species and cytokines and may result in remote organ injury. Surgical patients are exposed to surgical stress and anaesthesia, both of which can influence the IR response. An IR model without...... at any sampling time. CONCLUSION: Twenty minutes of lower limb ischaemia does not result in an ischaemia-reperfusion injury in healthy volunteers, measurable by oxidative and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in muscle biopsies and in the systemic circulation....

  7. Oxidative stress in hepatitis C infected end-stage renal disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz F; Aslan, Mehmet; Koylu, Ahmet O; Selek, Sahbettin; Erel, Ozcan

    2006-07-14

    Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects. Sixteen hepatitis C (+) hemodialysis subjects, 24 hepatitis C negative hemodialysis subjects and 24 healthy subjects were included. Total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were determined in all subjects. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in controls than hemodialysis subjects with or without hepatitis C infection (all p total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were significantly lower (all p total antioxidant capacity compared to hepatitis C (+) hemodialysis subjects (all p Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was comparable between hemodialysis subjects with or without hepatitis C infection (p > 0.05/3). Oxidative stress is increased in both hepatitis C (+) and hepatitis C (-) hemodialysis subjects. However, hepatitis C infection seems to not cause any additional increase in oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects and it may be partly due to protective effect of dialysis treatment on hepatitis C infection.

  8. Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.

  9. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  10. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  11. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in permethrin neurotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) was found to ...

  12. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy | Kundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to induce oxidative stress along with deranging various metabolisms; one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of acquired blindness. Poor glycemic control and oxidative stress have been attributed to the development of ...

  13. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  14. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  15. Limitations in Using Chemical Oxidative Potential to Understand Oxidative Stress from Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Wang, S.; Wang, X.; Kohl, L.; Chow, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is known to cause adverse cardiorespiratory health effects. It has been suggested that the ability of PM to generate oxidative stress leads to a proinflammatory response. In this work, we study the biological relevance of using a chemical oxidative potential (OP) assay to evaluate proinflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. Here we study the OPs of laboratory secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and metal mixtures, ambient PM from India, ash from the 2016 Alberta wildfires, and diesel exhaust particles. We use SOA derived from naphthalene and from monoterpenes as model systems for SOA. We measure OP using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, and cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BEAS-2B cell culture was measured using CellROX assay. We found that both SOA and copper show high OPs individually, but the OP of the combined SOA/copper mixture, which is more atmospherically relevant, was lower than either of the individual OPs. The reduced activity is attributed to chelation between metals and organic compounds using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. There is reasonable association between DTT activity and cellular ROS production within each particle type, but weak association across different particle types, suggesting that particle composition plays an important role in distinguishing between antioxidant consumption and ROS production. Our results highlight that while oxidative potential is a useful metric of PM's ability to generate oxidative stress, the chemical composition and cellular environment should be considered in understanding health impacts of PM.

  16. Neuroprotection against oxidative stress by serum from heat acclimated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Yannai, E; Trembovler, V; Horowitz, M; Lazarovici, P; Kohen, R; Shohami, E

    1998-09-25

    Exposure of PC12 cells, to 1% serum derived from normothermic (CON) rats resulted in 79% cell death. Sister cultures treated with 1% serum derived from heat acclimated (ACC) rats, were neuroprotected and expressed a significant reduction in cell death. In PC12 cells exposed to a free radical generator causing an oxidative stress, 90% cell death was measured in CON serum treated cultures, while ACC serum treated cultures were neuroprotected. Xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid (UA) levels were lower in ACC serum compared to CON. Addition of UA to both sera abolished the difference in cell viability, and toxicity of ACC serum reached that of CON. These findings suggest a causal relationship between the lower levels of UA in ACC and the neuroprotective effect observed. The present study proposes heat acclimation as an experimental and/or clinical tool for the achievement of neuroprotection.

  17. Oxidative stress treatment for clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; LoGerfo, Annalisa; Carlesi, Cecilia; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a metabolic condition arising from imbalance between the production of potentially reactive oxygen species and the scavenging activities. Mitochondria are the main providers but also the main scavengers of cell oxidative stress. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is well documented. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this evidence, human experience with antioxidant neuroprotectants has generally been negative with regards to the clinical progress of disease, with unclear results in biochemical assays. Here we review the antioxidant approaches performed so far in neurodegenerative diseases and the future challenges in modern medicine.

  18. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Kreuz, Sarah

    2016-06-20

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences chromatin structure, DNA methylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of histones and DNA-binding proteins. The effects of oxidative stress on these chromatin alterations mediate a number of cellular changes, including modulation of gene expression, cell death, cell survival and mutagenesis, which are disease-driving mechanisms in human pathologies. Targeting oxidative stress-dependent pathways is thus a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. We summarize recent research developments connecting oxidative stress and chromatin regulation.

  19. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  20. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  1. Oxidative stress response after laparoscopic versus conventional sigmoid resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is accompanied by a surgical stress response, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is a part of the surgical stress response. Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery may result in reduced oxidative stress compared with open surgery. Nineteen patients...... scheduled for sigmoid resection were randomly allocated to open or laparoscopic sigmoid resection in a double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Three biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid) were measured at 6 different time points (preoperatively......, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postoperatively). There were no statistical significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery for any of the 3 oxidative stress parameters. Malondialdehyde was reduced 1 hour postoperatively (P...

  2. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  3. Evolution of thermal stress and failure probability during reduction and re-oxidation of solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Jiang, Wenchun; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Yucai; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2017-12-01

    The reduction and re-oxidation of anode have significant effects on the integrity of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealed by the glass-ceramic (GC). The mechanical failure is mainly controlled by the stress distribution. Therefore, a three dimensional model of SOFC is established to investigate the stress evolution during the reduction and re-oxidation by finite element method (FEM) in this paper, and the failure probability is calculated using the Weibull method. The results demonstrate that the reduction of anode can decrease the thermal stresses and reduce the failure probability due to the volumetric contraction and porosity increasing. The re-oxidation can result in a remarkable increase of the thermal stresses, and the failure probabilities of anode, cathode, electrolyte and GC all increase to 1, which is mainly due to the large linear strain rather than the porosity decreasing. The cathode and electrolyte fail as soon as the linear strains are about 0.03% and 0.07%. Therefore, the re-oxidation should be controlled to ensure the integrity, and a lower re-oxidation temperature can decrease the stress and failure probability.

  4. Statins Prevent Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Endothelial and HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojanian, Hagop; Szafran-Swietlik, Anna; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Haas, Michael J; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Statins have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. However, antioxidant vitamins, unlike statins, are not as cardioprotective, and this paradox has been explained by failure of vitamin antioxidants to ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To determine whether statins prevent dextrose-induced ER stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose in the presence of simvastatin (lipophilic statin that is a prodrug) and pravastatin (water-soluble active drug), and oxidative stress, ER stress, and cell death were measured. Superoxide generation was measured using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot of glucose-regulated protein 75, c-jun-N-terminal kinase, phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α and phospho-eIF2α, and X-box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining. Superoxide anion production, ER stress, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin. The salutary effects of statins on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress observed with pravastatin and the prodrug simvastatin suggest that the effects may be independent of cholesterol-lowering activity.

  5. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased oxidative stress and its relation with collagen metabolism in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Ozlem; Erel, Ozcan; Aksoy, Nurten; Selek, Sahabettin; Celik, Hakim; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum oxidative/antioxidative status in patients with knee osteoarthritis and its relation with prolidase activity, which plays an important role in collagen metabolism. Serum antioxidative status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiol level and catalase enzyme activity in patients with osteoarthritis and in healthy controls. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by measuring total peroxide (TP) and lipid hydroperoxide. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Prolidase enzyme activity was measured to investigate the collagen metabolism. Serum TAC, thiol level, catalase activity and prolidase activity were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P antioxidant parameters decreased in patients with osteoarthritis; therefore, these patients may be exposed to a potent oxidative stress. Decreased collagen metabolism may be related with oxidative stress, which has a role in the ethiopathogenesis and/or in the progression of the disease.

  7. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerfeldt, Veiko; Mändar, Reet; Saag, Mare; Piir, Anneli; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful. To compare oxidative stress (OxS) levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents) in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects. The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP), 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP), eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material) were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to -80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI]) were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p =0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p <0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 75.0 pg/mL, p <0.001) and saliva (MPO 34.2 vs 117.5 ng/mg protein, p <0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 112.8 pg/mL, p <0.001) compared to pain-free subjects. OxS is an important pathomechanism in endodontic pathologies that is evident at both the local (RC contents) and systemic (saliva) level. OxS is significantly associated with dental pain and bone

  8. Effects of Muscle-Specific Oxidative Stress on Cytochrome c Release and Oxidation-Reduction Potential Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yiling; Mitacek, Rachel M; Abraham, Anupam; Mafi, Gretchen G; VanOverbeke, Deborah L; DeSilva, Udaya; Ramanathan, Ranjith

    2017-09-06

    Mitochondria play a significant role in beef color. However, the role of oxidative stress in cytochrome c release and mitochondrial degradation is not clear. The objective was to determine the effects of display time on cytochrome c content and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles. PM discolored by day 3 compared with LL. On day 0, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were greater in PM than LL. However, mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption were lower (P stress can affect cytochrome c release and ORP changes.

  9. Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Ogura, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Suzuki, Ayumi; Hayashi, Sakurako; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuated the reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption, improved the lower trabecular bone volume and bone microstructural deterioration induced by prenatal stress in the offspring. These findings indicate that maternal active mastication during prenatal stress can ameliorate prenatal stress-induced lower bone mass of the vertebra and femur in adult offspring. Active mastication during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent lower bone mass in their offspring.

  10. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  11. Evaluation of oxidative stress in hunting dogs during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Cardini, G

    2010-08-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses, to cause oxidative stress. The aim of our trials was to evaluate oxidative stress and recovery times in trained dogs during two different hunting exercises, with reactive oxygen metabolites-derivatives (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests. A group of nine privately owned Italian hounds were included. A 20-min aerobic exercise and a 4-h aerobic exercise, after 30 days of rest, were performed by the dogs. Our results show an oxidative stress after exercise due to both the high concentration of oxidants (d-ROMs) and the low level of antioxidant power (BAP). Besides, the recovery time is faster after the 4-h aerobic exercise than the 20-min aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress monitoring during dogs exercise could become an interesting aid to establish ideal adaptation to training. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative Stress in Shiga Toxin Production by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Licznerska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC strains depends on production of Shiga toxins. These toxins are encoded in genomes of lambdoid bacteriophages (Shiga toxin-converting phages, present in EHEC cells as prophages. The genes coding for Shiga toxins are silent in lysogenic bacteria, and prophage induction is necessary for their efficient expression and toxin production. Under laboratory conditions, treatment with UV light or antibiotics interfering with DNA replication are commonly used to induce lambdoid prophages. Since such conditions are unlikely to occur in human intestine, various research groups searched for other factors or agents that might induce Shiga toxin-converting prophages. Among other conditions, it was reported that treatment with H2O2 caused induction of these prophages, though with efficiency significantly lower relative to UV-irradiation or mitomycin C treatment. A molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has been proposed. It appears that the oxidative stress represents natural conditions provoking induction of Shiga toxin-converting prophages as a consequence of H2O2 excretion by either neutrophils in infected humans or protist predators outside human body. Finally, the recently proposed biological role of Shiga toxin production is described in this paper, and the “bacterial altruism” and “Trojan Horse” hypotheses, which are connected to the oxidative stress, are discussed.

  13. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

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    Golalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were selected from Fatemieh teaching hospital, Hamadan, Iran, and allocated into the two groups according to their number of parity: the primiparous group (n = 33, and multiparous group (n = 35. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all subjects and then assessed for catalas activity (CAT, total thiol molecules (TTM and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Results Total antioxidant capacity levels were significantly higher in newborns of primiparous women compared to multiparous women (P = 0.006. The CAT levels were significantly lower (P = 0.04 and TAC levels significantly higher (P = 0.03 in maternal plasma of primiparous women compared to those of multiparous women. Conclusions Increment in the number of parity can lead to decrease antioxidant defense mechanisms in multiparous women and their newborns. So, control of oxidative stress is considered to be beneficial in multiparous women.

  14. Relationship between hyposalivation and oxidative stress in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yoshitaka; Matsuno, Tomonori; Omata, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Tazuko

    2017-07-01

    The increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has been implicated in the abnormal advance of aging and in the onset of various systemic diseases. However, the details of what effects the increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has on saliva secretion are not known. In this study, naturally aging mice were used to examine the stimulated whole saliva flow rate, saliva and serum oxidative stress, antioxidant level, submandibular gland H-E staining, and immunofluorescence staining to investigate the effect of aging on the volume of saliva secretion and the relationship with oxidative stress, as well as the effect of aging on the structure of salivary gland tissue. The stimulated whole saliva flow rate decreased significantly with age. Also, oxidative stress increased significantly with age. Antioxidant levels, however, decreased significantly with age. Structural changes of the submandibular gland accompanying aging included atrophy of parenchyma cells and fatty degeneration and fibrosis of stroma, and the submandibular gland weight ratio decreased. These results suggest that oxidative stress increases with age, not just systemically but also locally in the submandibular gland, and that oxidative stress causes changes in the structure of the salivary gland and is involved in hyposalivation.

  15. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

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    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  16. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  17. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress

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    James Nathan Cobley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O2 budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood as the deleterious result of adventitious O2 derived free radical and non-radical species generation. To understand how many reasons underpin oxidative stress, one must first re-cast free radical and non-radical species in a positive light because their deliberate generation enables the brain to achieve critical functions (e.g. synaptic plasticity through redox signalling (i.e. positive functionality. Using free radicals and non-radical derivatives to signal sensitises the brain to oxidative stress when redox signalling goes awry (i.e. negative functionality. To advance mechanistic understanding, we rationalise 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Key reasons include inter alia unsaturated lipid enrichment, mitochondria, calcium, glutamate, modest antioxidant defence, redox active transition metals and neurotransmitter auto-oxidation. We review RNA oxidation as an underappreciated cause of oxidative stress. The complex interplay between each reason dictates neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress in a dynamic context and neural identity dependent manner. Our discourse sets the stage for investigators to interrogate the biochemical basis of oxidative stress in the brain in health and disease.

  18. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

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    Ayşin Akıncı

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + parsley-added diet and stress + lansoprazole (LPZ groups. Subjects were exposed to 72 hours of fasting and later immobilized and exposed to the cold at +4 degrees for 8 hours to create a severe stress condition. Samples from the animals’ stomachs were arranged for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results: Gastric mucosal injury was obvious in rats exposed to stress. The histopathologic damage score of the stress group (7.00±0.57 was higher than that of the control group (1.50±0.22 (p<0.05. Significant differences in histopathologic damage score were found between the stress and stress + parsley-added diet groups (p<0.05, the stress and stress + standard diet groups (p<0.05, and the stress and stress + LPZ groups (p<0.05. The mean tissue malondialdehyde levels of the stress + parsley-added group and the stress + LPZ group were lower than that of the stress group (p<0.05. Parsley supported the cellular antioxidant system by increasing the mean tissue glutathione level (53.31±9.50 and superoxide dismutase (15.18±1.05 and catalase (16.68±2.29 activities. Conclusion: Oral administration of parsley is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric injury by supporting the cellular antioxidant defence system

  19. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, especially oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabipour

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. 2Department of Cardiology ... oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), may play a causative role in ... the oxidation of lipids in the cell membrane especially the oxidation of LDL.

  20. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  1. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Oak kombucha protects against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabral, B D; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; González-Laredo, R F; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Gamboa-Gómez, C I; Rocha-Guzmán, N E

    2017-06-25

    Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H 2 O 2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films: effect of vapour chopping and air ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R B; Puri, R K; Puri, V

    2008-01-01

    Bismuth oxide thin films of thickness 1000 A 0 have been prepared by thermal oxidation (in air) of vacuum evaporated bismuth thin films (on glass substrate) at different oxidation temperatures and duration. Both the vapour chopped and nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films showed polycrystalline and polymorphic structure. The monoclinic bismuth oxide was found to be predominant in both the cases. The effect of vapour chopping and air exposure for 40 days on the intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films has been studied. The vapour chopped films showed low (3.92 - 4.80 x 10 9 N/m 2 ) intrinsic stress than those of nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films (5.77 - 6.74 x 10 9 N/m 2 ). Intrinsic stress was found to increase due to air ageing. The effect of air ageing on the vapour chopped films was found low. The vapour chopped films showed higher packing density. Higher the packing density, lower the film will age. The process of chopping vapour flow creates films with less inhomogenety i.e. a low concentration of flaws and non-planar defects which results in lower intrinsic stress

  4. Effects of Varenicline on Cardiovascular Parameters and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Sarıoğlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacotheraphy is recommended for smoking cessation in clinical practice. However, the cardiovascular safety of smoking cessation drugs has been questioned. Our goal is to evaluate the effects of the smoking cessation drug varenicline on some cardiovascular parameters and oxidative stress in subjects. Methods: Twenty-six smokers without cardiovascular diseases and 25 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS, and urotensin II levels were determined in blood samples. Echocardiography was performed in all individuals. Smokers were assessed with the measurements mentioned above at the beginning of the treatment (V0 group and at the end (third month, V3 group. The same measurements were performed once in the control group (C. Results: Aortic strain and distensibility measurements in the V0 group were found to be significantly lower than those in the C group. No significant changes were observed after varenicline treatment. TOS values in the V0 group were found to be higher than those in the V3 and C groups, but these differences were not statistically significant. However, TAS values of the V3 group were found to be significantly lower than those of the V0 group. There were no differences between the groups in terms of diastolic dysfunction and urotensin II levels. Conclusion: Our study revealed that varenicline may decrease TAS in smokers thanks to smoking cessation. Varenicline does not seem to have negative effects on aortic stiffness. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  5. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, Anita [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Nerlich, Michael [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Angele, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Angele@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  6. Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Lavoie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity.

  7. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Tremblay, André

    2018-03-27

    Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity.

  9. Oxidative stress biomarkers in amniotic fluid of pregnant women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja R; Dolicanin, Zana C; Djordjevic, Natasa Z

    2017-11-15

    Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is the serious state that may lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the amniotic fluid can provide important information on the health, development and maturation of the fetus during pregnancy. In this study, we examined whether maternal hypothyroidism contributes to increased oxidative stress biomarkers in the amniotic fluid during the first trimester of pregnancy. The study was conducted on healthy pregnant women and pregnant women with hypothyroidism (gestational age: 16-18 weeks). Oxidative stress biomarkers, such as superoxide anion (O 2 •- ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), lipid peroxide (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were assayed in the amniotic fluid. The results of this study indicated that concentrations of O 2 •- and NO are significantly higher, while the concentration of H 2 O 2 is significantly lower in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy pregnant women. There were no differences in concentrations of LPO, GSH and GSSG among tested groups. Also, we found that amniotic fluid concentration of O 2 •- is negatively correlated with the body weight and Apgar score values of the newborns. These results suggest that pregnancy hypothyroidism is characterized by the amniotic fluid oxidative stress. Incorporation of the oxidative stress biomarkers measurement in the amniotic fluid may be of clinical importance in the management of pregnancy hypothyroidism.

  10. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2007-01-01

    , the analytical reproducibility was tested by repeated analysis of plasma aliquots from one individual over four years. The plasma was subjected to acidic deproteinization with an equal volume of 10% meta-phosphoric acid containing 2 mM EDTA and analyzed for ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid by high-performance...... liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. In a parallel experiment, stability of human plasma samples treated as above and stored at -80°C for five years was tested in a cohort of 131 individuals. No degradation or shift in the equilibrium between ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid was observed......Lack of post-sampling stability of ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid and failure to block their in vivo equilibrium have lowered their value as biomarkers of oxidative stress and limited the ability to further investigate their possible role in disease prevention. In the present paper...

  11. Fatigue and Oxidative Stress in Children Undergoing Leukemia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Cheryl; Sanborn, Chelse; Taylor, Olga; Gundy, Patricia; Pasvogel, Alice; Moore, Ida M Ki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J

    2016-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequent and distressing symptom in children undergoing leukemia treatment; however, little is known about factors influencing this symptom. Antioxidants such as glutathione can decrease symptom severity in adult oncology patients, but no study has evaluated antioxidants' effects on symptoms in pediatric oncology patients. This study describes fatigue patterns and associations of fatigue with antioxidants represented by reduced glutathione (GSH) and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio among children receiving leukemia treatment. A repeated measures design assessed fatigue and antioxidants among 38 children from two large U.S. cancer centers. Fatigue was assessed among school-age children and by parent proxy among young children. Antioxidants (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio) were assessed from cerebrospinal fluid at four phases during leukemia treatment. Young children had a steady decline of fatigue from the end of induction treatment through the continuation phase of treatment, but no significant changes were noted among the school-age children. Mean antioxidant scores varied slightly over time; however, the GSH/GSSG ratios in these children were significantly lower than the normal ratio. Mean GSH/GSSG ratios significantly correlated to fatigue scores of the school-age children during early phases of treatment. Children with low mean GSH/GSSG ratios demonstrated oxidative stress. The low ratios noted early in therapy were significantly correlated with higher fatigue scores during induction and postinduction treatment phases. This finding suggests that increased oxidative stress during the more intensive phases of therapy may explain the experience of fatigue children report. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The relationship between oxidative stress and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2014-02-01

    Physical exercise has many benefits, but it might also have a negative impact on the body, depending on the training level, length of workout, gender, age and fitness. The negative effects of physical exercise are commonly attributed to an imbalance between the levels of antioxidants (both low molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes) and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to excessive production of free radicals during physical exercise. In this critical review, we look for answers for three specific questions regarding the interrelationship between physical exercise and oxidative stress (OS), namely, (i) the dependence of the steady-state level of OS on fitness, (ii) the effect of intensive exercise on the OS and (iii) the dependence of the effect of the intense exercise on the individual fitness. All these questions have been raised, investigated and answered, but the answers given on the basis of different studies are different. In the present review, we try to explain the reason(s) for the inconsistencies between the conclusions of different investigations, commonly based on the concentrations of specific biomarkers in body fluids. We think that most of the inconsistencies can be attributed to the difference between the criteria of the ill-defined term denoted OS, the methods used to test them and in some cases, between the qualities of the applied assays. On the basis of our interpretation of the differences between different criteria of OS, we consider possible answers to three well-defined questions. Possible partial answers are given, all of which lend strong support to the conclusion that the network responsible for homeostasis of the redox status is very effective. However, much more data are required to address the association between exercise and OS and its dependence on various relevant factors.

  13. Emotional memory consolidation under lower versus higher stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eKogan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under high versus low emotionality conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was detected only under high emotionality conditions. Here we further evaluate the potential implications of the difference in the level of amygdala activation on the quality of the memory formed under these stress conditions. We attempted to affect spatial memory consolidation under low or high stress conditions by either introducing a foot shock interference following massed training in the water maze; by manipulating the threshold for acquisition employing either brief (3 trials or full (12 trials training sessions; or by employing a spaced training (over three days rather than massed training protocol. The current findings reveal that under heightened emotionality, the process of consolidation seems to become less effective and more vulnerable to interference; however, when memory consolidation is not interrupted, retention is improved. These differential effects might underlie the complex interactions of stress, and, particularly, of traumatic stress with memory formation processes.

  14. Depression and oxidative stress: results from a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J; Miller, Edgar R; Szanton, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen's d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen's d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen's d = -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.15). This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress.

  15. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  16. Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Fareed, Mohd; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, W A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Free radical generation appears to be the mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead levels on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from neurological disorders. Thirty children (aged 3-12 years) with neurological disorders (cerebral palsy [n = 12], seizures [n = 11], and encephalopathy [n = 7]) were recruited in the study group. Sixty healthy children (aged 3-12 years) from similar socio-economic environments and not suffering from any chronic disease were taken as the controls. Blood lead levels and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure, was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (P children with neurological disorders. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for neurological diseases in children warranted further investigation.

  17. Increased oxidative stress in patients with familial Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) comparing to HC group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of antioxidant vitamin levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated increased oxidative stress in patients with FMF during AP.

  18. ( Artemisia absinthium ) Extract On Oxidative Stress In Ameliorating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposure related disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) on oxidative stress in rats protractedly exposed to lead. Aqueous extract of wormwood plant was administered ...

  19. Oxidative stress and the effect of riboflavin supplementation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... erythrocytes. The results show that there is oxidative stress in malaria infection and that chloroquine ... virulent causing malaria to be life threatening (Kirk, 2001;. Mahajan et al. ..... lifecycle (Muller et al., 2004). However, the ...

  20. Role of sulfiredoxin in systemic diseases influenced by oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfiredoxin is a recently discovered member of the oxidoreductases family which plays a crucial role in thiol homoeostasis when under oxidative stress. A myriad of systemic disorders have oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species as the key components in their etiopathogenesis. Recent studies have evaluated the role of this enzyme in oxidative stress mediated diseases such as atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a wide array of carcinomas. Its action is responsible for the normal functioning of cells under oxidative stress and the promotion of cell survival in cancerous cells. This review will highlight the cumulative effects of sulfiredoxin in various systemic disorders with a strong emphasis on its target activity and the factors influencing its expression in such conditions.

  1. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diet regimen, where as the control group received medical treatment only for 12 weeks. Results: The mean values of ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, weight reduction, oxidative stress, cytokines, obesity. ..... muscle in severely obese subjects.

  2. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating enzyme status, including superoxide dismutase. (SOD), catalase ... in both non-human primates and mice models. [12,13]. ..... Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin.

  3. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as ..... on the brain and nervous system of humans as handlers and ... environment may be at higher health risk in that their internal ...

  4. Alzheimer's disease: Cerebrovascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and advanced clinical therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Lucassen, P.J.; Perry, G.; Smith, M.A.; Zhu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Many lines of independent research have provided convergent evidence regarding oxidative stress, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical studies spurred by these findings engage basic and clinical communities with tangible results regarding molecular targets and

  5. HCV-Induced Oxidative Stress: Battlefield-Winning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Rebbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 150 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. The persistence of the infection is controlled by several mechanisms including the induction of oxidative stress. HCV relies on this strategy to redirect lipid metabolism machinery and escape immune response. The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase (DHCR24 is one of the newly discovered host markers of oxidative stress. This protein, as HCV-induced oxidative stress responsive protein, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV chronic infection and associated liver diseases, when aberrantly expressed. The sustained expression of DHCR24 in response to HCV-induced oxidative stress results in suppression of nuclear p53 activity by blocking its acetylation and increasing its interaction with MDM2 in the cytoplasm leading to its degradation, which may induce hepatocarcinogenesis.

  6. Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- deficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ..... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: Guide for the ... American Veterinary Medical Association.

  7. Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital organs by the treatment of composite extract of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum and Zingiber officinalis in male rat. D Misra, B Maiti, D Ghosh ...

  8. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  9. Salvianolic acid B Relieves Oxidative Stress in Glucose Absorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absorption and Utilization of Mice Fed High-Sugar Diet ... Salvianolic acid B, Blood glucose, Reactive oxygen species, Oxidative stress, Sugar diet. ... protein expression in human aortic smooth ... induced by glucose uptake and metabolism [8].

  10. Mini-review: Biofilm responses to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms constitute the predominant microbial style of life in natural and engineered ecosystems. Facing harsh environmental conditions, microorganisms accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially encountering a dangerous condition called oxidative stress. While high levels of oxidative stress are toxic, low levels act as a cue, triggering bacteria to activate effective scavenging mechanisms or to shift metabolic pathways. Although a complex and fragmentary picture results from current knowledge of the pathways activated in response to oxidative stress, three main responses are shown to be central: the existence of common regulators, the production of extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm heterogeneity. An investigation into the mechanisms activated by biofilms in response to different oxidative stress levels could have important consequences from ecological and economic points of view, and could be exploited to propose alternative strategies to control microbial virulence and deterioration.

  11. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    OpenAIRE

    Fadime Kilinç; Ayse Akbas; Ahu Yorulmaz; Sertaç Sener; Salim Neselioglu; Özcan Erel; Ahmet Metin

    2017-01-01

    Objective:Alopecia areata (AA) is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calcu...

  13. Effects of Uric Acid on Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    平井, 富弘

    2001-01-01

    We studied effects of uric acid on exercise― induced oxidative stress in humans based on a hypothesis that uric acid acts as an antioxidant to prevent from exercise―induced oxidative stress. Relation between uric acid level in plasma and increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)after the cycle ergometer exercise was examined. Thiobarbituricacid reactive substance in plasma increased after the ergometer exercise. High uric acid in plasma did not result in low increase of TBARS...

  14. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    James Nathan Cobley; Maria Luisa Fiorello; Damian Miles Bailey

    2018-01-01

    The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O2) budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood...

  15. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  16. Lower bound plane stress element for modelling 3D structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    In-plane action is often the primary load-carrying mechanism of reinforced concrete structures. The plate bending action will be secondary, and the behaviour of the structure can be modelled with a reasonable accuracy using a generalised three-dimensional plane stress element. In this paper...

  17. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the oxidative stress induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative damage is often induced by abiotic stress, nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a functional molecule in modulating antioxidant metabolism of plants. In the present study, effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on the phenotype, antioxidant capacity and chloroplast ultrastructure of cucumber leaves were ...

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  19. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Apoptosis In Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were positively correlated with positive progesterone receptor. In Conclusion; oxidative stress, NO and apoptosis are highly detected in breast cancer tissues especially with advanced grade and stage. Key words: Breast cancer, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Total Antioxidants

  20. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic prote...

  1. Compensatory responses induced by oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA I MOREIRA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease, significantly before the development of the pathologic hallmarks, neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. In the first stage of development of the disease, amyloid-β deposition and hyperphosphorylated tau function as compensatory responses and downstream adaptations to ensure that neuronal cells do not succumb to oxidative damage. These findings suggest that Alzheimer disease is associated with a novel balance in oxidant homeostasis.

  2. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Sik Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control. Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  3. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  4. Mechanism of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress regulating viability and biocontrol ability of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2015-01-16

    The use of antagonistic yeasts to control postharvest pathogens is a promising alternative to fungicides. The effectiveness of the antagonists against fungal pathogens is greatly dependent on their viability, which is usually mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effects of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula glutinis and, using flow cytometric analysis, observed the changes of ROS accumulation and apoptosis in the yeast cells with or without H₂O₂ treatment. We found that the viability of R. glutinis decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress. Compared to the control, yeast cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited more accumulation of ROS and higher levels of protein oxidative damage, but showed lower efficacy for biocontrol of Penicillium expansum causing blue mold rot on peach fruit. The results indicate that apoptosis is a main cause of the cell viability loss in R. glutinis, which is attributed to ROS accumulation under oxidative stress. These findings offer a plausible explanation that oxidative stress affects biocontrol efficacy of R. glutinis via regulating its viability and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A review: oxidative stress in fish induced by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Andrea; Smutna, Miriam; Modra, Helena; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge in oxidative stress in fish has a great importance for environmental and aquatic toxicology. Because oxidative stress is evoked by many chemicals including some pesticides, pro-oxidant factors' action in fish organism can be used to assess specific area pollution or world sea pollution. Hepatotoxic effect of DDT may be related with lipid peroxidation. Releasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after HCB exposure can be realized via two ways: via the uncoupling of the electron transport chain from monooxygenase activity and via metabolism of HCB major metabolite pentachlorophenol. Chlorothalonil disrupts mitochondrial metabolism due to the impairment of NADPH oxidase function. Activation of spleen macrophages and a decrease of catalase (CAT) activity have been observed after endosulfan exposure. Excessive release of superoxide radicals after etoxazole exposure can cause a decrease of CAT activity and increase phagocytic activity of splenocytes. Anticholinergic activity of organophosphates leads to the accumulation of ROS and resulting lipid peroxidation. Carbaryl induces changes in the content of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes activities. The antioxidant enzymes changes have been observed after actuation of pesticides deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Bipyridyl herbicides are able to form redox cycles and thereby cause oxidative stress. Low concentrations of simazine do not cause oxidative stress in carps during sub-chronic tests while sublethal concentrations of atrazin can induce oxidative stress in bluegill sunfish. Butachlor causes increased activity of superoxide dismutase -catalase system in the kidney. Rotenon can inhibit the electron transport in mitochondria and thereby increase ROS production. Dichloroaniline, the metabolite of diuron, has oxidative effects. Oxidative damage from fenpyroximate actuation is related to the disruption of mitochondrial redox respiratory chain. Low concentration of glyphosate can cause mild oxidative stress.

  6. 4-Phenylbutyrate Benefits Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats by Attenuating Oxidative Stress, Not by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangming; Peng, Xiaoyong; Hu, Yi; Lan, Dan; Wu, Yue; Li, Tao; Liu, Liangming

    2016-07-01

    Vascular dysfunction such as vascular hyporeactivity following severe trauma and shock is a major cause of death in injured patients. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress play an important role in vascular dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not 4-phenylbutyrate can improve vascular dysfunction and elicit antishock effects by inhibiting oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment. State key laboratory of trauma, burns, and combined injury. Five hundred and fifty-two Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were anesthetized, and a model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock was established by left femur fracture and hemorrhage. The effects of 4-phenylbutyrate (5, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) on vascular reactivity, animal survival, hemodynamics, and vital organ function in traumatic hemorrhagic shock rats and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, and the relationship to oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress was observed. Lower doses of 4-phenylbutyrate significantly improved the vascular function, stabilized the hemodynamics, and increased the tissue blood flow and vital organ function in traumatic hemorrhagic shock rats, and markedly improved the survival outcomes. Among all dosages observed in the present study, 20 mg/kg of 4-phenylbutyrate had the best effect. Further results indicated that 4-phenylbutyrate significantly inhibited the oxidative stress, decreased shock-induced oxidative stress index such as the production of reactive oxygen species, increased the antioxidant enzyme levels such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione, and improved the mitochondrial function by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in rat artery and vascular smooth muscle cells. In contrast, 4-phenylbutyrate did not affect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers following traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Furthermore, 4

  7. Oxidative stress and partial migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    of oxidative status in migration biology, particularly in fish. Semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus 1758) exhibit partial migration, where some individuals smoltify and migrate to sea, and others become stream residents, providing us with an excellent model to investigate the link between...... oxidative stress and migration. Using the brown trout, we obtained blood samples from juveniles from a coastal stream in Denmark in the fall prior to peak seaward migration which occurs in the spring, and assayed for antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and oxidative stress levels...

  8. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease: a possibility for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, David J; Wang, Xinglong; Perry, George; Nunomura, Akihiko; Tabaton, Massimo; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is at the forefront of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. While its implications in the characteristic neurodegeneration of AD are vast, the most important aspect is that it seems increasingly apparent that oxidative stress is in fact a primary progenitor of the disease, and not merely an epiphenomenon. Moreover, evidence indicates that a long "dormant period" of gradual oxidative damage accumulation precedes and actually leads to the seemingly sudden appearance of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid-beta deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive decline. These findings provide important insights into the development of potential treatment regimens and even allude to the possibility of a preventative cure. In this review, we elaborate on the dynamic role of oxidative stress in AD and present corresponding treatment strategies that are currently under investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Martin-Ventura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling.

  10. Vitiligo: How do oxidative stress-induced autoantigens trigger autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Heng; Zhou, Fubo; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Guannan; Li, Qiang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common depigmentation disorder characterized by a loss of functional melanocytes and melanin from epidermis, in which the autoantigens and subsequent autoimmunity caused by oxidative stress play significant roles according to hypotheses. Various factors lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in the melanocytes of vitiligo: the exogenous and endogenous stimuli that cause ROS production, low levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, disturbed antioxidant pathways and polymorphisms of ROS-associated genes. These factors synergistically contribute to the accumulation of ROS in melanocytes, finally leading to melanocyte damage and the production of autoantigens through the following ways: apoptosis, accumulation of misfolded peptides and cytokines induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as the sustained unfolded protein response, and an 'eat me' signal for phagocytic cells triggered by calreticulin. Subsequently, autoantigens presentation and dendritic cells maturation occurred mediated by the release of antigen-containing exosomes, adenosine triphosphate and melanosomal autophagy. With the involvement of inducible heat shock protein 70, cellular immunity targeting autoantigens takes the essential place in the destruction of melanocytes, which eventually results in vitiligo. Several treatments, such as narrow band ultraviolet, quercetin and α-melanophore-stimulating hormone, are reported to be able to lower ROS thereby achieving repigmentation in vitiligo. In therapies targeting autoimmunity, restore of regulatory T cells is absorbing attention, in which narrow band ultraviolet also plays a role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Arterial stiffness and sedentary lifestyle: Role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessiani, Gianfranco; Santilli, Francesca; Boccatonda, Andrea; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Liani, Rossella; Tripaldi, Romina; Saggini, Raoul; Davì, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and leads to a quantifiable impairment in vascular function and arterial wall stiffening. We tested the hypothesis of oxidative stress as a determinant of arterial stiffness (AS) in physically inactive subjects, and challenged the reversibility of these processes after the completion of an eight-week, high-intensity exercise training (ET). AS was assessed before and after ET, measuring carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) with a Vicorder device. At baseline and after ET, participants performed urine collection and underwent fasting blood sampling. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, an in vivo marker of lipid peroxidation, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. ET was associated with significantly reduced urinary 8-iso-PGF2α(p<0.0001) levels. PWV was significantly reduced after ET completion (p<0.0001), and was directly related to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α(Rho=0.383, p=0.021). After ET, cardiovascular fitness improved [peak oxygen consumption (p<0.0001), peak heart rate (p<0.0001)]. However, no improvement in lipid profile was observed, apart from a significant reduction of triglycerides (p=0.022). PWV and triglycerides were significantly related (Rho=0.466, p=0.005) throughout the study period. PWV levels were also related to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α in our previously sedentary subjects. We conclude that regular physical exercise may be a natural antioxidant strategy, lowering oxidant stress and thereby the AS degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  13. The relationship between potency of oxidative stress and severity of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbag, Recep; Yilmaz, Remzi; Erel, Ozcan; Gultekin, Unal; Asci, Durmus; Elbasan, Zafer

    2005-08-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of congestive heart failure. To investigate and compare the oxidative-antioxidative status and oxidative stress index (OSI) of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) with those of healthy volunteers, and to determine the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ejection fraction (EF). Twenty-eight patients with IDC and 24 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Antioxidative status was evaluated by measuring the TAC and the vitamin C and thiol levels in the plasma. Oxidative status was evaluated by measuring the total peroxide level. The per cent ratio of TAC to total peroxide level was accepted as the OSI. EF was measured using Simpson's method. TAC and vitamin C and thiol levels of plasma were found to be significantly lower in patients with IDC than in control subjects (P total peroxide levels and OSIs were significantly higher in patients with IDC than in control subjects (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). An important positive correlation was found between TAC and EF (r = 0.772; P total peroxide levels in patients. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in patients with IDC; as a result, the oxidative-antioxidative balance is shifted to the oxidative side. There is a significant correlation between the potency of oxidative stress and the severity of IDC. It is believed that supplementation of antioxidants in the treatment of IDC may be helpful to these patients.

  14. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel by iptakalim normalizes stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behaviour by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Zhan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Cao, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Ling; Ji, Juan; Gu, Jun; Huang, Ji-Ye; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior. We employed 2 stress paradigms: 8 weeks of continuous restraint stress (chronic restraint stress, CRS) and 2h of restraint stress (acute restraint stress, ARS), to mimic both chronic stress and severe acute stress. Prolonged (4 weeks) and short-term (a single injection) Ipt treatment was administered 30min before each stress paradigm. We found that HPA axis was altered after stress, with different responses to CRS (lower ACTH and CORT, higher AVP, but normal CRH) and ARS (higher CRH, ACTH and CORT, but normal AVP). Both prolonged and short-term Ipt treatment normalized stress-induced HPA axis disorders and abnormal behaviors in mice. CRS and ARS up-regulated mRNA levels of inflammation-related molecules (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and TLR4) and oxidative stress molecules (gp91phox, iNOS and Nrf2) in the mouse hypothalamus. Double immunofluorescence showed CRS and ARS increased microglia activation (CD11b and TNFα) and oxidative stress in neurons (NeuN and gp91phox), which were alleviated by Ipt. Therefore, the present study reveals that Ipt could prevent against stress-induced HPA axis disorders and depressive behavior by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pantelidou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress can be defined as the homeostatic, nonspecific defensive response of the organism to challenges. It is expressed by morphological, biochemical, and functional changes. In this review, we present biological and oxidative stress, as well as their interrelation. In addition to the mediation in biologic stress (central nervous, immune, and hormonal systems and oxidative stress, the effect of these phenomena on xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is also examined. It is concluded that stress decreases drug response, a result which seems to be mainly attributed to the induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of mechanisms are presented. Structure-activity studies are also discussed. Vitamin E, as well as two synthetic novel compounds, seem to reduce both oxidative and biological stress and, consequently, influence drug response and metabolism.

  16. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  17. Are metallothioneins equally good biomarkers of metal and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Branco, Diana; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Freitas, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Several researchers investigated the induction of metallothioneins (MTs) in the presence of metals, namely Cadmium (Cd). Fewer studies observed the induction of MTs due to oxidizing agents, and literature comparing the sensitivity of MTs to different stressors is even more scarce or even nonexistent. The role of MTs in metal and oxidative stress and thus their use as a stress biomarker, remains to be clearly elucidated. To better understand the role of MTs as a biomarker in Cerastoderma edule, a bivalve widely used as bioindicator, a laboratory assay was conducted aiming to assess the sensitivity of MTs to metal and oxidative stressors. For this purpose, Cd was used to induce metal stress, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), being an oxidizing compound, was used to impose oxidative stress. Results showed that induction of MTs occurred at very different levels in metal and oxidative stress. In the presence of the oxidizing agent (H2O2), MTs only increased significantly when the degree of oxidative stress was very high, and mortality rates were higher than 50 percent. On the contrary, C. edule survived to all Cd concentrations used and significant MTs increases, compared to the control, were observed in all Cd exposures. The present work also revealed that the number of ions and the metal bound to MTs varied with the exposure conditions. In the absence of disturbance, MTs bound most (60-70 percent) of the essential metals (Zn and Cu) in solution. In stressful situations, such as the exposure to Cd and H2O2, MTs did not bind to Cu and bound less to Zn. When organisms were exposed to Cd, the total number of ions bound per MT molecule did not change, compared to control. However the sort of ions bound per MT molecule differed; part of the Zn and all Cu ions where displaced by Cd ions. For organisms exposed to H2O2, each MT molecule bound less than half of the ions compared to control and Cd conditions, which indicates a partial oxidation of thiol groups in the cysteine

  18. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  19. Nitric oxide in the stress axis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Day, H.E.W.; Akil, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbichypothalamic- ...

  20. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of stress fractures in the lower extremity in runners

    OpenAIRE

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman,Lindsey; Games,Kenneth; Wasik,Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Leamor Kahanov,1 Lindsey E Eberman,2 Kenneth E Games,2 Mitch Wasik2 1College of Health Science, Misericordia University, Dallas, PA, USA; 2Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, USA Abstract: Stress fractures account for between 1% and 20% of athletic injuries, with 80% of stress fractures in the lower extremity. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing ...

  2. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-02-26

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤ 250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p vegetarian diet.

  3. Oxidative status and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac Štefanović, Leda; Kalinić, Dubravka; Mimica, Ninoslav; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Aladrović, Jasna; Mandelsamen Perica, Marina; Curić, Maja; Grošić, Petra Folnegović; Delaš, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the parameters of oxidative stress in the blood of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. The study included 80 male war veterans who participated actively in the Homeland war in Croatia. Volunteers were divided into two groups: 50 veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 30 without diagnosis. The self-assessment Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to detect the severity of depression and anxiety in the post-traumatic stress disorder patients. Catalytic concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes and the concentration of malondialdehyde in serum were measured spectrophotometrically. Although the catalytic concentrations of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase were within the reference range for both groups, the values obtained for the post-traumatic stress disorder group were significantly lower (Ppost-traumatic stress disorder may indicate a weaker response to oxidative stress due to impaired enzyme activity and/or decreased synthesis. Conversely, no significant changes in serum malondialdehyde concentrations suggest a compensated balance and adaptive response to (oxidative) stress. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyoun Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP, a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH, and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400 from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses’ Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04, but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05. However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  5. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungyoun; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Wu, Tianying; Jensen, Majken; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-09-21

    Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses' Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations ( p -trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p -trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  6. Melt jet fragmentation and oxidation in the lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, G.

    2001-01-01

    During the late phases of a PWR Severe Accident, the core materials discharge into the lower plenum in which water is still present. In that case, we are then concerned by the possible occurrence of a Steam Explosion which may endanger the vessel structure and by the following cooling of the melt debris. So, we have two possible ways of vessel rupture: a mechanical one following an energetic Steam Explosion and a thermal one due to insufficient debris cooling. Both types of problems are linked with the degree of fragmentation of the core material during its penetration into the water of the lower plenum. One of the most likely mode of discharge consists in corium streams or jets. The fragmentation will build a corium-water mixture (the pre-mixing sequence) which, under certain circumstances, may undergo a fine fragmentation sequence leading to an energetic Steam Explosion (the explosion sequence). Whatever the occurrence of a Steam Explosion, the resulting debris will accumulate at the bottom of the Reactor Vessel and the cooling of such a ''debris bed'' is known to be highly dependant of the granulometry and build up of the debris bed which are linked with the previous sequence of corium fragmentation and dispersion. In CEA, the MC3D Code has been developed to deal with all these phenomena. (author)

  7. Oxidative Stress Is Differentially Present in Multiple Sclerosis Courses, Early Evident, and Unrelated to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Gironi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is well documented in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, but its correspondence at peripheral level is still controversial. Objective. To evaluate peripheral oxidative stress markers in MS patients. Methods. We studied total blood levels of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS, anti-oxidized-low-density lipoproteins (anti-oxLDL antibodies, and antioxidant power (PAO in 87 patients with different MS clinical phenotypes and in 77 controls. Results. CoQ10 was lower whereas anti-oxLDL antibodies titer was higher in MS patients than in controls. The benign variant of MS displayed both higher CoQ10 and higher anti-oxLDL than other MS clinical variants. Female patients had lower CoQ10 and PAO and higher ROS than male patients. Differences were greater in younger patients with shorter disease duration. Surprisingly, there was no difference for these markers between treated and untreated patients. Conclusion. We found lower antioxidant agents and higher anti-oxLDL antibodies in MS, and the highest antibody titers occurred in the benign form. We suggest that natural anti-oxLDL antibodies can be protective against MS, saving blood brain barrier integrity. Our findings also suggest that milder MS is associated with a distinct oxidative stress pattern, which may provide a useful biomarker of disease prognosis.

  8. Desferrioxamine Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Lung Contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Nusret Basaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis in this study is that desferrioxamine (DFX has therapeutic effects on experimental lung contusions in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=8: control, control+DFX, contusion, and contusion+DFX. In the control+DFX and contusion+DFX groups, 100 mg/kg DFX was given intraperitoneally once a day just after the contusion and the day after the contusion. Contusions led to a meaningful rise in the malondialdehyde (MDA level in lung tissue. MDA levels in the contusion+DFX group experienced a significant decline. Glutathione levels were significantly lower in the contusion group than in the control group and significantly higher in the contusion+DFX group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in the contusion group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In the contusion+DFX group, SOD and GPx levels were significantly higher than those in the contusion group. In light microscopic evaluation, the contusion and contusion+DFX groups showed edema, hemorrhage, alveolar destruction, and leukocyte infiltration. However, histological scoring of the contusion+DFX group was significantly more positive than that of the contusion group. The iNOS staining in the contusion group was significantly more intensive than that in all other groups. DFX reduced iNOS staining significantly in comparison to the contusion group. This study showed that DFX reduced oxidative stress in lung contusions in rats and histopathologically ensured the recovery of the lung tissue.

  9. Metformin induces oxidative stress in white adipocytes and raises uncoupling protein 2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedda, Andrea; Rial, Eduardo; González-Barroso, M Mar

    2008-10-01

    Metformin is a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. It enhances insulin sensitivity by improving glucose utilization in tissues like liver or muscle. Metformin inhibits respiration, and the decrease in cellular energy activates the AMP-activated protein kinase that in turn switches on catabolic pathways. Moreover, metformin increases lipolysis and beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue, thereby reducing the triglyceride stores. The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters that lower the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. UCP2 is thought to protect against oxidative stress although, alternatively, it could play an energy dissipation role. The aim of this work was to analyse the involvement of UCP2 on the effects of metformin in white adipocytes. We studied the effect of this drug in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that metformin causes oxidative stress since it increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lowers the aconitase activity. Variations in UCP2 protein levels parallel those of ROS. Metformin also increases lipolysis in these cells although only when the levels of ROS and UCP2 have decreased. Hence, UCP2 does not appear to be needed to facilitate fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with metformin also augmented the levels of UCP2 in epididymal white adipose tissue. We conclude that metformin treatment leads to the overexpression of UCP2 in adipocytes to minimize the oxidative stress that is probably due to the inhibition of respiration caused by the drug.

  10. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sophie [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); ED515 UPMC, 4 place Jussieu 75005 Paris (France); Sliwa, Dominika [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Rustin, Pierre [Inserm, U676, Physiopathology and Therapy of Mitochondrial Disease Laboratory, 75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Camadro, Jean-Michel [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Santos, Renata, E-mail: santos.renata@ijm.univ-paris-diderot.fr [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  11. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  12. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  13. Role of Magnesium in Oxidative Stress in Individuals with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; Santos, Loanne Rocha Dos; de Sousa Melo, Stéfany Rodrigues; de Oliveira Santos, Raisa; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ that promotes excessive production of reactive oxygen species when in excess, thus contributing to lipid peroxidation. Magnesium deficiency contributes to the development of oxidative stress in obese individuals, as this mineral plays a role as an antioxidant, participates as a cofactor of several enzymes, maintains cell membrane stability and mitigates the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this review is to bring together updated information on the participation of magnesium in the oxidative stress present in obesity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases, using the keywords 'magnesium', 'oxidative stress', 'malondialdehyde', 'superoxide dismutase', 'glutathione peroxidase', 'reactive oxygen species', 'inflammation' and 'obesity'. The studies show that obese subjects have low serum concentrations of magnesium, as well as high concentrations of oxidative stress marker in these individuals. Furthermore, it is evident that the adequate intake of magnesium contributes to its appropriate homeostasis in the body. Thus, this review of current research can help define the need for intervention with supplementation of this mineral for the prevention and treatment of disorders associated with this chronic disease.

  14. Role of Oxidative Stress in Epigenetic Modification in Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuminori; Yamada, Yuki; Shigemitsu, Aiko; Akinishi, Mika; Kaniwa, Hiroko; Miyake, Ryuta; Yamanaka, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification are associated with an increased risk of reproductive disorders such as endometriosis. However, a cause-effect relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and endometriosis development has not been fully determined. This review provides current information based on oxidative stress in epigenetic modification in endometriosis. This article reviews the English-language literature on epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone modification, and oxidative stress associated with endometriosis in an effort to identify epigenetic modification that causes a predisposition to endometriosis. Oxidative stress, secondary to the influx of hemoglobin, heme, and iron during retrograde menstruation, is involved in the expression of CpG demethylases, ten-eleven translocation, and jumonji (JMJ). Ten-eleven translocation and JMJ recognize a wide range of endogenous DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The increased expression levels of DNMTs may be involved in the subsequent downregulation of the decidualization-related genes. This review supports the hypothesis that there are at least 2 distinct phases of epigenetic modification in endometriosis: the initial wave of iron-induced oxidative stress would be followed by the second big wave of epigenetic modulation of endometriosis susceptibility genes. We summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms focusing on oxidative stress in endometriosis.

  15. A study of oxidative stress in paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study and assessment of oxidative stress plays a significant role in the arena of leprosy treatment. Once the presence of oxidative stress is proved, antioxidant supplements can be provided to reduce tissue injury and deformity. Aim: To study oxidative stress in paucibacillary (PB and multibacillary (MB leprosy and to compare it with that in a control group. Methods: Fifty-eight untreated leprosy patients (23 PB and 35 MB cases were studied and compared with 58 healthy controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD level as a measure of antioxidant status; malondialdehyde (MDA level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation; and MDA/SOD ratio, an index of oxidative stress were estimated in the serum. Results: The SOD level was decreased in leprosy patients, especially in MB leprosy. The MDA level was increased in PB and MB leprosy. The MDA/SOD ratio was significantly elevated in MB patients. There was a steady increase in this ratio along the spectrum from tuberculoid to lepromatous leprosy (LL. Conclusion: There is increased oxidative stress in MB leprosy, especially in LL. This warrants antioxidant supplements to prevent tissue injury.

  16. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lymphocyte DNA damage and oxidative stress in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Ozgonül, Saadet; Celik, Hakim; Celik, Metin; Erel, Ozcan

    2006-10-10

    Oxidant stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of iron deficiency anemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between lymphocyte DNA damage, total antioxidant capacity and the degree of anemia in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Twenty-two female with iron deficiency anemia and 22 healthy females were enrolled in the study. Peripheral DNA damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay and plasma total antioxidant capacity was determined using an automated measurement method. Lymphocyte DNA damage of patients with iron deficiency anemia was significantly higher than controls (ptotal antioxidant capacity was significantly lower (ptotal antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin levels (r=0.706, ptotal antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin levels were negatively correlated with DNA damage (r=-0.330, p<0.05 and r=-0.323, p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, both oxidative stress and DNA damage are increased in IDA patients. Increased oxidative stress seems as an important factor that inducing DNA damage in those IDA patients. The relationships of oxidative stress and DNA damage with the severity of anemia suggest that both oxidative stress and DNA damage may, in part, have a role in the pathogenesis of IDA.

  18. Exercise training attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Liu, J-Y; Zhang, H-X; Li, Q; Zhang, S-W

    2015-01-01

    It is known that excessive sympathetic activity and oxidative stress are enhanced in obesity. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training (ET) attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in obesity. The obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: regular diet (RD) plus sedentary (RD-S), RD plus ET (RD-ET), HFD plus sedentary (HFD-S), and HFD plus ET (HFD-ET). The rats in RD-ET and HFD-ET groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, five days/week for 8 weeks. The sympathetic activity was evaluated by the plasma norepinephrine (NE) level. The superoxide anion, malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes levels in serum and muscles were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. The ET prevented the increases in the body weight, arterial pressure and white adipose tissue mass in HFD rats. The NE level in plasma and oxidative stress related parameters got lower in HFD-ET group compared with HFD-S group. We have found decreased mRNA and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 by ET in HFD rats. These findings suggest that ET may be effective for attenuating sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

  19. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath of workers exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles are elevated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Pušman, Jan; Zíková, Naděžda; Zakharov, S.; Machajová, M.; Kačer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 69-70 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : oxidative stress * exhaled breath * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage Responses Elicited by Silver, Titanium Dioxide, and Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous literature on the biological effects of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigating potential pathways. Here we examine time-sensitive biological response pathways affected by engineered nanoma...

  1. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40-49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50-59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG ( p  stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase.

  2. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  3. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  4. LDL oxidation by platelets propagates platelet activation via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Di Santo, Serena; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Illuminati, Giulio; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Boz, Valentina; Del Ben, Maria; De Marco, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Platelets generate oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) via NOX2-derived oxidative stress. We investigated if once generated by activated platelets ox-LDL can propagate platelet activation. Experiments were performed in platelets from healthy subjects (HS), hyper-cholesterolemic patients and patients with NOX2 hereditary deficiency. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with LDL were associated with a dose-dependent increase of reactive oxidant species and ox-LDL. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with a fixed dose of LDL (57.14 μmol/L) or added with homogenized human atherosclerotic plaque showed enhanced ox-LDL formation (approximately +50% and +30% respectively), which was lowered by a NOX2 inhibitor (approximately -35% and -25% respectively). Compared to HS, ox-LDL production was more pronounced in agonist-stimulated platelet rich plasma (PRP) from hyper-cholesterolemic patients but was almost absent in PRP from NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet aggregation and 8-iso-PGF2α-ΙΙΙ formation increased in LDL-treated washed platelets (+42% and +53% respectively) and PRP (+31% and +53% respectively). Also, LDL enhanced platelet-dependent thrombosis at arterial shear rate (+33%) but did not affect platelet activation in NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet activation by LDL was significantly inhibited by CD36 or LOX1 blocking peptides, two ox-LDL receptor antagonists, or by a NOX2 inhibitor. LDL-added platelets showed increased p38MAPK (+59%) and PKC (+51%) phosphorylation, p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane (+34%) and NOX2 activation (+30%), which were inhibited by ox-LDL receptor antagonists. Platelets oxidize LDL, which in turn amplify platelet activation via specific ox-LDL receptors; both effects are mediated by NOX2 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Francesco; Mazzola, Margherita; Rappa, Francesca; Jurjus, Abdo; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Al Kattar, Sahar; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Damiani, Provvidenza; Leone, Angelo; Tomasello, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    One of the contributory causes of colon cancer is the negative effect of reactive oxygen species on DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there is a growing support for the concept that oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis and to highlight the potential protective role of antioxidants. Several studies have documented the importance of antioxidants in countering oxidative stress and preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there are conflicting data in the literature concerning its proper use in humans, since these studies did not yield definitive results and were performed mostly in vitro on cell populations, or in vivo in experimental animal models. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic unpredictable stress deteriorates the chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shirin; Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; AlNohair, Sultan; Banu, Naheed

    2016-05-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) can influence the risk and progression of cancer through increased oxidative stress. Pomegranate is known to protect carcinogenesis through its anti-oxidative properties. This study is carried out to examine whether CUS affects the chemopreventive potential of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway. Role of CUS on early stages of 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced carcinogenesis, and its pre-exposure effect on chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) was examined in terms of in vivo antioxidant and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino rats. Rats were divided in various groups and were subjected to CUS paradigm, DMBA administration (65 mg/kg body weight, single dose), and PJ treatment. Exposure to stress (alone) and DMBA (alone) led to increased oxidative stress by significantly decreasing the antioxidant enzymes activities and altering the glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. A significant increase in DNA damage demonstrated by comet assay was seen in the liver cells. Stress exposure to DMBA-treated rats further increased the oxidative stress and disturbed the biochemical parameters as compared to DMBA (alone)-treated rats. Chemoprevention with PJ in DMBA (alone)-treated rats restored the altered parameters. However, in the pre-stress DMBA-treated rats, the overall antioxidant potential of PJ was significantly diminished. Our results indicate that chronic stress not only increases the severity of carcinogenesis but also diminishes the anti-oxidative efficacy of PJ. In a broader perspective, special emphasis should be given to stress management and healthy diet during cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Proteome oxidative carbonylation during oxidative stress-induced premature senescence of WI-38 human fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Boulch, Marine; Ahmed, Emad K; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2018-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal ageing, and is also a phenotypic feature shared by both replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence of human fibroblasts. Moreover, proteins that are building up as oxidized (i.e. the "Oxi-pro...

  8. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pongrac, I. M.; Pavičić, I.; Milić, M.; Brkić Ahmed, L.; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, I.; Gajović, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, 26 April (2016), s. 1701-1715 ISSN 1176-9114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-01128J EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316120 - GLOWBRAIN Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles * biocompatibility * oxidative stress Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Methods Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Results Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively. Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p 0.05/6. Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6. Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively. Conclusion Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  10. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun Filiz; Horoz, Mehmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-10-31

    Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p Total antioxidant response was comparable in chronic hepatitis B subjects, inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively). Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  11. Effect of oxidative stress on homer scaffolding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nepliouev

    Full Text Available Homer proteins are a family of multifaceted scaffolding proteins that participate in the organization of signaling complexes at the post-synaptic density and in a variety of tissues including striated muscle. Homer isoforms form multimers via their C-terminal coiled coil domains, which allows for the formation of a polymeric network in combination with other scaffolding proteins. We hypothesized that the ability of Homer isoforms to serve as scaffolds would be influenced by oxidative stress. We have found by standard SDS-PAGE of lysates from adult mouse skeletal muscle exposed to air oxidation that Homer migrates as both a dimer and monomer in the absence of reducing agents and solely as a monomer in the presence of a reducing agent, suggesting that Homer dimers exposed to oxidation could be modified by the presence of an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Analysis of the peptide sequence of Homer 1b revealed the presence of only two cysteine residues located adjacent to the C-terminal coiled-coil domain. HEK 293 cells were transfected with wild-type and cysteine mutant forms of Homer 1b and exposed to oxidative stress by addition of menadione, which resulted in the formation of disulfide bonds except in the double mutant (C246G, C365G. Exposure of myofibers from adult mice to oxidative stress resulted in decreased solubility of endogenous Homer isoforms. This change in solubility was dependent on disulfide bond formation. In vitro binding assays revealed that cross-linking of Homer dimers enhanced the ability of Homer 1b to bind Drebrin, a known interacting partner. Our results show that oxidative stress results in disulfide cross-linking of Homer isoforms and loss of solubility of Homer scaffolds. This suggests that disulfide cross-linking of a Homer polymeric network may contribute to the pathophysiology seen in neurodegenerative diseases and myopathies characterized by oxidative stress.

  12. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  13. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  14. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  15. Periodontal Disease-Induced Atherosclerosis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis.

  16. Food-derived bioactive peptides on inflammation and oxidative stress.

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    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Jahandideh, Forough; Wu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of these pathological conditions. Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have been evaluated for various beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this review, we summarize the roles of various food-derived bioactive peptides in inflammation and oxidative stress and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using these compounds against the burden of chronic diseases.

  17. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

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    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  18. [Biological consequences of oxidative stress induced by pesticides].

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    Grosicka-Maciąg, Emilia

    2011-06-17

    Pesticides are used to protect plants and numerous plant products. They are also utilized in several industrial branches. These compounds are highly toxic to living organisms. In spite of close supervision in the use of pesticides there is a serious risk that these agents are able to spread into the environment and contaminate water, soil, food, and feedstuffs. Recently, more and more studies have been focused on understanding the toxic mechanisms of pesticide actions. The data indicate that the toxic action of pesticides may include the induction of oxidative stress and accumulation of free radicals in the cell. Long-lasting or acute oxidative stress disturbs cell metabolism and is able to produce permanent changes in the structure of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The proteins that are oxidized may lose or enhance their activity. Moreover, the proteins oxidized are able to form aggregates that inhibit the systems responsible for protein degradation and lead to alterations of proteins in the cell. Once oxidized, lipids have the capacity to damage and depolarize cytoplasmic membranes. Free oxygen radicals are harmful to DNA including damage to single nitric bases, DNA strand breaks and adduct production. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress may accelerate development of numerous diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative ones such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and may also be responsible for infertility.

  19. A Different Approach to Assess Oxidative Stress in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients Through The Calculation of Oxidative Stress Index

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    Edi Hartoyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the involvement of Oxidative Stress (OS in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF through the analysis of oxidative stress Index (OSI. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, and OSI were measured in 61 child dengue patients and (aged 6 months–18 years with three different stages of DHF, i.e stage I, II, and III. The results show that the levels of MDA, SOD and CAT activity, and OSI significantly different between the group. The all parameters that investigated in this present study seems higher MDA level and OSI in the higher grade of DHF, except for SOD and CAT activity. From this result, it can be concluded that oxidative stress pathways might be involved in the pathomechanism of DHF and OSI might be used as a biomarker for OS and the severity in DHF patients.

  20. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

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    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  1. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

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    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-01-01

    It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in pregnant women.

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    Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.

  3. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

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    Masaaki Adachi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability.Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity.H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  4. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND VASCULAR DAMAGE IN HYPOXIA PROCESSES. MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA AS BIOMARKER FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

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    Muñiz P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the levels oxidative stress biomarkers are related with different diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular, renal, aging, etc. One of these biomarkers is the malondialdehyde (MDA generated as resulted of the process of lipid peroxidation. This biomarker is increased under conditions of the oxidative stress. Their levels, have been frequently used to measure plasma oxidative damage to lipids by their atherogenic potential. Its half-life high and their reactivity allows it to act both inside and outside of cells and interaction with proteins and DNA involve their role in different pathophysiological processes. This paper presents an analysis of the use of MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress and its implications associated pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases ago.

  5. Is rosuvastatin protective against on noise-induced oxidative stress in rat serum?

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    Emine Rabia Koc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise, one of the main components of modern society, has become an important environmental problem. Noise is not only an irritating sound, but also a stress factor leading to serious health problems. In this study, we have investigated possible effects of rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, thought to have an antioxidant effect, on noise-induced oxidative stress in the serum of rat models. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used. In order to ease their adaptation, 2 weeks before the experiment, the rats were divided into four groups (with eight rats per each group: Noise exposure plus rosuvastatin usage, only noise exposure, only rosuvastatin usage and control. After the data had been collected, oxidant (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide [NO], protein carbonyl [PC] and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-PX], catalase [CAT] parameters were analyzed in the serum. Results indicated that SOD values were found to be significantly lower, while PC values in serum were remarkably higher in the group that was exposed to only noise. GSH-Px values in serum dramatically increased in the group on which only rosuvastatin was used. During noise exposure, the use of rosuvastatin caused significantly increased CAT values, whereas it resulted in reduced PC and NO values in serum. In conclusion, our data show that noise exposure leads to oxidative stress in rat serum; however, rosuvastatin therapy decreases the oxidative stress caused by noise exposure.

  6. Endothelin receptor antagonist attenuates oxidative stress in a neonatal sepsis piglet model.

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    Goto, Tatenobu; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Kato, Shin; Daoud, Ghada Abdel-Hamid; Kato, Takenori; Sugiura, Takahiro; Kakita, Hiroki; Nobata, Masanori; Kamei, Michi; Mizuno, Haruo; Imai, Masaki; Ito, Tetsuya; Kato, Ineko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Okada, Noriko; Togari, Hajime; Okada, Hidechika

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress (oxidant-antioxidant imbalance) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neonatal sepsis. This study evaluated whether an antisense peptide endothelin receptor antagonist, ETR-P1/fl, could attenuate oxidative stress in a neonatal sepsis model. A total of 18 3-d-old piglets were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Six piglets received cecal ligation and perforation (CLP group) for induction of sepsis. Six piglets also received continuous infusion (0.05 mg/kg/h) of ETR-P1/fl 30 min after CLP (ETR-P1/fl group). Six piglets received a sham operation. Serum total hydroperoxide (TH), biological antioxidant potentials (BAPs), oxidative stress index (OSI, calculated as TH/BAP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and creatinine were measured before CLP and at 1, 3, and 6 h after CLP. CLP evoked a state of shock resulting in elevated TH, OSI, and IL-6 levels. ETR-P1/fl administration after CLP resulted in lower serum TH at 1 and 3 h after CLP, OSI at 1 and 3 h after CLP, IL-6 at 1 and 3 h after CLP, and GOT at 3 and 6 h after CLP as compared with the CLP group. ETR-P1/fl treatment significantly attenuated the elevation of serum oxidative stress markers (TH and OSI), IL-6, and GOT in a progressive neonatal sepsis CLP model.

  7. Analysis of Oxidative Stress Status, Catalase and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Polymorphisms in Egyptian Vitiligo Patients

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    Mehaney, Dina A.; Darwish, Hebatallah A.; Hegazy, Rehab A.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Tawdy, Amira M.; Gawdat, Heba I.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin. Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the probable events involved in vitiligo pathogenesis possibly contributing to melanocyte destruction. Evidence indicates that certain genes including those involved in oxidative stress and melanin synthesis are crucial for development of vitiligo. This study evaluates the oxidative stress status, the role of catalase (CAT) and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptians. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as CAT exon 9 T/C and COMT 158 G/A polymorphisms were determined in 89 patients and 90 age and sex-matched controls. Our results showed significantly lower TAC along with higher MDA levels in vitiligo patients compared with controls. Meanwhile, genotype and allele distributions of CAT and COMT polymorphisms in cases were not significantly different from those of controls. Moreover, we found no association between both polymorphisms and vitiligo susceptibility. In conclusion, the enhanced oxidative stress with the lack of association between CAT and COMT polymorphisms and susceptibility to vitiligo in our patients suggest that mutations in other genes related to the oxidative pathway might contribute to the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptian population. PMID:24915010

  8. Analysis of oxidative stress status, catalase and catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms in Egyptian vitiligo patients.

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    Dina A Mehaney

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin. Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the probable events involved in vitiligo pathogenesis possibly contributing to melanocyte destruction. Evidence indicates that certain genes including those involved in oxidative stress and melanin synthesis are crucial for development of vitiligo. This study evaluates the oxidative stress status, the role of catalase (CAT and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms in the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptians. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA levels as well as CAT exon 9 T/C and COMT 158 G/A polymorphisms were determined in 89 patients and 90 age and sex-matched controls. Our results showed significantly lower TAC along with higher MDA levels in vitiligo patients compared with controls. Meanwhile, genotype and allele distributions of CAT and COMT polymorphisms in cases were not significantly different from those of controls. Moreover, we found no association between both polymorphisms and vitiligo susceptibility. In conclusion, the enhanced oxidative stress with the lack of association between CAT and COMT polymorphisms and susceptibility to vitiligo in our patients suggest that mutations in other genes related to the oxidative pathway might contribute to the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptian population.

  9. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A.

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    Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm.

  10. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A

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    Rie Miyata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm.

  11. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

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    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  12. Sex differences in oxidative stress resistance in relation to longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Niveditha, S; Deepashree, S; Ramesh, S R; Shivanandappa, T

    2017-10-01

    Gender differences in lifespan and aging are known across species. Sex differences in longevity within a species can be useful to understand sex-specific aging. Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to study the problem of sex differences in longevity since females are longer lived than males. There is evidence that stress resistance influences longevity. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between sex differences in longevity and oxidative stress resistance in D. melanogaster. We observed a progressive age-dependent decrease in the activity of SOD and catalase, major antioxidant enzymes involved in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress in parallel to the increased ROS levels over time. Longer-lived females showed lower ROS levels and higher antioxidant enzymes than males as a function of age. Using ethanol as a stressor, we have shown differential susceptibility of the sexes to ethanol wherein females exhibited higher resistance to ethanol-induced mortality and locomotor behavior compared to males. Our results show strong correlation between sex differences in oxidative stress resistance, antioxidant defenses and longevity. The study suggests that higher antioxidant defenses in females may confer resistance to oxidative stress, which could be a factor that influences sex-specific aging in D. melanogaster.

  13. Enhanced oxidative stress in the jasmonic acid-deficient tomato mutant def-1 exposed to NaCl stress.

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    Abouelsaad, Ibrahim; Renault, Sylvie

    2018-04-21

    Jasmonic acid (JA) has been mostly studied in responses to biotic stresses, such as herbivore attack and pathogenic infection. More recently, the involvement of JA in abiotic stresses including salinity was highlighted; yet, its role in salt stress remained unclear. In the current study, we compared the physiological and biochemical responses of wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv Castlemart and its JA-deficient mutant defenseless-1 (def-1) under salt stress to investigate the role of JA. Plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, ion accumulation, oxidative stress-related parameters, proline accumulation and total phenolic compounds, in addition to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, were measured in both genotypes after 14 days of 100 mM NaCl treatment. Although we observed in both genotypes similar growth pattern and sodium, calcium and potassium levels in leaves under salt stress, def-1 plants exhibited a more pronounced decrease of nitrogen content in both leaves and roots and a slightly higher level of sodium in roots compared to WT plants. In addition, def-1 plants exposed to salt stress showed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated injury phenotypes. These oxidative stress symptoms in def-1 were associated with lower activity of both enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Furthermore, the levels of the non-enzymatic ROS scavengers proline and total phenolic compounds increased in both genotypes exposed to salt stress, with a higher amount of proline in the WT plants. Overall the results of this study suggest that endogenous JA mainly enhanced tomato salt tolerance by maintaining ROS homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of stress fractures in the lower extremity in runners

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    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E; Wasik, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Stress fractures account for between 1% and 20% of athletic injuries, with 80% of stress fractures in the lower extremity. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities such as running, military and aerobic exercise and therefore require practitioner expertise in diagnosis and management. Accurate diagnosis for stress fractures is dependent on the anatomical area. Anatomical regions such as the pelvis, sacrum, and metatarsals offer challenges due to difficulty differentiating pathologies with common symptoms. Special tests and treatment regimes, however, are similar among most stress fractures with resolution between 4 weeks to a year. The most difficult aspect of stress fracture treatment entails mitigating internal and external risk factors. Practitioners should address ongoing risk factors to minimize recurrence. PMID:25848327

  15. Protective effects of carnosol against oxidative stress induced brain damage by chronic stress in rats.

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    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Samini, Mohammad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-05-04

    Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have a therapeutic effect versus free radical induced diseases. The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The restraint stress induced by keeping animals in restrainers for 21 consecutive days. Thereafter, the rats were injected carnosol or vehicle for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, all the rats were subjected to his open field test and forced swimming test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed for measuring their oxidative stress parameters. To measure the modifications in the biochemical aspects after the experiment, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus the non-stressed animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non-stressed rats (p < 0.01). Carnosol ameliorated this alteration versus the non-treated rats (p < 0.05). In the vehicle treated rats that submitted to the stress, the level of MDA levels was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased versus the non-stressed animals (P < 0.001). Carnosol treatment reduced the modifications in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). All of these carnosol effects were nearly similar to those observed with fluoxetine. The current research shows that the protective effects of carnosol may be accompanied with enhanced antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative injury.

  16. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Oxidative Metabolism Genes Are Not Responsive to Oxidative Stress in Rodent Beta Cell Lines

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    Faer Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of oxidative metabolism genes has been described in the skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells contain low levels of antioxidant enzymes and are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the effect of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress on a panel of oxidative metabolism genes in a rodent beta cell line. We exposed INS-1 rodent beta cells to low (5.6 mmol/L, ambient (11 mmol/L, and high (28 mmol/L glucose conditions for 48 hours. Increases in oxidative stress were measured using the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine 123. We then measured the expression levels of a panel of 90 oxidative metabolism genes by real-time PCR. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production was evident in INS-1 cells after 48 hours (P<0.05. TLDA analysis revealed a significant (P<0.05 upregulation of 16 of the 90 genes under hyperglycemic conditions, although these expression differences did not reflect differences in ROS. We conclude that although altered glycemia may influence the expression of some oxidative metabolism genes, this effect is probably not mediated by increased ROS production. The alterations to the expression of oxidative metabolism genes previously observed in human diabetic skeletal muscle do not appear to be mirrored in rodent pancreatic beta cells.

  18. Oxidative stress and pathology in muscular dystrophies: focus on protein thiol oxidation and dysferlinopathies.

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    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Lemckert, Frances A; Arthur, Peter G; Grounds, Miranda D

    2013-09-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise more than 30 clinical disorders that are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for pathogenesis generally remains unknown. It is considered that disturbed levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathology of many muscular dystrophies. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress may cause cellular damage by directly and irreversibly damaging macromolecules such as proteins, membrane lipids and DNA; another major cellular consequence of reactive oxygen species is the reversible modification of protein thiol side chains that may affect many aspects of molecular function. Irreversible oxidative damage of protein and lipids has been widely studied in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and we have recently identified increased protein thiol oxidation in dystrophic muscles of the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This review evaluates the role of elevated oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other forms of muscular dystrophies, and presents new data that show significantly increased protein thiol oxidation and high levels of lipofuscin (a measure of cumulative oxidative damage) in dysferlin-deficient muscles of A/J mice at various ages. The significance of this elevated oxidative stress and high levels of reversible thiol oxidation, but minimal myofibre necrosis, is discussed in the context of the disease mechanism for dysferlinopathies, and compared with the situation for dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  19. [The evaluation of selected oxidative stress parameters in patients with hyperthyroidism].

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    Andryskowski, Grzegorz; Owczarek, Tomasz

    2007-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism induces the acceleration of the basic metabolism and increases cellular oxygen utilization, consequently intensifies reactive oxygen species production and disturbs the oxidant-antioxidant balance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selected oxidative stress parameters in patients with hyperthyroidism by analysis of the reactive oxygen species neutralizing enzymes activity--superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT), the estimation of free radical processes intensity--concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl groups (SH) in proteins and by quantification of the serum total antioxidant status (TAS). . Twenty-seven patients treated for hyperthyroidism and 12 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Enzyme activity (SOD, GSHPx, CAT), MDA and concentration of SH groups were analysed in erythrocytes, while TAS was measured in serum. Patients with hyperthyroidism compared with healthy subjects were characterized by a higher GSHPx activity in erythrocytes, lower serum TAS, the lower content of SH groups in proteins and the lower MDA concentration in erythrocytes. Our results suggest that hyperthyroidism increases oxidative stress and disturbs oxidant-antioxidant balance in the body. Thyreostatic treatment, if not leads to whole metabolic compensation, may only reduce oxidant-antioxidant disorders, however is not able to eliminate them entirely.

  20. Effect of Clonidine (an Antihypertensive Drug Treatment on Oxidative Stress Markers in the Heart of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Syamimi Nik Yusoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology. Antihypertensive drug Clonidine action in ameliorating oxidative stress was not well studied. Therefore, this study investigate the effect of Clonidine on oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO in SHR and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups [SHR, SHR+Clonidine (SHR-C, SHR+L-NAME, SHR+Clonidine+L-NAME(SHRC+L-NAME]. Rats (SHRC were administered with Clonidine (0.5 mg kg−1 day−1 from 4 weeks to 28 weeks in drinking water and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1 from 16 weeks to 28 weeks to SHRC+L-NAME. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. At the end of 28 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and in their heart homogenate, oxidative stress parameters and NO was assessed. Clonidine treatment significantly enhanced the total antioxidant status (TAS (P<0.001 and reduced the thibarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.001 and protein carbonyl content (PCO (P<0.05. These data suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the hypertensive organ damage and Clonidine not only lowers the SBP but also ameliorated the oxidative stress in the heart of SHR and SHR+L-NAME.

  1. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  2. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Keller, Peter J; Brooks, Susan V; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/-) mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+) mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/-) mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  3. Oxidative stress in malaria and artemisinin combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavishe, Reginald A.; Koenderink, Jan B.; Alifrangis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in their mechanisms of action. This review gives a brief account of the oxidative stress and redox systems in malaria and discusses the context of antimalarial effectiveness of different ACTs compared with monotherapies of the partner drugs. A final account on the Pros and Cons of ACT as a strategy is discussed....

  4. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  5. The role of oxidative stress in corneal diseases and injuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 8 (2015), s. 893-900 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S Keywords : Diseased corneas * Immunohistochemistry * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.875, year: 2015

  6. Cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, Marco van der

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in epithelial cells and discussed the potential of these phenomena in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In the first three chapters we demonstrated that CS

  7. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  8. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Golalizadeh; Shobeiri; Ranjbar; Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were ...

  9. Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure in Nigerians. JI Anetor, SA Yaqub, GO Anetor, AC Nsonwu, FAA Adeniyi, S Fukushima. Abstract. Exposure to single chemicals and associated disorders in occupational environments has received significant attention. Understanding these events holds ...

  10. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and serum oxidative stress in patients with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total ofof 130 MDR-TB patients who were treated with moxifloxacin from October 2014 to October 2010 in Eastern Medical District of Linyi ...

  11. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  12. Effects of micronutrients on oxidative stress in HIV positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient supplementation was therefore shown to reduce oxidative stress in HIV positive patients on HAART and could possibly be very helpful as an adjunct in the treatment of this disease. Key Words: Antiretroviral, micronutrients, malondialdehyde, ART naïve, reactive oxygen species, supplementation.

  13. Oxidative Stress and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Scutiero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecologic diseases in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The women affected suffer from pelvic pain and infertility. The complex etiology is still unclear and it is based on three main theories: retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, and induction theory. Genetics and epigenetics also play a role in the development of endometriosis. Recent studies have put the attention on the role of oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidants, which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis causing a general inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Reactive oxygen species are intermediaries produced by normal oxygen metabolism and are inflammatory mediators known to modulate cell proliferation and to have deleterious effects. A systematic review was performed in order to clarify the different roles of oxidative stress and its role in the development of endometriosis. Several issues have been investigated: iron metabolism, oxidative stress markers (in the serum, peritoneal fluid, follicular fluid, peritoneal environment, ovarian cortex, and eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue, genes involved in oxidative stress, endometriosis-associated infertility, and cancer development.

  14. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nervous System Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M.; Dauch, Jacqueline R.; Keller, Peter J.; Brooks, Susan V.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1−/− mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1−/− mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging. PMID:23844146

  15. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/- mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/- mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/- mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  16. Resveratrol Ameliorates Experimental Alcoholic Liver Disease by Modulating Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Peiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of resveratrol in alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Alcohol was administered to healthy female rats starting from 6% (v/v and gradually increased to 20% (v/v by the fifth week. After 16 weeks of intervention, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] were analyzed using a chemistry analyzer, while hepatic antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, and caspase 3 activity were assessed using ELISA kits. Furthermore, hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels and mRNA levels of antioxidant and inflammation-related genes were determined using western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that resveratrol significantly attenuated alcohol-induced elevation of liver enzymes and improved hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Resveratrol also attenuated alcohol-induced CYP2E1 increase, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (caspase 3 activity. Moreover, genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were regulated by resveratrol supplementation. Taken together, the results suggested that resveratrol alleviated ALD through regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation, which was mediated at the transcriptional level. The data suggests that resveratrol is a promising natural therapeutic agent against chronic ALD.

  17. Screening of drought oxidative stress tolerance in Serbian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine and compare antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of leaves of six different melliferous plant species (Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, Euodia hupehensis, Tilia sp., Fraxinus sp.) from Serbia in order to evaluate their drought oxidative stress tolerance.

  18. Oxidative Stress in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by MYBPC3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies can result from mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins including MYBPC3, which encodes cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C. However, whether oxidative stress is augmented due to contractile dysfunction and cardiomyocyte damage in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies has not been elucidated. To determine whether oxidative stress markers were elevated in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies, a previously characterized 3-month-old mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM expressing a homozygous MYBPC3 mutation (cMyBP-C(t/t was used, compared to wild-type (WT mice. Echocardiography confirmed decreased percentage of fractional shortening in DCM versus WT hearts. Histopathological analysis indicated a significant increase in myocardial disarray and fibrosis while the second harmonic generation imaging revealed disorganized sarcomeric structure and myocyte damage in DCM hearts when compared to WT hearts. Intriguingly, DCM mouse heart homogenates had decreased glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio and increased protein carbonyl and lipid malondialdehyde content compared to WT heart homogenates, consistent with elevated oxidative stress. Importantly, a similar result was observed in human cardiomyopathy heart homogenate samples. These results were further supported by reduced signals for mitochondrial semiquinone radicals and Fe-S clusters in DCM mouse hearts measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, we demonstrate elevated oxidative stress in MYPBC3-mutated DCM mice, which may exacerbate the development of heart failure.

  19. No effect of melatonin on oxidative stress after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, B.; Klein, M.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2010-01-01

    melatonin and 21 patients received placebo during surgery. No significant differences were observed between the groups in the oxidative stress variables MDA, TAA, AA and DHA or in the inflammatory variable CRP (repeated-measures ANOVA, P > 0.05 for all variables). Conclusions Administration of 10 mg...

  20. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... Background: Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the ... others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the ..... Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart.

  1. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998

  2. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Oreochromis niloticus as early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-10

    Apr 10, 2018 ... stress biomarkers and sub-cellular components are the most commonly used ..... metal ions usually occur in low concentrations in the aquatic environment and ..... injured cells from a reduced to an oxidized state (Gul et al.,. 2004). ... ions through their gills, impaired respiration may result from chronic and ...

  3. Oxidative Stress -a Phenotypic Hallmark of Fanconi Anemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... major role in the pathogenesis of leukemia.prone diseases such as Fanconi anemia (FA) and ... Aim: To explore the oxidative stress state in children with DS and FA by ... and to evaluate of the effect of antioxidant treatment on these patients.

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  5. Oxidative stress status in congenital hypogonadism: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymana, C; Aydoğdu, A; Soykut, B; Erdem, O; Ibrahimov, T; Dinc, M; Meric, C; Basaran, Y; Sonmez, A; Azal, O

    2017-07-01

    Patients with hypogonadism are at increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of increased cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism is not clear. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate possible differences in oxidative stress conditions between patients with hypogonadism and healthy controls. In this study, 38 male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age: 21.7 ± 1.6 years) and 44 healthy male controls (mean age: 22.3 ± 1.4 years) with almost equal body mass index were enrolled. The demographic parameters, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total and free testosterone, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and oxidative stress parameters, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were compared between both groups. Compared to the healthy controls, triglycerides (p = .02), insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, CAT activities and MDA levels (p treatment-naïve patients with congenital hypogonadism had an increased status of oxidative stress.

  6. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal markers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Although, these abnormalities could be modulated with weight reduction; there is limitation in clinical studies that have addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating ...

  7. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM, cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions.

  8. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  9. Morin mitigates oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Morin is a flavanoid which exhibits potent antioxidant activity in various oxidative stress related diseases. The current study was attempted to scrutinize the preclinical bio-efficacy of morin on focal ischemia. Methods: The animal model of focal cerebral ischemic injury was done by midbrain carotid artery ...

  10. Quercetin reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boots, Agnes W.; Drent, Marjolein; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and low antioxidant levels are implicated in the aetiology of sarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease. Quercetin is a potent dietary antioxidant that also displays anti-inflammatory activities. Consequently, the aim is to examine the effect of quercetin supplementation on markers of

  11. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an ...

  12. Palladium induced oxidative stress and cell death in normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings clearly indicate that Pd induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and oxidative stress, mitochondrial and lysosomal injury and finally cell death. These effects are reversed by antioxidants and ROS scavengers, mitochondrial permeability transmission [1] pore sealing agent, ATP progenitor, and ...

  13. Protection by 6-aminonicotinamide against oxidative stress in cardiac cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofgaard, Johannes P; Sigurdardottir, Kristin Sigridur; Treiman, Marek

    2006-01-01

    necrosis following global ischemia in an isolated rat heart, apparently by limiting the oxidative injury component. We therefore explored the antioxidative potential of 6AN in a model using H9C2(2-1) rat cardiac myoblasts exposed to H2O2 stress. Dependent on the specific protocol, 6AN pretreatment for 6...

  14. Oxidative Stress Markers and Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, we evaluated the serum levels of oxidative stress markers and investigated genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase associated with autism. Materials and Methods: Forty-two children clinically diagnosed with ASD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria and a ...

  15. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, one of the most important of which is mercuric chloride (HgCl2). It has been shown to induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes through the generation of free radicals and alteration of the.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in sportsmen two hours after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the serum lipid profile and non-enzymatic antioxidants markers (serum uric acid and albumin) as well as lipid hydroperoxide (a marker of oxidative stress) in 39 sportsmen after 2 h of strenuous training exercise and also in 24 sedentary age-matched males who served as controls ...

  17. Oxidative-stress-mediated teratogenesis and the role of folate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Y.H.; Bergman, J.; Bakker, M.; Groen, H.; Wilffert, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the underlying teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Folate is indirectly involved in OS because of its role in the methylation steps in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the repair of OS-induced DNA damage. Our study was to explore the

  18. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we used a novel reducing agent, betamercaptoethanol (BME), for synthesis of graphene to avoid the use of toxic materials. To uncover the impacts of GO and rGO on human health, the antibacterial activity of two types of graphene-based material toward a bacterial model P. aeruginosa was studied and compared. The synthesized GO and rGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Further, to explain the antimicrobial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, we employed various assays, such as cell growth, cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, and DNA fragmentation. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples confirmed the transition of GO into graphene. Dynamic light-scattering analyses showed the average size among the two types of graphene materials. X-ray diffraction data validated the structure of graphene sheets, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene. Raman spectroscopy data indicated the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and the formation of graphene. The exposure of cells to GO and rGO induced the production of superoxide radical anion and loss of cell viability. Results suggest that the antibacterial activities are contributed to by loss of cell viability, induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation. The antibacterial activities of GO and rGO against P. aeruginosa were compared. The loss of P. aeruginosa viability increased in a dose- and

  19. Stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wolf, Oliver T; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported enhanced vigilance for threat-related information in response to acute stress. While it is known that acute stress modulates sensory systems in humans, its impact on olfaction and the olfactory detection of potential threats is less clear. Two psychophysical experiments examined, if acute stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 30) and Experiment 2 (N = 32) were randomly allocated to a control group or a stress group. Participants in the stress group underwent a purely psychosocial stressor (public mental arithmetic) in Experiment 1 and a stressor that combined a physically demanding task with social-evaluative threat in Experiment 2 (socially evaluated cold-pressor test). In both experiments, olfactory detection thresholds were repeatedly assessed by means of dynamic dilution olfactometry. Each threshold measurement consisted of three trials conducted using an ascending method of limits. Participants in the stress groups showed the expected changes in heart rate, salivary cortisol, and mood measures in response to stress. About 20 min after the stressor, participants in the stress groups could detect 2-mercaptoethanol at a lower concentration than participants in the corresponding control groups. Our results show that acute stress lowers the detection threshold for a malodor.

  20. Cytoprotective Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Fruit Extract against Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Reyhaneh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Adiban, Hasan; Kardan, Azin; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes complications accompanied with oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in different organs of human body because of the increased generation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant defense systems. In the meantime, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have key mediatory roles in the development and progression of diabetes complications. Therapeutic strategies have recently focused on preventing such diabetes-related abnormalities using different natural and chemical compounds. Pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with a broad-range of pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic effect. Methods In the present study, the cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of C. moschata fruit on hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model) were investigated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results The extract of C. moschata (50 μg/ml) excellently prevented oxidative and carbonyl stress markers, including hepatocyte lysis, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal damage, and cellular proteolysis. In addition, protein carbonylation was prevented by C. moschata in glyoxal-induced carbonyl stress. Conclusion It can be concluded that C. moschata has cytoprotective effects in oxidative stress and carbonyl stress models and this valuable vegetable can be considered as a suitable herbal product for the prevention of toxic subsequent of oxidative stress and carbonyl stress seen in chronic hyperglycemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bravo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  2. Oxidation and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in SCWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Castro, L.; Blazquez, F.

    2008-01-01

    SCWRs are high-temperature, high-pressure, water-cooled reactors that operate above the thermodynamic critical point of water (374 deg C, 22.1 MPa). The SCWR offers many advantages compared to state-of- the-art LWRs including the use of a single phase coolant with high enthalpy, the elimination of components such as steam generators and steam separators and dryers, a low coolant mass inventory resulting in smaller components, and a much higher efficiency ∼ 44% vs. 33% in current LWRs). In these systems high pressure (25 MPa) coolant enters the vessel at 280 deg C which is heated to about 500 deg C and delivered to a power conversion cycle. Supercritical water (SCW) exhibits properties significantly different from those of liquid water below the critical point. Supercritical water acting essentially as a non-polar dense gas with solvation properties approaching those of a low-polarity organic. In this conditions, can dissolve gases like oxygen to complete miscibility. Depending upon what species are present and how much oxygen is present in the solution can becomes a very aggressive oxidising environment. Most of the data on corrosion in supercritical water are from fossil plant or oxidation waste disposal systems. However there is very limited data on corrosion in low conductivity de-aerated SCW and less on stress corrosion cracking behaviour under operating conditions foreseen for SCWR. Candidate materials for structural components are materials for high temperatures and include ferritic-martensitic alloys; oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic/martensitic steels and strengthened steels by precipitation and for lower temperatures the austenitic stainless steels, such as 304 and 316, used in the LWR. Low swelling austenitic steels are also of high interest for areas with high dpa and high temperature. A review of the available information on corrosion and stress corrosion behaviour of different types of stainless steels in supercritical water at high

  3. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  4. A new approach to oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling during labour in healthy mothers and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Florido, Jesus; Kajarabille, Naroa; Prados, Sonia; de Paco, Catalina; Ocon, Olga; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Ochoa, Julio J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time and simultaneously the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced during the delivery in healthy mothers and their neonates. 56 mothers with normal gestational course and spontaneous delivery were selected. Blood samples were taken from mother (before and after delivery) both from vein and artery of umbilical cord. Lower antioxidant enzymes activities were observed in neonates compared with their mothers and lower oxidative stress in umbilical cord artery with respect to vein. There was an overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the mother, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, and, in addition, PGE2 was also increased. Neonates showed lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and higher values of sTNF-RII and PGE2 in comparison with their mothers. Parturition increases oxidative damage in the mother, although the indicators of oxidative damage were lower in umbilical cord artery with respect to umbilical vein. The overexpression of inflammatory cytokines reveals that fetus suffers its own inflammatory process during parturition.

  5. A New Approach to Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Signaling during Labour in Healthy Mothers and Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Díaz-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time and simultaneously the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced during the delivery in healthy mothers and their neonates. 56 mothers with normal gestational course and spontaneous delivery were selected. Blood samples were taken from mother (before and after delivery both from vein and artery of umbilical cord. Lower antioxidant enzymes activities were observed in neonates compared with their mothers and lower oxidative stress in umbilical cord artery with respect to vein. There was an overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the mother, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, and, in addition, PGE2 was also increased. Neonates showed lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and higher values of sTNF-RII and PGE2 in comparison with their mothers. Parturition increases oxidative damage in the mother, although the indicators of oxidative damage were lower in umbilical cord artery with respect to umbilical vein. The overexpression of inflammatory cytokines reveals that fetus suffers its own inflammatory process during parturition.

  6. Interferon-gamma regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, Carmen; Penkowa, Milena; Sáez-Torres, Irene

    2002-01-01

    disease eliciting secretion of proinflammatory cytokines like IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, and it has been suggested that cytokine-induced oxidative stress could have a role in EAE neuropathology. However, the individual roles of these and other cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease are still uncertain....... Here we analyze the role of IFN-gamma during EAE by using both IFN-gamma receptor-knockout (IFN-gamma R(-/-)) and wild-type mice, both strains immunized with peptide 40-55 from rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The levels of oxidative stress were determined through the analysis...... of immunoreactivity for inducible NO synthase, nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde, as well as through the expression of the tissue-protective antioxidant factors metallothionein I+II (MT-I+II). We also examined the number of cells undergoing apoptosis as judged by using the TUNEL technique. The levels of oxidative...

  7. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Kilinç

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Alopecia areata (AA is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidant capacity (TOC in patient and control group serum samples. Results:The TAC values of the patient group were found to be higher than the control group (p=0.036. A nonsignificant difference was found between the two groups statistically bordered by TOC (p=0.058. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OSI (p=0.270.

  8. Oxidative/nitrosative stress and antidepressants: targets for novel antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Soo-Jung; Han, Changsu; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2013-10-01

    The brain is an organ predisposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. This is especially true in the case of aging as well as several neurodegenerative diseases. Under such circumstances, a decline in the normal antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to an increase in the vulnerability of the brain to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage. Highly reactive oxygen/nitrogen species damage lipids, proteins, and mitochondrial and neuronal genes. Unless antioxidant defenses react appropriately to damage inflicted by radicals, neurons may experience microalteration, microdysfunction, and degeneration. We reviewed how oxidative and nitrosative stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and reviewed the clinical implications of various antioxidants as future targets for antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: Oxidative Stress and Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velid Unsal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world, and it is influenced by agents such as DEN, 2-AAF, phenobarbital, alcohol, aflatoxin B1 metabolite or hepatitis viruses (B and C. Oxidative stress is becoming recognized as a key factor in the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species can play a leading role in initiation and promotion of hepatic carcinogenesis. The metabolites of DEN Diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediate the binding of tumour promoters by covalently binding to the DNA with one or two oxidation-providing electrons. 2-AAF is the inducer of DEN, and it is involved in tumour formation in the bladder and liver. Reactive Oxygen species (ROS; carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and enzymes, such as affect all important structures. Additionally, an excessive amount of ROS is highly toxic to cells. Antioxidants are protects against ROS, toxic substances, carcinogens. This review focuses on the literature on studies of Hepatic Carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy.

  10. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-09-30

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  11. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Aging and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biologic aging is a process, and oxidative stress theory, which is one of the most accepted biological theories for aging, states that oxidative stress causes cumulative damage to mitochondrial DNA resulting in cellular senescence. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major risk factor is aging. Although the exact neuronal lesion mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia, are not yet known, most recent studies suggest oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics’ role in the process.Objective: Literature review on the role of oxidative stress’ role in aging and dementia.Methods: Literature review of selected arti-cles and books deemed relevant by the authors, supplemented by Medline/Pubmed database search using combinations of the following key-words: “oxidative stress”, “de-mentia”, “aging” and “pathogenesis”, published between 1950 and 2013. References of the selected articles and books were also considered.Results: In the last five years new research has been undertaken that enlightens the relation between oxidative stress and aging. One of the considered hypotheses states that during aging, the homeostatic regulation of biogenesis, dynamics and autophagic turnover of mitochondria disturbs their functioning, resulting in cellular senescence. Consequently, the oxidative burden may reach a critical threshold above which apoptosis is triggered, leading to irreversible mitochondrial derangement and cellular death. Although the exact neuronal lesion mechanisms underlying dementias are not known, multiple studies have consistently found increased oxidative damage in brain of patients with Alzheimer disease and recent data suggests involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in dementia processes, such as in aging.Conclusions: Most recent studies suggest the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics’ in aging and dementia, either directly or

  12. Asymmetrical cross-talk between the endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress caused by dextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Haas, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses are implicated in premature cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of the interplay between the oxidative and ER stresses to facilitate the development of therapeutic agents that can ameliorate these stresses. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with varying concentrations of dextrose in the presence or absence of three antioxidants (alpha tocopherol, ascorbate and ebselen) and two ER stress modifiers (ERSMs) (4-phenylbutyrate and taurodeoxycholic acid). ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence. The SO generation was increased with increasing concentrations of dextrose. The ER stress was increased with both low (0 and 2.75 mM) and high (13.75 and 27.5 mM) concentrations of dextrose. The antioxidants inhibited the dextrose induced SO production while in high concentrations they aggravated ER stress. The ERSM reduced ER stress and potentiated the efficacy of the three antioxidants. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress was not associated with increased SO generation. Time course experiments with a high concentration of dextrose or by overexpressing glucose transporter one in endothelial cells revealed that dextrose induced SO generation undergoes adaptive down regulation within 2 h while the ER stress is sustained throughout 72 h of observation. The nature of the cross talk between oxidative stress and ER stress induced by dextrose may explain the failure of antioxidant therapy in reducing diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of drinking spa therapy on oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Giampaolo, C; Filippelli, A

    2012-01-01

    Data of literature have shown the correlation between oxidative stress and some diseases of gastrointestinal and metabolic relevance such as diabetes mellitus, gastric cancer, gastritis, etc.. Studies have also shown that sulfurous mineral water may be useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of our research was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of sulphurous mineral water, administered by drinking method, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease with a high social and economic impact. The study has been performed on 57 subjects (25% women and 75% males; mean age: 60 ± 1.1 years; BMI: 27 ± 0.4) affected by type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The subjects were divided in four groups: A (subjected to glucose-lowering diet therapy), B (subjected to antihyperglycaemic therapy), C (exposed to glucose-lowering diet therapy + drinking SPA therapy) and D (exposed to antihyperglycaemic therapy + drinking SPA therapy). Drinking SPA treatment was effected with sulphurous mineral water from Terme of Telese SpA (Benevento - Italy) and the pharmacological treatment provided the use of hypoglycemic drugs normally used in diabetic disease. After two weeks of therapy with treatments considered were evaluated fasting blood glycaemia and plasma concentration of ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) (d-ROMs test-Diacron International srl®-Grosseto - Italy). The results of our study have shown a significant (pfasting blood glycaemia when to hypoglycemic drugs or diet therapy was associated the sulphurous drinking SPA therapy. It was also observed a reduction of plasma ROMs levels, significant (p water, especially in combination with antidiabetic drug treatment, may be useful in type 2 diabetes mellitus for the improvement redox state of the organism.

  14. The effects of anesthetic agents on oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakan, Selvinaz; Düzgüner, Vesile

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the instability between antioxidant defense of the body and the production of free radical that causes peroxydation on the lipid layer. Free radicals are reactive oxygen species that are produced in the course of normal metabolisms of aerobe organisms and they may cause disorders in cell structure and organelles by interacting macromolecules, like lipid, protein, nucleic acids. Therefore, they may cause cardiovascular, immune system, liver, kidney illnesses and many other illnesses like cancer, aging, cataract, diabetes. It is known that many drugs used for the purpose of anesthetizing may cause lipid peroxidation in organism. For these reasons, determining the Oxidative stress index of anaesthetic stress chosen in the ones that are exposed to long term anaesthetic agents and anaesthesia appliccations, is so substantial.

  15. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  16. Oxidative stress in normal hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Azin; Kalantari, Heybatullah; Lorestani, Marzieh Zeinvand; Shirzad, Reza; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-04-01

    Leukemia is developed following the abnormal proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells in the blood when hematopoietic stem cells lose the ability to turn into mature cells at different stages of maturation and differentiation. Leukemia initiating cells are specifically dependent upon the suppression of oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow (BM) environment to be able to start their activities. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (2000-2017) of English-language literature using the terms 'oxidative stress,' 'reactive oxygen species,' 'hematopoietic stem cell,' and 'leukemia.' The generation and degradation of free radicals is a main component of the metabolism in aerobic organisms. A certain level of ROS is required for proper cellular function, but values outside this range will result in oxidative stress (OS). Long-term overactivity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has harmful effects on the function of cells and their vital macromolecules, including the transformation of proteins into autoantigens and increased degradation of protein/DNA, which eventually leads to the change in pathways involved in the development of cancer and several other disorders. According to the metabolic disorders of cancer, the relationship between OS changes, the viability of cancer cells, and their response to chemotherapeutic agents affecting this pathway are undeniable. Recently, studies have been conducted to determine the effect of herbal agents and cancer chemotherapy drugs on oxidative stress pathways. By emphasizing the role of oxidative stress on stem cells in the incidence of leukemia, this paper attempts to state and summarize this subject. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in human hepatoma cells exposed to stavudine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsor, Leonard W.; Kovacevic, Miro; Goldstein, Mark; Leitner, Heather M.; Lewis, William; Day, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is linked to altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and subsequent disruption of cellular energetics. This manifests clinically as elevated concentrations of lactate in plasma. The mechanism(s) underlying how the changes in mtDNA replication lead to lactic acidosis remains unclear. It is hypothesized that mitochondrial oxidative stress links the changes in mtDNA replication to mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing NRTIs toxicity. To test this hypothesis, changes in mitochondrial function, mtDNA amplification efficiency, and oxidative stress were assessed in HepG2-cultured human hepatoblasts treated with the NRTI stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-deoxythymidine or d4T) for 48 h. d4T produced significant mitochondrial dysfunction with a 1.5-fold increase in cellular lactate to pyruvate ratios. In addition, d4T caused a dose-dependent decrease in mtDNA amplification and a correlative increase in abundance of markers of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, MnTBAP, a catalytic antioxidant, ameliorated or reversed d4T-induced changes in cell injury, energetics, mtDNA amplification, and mitochondrial oxidative stress. In conclusion, d4T treatment elevates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhances mitochondrial oxidative stress, and contributes mechanistically to NRTI-induced toxicity. These deleterious events may be potentiated in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection itself, coinfection (e.g., viral hepatitis), aging, substance, and alcohol use

  18. RAGE polymorphisms and oxidative stress levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Maria; Saltiki, Katerina; Mantzou, Emily; Loukari, Eleni; Philippou, Georgios; Terzidis, Konstantinos; Lili, Kiriaki; Stavrianos, Charalampos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Alevizaki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel, we studied oxidative stress levels. A total of 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n = 96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n = 109) and controls (n = 95). For a rough evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum were measured. The -429T>C AluI and -374T>A MfeI polymorphisms of RAGE were studied in genomic DNA. Significant association of the RAGE system with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found only with regard to the prevalence of the -429T>C, but not with -374T>A polymorphism. The levels of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients under treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that an oxidative stress cut-off value of 590 μmol/L is associated with an increased risk of progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; this risk is further increased in carriers of the RAGE -429T>C polymorphism. Our findings indicate that both examined risk factors may be implicated in the occurrence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this covers only a fraction of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Glutamine prevents oxidative stress in a model of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Gilmara Pandolfo; Carvalhal, Gustavo Franco; Marroni, Norma Possa; Licks, Francielli; Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; da Silva, Vinícius Duval; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi

    2017-07-07

    To evaluate the protective effects of glutamine in a model of portal hypertension (PH) induced by partial portal vein ligation (PPVL). Male Wistar rats were housed in a controlled environment and were allowed access to food and water ad libitum . Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) control group (SO) - rats underwent exploratory laparotomy; (2) control + glutamine group (SO + G) - rats were subjected to laparotomy and were treated intraperitoneally with glutamine; (3) portal hypertension group (PPVL) - rats were subjected to PPVL; and (4) PPVL + glutamine group (PPVL + G) - rats were treated intraperitoneally with glutamine for seven days. Local injuries were determined by evaluating intestinal segments for oxidative stress using lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) after PPVL. Lipid peroxidation of the membrane was increased in the animals subjected to PH ( P 0.05). The activity of the antioxidant enzyme GTx was decreased in the gut of animals subjected to PH compared with that in the control group of animals not subjected to PH ( P 0.05). At least 10 random, non-overlapping images of each histological slide with 200 × magnification (44 pixel = 1 μm) were captured. The sum means of all areas, of each group were calculated. The mean areas of eNOS staining for both of the control groups were similar. The PPVL group showed the largest area of staining for eNOS. The PPVL + G group had the second highest amount of staining, but the mean value was much lower than that of the PPVL group ( P < 0.01). For iNOS, the control (SO) and control + G (SO + G) groups showed similar areas of staining. The PPVL group contained the largest area of iNOS staining, followed by the PPVL + G group; however, this area was significantly smaller than that of the group that underwent PH without glutamine ( P < 0.01). Treatment with

  20. Thiamine Deficiency and Neurodegeneration: the Interplay Among Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dexiang; Ke, Zunji; Luo, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient and indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism due to its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. Humans must obtain thiamine from their diet since it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can result from inadequate intake, increased requirement, excessive deletion, and chronic alcohol consumption. TD affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems. In the brain, TD causes a cascade of events including mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, which are commonly observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Thiamine metabolites may serve as promising biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, and thiamine supplementations exhibit therapeutic potential for patients of some neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental TD has been used to model aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, to date, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TD-induced neurodegeneration are not clear. Recent research evidence indicates that TD causes oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy in the brain, which are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy in TD-mediated neurodegeneration. We propose that it is the interplay of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy that contributes to TD-mediated neurodegeneration.

  1. Oxidative stress under ambient and physiological oxygen tension in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Cuddapah, Suresh; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) levels range from 2–9% in vivo. However, cell culture experiments are performed at atmospheric O2 levels (21%). Oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells cultured at higher than physiological levels is implicated in multitude of deleterious effects including DNA damage, genomic instability and senescence. In addition, oxidative stress activates redox sensitive transcription factors related to inflammatory signaling and apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, several chromatin-modifying enzymes are affected by ROS, potentially impacting epigenetic regulation of gene expression. While primary cells are cultured at lower O2 levels due to their inability to grow at higher O2, the immortalized cells, which display no such apparent growth difficulties, are typically cultured at 21% O2. This review will provide an overview of issues associated with increased oxygen levels in in vitro cell culture and point out the benefits of using lower levels of oxygen tension even for immortalized cells. PMID:27034917

  2. Inhibitory effects of simvastatin on oxidative stress of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ying; Liu Xiaomin; Wang Yueying; Sun Yanming; Luan Ying

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of simvastatin on oxidative stress and blood lipid metabolism of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 168 diabetic patients were randomly divided into simvastatin group and placebo group. The serum levels of SOD and MDA, as well as the lipid profile in patients were observed before and after 12 weeks treatment, respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of SOD in diabetic patients before treatment were significantly lower, and whereas level of MDA was higher than that of controls (P 0.05). The serum levels of HDL-C in patients after treatment with simvastatin were higher, and while the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C and VLDL-C were significantly lower than that of before the treatment (P 0.05). Therefore, the simvastatin could significantly inhibit oxidative stress provoked by hyperglycemia and had beneficial effects on the lipid homeostasis of diabetic patients. (authors)

  3. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture

  4. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  5. Epidemiology and Impact on Performance of Lower Extremity Stress Injuries in Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Rogowski, Joseph P; Stotts, Jeff; Samani, Marisa J; Sikka, Robby; Bedi, Asheesh

    Professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during both regular-season and off-season training. Little is known about the incidence of lower extremity bony stress injuries and their impact on return to play and performance in these athletes. Stress injuries of the lower extremity will have significant impact on performance. Case series. Level 4. All bony stress injuries from 2005 to 2015 were identified from the NBA. Number of games missed due to injury and performance statistics were collected from 2 years prior to injury to 2 years after the injury. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of injury for players who returned to sport. A total of 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries involving 75 NBA players (mean age, 25.4 ± 4.1 years) were identified. Fifty-five percent (42/76) involved the foot, and most injuries occurred during the regular season (82.9%, 63/76), with half occurring within the first 6 weeks. Among players who sustained a fifth metatarsal stress fracture, 42.9% were unable to return to professional play. Players who sustained stress injuries had reduced play performance, specifically related to number of games played ( P = 0.014) and number of steals per game ( P = 0.004). Players who had surgery had significantly better performance at 2 years than those who were managed nonoperatively, independent of the type of injury (β = 4.561; 95% CI, 1.255-7.868). Lower extremity bony stress injuries may significantly affect both short- and long-term player performance and career length. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics compared with those treated using conservative methods. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics.

  6. Oxidative stress-induced metabolic changes in mouse C2C12 myotubes studied with high-resolution 13C, 1H, and 31P NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O

    2010-01-01

    In this study, stress in relation to slaughter was investigated in a model system by the use of (13)C, (1)H, and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for elucidating changes in the metabolites in C2C12 myotubes exposed to H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Oxidative stress resulted in lower...... to lower levels of the unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were identified in the (1)H spectra after stress exposure. These data indicate an increase in de novo synthesis of alanine, concomitant with a release of lactate from the myotubes to the medium at oxidative stress conditions. The changes in the metabolite...

  7. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of stress fractures in the lower extremity in runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahanov L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leamor Kahanov,1 Lindsey E Eberman,2 Kenneth E Games,2 Mitch Wasik2 1College of Health Science, Misericordia University, Dallas, PA, USA; 2Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, USA Abstract: Stress fractures account for between 1% and 20% of athletic injuries, with 80% of stress fractures in the lower extremity. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities such as running, military and aerobic exercise and therefore require practitioner expertise in diagnosis and management. Accurate diagnosis for stress fractures is dependent on the anatomical area. Anatomical regions such as the pelvis, sacrum, and metatarsals offer challenges due to difficulty differentiating pathologies with common symptoms. Special tests and treatment regimes, however, are similar among most stress fractures with resolution between 4 weeks to a year. The most difficult aspect of stress fracture treatment entails mitigating internal and external risk factors. Practitioners should address ongoing risk factors to minimize recurrence. Keywords: medial tibial stress syndrome, stress injury, nonunion stress fracture

  8. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-01-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  9. Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Trulsson, Lena M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Timmerman, Harro M.; Franzen, Lennart E.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Soderholm, Johan D.; Sandstrom, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress,

  10. Live-cell Imaging Approaches for the Investigation of Xenobiotic-Induced Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Oxidant stress is arguably a universal feature in toxicology. Research studies on the role of oxidant stress induced by xenobiotic exposures have typically relied on the identification of damaged biomolecules using a variety of conventional biochemical and molecular t...

  11. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aortic stiffening with age: the role of smooth muscle cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Age-related aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although oxidative stress is implicated in aortic stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unelucidated. Here, we examined the source of oxidative stress in aging and i...

  12. Lower limb stress fractures in sport: Optimising their management and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Stress fractures in sport are becoming increasing more common, comprising up to 10% of all of sporting injuries. Around 90% of such injuries are located in the lower limb. This articles aims to define the optimal management of lower limb stress fractures in the athlete, with a view to maximise return rates and minimise return times to sport. Treatment planning of this condition is specific to the location of the injury. However, there remains a clear division of stress fractures by “high” and “low” risk. “Low risk” stress fractures are those with a low probability of fracture propagation, delayed union, or non-union, and so can be managed reliably with rest and exercise limitation. These include stress fractures of the Postero-Medial Tibial Diaphysis, Metatarsal Shafts, Distal Fibula, Medial Femoral Neck, Femoral Shaft and Calcaneus. “High risk” stress fractures, in contrast, have increased rates of fracture propagation, displacement, delayed and non-union, and so require immediate cessation of activity, with orthopaedic referral, to assess the need for surgical intervention. These include stress fractures of the Anterior Tibial Diaphysis, Fifth Metatarsal Base, Medial Malleolus, Lateral Femoral Neck, Tarsal Navicular and Great Toe Sesamoids. In order to establish the optimal methods for managing these injuries, we present and review the current evidence which guides the treatment of stress fractures in athletes. From this, we note an increased role for surgical management of certain high risk stress fractures to improve return times and rates to sport. Following this, key recommendations are provided for the management of the common stress fracture types seen in the athlete. Five case reports are also presented to illustrate the application of sport-focussed lower limb stress fracture treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:28361017

  13. Lower limb stress fractures in sport: Optimising their management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-03-18

    Stress fractures in sport are becoming increasing more common, comprising up to 10% of all of sporting injuries. Around 90% of such injuries are located in the lower limb. This articles aims to define the optimal management of lower limb stress fractures in the athlete, with a view to maximise return rates and minimise return times to sport. Treatment planning of this condition is specific to the location of the injury. However, there remains a clear division of stress fractures by "high" and "low" risk. "Low risk" stress fractures are those with a low probability of fracture propagation, delayed union, or non-union, and so can be managed reliably with rest and exercise limitation. These include stress fractures of the Postero-Medial Tibial Diaphysis, Metatarsal Shafts, Distal Fibula, Medial Femoral Neck, Femoral Shaft and Calcaneus. "High risk" stress fractures, in contrast, have increased rates of fracture propagation, displacement, delayed and non-union, and so require immediate cessation of activity, with orthopaedic referral, to assess the need for surgical intervention. These include stress fractures of the Anterior Tibial Diaphysis, Fifth Metatarsal Base, Medial Malleolus, Lateral Femoral Neck, Tarsal Navicular and Great Toe Sesamoids. In order to establish the optimal methods for managing these injuries, we present and review the current evidence which guides the treatment of stress fractures in athletes. From this, we note an increased role for surgical management of certain high risk stress fractures to improve return times and rates to sport. Following this, key recommendations are provided for the management of the common stress fracture types seen in the athlete. Five case reports are also presented to illustrate the application of sport-focussed lower limb stress fracture treatment in the clinical setting.

  14. Effect of modest caloric restriction on oxidative stress in women, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, Maciej S; Hongu, Nobuko; Acra, Sari; Wang, Li; Warolin, Joshua; Roberts, L Jackson

    2012-01-01

    It is not established to what extent caloric intake must be reduced to lower oxidative stress in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term, moderate caloric restriction on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese premenopausal women. Randomized trial comparison of 25% caloric restriction (CR) or control diet in 40 overweight or obese women (body mass index 32±5.8 kg/m(2)) observed for 28 days and followed for the next 90 days. Weight, anthropometry, validated markers of oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostane) and inflammation (C-reactive protein), adipokines, hormones, lipids, interleukins, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, during the intervention, and at follow-up. Baseline median F(2)-isoprostane concentration (57.0, IQR = 40.5-79.5) in the CR group was 1.75-fold above average range for normal weight women (32.5 pg/ml). After starting of the caloric restriction diet, F(2)-isoprostane levels fell rapidly in the CR group, reaching statistical difference from the control group by day 5 (median 33.5, IQR = 26.0-48.0, Prestriction diet. Three months after resuming a habitual diet, concentrations of F(2)-isoprostane returned to baseline elevated levels in ∼80% of the women. Oxidative stress can be rapidly reduced and sustained through a modest reduction in caloric intake suggesting potential health benefits in overweight and obese women. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00808275.

  15. Association between Diastolic Dysfunction with Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Females ob/ob Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Michelle; Conti, Filipe F.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; dos Santos, Fernando; Machi, Jacqueline F.; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce E.; Rodrigues, Bruno; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate autonomic and cardiovascular function, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in ob/ob female mice. Methods: Metabolic parameters, cardiac function, arterial pressure (AP), autonomic, hormonal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in 12-weeks female wild-type (WT group) and ob/ob mice (OB group). Results: OB animals showed increased body weight, blood glucose, and triglyceride levels, along with glucose intolerance, when compared to WT animals. Ejection fraction (EF) and AP were similar between groups; however, the OB group presented diastolic dysfunction, as well as an impairment on myocardial performance index. Moreover, the OB group exhibited important autonomic dysfunction and baroreflex sensitivity impairment, when compared to WT group. OB group showed increased Angiotensin II levels in heart and renal tissues; decreased adiponectin and increased inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and spleen. Additionally, OB mice presented a higher damage to proteins and lipoperoxidation and lower activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney and heart. Correlations were found between autonomic dysfunction with angiotensin II and inflammatory mediators, as well as between inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusions: Our results showed that female adult ob/ob mice presented discrete diastolic dysfunction accompanied by autonomic disorder, which is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in these animals. PMID:28878683

  16. Association between Diastolic Dysfunction with Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Females ob/ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sartori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate autonomic and cardiovascular function, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in ob/ob female mice.Methods: Metabolic parameters, cardiac function, arterial pressure (AP, autonomic, hormonal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in 12-weeks female wild-type (WT group and ob/ob mice (OB group.Results: OB animals showed increased body weight, blood glucose, and triglyceride levels, along with glucose intolerance, when compared to WT animals. Ejection fraction (EF and AP were similar between groups; however, the OB group presented diastolic dysfunction, as well as an impairment on myocardial performance index. Moreover, the OB group exhibited important autonomic dysfunction and baroreflex sensitivity impairment, when compared to WT group. OB group showed increased Angiotensin II levels in heart and renal tissues; decreased adiponectin and increased inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and spleen. Additionally, OB mice presented a higher damage to proteins and lipoperoxidation and lower activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney and heart. Correlations were found between autonomic dysfunction with angiotensin II and inflammatory mediators, as well as between inflammation and oxidative stress.Conclusions: Our results showed that female adult ob/ob mice presented discrete diastolic dysfunction accompanied by autonomic disorder, which is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in these animals.

  17. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative Stress and Methods for Its Correction in Patients with Acute Coronary Circulatory Disorders During Perioperative Direct Myocardial Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Chumakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of the antioxidant and cardioprotector mexicor on oxidative stress in patients with acute coronary circulatory disorders (ACCD during perioperative direct myocardial revascularization. Subjects and methods. The study included 33 patients with ACCD who had undergone coronary bypass surgery. Two groups (a study group and a control one were formed. Prior to surgery, all the patients received the maximum doses of antianginal and antihypertensive drugs. The study group patients additionally took mexicor. All patients were operated on under extracorporeal circulation and moderate hypothermia. Lipid peroxidation (LPO indices were estimated via measurements of the serum levels of dienic conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, and the degree of serum lipid oxidability. The serum antioxidative system (AOS was judged from the concentration of а-tocopherol and cerulo-plasmin. The oxidative stress coefficient K, an integral index, was calculated to evaluate LPO-AOS imbalance. Results. High oxidative stress was found to be detectable in patients with ACCD. Mexicor lowers oxidative stress, diminishes LPO-AOS imbalance, improves oxygen balance and cardiac contractility, and reduces the number of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Conclusion. Mexicor diminishes oxidative stress in patients with ACCD in the perioperative period of coronary bypass surgery. Mexicor-induced stabilization of LPO positively affects better oxygen balance and cardiac contractility, thus reducing the number of perioperative complications. Key words: oxidative stress, dienic conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, а-tocopherol, ceruloplasmin, coronary bypass, acute coronary circulatory disorder, hemodynamics.

  19. Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh [Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad@TUMS.Ac.Ir [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are generated as the natural byproduct of normal oxygen metabolism, they can create oxidative damage via interaction with bio-molecules. The role of oxidative stress as a remarkable upstream part is frequently reported in the signaling cascade of inflammation as well as chemo attractant production. Even though hydrogen peroxide can control cell signaling and stimulate cell proliferation at low levels, in higher concentrations it can initiate apoptosis and in very high levels may create necrosis. So far, the role of ROS in cellular damage and death is well documented with implicating in a broad range of degenerative alterations e.g. carcinogenesis, aging and other oxidative stress related diseases (OSRDs). Reversely, it is cleared that antioxidants are potentially able to suppress (at least in part) the immune system and to enhance the normal cellular protective responses to tissue damage. In this review, we aimed to provide insights on diverse OSRDs, which are correlated with the concept of oxidative stress as well as its cellular effects that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Resveratrol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, nebivolol and carvedilol, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and plant-derived drugs (alone or combined) are the potential medicines that can be used to control OSRD.

  20. In vitro potential cytogenetic and oxidative stress effects of roxithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mehmet; Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan B

    2017-10-01

    Macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin was evaluated in terms of its genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects. For this purpose; 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL concentrations of roxithromycin were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and treated to human peripheral blood lymphocytes for two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). In chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests, roxithromycin did not show genotoxic effect. But it induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) at the highest concentration (200 μg/mL) for the 24-h treatment period and at all concentrations (except 25 μg/mL) for the 48-h treatment period. Looking at cytotoxic effect of roxithromycin, statistically insignificant decreases on mitotic index and proliferation index were observed. Roxithromycin decreased nuclear division index (NDI) at highest two concentrations (100 and 200 μg/mL) for the 24-h treatment period and at all concentrations (expect 25 μg/mL) for the 48-h treatment period. Total oxidant values, total antioxidant values and oxidative stress index did not change with roxithromycin treatment. Eventually, roxithromycin did not have genotoxic and oxidative stress effects in human-cultured lymphocytes.

  1. Oxidative stress in resuscitation and in ventilation of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, E; Pellegrino, S; D'Arrigo, S; Barberi, I; Reiter, R J

    2009-12-01

    The lungs of newborns are especially prone to oxidative damage induced by both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Yet, these infants are often 1) exposed to high oxygen concentrations, 2) have infections or inflammation, 3) have reduced antioxidant defense, and 4) have high free iron levels which enhance toxic radical generation. Oxidative stress has been postulated to be implicated in several newborn conditions with the phrase "oxygen radical diseases of neonatology" having been coined. There is, however, reason to believe that oxidative stress is increased more when resuscitation is performed with pure oxygen compared with ambient air and that the most effective ventilatory strategy is the avoidance of mechanical ventilation with the use of nasopharyngeal continuous positive airway pressure whenever possible. Multiple ventilation strategies have been attempted to reduce injury and improve outcomes in newborn infants. In this review, the authors summarise the scientific evidence concerning oxidative stress as it relates to resuscitation in the delivery room and to the various modalities of ventilation.

  2. Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are generated as the natural byproduct of normal oxygen metabolism, they can create oxidative damage via interaction with bio-molecules. The role of oxidative stress as a remarkable upstream part is frequently reported in the signaling cascade of inflammation as well as chemo attractant production. Even though hydrogen peroxide can control cell signaling and stimulate cell proliferation at low levels, in higher concentrations it can initiate apoptosis and in very high levels may create necrosis. So far, the role of ROS in cellular damage and death is well documented with implicating in a broad range of degenerative alterations e.g. carcinogenesis, aging and other oxidative stress related diseases (OSRDs). Reversely, it is cleared that antioxidants are potentially able to suppress (at least in part) the immune system and to enhance the normal cellular protective responses to tissue damage. In this review, we aimed to provide insights on diverse OSRDs, which are correlated with the concept of oxidative stress as well as its cellular effects that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Resveratrol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, nebivolol and carvedilol, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and plant-derived drugs (alone or combined) are the potential medicines that can be used to control OSRD

  3. Reproductive effort affects oxidative status and stress in an Antarctic penguin species: An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Colominas-Ciuró

    Full Text Available The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE, and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE. We examined how oxidative status in blood plasma (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs, and total antioxidant capacity, OXY and stress (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, H/L responded to a lower production of offspring total biomass. Our nest manipulation showed significant differences in offspring total biomass, which was lower in the LRE group. As predicted, the LRE group had higher antioxidant capacity than individuals in the CRE group. We have also found, although marginally significant, interactions between sex and treatment in the three variables analysed. Females had higher OXY, lower ROMs and lower H/L ratio when rearing one chick, whereas males did so when rearing two except for OXY which was high regardless of treatment. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the H/L ratio and OXY in females. Finally, we have found a negative and significant relationship between the duration of the experiment and OXY and ROMs and positive with H/L ratio which suggests that indeed breeding penguins are paying an effort in physiological terms in relation to the duration of the chick rearing. In conclusion, a reduction of the reproductive effort decreased oxidative stress in this long-lived bird meaning that a link exists between breeding effort and oxidative

  4. Reproductive effort affects oxidative status and stress in an Antarctic penguin species: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Santos, Mercedes; Coria, Néstor; Barbosa, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE), and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE). We examined how oxidative status in blood plasma (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs, and total antioxidant capacity, OXY) and stress (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, H/L) responded to a lower production of offspring total biomass. Our nest manipulation showed significant differences in offspring total biomass, which was lower in the LRE group. As predicted, the LRE group had higher antioxidant capacity than individuals in the CRE group. We have also found, although marginally significant, interactions between sex and treatment in the three variables analysed. Females had higher OXY, lower ROMs and lower H/L ratio when rearing one chick, whereas males did so when rearing two except for OXY which was high regardless of treatment. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the H/L ratio and OXY in females. Finally, we have found a negative and significant relationship between the duration of the experiment and OXY and ROMs and positive with H/L ratio which suggests that indeed breeding penguins are paying an effort in physiological terms in relation to the duration of the chick rearing. In conclusion, a reduction of the reproductive effort decreased oxidative stress in this long-lived bird meaning that a link exists between breeding effort and oxidative stress. However

  5. Implication of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia G.; López de Pablo, Angel L.; González, M. Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M.

    2018-01-01

    Lifestyle and genetic background are well known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A third contributing factor is suboptimal fetal development, due to nutrient or oxygen deprivation, placental insufficiency, or exposure to toxic substances. The fetus adapts to adverse intrauterine conditions to ensure survival; the immediate consequence is low birth weight (LBW) and the long-term effect is an increased susceptibility to develop CVD in adult life. This process is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming of CVD. The influence of fetal life for the future cardiovascular health of the individual has been evidenced by numerous epidemiologic studies in populations suffering from starvation during intrauterine life. Furthermore, experimental animal models have provided support and enabled exploring the underlying mechanisms. Oxidative stress seems to play a central role in fetal programming of CVD, both in the response of the feto-placental unit to the suboptimal intrauterine environment and in the alterations of physiologic systems of cardiovascular control, ultimately leading to disease. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the alterations in oxidative balance in response to fetal stress factors covering two aspects. Firstly, the evidence from human studies of the implication of oxidative stress in LBW induced by suboptimal conditions during intrauterine life, emphasizing the role of the placenta. In the second part we summarize data on specific redox alterations in key cardiovascular control organs induced by exposure to known stress factors in experimental animals and discuss the emerging role of the mitochondria. PMID:29875698

  6. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants and drugs can result in pathophysiological situations in the body. Research in this area is essential as the knowledge on cellular survival and death would help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that are needed for the maintenance of the normal physiological functions of the body. In this regard, naturally occurring bio-molecules can be considered as potential therapeutic targets as they are normally available in commonly consumed foodstuffs and are thought to have minimum side effects. This review article describes the detailed mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology and the ultimate fate of the cells either to survive or to undergo necrotic or apoptotic death. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology have also been included in the review. The review provides useful information about the recent progress in understanding the mechanism(s) of various types of organ pathophysiology, the complex cross-talk between these pathways, as well as their modulation in stressed conditions. Additionally, it suggests possible therapeutic applications of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in conditions involving oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  8. Rhesus monkey lens as an in vitro model for studying oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, J.S. Jr.; Lucas, V.A.; Du, X.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lenses from young rhesus monkeys were incubated in the presence of H 2 O 2 or oxygen radical generating systems to determine their suitability as a model for investigating lenticular oxidative stress. Additionally, direct comparisons were made between the effects found with the monkey lenses and those observed with cultured rat lenses exposed to the same oxidizing systems. As in earlier studies with rat lenses the monkey lenses exhibited impaired ability to actively accumulate from the medium radioactively labelled rubidium and choline following exposure to oxidative stress. Based on the effects of various scavengers of oxygen radicals it appeared that the mechanisms responsible for lens damage were the same for both rat and monkey lenses. However, rat lenses were damaged by lower concentrations of oxidants than were monkey lenses. It was concluded that oxidative stress affects both rat and monkey lenses by similar mechanisms but that lenses from monkeys, and probably other primates, are more resistant to these effects because they have better endogenous antioxidant defenses

  9. Gradually Increased Oxygen Administration Improved Oxygenation and Mitigated Oxidative Stress after Resuscitation from Severe Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.

  10. Systemic oxidative stress markers in animal model for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Kravtsova, Violetta; Aalkjær, Christian

    Involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in development of major depressive disorder has recently become evident, though mechanisms behind this remain elusive. We analyzed therefore OxS pathways in rat Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model of depression. Rats are exposed to chronic unpredictable mild...... mg/kg/day). Saline injections were done to control the vehicle effect. Escitalopram treated rats were sub-divided into 2 groups: responders and non-responders, according to their hedonic state and compared to non-stressed rats, treated with either saline or Escitalopram. Measurement of total...... glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lungs, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, saphenous, mesenteric, and tail arteries were used as estimates for OxS. In heart, glutathione was increased in CMS rats in comparison with non-stressed vehicle group. Accordingly, an estimate for free radical activity, MDA...

  11. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  12. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Enas A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD and hemodialysis (HD on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total peroxide (TPX, pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI and lactate/pyruvate (L/P ratio were calculated. Results TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. Conclusions CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  13. Oxidative stress markers at birth: Analyses of a neonatal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Rizzo, Manfredi; Scaturro, Giusy; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Corsello, Giovanni; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand neonatal stress and, thus, control it efficaciously, there is a need for more information on the manifestations of stress at the molecular level in the newborn, with particular regard to oxidants, and anti-oxidant and anti-stress mechanisms, including mitochondrial heat shock protein-chaperones such as Hsp60. We investigated patterns of anti-oxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and Hsp60 levels in sera from newborns and found significant associations between glutathione (GSH) levels and gestational age, delivery modality, and lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH) level. LOOH levels and spontaneous (vaginal) delivery were independently associated with increased GSH levels when these were above the median. Hsp60 and LOOH levels were positively correlated whereas Hsp60 and GSH levels were inversely correlated in spontaneously delivered newborns; in contrast, Hsp60 and GSH levels were positively correlated in newborns delivered by cesarea. Our results point to new directions in the search for definite patterns of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 in the newborn's serum that might have functional and diagnostic significance and that could help in the monitoring of newborn health during and after delivery. In addition, the data provide a starting basis for investigating the precise roles and interplay of GSH and Hsp60 in the maintenance of an optimal redox balance at birth to cope with the stress inherent to delivery, and also for investigating the predictive value of any given pattern of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 at birth with regard to health status and risk of disease in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Circadian Rhythm Connections to Oxidative Stress: Implications for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Melissa; Ndiaye, Mary; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxygen and circadian rhythmicity are essential in a myriad of physiological processes to maintain homeostasis, from blood pressure and sleep/wake cycles, down to cellular signaling pathways that play critical roles in health and disease. If the human body or cells experience significant stress, their ability to regulate internal systems, including redox levels and circadian rhythms, may become impaired. At cellular as well as organismal levels, impairment in redox regulation and circadian rhythms may lead to a number of adverse effects, including the manifestation of a variety of diseases such as heart diseases, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Recent Advances: Researchers have come to an understanding as to the basics of the circadian rhythm mechanism, as well as the importance of the numerous species of oxidative stress components. The effects of oxidative stress and dysregulated circadian rhythms have been a subject of intense investigations since they were first discovered, and recent investigations into the molecular mechanisms linking the two have started to elucidate the bases of their connection. Critical Issues: While much is known about the mechanics and importance of oxidative stress systems and circadian rhythms, the front where they interact has had very little research focused on it. This review discusses the idea that these two systems are together intricately involved in the healthy body, as well as in disease. Future Directions: We believe that for a more efficacious management of diseases that have both circadian rhythm and oxidative stress components in their pathogenesis, targeting both systems in tandem would be far more successful. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 192–208 PMID:23198849

  15. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  16. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lorigados Pedre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched, and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, nitric oxide (NO, uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE and nitrotyrosine (3-NT. All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001 while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively. Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005 similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001, whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001. Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables.

  17. Acetaminophen inhibits neuronal inflammation and protects neurons from oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammas Paula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a link between the inflammatory response, increased cytokine formation, and neurodegeneration in the brain. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, have been documented. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of acetaminophen on cultured brain neuronal survival and inflammatory factor expression when exposed to oxidative stress. Methods Cerebral cortical cultured neurons are pretreated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (5 μM. Cell survival is assessed by MTT assay and inflammatory protein (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES release quantitated by ELISA. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins is assessed by western blots. Results Acetaminophen has pro-survival effects on neurons in culture. Menadione, a superoxide releasing oxidant stressor, causes a significant (p Conclusion These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on neurons and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress.

  18. How does the macula protect itself from oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, James T

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in the United States. At present, there is no treatment for early disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a physiological role in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key cell type in this disease, but with excessive ROS, oxidative damage or excessive innate immune system activation can result. The RPE has developed a robust antioxidant system driven by the transcription factor Nrf2. Impaired Nrf2 signaling can lead to oxidative damage or activate the innate immune response, both of which can lead to RPE apoptosis, a defining change in AMD. Several mouse models simulating environmental stressors or targeting specific antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase or Nrf2, have simulated some of the features of AMD. While ROS are short-lived, oxidatively damaged molecules termed oxidation specific epitopes (OSEs), can be long-lived and a source of chronic stress that activates the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The macula accumulates a number of OSEs including carboxyethylpyrrole, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, and advanced glycation endproducts, as well as their respective neutralizing PRRs. Excessive accumulation of OSEs results in pathologic immune activation. For example, mice immunized with the carboxyethylpyrrole develop cardinal features of AMD. Regulating ROS in the RPE by modulating antioxidant systems or neutralizing OSEs through an appropriate innate immune response are potential modalities to treat or prevent early AMD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stress and mechanisms of ochronosis in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Daniela; Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2015-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare metabolic disease due to a deficient activity of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), involved in Phe and Tyr catabolism. Due to such a deficiency, AKU patients undergo accumulation of the metabolite homogentisic acid (HGA), which is prone to oxidation/polymerization reactions causing the production of a melanin-like pigment. Once the pigment is deposited onto connective tissues (mainly in joints, spine, and cardiac valves), a classical bluish-brown discoloration is imparted, leading to a phenomenon known as "ochronosis", the hallmark of AKU. A clarification of the molecular mechanisms for the production and deposition of the ochronotic pigment in AKU started only recently with a range of in vitro and ex vivo human models used for the study of HGA-induced effects. Thanks to redox-proteomic analyses, it was found that HGA could induce significant oxidation of a number of serum and chondrocyte proteins. Further investigations allowed highlighting how HGA-induced proteome alteration, lipid peroxidation, thiol depletion, and amyloid production could contribute to oxidative stress generation and protein oxidation in AKU. This review briefly summarizes the most recent findings on HGA-induced oxidative stress in AKU, helping in the clarification of the molecular mechanisms of ochronosis and potentially providing the basis for its pharmacological treatment. Future work should be undertaken in order to validate in vivo the results so far obtained in in vitro AKU models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived Stress Predicts Lower Physical Activity in African-American Boys, but not Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional relationships of psychological stress, stress coping, and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Amer- ican-American (AA) boys and girls. A community-based sample of 139 AA adolescents (mean age 14.7 years; SD = 1.8 years; 64.7% girls; 30% obese) from Washtenaw County, Michigan was included in this analysis. Psychological stress was assessed using the Daily Stress Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Coping strategies were evaluated using the Schoolager's Coping Strategies questionnaire. Physical activity was measured objectively via accelerometry. Compared to boys, girls participated in approximately 13 fewer minutes of MVPA (p girls reported using a greater number of coping strategies (p = .01) at a greater frequency (p = .04) compared to boys. However, perceived stress significantly predicted lower levels of MVPA (p = .03) in boys only. There are important gender differences in how AA girls perceive, experience, and cope with stress compared to AA boys. Although AA girls reported higher levels of stress and employed more coping strategies, perceived stress was associated with physical inactivity in AA boys, but not girls. Additional research is warranted to better understand the influence of stress on the choice to be physically active in AA youth.

  1. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to excess Zn reveals a Zn-specific oxidative stress signature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remans, T.; Opdenakker, G.; Guisez, Y.; Carleer, R.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.; Cuypers, A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plants, but accumulation of excess Zn causes oxidative stress, even though the element is not redox-active. An oxidative stress signature, consisting of multiple oxidative stress related parameters, is indicative of disturbance of redox homeostasis and

  2. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: A case-control study. ... However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims: To ... Keywords: inflammation; lung disease; spirometry; tobacco; sedentarily; stress oxidant ...

  3. Renin-Angiotensin Activation and Oxidative Stress in Early Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita I. Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have suggested a role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation and subsequent cardiac oxidation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF. Nevertheless, RAS blockade has failed to show efficacy in treatment of HFpEF. We evaluated the role of RAS activation and subsequent systemic oxidation in HFpEF. Oxidative stress markers were compared in 50 subjects with and without early HFpEF. Derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (DROMs, F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs, and ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione (Eh GSH and cysteine (Eh CyS were measured. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE levels and activity were measured. On univariate analysis, HFpEF was associated with male sex (p=0.04, higher body mass index (BMI (p=0.003, less oxidized Eh CyS (p=0.001, lower DROMs (p=0.02, and lower IsoP (p=0.03. Higher BMI (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.6 and less oxidized Eh CyS (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4 maintained associations with HFpEF on multivariate analysis. Though ACE levels were higher in early HFpEF (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05, ACE activity was similar to that in controls. HFpEF is not associated with significant systemic RAS activation or oxidative stress. This may explain the failure of RAS inhibitors to alter outcomes in HFpEF.

  4. Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Lucas; Gouzi, Fares; Thireau, Jérôme; Meyer, Gregory; Boissiere, Julien; Delage, Martine; Abdellaoui, Aldja; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacampagne, Alain; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Hayot, Maurice; Richard, Sylvain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality. We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the possible involvement of related oxidative stress. Wistar rats exposed chronically (4 weeks) to sustained urban CO pollution presented more arrhythmic events than controls during recovery after cardiac challenge with isoprenaline in vivo. Sudden death occurred in 22% of CO-exposed rats versus 0% for controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation, was increased in left ventricular tissue of CO-exposed rats. Cardiomyocytes isolated from CO-exposed rats showed higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (measured with MitoSox Red dye), higher diastolic Ca(2+) resulting from SR calcium leak and an higher occurrence of irregular Ca(2+) transients (measured with Indo-1) in comparison to control cells after a high pacing sequence. Acute treatment with a ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine, 20 mmol/L, 1 h) prevented this sequence of alterations and decreased the number of arrhythmic cells following high pacing. Chronic CO exposure promotes oxidative stress that alters Ca(2+) homeostasis (through RYR2 and SERCA defects) and thereby mediates the triggering of ventricular arrhythmia after cardiac stress that can lead to sudden death.

  5. Insulin resistance in H pylori infection and its association with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Nazligul, Yasar; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, F Fusun; Selek, Sahbettin; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2006-11-14

    To determine the insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative status in H pylori infection and to find out if there is any relationship between these parameters and insulin resistance. Fifty-five H pylori positive and 48 H pylori negative patients were enrolled. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined in all subjects. The total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (1.36 +/- 0.33 and 1.70 +/- 0.50, respectively; P total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were significantly higher in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (6.79 +/- 3.40 and 5.08 +/- 0.95, and 5.42 +/- 3.40 and 3.10 +/- 0.92, respectively; P total antioxidant capacity (r = -0.251, P total oxidant status (r = 0.365, P antioxidant vitamins to H pylori eradication therapy on insulin resistance during H pylori infection.

  6. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  7. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Romano

    Full Text Available Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms.

  8. The involvement of wheat F-box protein gene TaFBA1 in the oxidative stress tolerance of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Zhou

    Full Text Available As one of the largest gene families, F-box domain proteins have been found to play important roles in abiotic stress responses via the ubiquitin pathway. TaFBA1 encodes a homologous F-box protein contained in E3 ubiquitin ligases. In our previous study, we found that the overexpression of TaFBA1 enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. To investigate the mechanisms involved, in this study, we investigated the tolerance of the transgenic plants to oxidative stress. Methyl viologen was used to induce oxidative stress conditions. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that TaFBA1 expression was up-regulated by oxidative stress treatments. Under oxidative stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants showed a higher germination rate, higher root length and less growth inhibition than wild type (WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of the transgenic plants was also indicated by lower reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA content and cell membrane damage under oxidative stress compared with WT. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and peroxidase (POD, were observed in the transgenic plants than those in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via the overexpression of TaFBA1. In others, some stress responsive elements were found in the promoter region of TaFBA1, and TaFBA1 was located in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. These results suggest that TaFBA1 plays an important role in the oxidative stress tolerance of plants. This is important for understanding the functions of F-box proteins in plants' tolerance to multiple stress conditions.

  9. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Using the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and an exposure time of 24h we found that all three endpoints were affected by one or more of the compounds. PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS and PFNA showed a dose dependent increase in DNA damage in the concentration range from 2×10(-7) to 2×10(-5)M determined by the comet assay. Except for PFDoA, all the other PFAS increased ROS generation significantly. For PFHxS and PFUnA the observed ROS increases were dose-dependent. Cells exposed to PFOA were found to have a significant lower TAC compared with the solvent control, whereas a non-significant trend in TAC decrease was observed for PFOS and PFDoA and an increase tendency for PFHxS, PFNA and PFUnA. Our results indicate a possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the PFAS in human liver cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  11. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fudulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients.

  12. Cardiovascular Complications of Sleep Apnea: Role of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men with a higher prevalence among obese subjects. This condition is considered as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. One of the major pathophysiological characteristics of OSA is intermittent hypoxia. Hypoxia can lead to oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Many animal models, such as the rodent model of intermittent hypoxia, mimic obstructive sleep apnea in human patients and allow more in-depth investigation of biological and cellular mechanisms of this condition. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease resulting from OSA in humans and animal models.

  13. Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, Gianluca; Balzan, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed.

  14. [Oxidative stress and antioxitant therapy of chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y X; Guo, S J; Wu, Y F

    2016-07-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a progressive, infectious inflammation disease, caused by the dysbiosis of oral resident flora, leading to the destruction of periodontium. The onset of pathogenic microorganisms is the etiological factor of periodontitis, while the immuno-inflammatory response affects the progression of the disease. Under chronic periodontitis, oxidative stress occurs when excessive reactive oxygen species are produced and exceed the compensative capacity of the organism. Oxidative stress leads to the destruction of periodontium, in a direct way(damaging the biomolecule) or an indirect way(enhancing the produce of inflammatory cytokine and destructive enzymes). Therefore, as the antagonist of the reactive oxygen species, antioxidants may be helpful to treat the chronic periodontitis. This paper reviewed relevant literatures about the destructive role of excessive reactive oxygen species and protective role of antioxidants in chronic periodontitis.

  15. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  16. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  17. Oxidative stress induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jinhee; Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Kwangsik

    2008-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles of different sizes (15, 25, 30, 45 nm) were prepared by the supercritical synthesis method, and cytotoxicity was evaluated using cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Exposure of the cultured cells to nanoparticles (5, 10, 20, 40 μg/ml) led to cell death, ROS increase, GSH decrease, and the inductions of oxidative stress-related genes such as heme oxygenase-1, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase. The increased ROS by cerium oxide nanoparticles triggered the activation of cytosolic caspase-3 and chromatin condensation, which means that cerium oxide nanoparticles exert cytotoxicity by an apoptotic process. Uptake of the nanoparticles to the cultured cells was also tested. It was observed that cerium oxide nanoparticles penetrated into the cytoplasm and located in the peri-region of the nucleus as aggregated particles, which may induce the direct interaction between nanoparticles and cellular molecules to cause adverse cellular responses

  18. The relationship between oxidative stress, smoking and the clinical severity of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, S; Metin, A; Demirseren, D D; Kilic, S; Isikoglu, S; Erel, O

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggested that increased oxidant products and decreased antioxidant system functions may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, we investigated total oxidative status, Paraoxonase (PON)1/arylesterase enzyme activities and severity of the disease in smoker and non-smoker psoriatic patients. Fifty-four patients with plaque type psoriasis (28 smokers and 26 non-smokers) and 62 healthy volunteers (16 smokers and 46 non-smokers) were enrolled in the study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and arylesterase levels were measured, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated in all participants. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores were significantly higher in smoker patients than in non-smoker patients (P = 0.014). Both smoker and non-smoker patients had significantly increased TOS levels and OSI values and decreased TAC levels than healthy subjects (all P values = 0.000). The TAC and TOS levels, OSI values and arylesterase activities were similar between smoker and non-smoker patients. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were not significantly different between smoker and non-smoker psoriasis patients. When compared with non-smoking controls, only smoking psoriasis patients had significantly higher TG (P = 0.005), lower HDL (P = 0.022) and lower arylesterase levels (P = 0.015). There were no significant correlations with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores and TAC, TOS, OSI, TG, TC, HDL and LDL levels in all psoriasis patients. Oxidative stress is increased in psoriasis patients regardless of their smoking status. The decreased arylesterase activity in smoker psoriasis patients suggested that smoking may be a considerable risk factor that increases the severity of psoriasis by increasing oxidative stress in these patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and

  19. cis-Bifenthrin enantioselectively induces hepatic oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral synthetic pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests. In China, the commercial cis-BF contained two enantiomers including 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. However, the difference in oxidative stress induced by the two enantiomers in mice still remains unclear. In the present study, 4 week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered cis-BF, 1R-cis-BF or 1S-cis-BF daily for 2, 4 and 6 weeks at doses of 5 mg/kg/day, respectively. We found that the hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content both in the serum and liver increased significantly in the 4 or 6 weeks 1S-cis-BF treated groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) also changed significantly in the serum and liver of 1S-cis-BF treated mice. More importantly, the significant differences in MDA content and CAT activity both in the serum and liver, and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and SOD in serum were also observed between the 1S-cis-BF and 1R-cis-BF treated groups. Moreover, the transcription of oxidative stress response related genes including Sod1, Cat and heme oxygenase-1(Ho-1) in the liver of 1S-cis-BF treated groups were also significant higher than those in 1R-cis-BF treated group. Thus, it was concluded that cis-BF induced hepatic oxidative stress in an enantiomer specific manner in mice when exposed during the puberty, and that 1S-cis-BF showed much more toxic in hepatic oxidative stress than 1R-cis-BF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  1. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-related glomerulopathy is an increasing cause of end-stage renal disease. Obesity has been considered a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and chronic oxidative stress. Augmented inflammation in adipose and kidney tissues promotes the progression of kidney damage in obesity. Adipose tissue, which is accumulated in obesity, is a key endocrine organ that produces multiple biologically active molecules, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, that affect inflammation, and ...

  2. Plasmodium falciparum uses vitamin E to avoid oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sussmann, Rodrigo A. C.; Fotoran, Wesley L.; Kimura, Emilia A.; Katzin, Alejandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum is sensitive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, and many drugs such as artemisinin, chloroquine and cercosporin interfere in the parasite’s redox system. To minimize the damage caused by reactive radicals, antioxidant enzymes and their substrates found in parasites and in erythrocytes must be functionally active. It was shown that P. falciparum synthesizes vitamin E and that usnic acid acts as an inhibitor of its biosynthesis. Vitamin E is a potent anti...

  3. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Santella, R. M.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 617, - (2007), s. 23-32 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * bus drivers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  4. Effect of Chlorella Ingestion on Oxidative Stress and Fatigue Symptoms in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Noriko; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Toyomasu, Kouji

    2018-05-21

    We examined the effects of dietary chlorella ingestion on oxidative stress and fatigue symptoms in healthy men under resting and fatigue conditions. We conducted a double-blind, parallel-arm controlled study. Twenty-seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 35.4±10.4 years) were randomly divided into the chlorella and placebo groups, and received chlorella (6 g/day) and lactose as placebo (7.2 g/day), respectively, for 4 weeks. To simulate mild fatigue, subjects underwent exercise (40% of the heart rate reserve) for 30 minutes. Fatigue was measured using the visual analog scale of fatigue (F-VAS) pre- and post-exercise. Serum antioxidant capacity (AC), malondialdehyde levels, and other indices of oxidative stress were measured pre- and post-exercise. All measurements were repeated after the intervention period and the results were compared with baseline measurements. Under resting conditions, AC significantly increased after the intervention period in the chlorella group, but not in the placebo group. Malondialdehyde levels after the intervention period were significantly lower in the chlorella group than in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in any of the oxidative-stress indices measured pre- and post-exercise, either before or after intervention, in either group. F-VAS significantly increased after exercise at all measurement time-points in both groups, except after the intervention period in the chlorella group. Under fatigue conditions, there were no significant differences in oxidative stress indices between the groups. Our results suggest that chlorella ingestion has the potential to relieve oxidative stress and enhance tolerance for fatigue under resting conditions.

  5. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  6. Investigating Endothelial Activation and Oxidative Stress in relation to Glycaemic Control in a Multiethnic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, E. M.; Webb, D. R.; Morris, D. H.; Khunti, K.; Talbot, D. S. C.; Sattar, N.; Davies, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. An exploration of ethnic differences in measures of oxidative stress and endothelial activation in relation to known cardiovascular risk factors within South Asians (SA) and White Europeans (WE) residing in the UK. Methods. 202 participants within a UK multiethnic population provided biomedical and anthropometric data. Human urinary 2,3-dinor-8-iso-prostaglandin-F1α and plasma ICAM-1 were quantified as measures of oxidative stress and endothelial activation, respectively. Results. 2,3-Dinor-8-iso-prostaglandin-F1α levels were significantly higher in the SA group compared to WE group (10.36 (95% CI: 9.09, 11.79) versus 8.46 (7.71, 9.29), P = 0.021) after adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, body weight, HbA1c, and medication. Oxidative stress was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 1.08, 95% CI:1.02, 1.14, P = 0.009), fasting (β = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.10, P = 0.002), and 2 hr glucose (β = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04, P = 0.052). In each adjusted model, SA continued to have elevated levels of oxidative stress compared to WE. ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the composite IGR group compared to the normoglycaemic group (P < 0.001). No ethnic differences in ICAM-1 were observed. Conclusion. These results suggest that SA are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress at lower blood glucose thresholds than WE. Further research into the potential mechanisms involved is warranted. PMID:23304116

  7. Investigating Endothelial Activation and Oxidative Stress in relation to Glycaemic Control in a Multiethnic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Brady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. An exploration of ethnic differences in measures of oxidative stress and endothelial activation in relation to known cardiovascular risk factors within South Asians (SA and White Europeans (WE residing in the UK. Methods. 202 participants within a UK multiethnic population provided biomedical and anthropometric data. Human urinary 2,3-dinor-8-iso-prostaglandin-F1α and plasma ICAM-1 were quantified as measures of oxidative stress and endothelial activation, respectively. Results. 2,3-Dinor-8-iso-prostaglandin-F1α levels were significantly higher in the SA group compared to WE group (10.36 (95% CI: 9.09, 11.79 versus 8.46 (7.71, 9.29, P=0.021 after adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, body weight, HbA1c, and medication. Oxidative stress was positively associated with HbA1c (β=1.08, 95% CI:1.02, 1.14, P=0.009, fasting (β=1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.10, P=0.002, and 2 hr glucose (β=1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04, P=0.052. In each adjusted model, SA continued to have elevated levels of oxidative stress compared to WE. ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the composite IGR group compared to the normoglycaemic group (P<0.001. No ethnic differences in ICAM-1 were observed. Conclusion. These results suggest that SA are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress at lower blood glucose thresholds than WE. Further research into the potential mechanisms involved is warranted.

  8. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Módis, Katalin; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H 2 S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H 2 S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H 2 S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H 2 S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , 100–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H 2 O 2 (50–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H 2 S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H 2 O 2 , (3–100 μM), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H 2 O 2 (50 μM). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H 2 S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging

  9. The effect of predator exposure and reproduction on oxidative stress parameters in the Catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, C; Zenteno-Savín, T; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Abele, D; Philipp, E E R

    2013-05-01

    Predation is known to impact growth and reproduction, and the physiological state of the prey, including its susceptibility to oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated how prolonged exposure to predators modulates tissue specific antioxidant defense and oxidative damage in the short-lived epibenthic scallop Argopecten ventricosus (2years maximum lifespan). Scallops that were experimentally exposed to predators had not only lower antioxidant capacities (superoxide dismutase and catalase), but also lower oxidative damage (protein carbonyls and TBARS=thiobarbituric acid reactive substances including lipid peroxides) in gills and mantle compared to individuals not exposed to predators. In contrast, oxidative damage in the swimming muscle was higher in predator-exposed scallops. When predator-exposed scallops were on the verge of spawning, levels of oxidative damage increased in gills and mantle in spite of a parallel increase in antioxidant defense in both tissues. Levels of oxidative damage increased also in the swimming muscle whereas muscle antioxidant capacities decreased. Interestingly, post-spawned scallops restored antioxidant capacities and oxidative damage to immature levels, suggesting they can recover from spawning-related oxidative stress. Our results show that predator exposure and gametogenesis modulate oxidative damage in a tissue specific manner and that high antioxidant capacities do not necessarily coincide with low oxidative damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative Stress Induces Senescence in Cultured RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Nona; Betts-Obregon, Brandi S; Perry, George; Tsin, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine whether oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cultured ARPE19 cells were subjected to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. Cells were seeded into 24-well plates with hydrogen peroxide added to cell medium and incubated at 37°C + 5% CO2 for a 90-minute period [at 0, 300, 400 and 800 micromolar (MCM) hydrogen peroxide]. The number of viable ARPE19 cells were recorded using the Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion Method and cell senescence was measured by positive staining for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) protein. Without hydrogen peroxide treatment, the number of viable ARPE19 cells increased significantly from 50,000 cells/well to 197,000 within 72 hours. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide reduced this level of cell proliferation significantly (to 52,167 cells at 400 MCM; to 49,263 cells at 800 MCM). Meanwhile, cells with a high level of positive senescence-indicator SA-Beta-Gal-positive staining was induced by hydrogen peroxide treatment (from a baseline level of 12% to 80% at 400 MCM and at 800 MCM). Our data suggests that oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide treatment inhibited ARPE19 cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence.

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy

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    Song Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As one of the serious complications of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy(DRhas become a main eye disease which causes blindness. The occurrence and development of DR is related to many factors. The pathogenesis is complicated, and the mechanism has not been clear. Early data suggest that the occurrence and development of DR has relations with many factors such as blood sugar level, diabetes duration and the environment. Among the factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress is the important mechanisms of DR and has become research focus in recent years. Consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction within cells include elevation of the rate of reactive oxygen species(ROSproduction due to damage of electron transport chain proteins, mitochondrial DNA(mtDNAdamage, and loss of metabolic capacity. Clear understanding on the mechanism of mitochondrial functional change under high sugar level and oxidative stress response in the occurrence and development of DR is of great significance on prevention and cure of DR. In this article, the development of mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress of DR is reviewed.

  14. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

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    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  15. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

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    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI. One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxidation levels known as oxidative stress markers were measured in all urine samples. Thirty-six pathogen microorganisms were identified in positive urine cultures. These microorganisms were as follows: 23 (63.8% E coli, 5 (13.8% P mirabilis, 4 (11.1% K pneumoniae, 2 (5.5% Candida spp, 1 (2.7% S saprophyticus, and 1 (2.7% P aeruginosa. It was observed that lipid peroxidation levels were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased in positive urine cultures, compared to negative cultures. We conclude that urinary tract infection causes oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation level, and leads to insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-07-01

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Glucose Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Wei-Bin; Yang, Penghua; Dong, Daoyin; Sun, Winny; Yang, Peixin

    2018-06-01

    Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects by suppressing neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium. Our recent study further revealed that high glucose inhibited embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. However, the mechanism whereby high glucose suppresses neural differentiation is unclear. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress lead to the inhibition of neural differentiation, the effect of high glucose on neural stem cell (the C17.2 cell line) differentiation was examined. Neural stem cells were cultured in normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) differentiation medium for 3, 5, and 7 days. High glucose suppressed neural stem cell differentiation by significantly decreasing the expression of the neuron marker Tuj1 and the glial cell marker GFAP and the numbers of Tuj1 + and GFAP + cells. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol reversed high glucose-decreased Tuj1 and GFAP expression and restored the numbers of neurons and glial cells differentiated from neural stem cells. Hydrogen peroxide treatment imitated the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation. Both high glucose and hydrogen peroxide triggered ER stress, whereas Tempol blocked high glucose-induced ER stress. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate, abolished the inhibition of high glucose or hydrogen peroxide on neural stem cell differentiation. Thus, oxidative stress and its resultant ER stress mediate the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation.

  18. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  19. Oxidative Stress and the Homeodynamics of Iron Metabolism

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    Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Iron and oxygen share a delicate partnership since both are indispensable for survival, but if the partnership becomes inadequate, this may rapidly terminate life. Virtually all cell components are directly or indirectly affected by cellular iron metabolism, which represents a complex, redox-based machinery that is controlled by, and essential to, metabolic requirements. Under conditions of increased oxidative stress—i.e., enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—however, this machinery may turn into a potential threat, the continued requirement for iron promoting adverse reactions such as the iron/H2O2-based formation of hydroxyl radicals, which exacerbate the initial pro-oxidant condition. This review will discuss the multifaceted homeodynamics of cellular iron management under normal conditions as well as in the context of oxidative stress. PMID:25970586

  20. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  1. A Metadata Analysis of Oxidative Stress Etiology in Preclinical Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Benefits of Antioxidant Therapy

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    Leila Bond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, induced by an imbalance of free radicals, incites neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. In fact, a mutation in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 accounts for 20% of familial ALS cases. However, the variance among individual studies examining ALS oxidative stress clouds corresponding conclusions. Therefore, we construct a comprehensive, temporal view of oxidative stress and corresponding antioxidant therapy in preclinical ALS by mining published quantitative experimental data and performing metadata analysis of 41 studies. In vitro aggregate analysis of innate oxidative stress inducers, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide, revealed 70–90% of cell death coincides to inducer exposure equivalent to 30–50% peak concentration (p < 0.05. A correlative plateau in cell death suggests oxidative stress impact is greatest in early-stage neurodegeneration. In vivo SOD1-G93A transgenic ALS mouse aggregate analysis of heat shock proteins (HSPs revealed HSP levels are 30% lower in muscle than spine (p < 0.1. Overall spine HSP levels, including HSP70, are mildly upregulated in SOD1-G93A mice compared to wild type, but not significantly (p > 0.05. Thus, innate HSP compensatory responses to oxidative stress are simply insufficient, a result supportive of homeostatic system instability as central to ALS etiology. In vivo aggregate analysis of antioxidant therapy finds SOD1-G93A ALS mouse survival duration significantly increases by 11.2% (p << 0.001 but insignificantly decreases onset age by 2%. Thus, the aggregate antioxidant treatment effect on survival in preclinical ALS is not sufficient to overcome clinical heterogeneity, which explains the literature disparity between preclinical and clinical antioxidant survival benefit. The aggregate effect sizes on preclinical ALS survival and onset illustrate that present antioxidants, alone, are not sufficient to halt ALS, which underscores its multi-factorial nature

  2. Beneficial effects of oral pure caffeine on oxidative stress

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    Daniela Metro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of coffee (which is a mixture of over 1000 hydrosoluble substances is known to protect from type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, and other chronic disorders associated with increased oxidative damage in blood and tissues. This protection is generally attributed to polyphenols and melanoidins. Very few studies were conducted on the amelioration of classic blood markers of oxidative stress induced after a few days of caffeine administration, but results vary.To assess whether caffeine per se could account for antioxidant properties of coffee in the short-term, we tested the ability of pure caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg body weight/day in two daily doses for seven consecutive days to improve plasma levels of six biochemical indices in healthy male volunteers (n = 15. These indices were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, GSH to GSSG ratio, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and malondialdehyde (MDA.We found that all indices changed significantly (P < .05 or < .01 in a favourable manner, ranging from −41% for GSSG to −70% for LHP levels, and +106% for GSH levels to +249% for the GSG/GSSG ratio. Changes of any given index were uniform across subjects, with no outliers.We conclude that caffeine has unequivocal, consistent antioxidant properties. Keyword: Oxidative stress, Coffee, Caffeine, Lipid peroxidation, Gluthathione, Malondialdehyde

  3. The partial pressure of oxygen affects biomarkers of oxidative stress in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, E F; Olsvik, P A; Berntssen, M H G; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative stress, the imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and the cellular detoxification of these reactive compounds, is believed to be involved in the pathology of various diseases. Several biomarkers for oxidative stress have been proposed to serve as tools in toxicological and ecotoxicological research. Not only may exposure to various pro-oxidants create conditions of cellular oxidative stress, but hyperoxic conditions may also increase the production of reactive oxygen species. The objective of the current study was to determine the extent to which differences in oxygen partial pressure would affect biomarkers of oxidative stress in a primary culture of hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Membrane integrity, metabolic activity, levels of total and oxidized glutathione (tGSH/GSSG) was determined, as well as mRNA expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), gamma-glutamyl-cystein synthetase (GCS) and thioredoxin (TRX). The results show that different biomarkers of oxidative stress are affected when the cell culture is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, and that changes such as increased GSSG content and induction of GSSG-R and GSH-Px can be reduced by culturing the cells under lower oxygen tension. Oxygen tension may thus influence results of in vitro based cell research and is particularly important when assessing parameters in the antioxidant defence system. Further research is needed to establish the magnitude of this effect in different cellular systems.

  4. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Romanian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picu, Ariana; Petcu, Laura; Ştefan, Simona; Mitu, Manuela; Lixandru, Daniela; Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, Constantin; Pîrcălăbioru, Grațiela Grădișteanu; Ciulu-Costinescu, Felicia; Bubulica, Maria-Viorica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity. The adipose tissue secretes bioactive adipokines leading to low grade inflammation, amplified by oxidative stress, which promotes the formation of advanced glycation end products and eventually leads to dyslipidemia and vascular complications. The aim of this study was to correlate anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM patients and to investigate the role of oxidative stress in T2DM associated with obesity. A group of 115 ND- T2DM patients was compared to a group of 32 healthy subjects in terms of clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. ND-T2DM patients had significantly lower adiponectin, glutathione (GSH) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) and elevated insulin, proinsulin, HOMA-IR index, proinsulin/insulin (P/I) and proinsulin/adiponectin (P/A) ratio, fructosamine, and total oxidant status (TOS). The total body fat mass was positively correlated with total oxidant status (TOS). Positive correlations were found between TOS and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and between TOS and glycaemia. Negative correlations were identified between: GPx and glycaemia, GPx and HbA1c, and also between GSH and fructosamine. The total antioxidant status was negatively correlated with the respiratory burst. The identified correlations suggest the existence of a complex interplay between diabetes, obesity and oxidative stress.

  5. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  6. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD.

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    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL before and after oxidation (oxMBL with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidinedihydrochroride (AAPH was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively. Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1 in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.

  7. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  8. Effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and semen quality

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    S. Eskiocak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress and 3 months after (non-stress the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6/mL, rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63% and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L was higher compared to the non-stress period (P < 0.001 for all. During stress there was a negative correlation between NO concentration and sperm concentration, the percentage of rapid progressive motility and arginase activity (r = -0.622, P < 0.01; r = -0.425, P < 0.05 and r = -0.445, P < 0.05, respectively. These results indicate that psychological stress causes an increase of NO level and a decrease of arginase activity in the L-arginine-NO pathway. Furthermore, poor sperm quality may be due to excessive production of NO under psychological stress. In the light of these results, we suggest that the arginine-NO pathway, together with arginase and NO synthase, are involved in semen quality under stress conditions.

  9. The influence of hydroxyurea on oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia

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    Lidiane de Souza Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The oxidative stress in 20 sickle cell anemia patients taking hydroxyurea and 13 sickle cell anemia patients who did not take hydroxyurea was compared with a control group of 96 individuals without any hemoglobinopathy. METHODS: Oxidative stress was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive species production, the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma glutathione levels. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were higher in patients without specific medication, followed by patients taking hydroxyurea and the Control Group (p < 0.0001. The antioxidant capacity was higher in patients taking hydroxyurea and lower in the Control Group (p = 0.0002 for Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity and p < 0.0292 for plasma glutathione. Thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels were correlated with higher hemoglobin S levels (r = 0.55; p = 0.0040 and lower hemoglobin F concentrations(r = -0.52; p = 0.0067. On the other hand, plasma glutathione levels were negatively correlated with hemoglobin S levels (r = -0.49; p = 0.0111 and positively associated with hemoglobin F values (r = 0.56; p = 0.0031. CONCLUSION: Sickle cell anemia patients have high oxidative stress and, conversely, increased antioxidant activity. The increase in hemoglobin F levels provided by hydroxyurea and its antioxidant action may explain the reduction in lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant defenses in these individuals.

  10. Correlation of EPO resistance with oxidative stress response and inflammatory response in patients with maintenance hemodialysis

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    Xiao-Hui Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of erythropoietin (EPO resistance with oxidative stress response and inflammatory response in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Methods: A total of 184 patients with end-stage renal disease who received maintenance hemodialysis in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital between March 2015 and October 2016 were selected as dialysis group, 102 volunteers who received physical examination in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital during the same period were selected as control group, the EPO resistance index was assessed, the median was calculated, and serum oxidative stress and inflammatory response indexes were detected. Results: Serum T-AOC, SOD and CAT levels in dialysis group were significantly lower than those in control group while MDA, AOPP, IFN-γ, HMGB-1, ICAM-1, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than those in control group; serum T-AOC, SOD and CAT levels in patients with high ERI were significantly lower than those in patients with low ERI while MDA, AOPP, IFN-γ, HMGB-1, ICAM-1, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than those in patients with low ERI. Conclusion: The degree of EPO resistance in patients with maintenance hemodialysis is closely related to the activation of oxidative stress response and inflammatory response.

  11. Effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress and inflammation after severe burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, C; Rezman, B; Foldi, V; Bogar, L; Drenkovics, L; Röth, E; Weber, G; Lantos, J

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation generate edema in burns. The aim of our study was to assess effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress, inflammation, fluid requirement, multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) score and vasoactive drug requirement. In this study 15 patients were on standard therapy, whereas for other 15 patients NAC was supplemented. Blood samples were taken on admission and on the next five consecutive mornings. Levels of malondialdehyde, protein sulfhydril (PSH) groups, reduced gluthation (GSH), activity of myeloperoxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes and induced free radical generating capacity were measured as well as concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. MOD score, use of vasopressor agents and fluid utilisation were recorded daily. NAC treatment increased GSH level on days 4-5 (ptreatment is associated with a diminished oxidative stress reflected in preserved antioxidant levels, lower inflammation mirrored in lower interleukin levels and less vasopressor requirement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  13. Differential trafficking of oxidized LDL and oxidized LDL immune complexes in macrophages: impact on oxidative stress.

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    Mohammed M Al Gadban

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC contribute to formation of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells. It has been shown that oxLDL-IC are considerably more efficient than oxLDL in induction of foam cell formation, inflammatory cytokines secretion, and cell survival promotion. Whereas oxLDL is taken up by several scavenger receptors, oxLDL-IC are predominantly internalized through the FCgamma receptor I (FCgamma RI. This study examined differences in intracellular trafficking of lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL and oxLDL-IC and the impact on oxidative stress.Fluorescently labeled lipid and protein moieties of oxLDL co-localized within endosomal and lysosomal compartments in U937 human monocytic cells. In contrast, the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC was detected in the endosomal compartment, whereas its apolipoprotein moiety advanced to the lysosomal compartment. Cells treated with oxLDL-IC prior to oxLDL demonstrated co-localization of internalized lipid moieties from both oxLDL and oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This sequential treatment likely inhibited oxLDL lipid moieties from trafficking to the lysosomal compartment. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, oxLDL-IC but not oxLDL induced GFP-tagged heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and HSP70B', which co-localized with the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This suggests that HSP70 family members might prevent the degradation of the internalized lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC by delaying its advancement to the lysosome. The data also showed that mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was increased in U937 cell treated with oxLDL compared to oxLDL-IC.Findings suggest that lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL-IC traffic to separate cellular compartments, and that HSP70/70B' might sequester the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This mechanism could

  14. Fructose during pregnancy provokes fetal oxidative stress: The key role of the placental heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Silvia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Otero, Paola; Panadero, María I; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Roglans, Núria; Ramos, Sonia; Goya, Luis; Laguna, Juan C; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    One of the features of metabolic syndrome caused by liquid fructose intake is an impairment of redox status. We have investigated whether maternal fructose ingestion modifies the redox status in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Fructose (10% wt/vol) in the drinking water of rats throughout gestation, leads to maternal hepatic oxidative stress. However, this change was also observed in glucose-fed rats and, in fact, both carbohydrates produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Surprisingly, mothers fed carbohydrates displayed low plasma lipid oxidation. In contrast, fetuses from fructose-fed mothers showed elevated levels of plasma lipoperoxides versus fetuses from control or glucose-fed mothers. Interestingly, a clearly augmented oxidative stress was observed in placenta of fructose-fed mothers, accompanied by a lower expression of the transcription factor Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant molecule. Moreover, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) that has been proposed to upregulate HO-1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2, exhibited a diminished expression in placenta of fructose-supplemented mothers. Maternal fructose intake provoked an imbalanced redox status in placenta and a clear diminution of HO-1 expression, which could be responsible for the augmented oxidative stress found in their fetuses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Salivary DNA and markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baňasová, Lenka; Kamodyová, Natália; Janšáková, Katarína; Tóthová