WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-volume rural roads

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low......-volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudoelasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (1) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (2) involvement of vulnerable road...

  2. Alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses on low volume rural roads: Phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adviser Abstract Gundo Lashu, the ‘Labour Intensive Rural Roads Maintenance Programme’ that is currently being implemented in Limpopo Province, South Africa has set out to train 24 emerging contractors in rehabilitation of rural gravel roads. All.... The proposal is to treat the in situ materials and sand with a diluted emulsion and a nominal cement application (to assist with breaking of the emulsion) and surface the road with an Otta seal. The aggregate for the Otta seal can be obtained form...

  3. Guidelines for upgrading of low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Division of Roads

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines on the upgrading of gravel low volume roads to roads and maintenance personnel of road authorities of all sizes. Low volume is, for the purpose of this document, defined to be less than 500...

  4. Aeolian sands as material to construct low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian sands are widespread in many semi-arid to arid areas of the world and often provide the only economic source of construction materials for low volume roads. Experience in southern Africa over a number of decades has shown that provided...

  5. Performance Prediction Modelling for Flexible Pavement on Low Volume Roads Using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Makendran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction models for low volume village roads in India are developed to evaluate the progression of different types of distress such as roughness, cracking, and potholes. Even though the Government of India is investing huge quantum of money on road construction every year, poor control over the quality of road construction and its subsequent maintenance is leading to the faster road deterioration. In this regard, it is essential that scientific maintenance procedures are to be evolved on the basis of performance of low volume flexible pavements. Considering the above, an attempt has been made in this research endeavor to develop prediction models to understand the progression of roughness, cracking, and potholes in flexible pavements exposed to least or nil routine maintenance. Distress data were collected from the low volume rural roads covering about 173 stretches spread across Tamil Nadu state in India. Based on the above collected data, distress prediction models have been developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Further, the models have been validated using independent field data. It can be concluded that the models developed in this study can serve as useful tools for the practicing engineers maintaining flexible pavements on low volume roads.

  6. Field performance of stress-laminated timber bridges on low-volume roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. P. Wacker; S. R. Duwadi

    1995-01-01

    Stress-laminated timber bridges were first introduced in the United States in the late 1980s. Since that time, the concept of stress-laminating has received a great deal of attention and hundreds of bridges have been built. Most of these bridges are located on rural low-volume roads. To evaluate the performance of stress-laminated bridges, the United States Department...

  7. Recommendations on the use of marginal base course materials in low volume roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-04

    Full Text Available have required intermittent maintenance during their lives, they have clearly shown that current materials standards may be too conservative for affordable low volume roads. The study has shown that good drainage and construction quality are the primary...

  8. Estimating traffic volume on Wyoming low volume roads using linear and logistic regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Apronti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic volume is an important parameter in most transportation planning applications. Low volume roads make up about 69% of road miles in the United States. Estimating traffic on the low volume roads is a cost-effective alternative to taking traffic counts. This is because traditional traffic counts are expensive and impractical for low priority roads. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of two alternative means of cost-effectively estimating traffic volumes for low volume roads in Wyoming and to make recommendations for their implementation. The study methodology involves reviewing existing studies, identifying data sources, and carrying out the model development. The utility of the models developed were then verified by comparing actual traffic volumes to those predicted by the model. The study resulted in two regression models that are inexpensive and easy to implement. The first regression model was a linear regression model that utilized pavement type, access to highways, predominant land use types, and population to estimate traffic volume. In verifying the model, an R2 value of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 73.4% were obtained. The second model was a logistic regression model that identified the level of traffic on roads using five thresholds or levels. The logistic regression model was verified by estimating traffic volume thresholds and determining the percentage of roads that were accurately classified as belonging to the given thresholds. For the five thresholds, the percentage of roads classified correctly ranged from 79% to 88%. In conclusion, the verification of the models indicated both model types to be useful for accurate and cost-effective estimation of traffic volumes for low volume Wyoming roads. The models developed were recommended for use in traffic volume estimations for low volume roads in pavement management and environmental impact assessment studies.

  9. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  10. BEST PRACTICES TO SUPPORT AND IMPROVE PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR LOW-VOLUME PAVED ROADS – PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been trying to identify the most effective methods for managing low-volume roads (LVRs). These roads are facing multiple challenges including: reductions in maintenance budgets, impact of industria...

  11. The influence of management and construction methods in the repair costs of Spain’s low-volume road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutiquio Gallego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the entire process of the implementation of the Spanish low volume road network, including the design criteria, the construction techniques and the management policies during all the periods. The current situation of low volume roads in Spain was analyzed with respect to the legal framework and their actual condition. In addition, the budget required for the repair of 41 low volume roads throughout Spain was calculated in order to statistically analyze the influence of the pavement materials and the period of construction. The main conclusions were that low volume roads constructed during the 1970´s are currently those in the best state of repair and those requiring the lower repair costs, even lower than those constructed after 1980´s. In addition, low volume roads constructed with higher quality materials and using standardized techniques required five times lower repair costs than those made of lower quality materials.

  12. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  13. Soft Asphalt and Double Otta Seal—Self-Healing Sustainable Techniques for Low-Volume Gravel Road Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased traffic flow on low-volume gravel roads and deficiencies of national road infrastructure, are increasingly apparent in Lithuania. Gravel roads do not comply with requirements, resulting in low driving comfort, longer travelling time, faster vehicle amortization, and dustiness. The control of dustiness is one of the most important road maintenance activities on gravel roads. Another important issue is the assurance of required driving comfort and safety. Soft asphalt and Otta Seal technologies were proposed as a sustainable solution for the improvement of low-volume roads in Lithuania. Five gravel roads were constructed with soft asphalt, and 13 gravel roads were sealed with double Otta Seal, in 2012. The main aim of this research was to check soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal, on the basis of the results of the qualitative visual assessment of pavement defects and distress. The qualitative visual assessment was carried out twice a year following the opening of the rehabilitated road sections. The results confirmed soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal. The healing effect was more than 13% and 19% on roads with soft asphalt and double Otta Seal, respectively. In addition, on some roads, all cracks observed in spring self-healed during summer.

  14. Accelerated pavement testing of low-volume paved roads with geocell reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed by the highway : departments of Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and New York, has supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project : to study the rehabilitation of low-volum...

  15. Applying the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) design method to low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) has been in use since the 1950s for various applications in pavement investigation. During the 1980s, Kleyn and Van Zyl described a method for upgrading unsealed roads to light sealed road standard based...

  16. Developing A Framework for Low-Volume Road Implementation of Pervious Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rahman, BSc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pervious concrete pavement is one of the promising pavement technologies, as it can help overcome traditional pavement environmental impacts, assist with stormwater management, and provide an effective low impact development solution. There are many benefits associated with pervious concrete pavement such as assisting with water filtration, absorbing heavy metals and reducing pollution. The most significant aspect, which draws the attention of environmental agencies and cities and municipalities, is its ability to reduce storm water runoff. Pervious concrete is documented as the paramount solution in storm water management by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Though it has been used in the southern United States for years, the practice of using pervious concrete is more recent in northern climates where freeze thaw is observed. In Canada, several pervious concrete parking lots have been constructed over the past few years. However barriers exist for implementing the technology, as designers are not always fully informed on the various functional and structural design considerations. In this paper, a framework is developed to identify how pervious concrete can be integrated into low-volume infrastructure. This paper also summarizes the structural performance and drainage characteristics of pervious concrete parking lots constructed in various provinces of Canada, demonstrating the viability of pervious concrete for low-volume northern applications.

  17. Optimum design of sustainable sealed low volume roads using the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available in a reduction in the need to import large quantities of virgin material. Appropriate testing with the simple DCP test device can be used to assess the in situ conditions including material quality and moisture regimes along the road alignment...

  18. Safety impacts of rural road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Crash data in Kentucky show that the fatal crash rate on two-lane rural roads is substantially higher than on any other type of road. Improvements have been proposed at some locations on this type of road which involve either upgrading the existing t...

  19. Heavy vehicle simulator and laboratory testing of a light pavement structure for low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Group sandstones in the area. The engineering properties of the pavement materials are summarised in Table 1. The base layer material did not satisfy the grading and CBR requirements (CSRA, 1984) to be classified as a G4 material and the material... upgrading. Table 1. Engineering properties of the material from the main pavement layers on Road 538 Pavement layerEngineering properties Base Subbase Imported Sand In situ sand Grading Modulus (GM) 2.101 1.422 1.179 1.030 Liquid Limit (LL) 17 SP NP...

  20. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  1. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available be reduced, the result remains environmentally unsustainable. Low cost but appropriate techniques for upgrading these roads cost-effectively to sealed standards have been implemented in many countries recently. These techniques optimize the use of local...

  2. Improving safety on rural local and tribal roads safety toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Rural roadway safety is an important issue for communities throughout the country and presents a challenge for state, local, and Tribal agencies. The Improving Safety on Rural Local and Tribal Roads Safety Toolkit was created to help rural local ...

  3. Performance of Low-Volume Roads with Wearing Course Layer of Silty Sandy Soil Modified with Rice Husk Ash and Lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behak Katz, L.; Musso Laespiga, M.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) is a by-product of rice milling. Its use as soil stabilizer is a way to replace the final disposal with environmental benefit. However, RHA is not cementitious itself but when mixed with lime forms cements which improve the soil properties. A research of performance of a silty sandy soil modified with RHA and lime as wearing course layer of low-volume roads was conducted through two full-scale test sections with different pavements built in Artigas, northern Uruguay. The alkaline reactivity of RHA is low because the husk burning is not controlled. The soil-RHA-lime mix design was conducted according to the Thompson’s Method. The pavement test sections were monitored through deflection measures by Benkelman beam and observations of surface condition. The deflections decreased over time in both test sections due to the development of cementation of the study materials. After one year, the dust emission was reduced, the wet skid resistance of pavement surfaces improved and there was not rutting. The researched pavements have had a good performance under the existing traffic and environmental conditions, demonstrating that wearing course layer of silty sand modified with RHA and lime is an alternative to improve the condition of low-volume roads and to replace the final disposal of RHA, with environmental, social and economic benefits. (Author)

  4. Life-cycle cost comparison of alternative surfacing for steep slopes on low-volume roads in Ghana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available surfacing options to gravel wearing courses used on steep gradients (in excess of 12%) of feeder roads in Ghana. A major outcome was three surfacing options (i.e. concrete, bituminous and stone setts/cobbles) that would be more effective to address drainage...

  5. Recognizablility of rural roads in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics

  6. Trauma on rural roads: the role of a peripheral hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J T

    2012-02-03

    Road accident trauma is a leading cause of death and serious morbidity among healthy young adults in the developed world. The Irish Republic has the third worst road safety record in the EU. In studying the unique demographics of rural road accidents, our aim was to provide information essential to the future development of trauma care in Ireland. Our figures highlight the inadequacies of data received by the National Roads Authority, illustrate the resource impact of road trauma on a peripheral hospital, and demonstrate the need for similar studies in the rationalisation of trauma care as we approach the next millennium.

  7. Rural Roads and Local Market Development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Ren; van de Walle, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The authors assess impacts of rural road rehabilitation on market development at the commune level in rural Vietnam and examine the variance of those impacts and the geographic, community, and household factors that explains it. Double difference and matching methods are used to address sources of selection bias in identifying impacts. The results point to significant average impacts on the ...

  8. Marginal effects of rural roads and irrigation canals on woody and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    smaller patches by rural roads network with significant edge effects on plant species composition and abundance. In this study .... information and road inventory details. ... field tests of anti-erosion and maintenance techniques on terrene rural ...

  9. A good road lies easy on the land: Water harvesting from low-standard rural roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zeedyk, B.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This book addresses the construction and maintenance of unpaved rural roads including strategies, techniques and practices for dealing with problems frequently encountered by landowners, land managers and maintenance personnel. Running water is the primary force affecting road condition and generating the need for maintenance. Economical maintenance means dealing effectively with water, but not just surface runoff. Standing water, seeping water, rain, snow, ice, frost ...

  10. Reducing habitat fragmentation on minor rural roads through traffic calming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Willems, G.P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The rural road network suffers continually from ambiguity. On the one hand, the presence of this network and its traffic flows offer accessibility and make a contribution to economic development. While on the other, its presence and its traffic flows cause fragmentation. The actual ecological impact

  11. Rural Brazil at the cross-roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.

    1951-01-01

    The study attempts to detect and discuss the most urgently needed changes, as to resource distribution, production methods and supporting services in Brazilian agriculture. For that, it was necessary to describe and evaluate the existing situation in rural Brazil, a task taken up in the first part

  12. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  13. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural. Farmers in West-Akim District. Esther Yeboah Da11so-Wired11. Abstract. The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation ...

  14. Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits Within Road Appraisal : A Case Study from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and impr...

  15. Risk Factors for Road Transport-Related Injury among Pedestrians in Rural Ghana: Implications for Road Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kwadjo, Enoch

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…

  16. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation systems). The study specifically discusses the failure of the existing road transport network to provide sufficient services ...

  17. The economics of potential reduction of the rural road system in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Benefitcost analysis was used to examine the question of road closure in the three counties. The cost of road : closure is the additional travel cost of rural residents due to more circuitous routing to their destinations. The benefit is : the avo...

  18. Marginal effects of rural roads and irrigation canals on woody and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Across the northern rural regions of Iran, gardens and farmlands are being fragmented into smaller and smaller patches by rural roads network with significant edge effects on plant species composition and abundance. In this study, the presence of different plant species was recorded in ninety 1´1 m plots on nine 100 m ...

  19. Calibration of the inertial consistency index to assess road safety on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Castelló, David; Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco Javier; García, Alfredo

    2018-05-26

    One of every four road fatalities occurs on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads. To this regard, many studies have been undertaken to analyze the crash risk on this road element. Most of them were based on the concept of geometric design consistency, which can be defined as how drivers' expectancies and road behavior relate. However, none of these studies included a variable which represents and estimates drivers' expectancies. This research presents a new local consistency model based on the Inertial Consistency Index (ICI). This consistency parameter is defined as the difference between the inertial operating speed, which represents drivers' expectations, and the operating speed, which represents road behavior. The inertial operating speed was defined as the weighted average operating speed of the preceding road section. In this way, different lengths, periods of time, and weighting distributions were studied to identify how the inertial operating speed should be calculated. As a result, drivers' expectancies should be estimated considering 15 s along the segment and a linear weighting distribution. This was consistent with drivers' expectancies acquirement process, which is closely related to Short-Term Memory. A Safety Performance Function was proposed to predict the number of crashes on a horizontal curve and consistency thresholds were defined based on the ICI. To this regard, the crash rate increased as the ICI increased. Finally, the proposed consistency model was compared with previous models. As a conclusion, the new Inertial Consistency Index allowed a more accurate estimation of the number of crashes and a better assessment of the consistency level on horizontal curves. Therefore, highway engineers have a new tool to identify where road crashes are more likely to occur during the design stage of both new two-lane rural roads and improvements of existing highways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection and analyse of hazardous roads in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    For the last period of 5-10 years the notion "Grey roads" (hazardous roads) has appeared in Danish traffic safety work and improvement of these roads has become a very important part of the traffic safety work in many countries. The problem is, that the notion never has been clearly defined......, and therefore there are no unambiguos methods to point out and analyse "Grey roads". In this article based on a ph.D.-project a method to detecting "Grey roads" is introduced....

  1. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban–rural gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2013-01-01

    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban–rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RI RDS was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RI RDS . These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban–rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. Highlights: ► Spatial pattern of metal risk level associated with road-deposited sediment (RDS) along urban–rural gradients varied. ► Risk level of metals changed significantly when grain size was considered. ► A new index integrating RDS characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed. ► Results from the new index were improved relative to those of traditional assessment methods. -- A new index integrating road-deposited sediment characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed to assess metal risk along the urban–rural gradient

  2. Hydrogeomorphic connectivity on roads crossing in rural headwaters and its effect on stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L; Peretto, Gustavo T

    2016-04-15

    Unpaved roads are ubiquitous features that have been transforming the landscape through human history. Unpaved roads affect the water and sediment pathways through a catchment and impacts the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, we describe the effect of unpaved road on the hydrogeomorphic connectivity at the rural headwater scale. Measurement was based on the stream crossing approach, i.e., road superimposing the drainage system. We installed a Parshall flume coupled with single-stage suspended sediment sampler at each stream crossing. In addition, we displayed our monitoring scheme with an upscaling perspective from second-order to third-order stream. We concluded that the road-stream coupling dramatically changed the stream dynamic. The increase of discharge caused by roads at the headwater was 50% larger compared to unaffected streams. Additionally, suspended sediment concentration enhancement at stream crossings ranged from to 413% at second-order streams to 145% at third-order streams. The landform characteristics associated with the road network produced an important hydrogeomorphic disruption in the landscape. As a result, the sediment filter function of the riparian zone was reduced dramatically. Therefore, we recommend that projects for aquatic system restoration or conservation in rural landscape consider the role of the road network on stream dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic life support and automated external defibrillator skills among ambulance personnel: a manikin study performed in a rural low-volume ambulance setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the ‘Chain of Survival’. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island. Methods The Basic Life Support (BLS and Automated External Defibrillator (AED skills of the ambulance personnel were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest. Points were given according to a scoring sheet. One sample t test was used to analyze the deviation from optimal care according to the 2005 guidelines. After each assessment, individual feedback was given. Results On 3 consecutive days, we assessed the individual EMS teams responding to OHCA on the island. Overall, 70% of the maximal points were achieved. The hands-off ratio was 40%. Correct compression/ventilation ratio (30:2 was used by 80%. A mean compression depth of 40–50 mm was achieved by 55% and the mean compression depth was 42 mm (SD 7 mm. The mean compression rate was 123 per min (SD 15/min. The mean tidal volume was 746 ml (SD 221 ml. Only the mean tidal volume deviated significantly from the recommended (p = 0.01. During the rhythm analysis, 65% did not perform any visual or verbal safety check. Conclusion The EMS providers achieved 70% of the maximal points. Tidal volumes were larger than recommended when mask ventilation was applied. Chest compression depth was optimally performed by 55% of the staff. Defibrillation safety checks were not performed in 65% of EMS providers.

  4. Addressing Road Infrastructural Needs of Rural Communities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... In addition to extensive review of official document of Abia State governments, structured ... and recommends strategic measures for improving the road network and promoting social and ...

  5. Testing bird response to roads on a rural environment: A case study from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Jerzak, Leszek; Pruscini, Fabio; Santolini, Riccardo; Benedetti, Yanina; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The construction of roads is currently well spread in many parts of our world and impacts strongly on wildlife distribution. Some bird species avoid, while other prefer to be in the vicinity of these human structures. However, studies on roads effects on birds, in terms of strength or direction of these effects, are scarce. Therefore, in a study carried out in Central Italy we tested the responses of different bird species to roads at a local spatial scale, using generalized linear models (GLM). Analysis were conducted on a large dataset (more than 1400 sampled sites, mainly on rural environments). Both positive and negative effects of roads on birds were found for bird species of close or semi-close environments, while the negative effects of roads were negligible for bird species of open and semi-open environments. This fact suggest that roads can be a source of "functional heterogeneity" on semi-open environments, providing marginal habitats, hedgerows and residual vegetation typical of roadsides, offering breeding and feeding habitat for some bird species. The proposed methodology provide a useful explorative tool, in order to develop conservation policies to preserve the biodiversity, mainly in rural landscapes. The outputs of GLM can be used as inputs in ecological planning: direction and strength of the effects of roads on bird species are adequate to estimate the response of bird community, up front to the presence of new structures, or identifying which of them should be mitigated to reduce negative effects on the biodiversity.

  6. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  7. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andishe Ranjbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. METHODS: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. RESULTS: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of

  8. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ali Tavakoli; Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2012-01-01

    Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART) was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads, and paying attention to the design consistency of

  9. Effects of transverse rumble strips on safety of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Huang, Jia; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chengcheng

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of transverse rumble strips in reducing crashes and vehicle speeds at pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China. Using crash data reported at 366 sites, the research team conducted an observational before-after study using a comparison group and the Empirical Bayesian (EB) method to evaluate the effectiveness of transverse rumble strips in reducing crashes at pedestrian crosswalks. It was found that transverse rumble strips may reduce expected crash frequency at pedestrian crosswalks by 25%. The research team collected more than 15,000 speed observations at 12 sites. The speed data analysis results show that transverse rumble strips significantly reduce vehicle speeds in vicinity of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads with posted speed limits of 60 km/h and 80 km/h. On average, the mean speed at pedestrian crosswalks declined 9.2 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h; and 11.9 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The 85th percentile speed declined 9.1 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h; and 12.0 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. However, the speed reduction impacts were not found to be statistically significant for the pedestrian crosswalk on the road with a speed limit of 40 km/h. The study also looked extensively at the influence area of transverse rumble strips on rural roads. Speed profiles developed in this study show that the influence area of transverse rumble strips is generally less than 0.3 km. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assisted overtaking : An assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing

  11. FROM THE ROAD SIGN TO THE MAP: 3D MODELING IN SUPPORT OF THE URBAN AND RURAL ROAD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palummo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, commonly known as a drone, and an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have been spreading on a massive scale during the last few years, especially for civilian use. And this situation can have significant repercussions on the ways and purposes with which we make photogrammetry nowadays. In this brief article we take into account the italian road signs as a case study on which to apply the new potential of photogrammetry realized with the aid of drones. Our main purpose is to achieve a specific method which allows the calculation of centimeter precision measurements of solids reconstructed for a mapping of (public and private road signs which require verification or replacement in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Our hope is that this new approach to photogrammetry may arise opportunities for dialogue with policy makers especially where the usefulness of mapping could also appear predictive with respect to recurrent issues before they become consolidated.

  12. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  14. Municipal consultation key to understanding haul road maintenance agreements for Saskatchewan rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Current municipal perspectives regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. Municipal jurisdiction and authority regarding road development and heavy haul road maintenance agreements were defined. Based on actual work experience, collaborative working relationships between the oil and gas industry and the municipal sector is well worth some industry time and effort since it will result in cost savings for the industry. In general, rural municipalities receive very limited tax benefits to recapture the costs of road reconstruction and maintenance caused by heavy industry traffic. Road servicing costs can be recaptured only if companies respect the weight limits, hauling regulations and road bans. On the whole, municipalities in Saskatchewan are favourably disposed towards the oil and gas industry, and have done well in the past to accommodate industry's needs. It is not unreasonable therefore to expect that industry show sensitivity to the impact of its activities on the local municipality, and does its level best to be on good terms with the municipalities through early two-way communication. Text of some relevant acts of the Legislature respecting the powers and authorities of rural municipalities are appended

  15. Towards appropriate standards for rural roads: discussion document

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Zyl, GD

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available signs 6-7 6.9 Road markings 6-11 6.10 Delineation 6-11 6.11 References 6·12 '~ CHAPTER 7: SAFETY ASPECTS 7.1 Introduction 7-1 7.2 Design and construction 7-2 7.3 Maintenance and rehabilitation 7-9 7.4 Legal aspects 7-11 7.5 References 7... The major comment on Chapter3 : Geometric D.::sign relates to the philosophy adopted namely where it is proposed thai the operating speed approaches the design speed against the existing practice where there is a marked difference between the two speeds...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis Based SVM Application on Automatic Incident Detection of Rural Road in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingliang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional automatic incident detection methods such as artificial neural networks, backpropagation neural network, and Markov chains are not suitable for addressing the incident detection problem of rural roads in China which have a relatively high accident rate and a low reaction speed caused by the character of small traffic volume. This study applies the support vector machine (SVM and parameter sensitivity analysis methods to build an accident detection algorithm in a rural road condition, based on real-time data collected in a field experiment. The sensitivity of four parameters (speed, front distance, vehicle group time interval, and free driving ratio is analyzed, and the data sets of two parameters with a significant sensitivity are chosen to form the traffic state feature vector. The SVM and k-fold cross validation (K-CV methods are used to build the accident detection algorithm, which shows an excellent performance in detection accuracy (98.15% of the training data set and 87.5% of the testing data set. Therefore, the problem of low incident reaction speed of rural roads in China could be solved to some extent.

  17. Road safety practices among commercial motorcyclists in a rural town in Nigeria: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, O E; Eme, Owoaje; Giwa, O A; Gbolahan, O B

    This cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Igboora. All the commercial motor parks in Igboora were visited and all the commercial motorcyclists who consented to participate in the study were interviewed. Information on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, and the practice of road safety measures was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 299 motorcyclists were interviewed. All (100%) of them were males. The mean age of the respondents was 27.4 +/- 7.4 years. One hundred eighty-two (60.7%) of the motorcyclists had the correct knowledge of the purpose of Highway Code. Only 70 (23.3%) could recognize more than half of the currently used road safety codes and 47 (15.7%) obey these road safety codes more than half of the time they see it. Only 183 (61.2%) of them had a driving license and 72 (24.1%) were able to produce these licenses on demand. All (100%) of the respondents did not use any protective helmet. Those who have longer years of working experience, higher level of education and higher knowledge of the safety codes practice it more regularly (r = 0.198, p = 0.001, chi2= 9.31, p = 0.025, and r = 0.28, p = 0.001 respectively). One hundred thirty-six (45.5%) have been involved in at least one accident in the preceding year. The overall incidence of road traffic accident was 2.16 per 1,000. There was however on statistically significant association between the practice of road safety codes and the occurrence of road traffic accidents (chi2= 0.176, p = 0.916). The study shows that the practice of road safety measures was low in this rural Nigerian community and was not associated with the incidence of road traffic accidents. Introducing road safety education particularly targeted at educating the motorcyclists on the importance and practice of road safety measures would lead to an increase in the practice of the safety measures and hopefully a reduction in the incidence

  18. The changes of densities and patterns of roads and rural buildings: a case study on Dongzhi Yuan of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Ge, Jianping

    2010-05-01

    Roads and buildings are considered as primary causes of rural landscape changes. In this study, linear regression models were used to analyze the dynamic influences of environmental factors and variables on roads and rural buildings from 1979 to 2005 in Dongzhi Yuan (tableland) of the Loess Plateau, China. The relationship between roads and rural buildings and their effects on Dongzhi Yuan are discussed also. The results showed that three environmental factors (topography, land cover, and development level) explained roads better than rural buildings referring densities and patterns. The environmental variables significantly related to roads have decreased, whereas those related to rural buildings have increased over time. Among these significant variables, percent of farmland mostly determined the densities and patterns of both roads and rural buildings. There was significant correlation between roads and rural buildings in terms of density and pattern. In addition, roads and rural buildings have increased greatly in gully areas of this region. Therefore, more attention should be paid to planning of roads and rural buildings in Dongzhi Yuan.

  19. A hybrid clustering and classification approach for predicting crash injury severity on rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminejad, Seyed Hessam-Allah; Zahedi, Mohsen; Hasheminejad, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2018-03-01

    As a threat for transportation system, traffic crashes have a wide range of social consequences for governments. Traffic crashes are increasing in developing countries and Iran as a developing country is not immune from this risk. There are several researches in the literature to predict traffic crash severity based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector machines and decision trees. This paper attempts to investigate the crash injury severity of rural roads by using a hybrid clustering and classification approach to compare the performance of classification algorithms before and after applying the clustering. In this paper, a novel rule-based genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to predict crash injury severity, which is evaluated by performance criteria in comparison with classification algorithms like ANN. The results obtained from analysis of 13,673 crashes (5600 property damage, 778 fatal crashes, 4690 slight injuries and 2605 severe injuries) on rural roads in Tehran Province of Iran during 2011-2013 revealed that the proposed GA method outperforms other classification algorithms based on classification metrics like precision (86%), recall (88%) and accuracy (87%). Moreover, the proposed GA method has the highest level of interpretation, is easy to understand and provides feedback to analysts.

  20. Pattern of Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents Presented at a Rural Teaching Institution of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to study the pattern of injuries from road traffic accidents presented at the emergency department of a rural teaching institution in Karachi. This descriptive case series was conducted prospectively in the Emergency Department of Fatima Hospital and Baqai Medical University from 1 January 2012 to 21 March 2013. There were 385 patients in the series. All of the patients with recent injuries from road traffic accidents were included. Cases with injuries more than 72 h old were excluded. The majority of patients had lower limb injuries 172 (44.7%), followed by head and neck injuries 107 (27.8%), multiple injuries 62 (16.1%), upper limb injuries 22 (5.7%), abdominoperineal injuries 19 (5%), and chest injuries 3 (0.8%). Majority (229, 59.5%) of patients were given first aid treatment and discharged, while 151 (39.3%) patients were either admitted or referred to better equipped hospitals. Three patients were brought dead, and two patients left against medical advice. The lower limb injuries were the commonest road traffic accidental injuries, followed by head and neck injuries, multiple injuries, upper limb injuries, abdominoperineal injuries, and chest injuries.

  1. Identifying significant predictors of head-on conflicts on two-lane rural roads using inductive loop detectors data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Tavakoli-Kashani, Ali; Nosrati, Hadi; Ranjbari, Andisheh

    2011-12-01

    To identify the significant factors that influence head-on conflicts resulting from dangerous overtaking maneuvers on 2-lane rural roads in Iran. A traffic conflict technique was applied to 12 two-lane rural roads in order to investigate the potential situations for accidents to occur and thus to identify the geometric and traffic factors affecting traffic conflicts. Traffic data were collected via the inductive loop detectors installed on these roads, and geometric characteristics were obtained through field observations. Two groups of data were then analyzed independently by Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate their relationship to traffic conflicts. The independent variables were percentage of time spent following (PTSF), percentage of heavy vehicles, directional distribution of traffic (DDT), mean speed, speed standard deviation, section type, road width, longitudinal slope, holiday or workday, and lighting condition. It was indicated that increasing the PTSF, decreasing the percentage of heavy vehicles, increasing the mean speed (up to 75 km/h), increasing DDT in the range of 0 to 60 percent, and decreasing the standard deviation of speed significantly increased the occurrence of traffic conflicts. It was also revealed that traffic conflicts occur more frequently on curve sections and on workdays. The variables road width, slope, and lighting condition were found to have a minor effect on conflict occurrence. To reduce the number of head-on conflicts on the aforementioned roads, some remedial measures are suggested, such as not constructing long "No Passing" zones and constructing passing lanes where necessary; keeping road width at the standard value; constructing roads with horizontal curves and a high radius and using appropriate road markings and overtaking-forbidden signs where it is impossible to modify the radius; providing enough light and installing caution signs/devices on the roads; and intensifying police control and supervision on workdays

  2. Pattern of Road Traffic Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Burden Estimates and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Baset, Md Kamran; Rahman, Aminur; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur

    2017-11-07

    Globally, road traffic injury (RTI) causes 1.3 million deaths annually. Almost 90% of all RTI deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. RTI is one of the leading causes of death in Bangladesh; the World Health Organization estimated that it kills over 21,000 people in the country annually. This study describes the current magnitude and risk factors of RTI for different age groups in rural Bangladesh. A household census was carried out in 51 unions of seven sub-districts situated in the north and central part of Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1.2 million individuals. Trained data collectors collected information on fatal and nonfatal RTI events through face-to-face interviews using a set of structured pre-tested questionnaires. The recall periods for fatal and non-fatal RTI were one year and six months, respectively. The mortality and morbidity rates due to RTI were 6.8/100,000 population/year and 889/100,000 populations/six months, respectively. RTI mortality and morbidity rates were significantly higher among males compared to females. Deaths and morbidities due to RTI were highest among those in the 25-64 years age group. A higher proportion of morbidity occurred among vehicle passengers (34%) and pedestrians (18%), and more than one-third of the RTI mortality occurred among pedestrians. Twenty percent of all nonfatal RTIs were classified as severe injuries. RTI is a major public health issue in rural Bangladesh. Immediate attention is needed to reduce preventable deaths and morbidities in rural Bangladesh.

  3. Distinguishing between Rural and Urban Road Segment Traffic Safety Based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the traffic crash rate, total crash frequency, and injury and fatal crash frequency were taken into consideration for distinguishing between rural and urban road segment safety. The GIS-based crash data during four and half years in Pikes Peak Area, US were applied for the analyses. The comparative statistical results show that the crash rates in rural segments are consistently lower than urban segments. Further, the regression results based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB regression models indicate that the urban areas have a higher crash risk in terms of both total crash frequency and injury and fatal crash frequency, compared to rural areas. Additionally, it is found that crash frequencies increase as traffic volume and segment length increase, though the higher traffic volume lower the likelihood of severe crash occurrence; compared to 2-lane roads, the 4-lane roads have lower crash frequencies but have a higher probability of severe crash occurrence; and better road facilities with higher free flow speed can benefit from high standard design feature thus resulting in a lower total crash frequency, but they cannot mitigate the severe crash risk.

  4. Environmental implications of Universal Rural Road Access Program (URRAP roads in Southwestern Ethiopia: The case of Jimma and Buno Bedelle zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Negesso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has been undertaking numerous development programs and projects with the objective of taking a country to the middle-income countries in the near future. Universal Rural Road Access Program (URRAP roads being constructed in Jimma and Bunno Bedele zones are among the projects in Ethiopia. Although these projects are assumed to bring desirable positive change, there are sometimes negative consequences on environmental issues. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the negative sides of these projects on environmental elements. Household survey with randomly selected household heads and in-depth interview, focus group discussion (FGD and observation for purposively selected samples were used to collect relevant and required data. Thereby, data were analyzed quantitatively by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS and qualitatively through thematic method. The findings from the analyzed data show that rural roads being constructed by URRAP have both positive and negative impacts on plant species, bird species, reptile species, mammal’s species, amphibians’ species, soil, and climate. Finally, URRAP is in dilemma and needs an extensive and frequent supervision, monitoring, inclusive, interdisciplinary and sound strategies and policies by responsible bodies at all expected levels and contexts.

  5. The effect of rural road transport infrastructure on smallholder farmers’ agricultural productivity in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Tamene

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine access to rural road infrastructure and its effects on smallholder farmers’ agricultural productivity in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. A three stage random sampling technique was employed to select 500 farming households in the study area and data was collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The result of multiple regression model used revealed that distance to major market is important in predicting agricultural productivity of smallholder farmers at 5% levels of probability in Abe Dongoro, Amuru and Hababo Guduru districts. Ownership of intermediate means of transport was also found to influence agricultural productivity in Horro, Amuru and Hababo Guduru districts (p = 0.05. Further analysis of the regression model showed a significant negative correlation between distance to nearest all weather roads and distance to zonal head quarter on one hand and agricultural productivity on the other hand in Abe Dongoro, Hababo Guduru and Amuru districts. Rural kebeles of Abe Dongoro and Amuru districts which has vast agricultural potential were found to be the most inaccessible in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone. It is therefore suggested that interventions in the transport sector should include provision of rural roads as well as measures that will help improve vehicle supply in rural areas. An attempt has to be done also to increase the use of intermediate means of transport to ease agricultural inputs and outputs mobility and farm access.

  6. Local resource based approach to maintaining and preserving rural local access roads assets: Siyatentela institutional framework and governance case study discourses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and other development agencies focusing on the use of appropriate technologies for civil construction be it in the road, transport, water, agriculture or environmental sectors (World Bank 2001; ILO, 2002; Clegg, 2003). The seminal study conducted... and contribution of local resource based approach to rural and community access roads requires a review of the labour based initiatives in the road, transport and infrastructure sub-sector. An apt statement that captures the essence of building local community...

  7. Roads to agency : Effects of Enhancing Women’s Participation in Rural Roads Projects on Women’s Agency

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, and more specifically, roads construction, and maintenance are one of the core operations of the World Bank. However, despite the increase of gender mainstreaming efforts in transport projects little is known about the effects of these interventions on women’s agency defined as the ability to make effective choices and transform these choices into desired outcomes’...

  8. Evaluación de los caminos rurales: hacia un enfoque orientado al usuario. / Assessment of rural roads. Towards a user-oriented approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Sergio

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presente algunos resultados de un estudio piloto realizado para el IFRTD (Foro Internacional para el Transporte Rural y el Desarrollo, Londres sobre los temas de movilización y vialidad en la comuna de Canela, IV Región de Chile. El planteamiento es que una política coherente de vialidad rural debe tener como fundamento un entendimiento de las necesidades percibidas por las comunidades rurales y de las prioridades que expresan. Este tema se explora en el proyecto en forma preliminar utilizando metodologías cualitativas y cuantitativas para investigar las necesidades de movilización en diversas comunidades de Canela desde el punto de vista de los usuarios, operadores de transporte y autoridades locales. Se presentará un análisis de los resultados pertinentes al asunto de la vialidad, que pretende establecer de manera tentativa un perfil del usuario de los caminos rurales de la zona y las características de sus traslados más difíciles. Entre los resultados más significativos se destacan:Una percepción de los amplios efectos modernizadores que introduce la pavimentación de un camino de acceso al sector.La existencia de una correlación baja pero positiva entre la dificultad percibida por el usuario de su traslado y su evaluación del camino, que se ve relacionado con el modo de transporte que se ocupa.La conclusión principal del trabajo es que un conocimiento de los criterios propios con los cuales el usuario rural evalúa su traslado es necesario para una gestión exitosa de la vialidad rural./The author argues that a coherent policy for rural roads should be founded on the understanding of the perceived needs of rural communities and the priorities expressed. It describes the Methodological approaches to assess, in this way, rural roads.

  9. Evaluating the employment-generating impact of rural roads in Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the employment-generating impact of a tertiary road project in Nicaragua, applying a matched double-difference approach to control for initial conditions and time variant factors that simultaneously influence the placement of roads and subsequent employment growth rates. Results......, more integrated road networks....

  10. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Road Towards Sustainable Rural Development : Issues of Theory, Policy and Research Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsden, T.; Banks, J.; Renting, H.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Developing a more widespread diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices as part of progressing rural sustainable development is being hampered by different modes of environmental social thought. This introduction to this special issue on Reconstituting of nature through rural development

  12. Risk and safety perception on urban and rural roads: Effects of environmental features, driver age and risk sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jolene A; Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J

    2017-10-03

    The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment. Factors explored were the environment in which the change occurs (i.e., urban vs. rural), the type of object that changes, and the driver's age, experience, and risk sensitivity. Sixty-three licensed drivers aged 18-70 years completed a hazard rating task, which required them to rate the perceived hazardousness of changing specific elements within urban and rural driving environments. Three attributes of potential hazards were systematically manipulated: the environment (urban, rural); the type of object changed (road sign, car, motorcycle, pedestrian, traffic light, animal, tree); and its inherent safety risk (low risk, high risk). Inherent safety risk was manipulated by either varying the object's placement, on/near or away from the road, or altering an infrastructure element that would require a change to driver behavior. Participants also completed two driving-related risk perception tasks, rating their relative crash risk and perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors. Driver age was not significantly associated with hazard ratings, but individual differences in perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors predicted hazard ratings, suggesting that general driving-related risk sensitivity plays a strong role in safety perception. In both urban and rural scenes, there were significant associations between hazard ratings and inherent safety risk, with low-risk changes perceived as consistently less hazardous than high

  13. Runoff and sediment yield from rural roads, trails and settlements in the upper Konto catchment, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, Anton; Sampurno Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Sutoto, C. Kukuh

    2007-06-01

    The potential importance of roads and settlements for the generation of storm runoff and sediment in tropical steeplands is increasingly recognised but rarely quantified. This paper presents runoff and sediment yield data for a cobbled and an unpaved road section, two large unbounded settlement plots, and several trails draining residential areas or terraced fields in a volcanic upland catchment in East Java. In addition, the sediment yield of major landslides associated with roads was quantified. The unpaved road section exhibited an average runoff coefficient of about 65% and yielded about 7 kg m - 2 yr - 1 of sediment. Both the runoff coefficient and the sediment yield for the cobbled road section (plus adjacent yards) were lower (38% and 1.9 kg m - 2 yr - 1 ). Sediment output from a 4160-m 2 hillside plot including a network of trails draining terraced fields (for which runoff and sediment outputs were shown to be negligible) was similar to that for the cobbled road (2-3 kg m - 2 yr - 1 depending on rainfall). However, a much higher value was obtained when the overall soil loss from the plot was expressed per square metre of trail surface area (ca. 42 kg m - 2 yr - 1 ) whereas the associated trail runoff coefficient was about 70%. The results obtained for several trails and large unbounded plots draining residential areas at two locations were less extreme (runoff coefficients of 24-43%; soil loss 1.3-3.5 kg m - 2 yr - 1 ). Landsliding occurred mainly at the end of the rainy season (March) and was estimated to have contributed ca. 2365 m 3 of sediment to the main road network during the 1988/89 wet season vs. ca. 905 m 3 in 1989/90 and only ca. 150 m 3 in 2000/01. It is concluded that, despite their relatively small areal extent (5% in the study area), rural roads, trails and settlements are significant producers of runoff and sediment at the catchment scale and should be included in watershed management programmes designed to reduce catchment sediment yields

  14. Trends of child undernutrition in rural Ecuadorian communities with differential access to roads, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Velma K; Dombecki, Carolyn; Trostle, James; Mogrovejo, Patricia; Castro Morillo, Nancy; Cevallos, William; Goldstick, Jason; Jones, Andrew D; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2018-02-07

    Road access can influence protective and risk factors associated with nutrition by affecting various social and biological processes. In northern coastal Ecuador, the construction of new roads created a remoteness gradient among villages, providing a unique opportunity to examine the impact of roads on child nutritional outcomes 10 years after the road was built. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements were collected from 2,350 children road access. Logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed the longitudinal association between village remoteness and prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight, overweight, obesity, and anaemia. We examined the influence of socio-economic characteristics on the pathway between remoteness and nutrition by comparing model results with and without household-level socio-economic covariates. Remoteness was associated with stunting (OR = 0.43, 95% CI [0.30, 0.63]) and anaemia (OR = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44, 0.70]). Over time, the prevalence of stunting was generally decreasing but remained higher in villages closer to the road compared to those farther away. Obesity increased (0.5% to 3%) over time; wasting was high (6%) but stable during the study period. Wealth and education partially explained the better nutritional outcomes in remote vs. road villages more than a decade after some communities gained road access. Establishing the extent to which these patterns persist requires additional years of observation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analysis of the injury severity of crashes by considering different lighting conditions on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Anarkooli, A; Hadji Hosseinlou, M

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have examined different factors contributing to the injury severity of crashes; however, relatively few studies have focused on the crashes by considering the specific effects of lighting conditions. This research investigates lighting condition differences in the injury severity of crashes using 3-year (2009-2011) crash data of two-lane rural roads of the state of Washington. Separate ordered-probit models were developed to predict the effects of a set of factors expected to influence injury severity in three lighting conditions; daylight, dark, and dark with street lights. A series of likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine if these lighting condition models were justified. The modeling results suggest that injury severity in specific lighting conditions are associated with contributing factors in different ways, and that such differences cannot be uncovered by focusing merely on one aggregate model. Key differences include crash location, speed limit, shoulder width, driver action, and three collision types (head-on, rear-end, and right-side impact collisions). This paper highlights the importance of deploying street lights at and near intersections (or access points) on two-lane rural roads because injury severity highly increases when crashes occur at these points in dark conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  16. Misuse of speed-bumps on two-lane main rural roads. A generalized practice in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderas Volcanes, R.J.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    Settlements of uncontrolled population on side of road in Venezuela originate the excessive use of traffic speed reducers to mitigate accidents. Misuse of these speed control devices generate problem of functionality in the two-lane main rural roads which requires to be studied to demonstrate its effect on the capacity and level of service. Although other factors may occur (i.e, environmental problems and health), the disproportionate use of speed-bumps worsens circulation quality by increase of travel time as most sensitive parameter. Where this effect not can be reversed it should be made efforts to mitigate speed using another traffic-calming device. The studied stretches are selected according to particular characteristics such as: urban settlement, isolated speed-bump and its installation in series, including case without speed-bumps which guarantees the proper contrast. Video cameras to detect the travel time of vehicles are used in each road section, it allow the measures of other parameters. The travel time distribution with or without speed-bumps and probability distribution that characterizes vehicle movement in each stretch allows the simulation and modeling with the ARENA software. Travel time allows obtain the speed which, together with the volume of traffic, determines the level of service according to the Highway Capacity Manual criterion. The economic cost of substitute measures versus travel time is evaluated and may be useful in decision-making or implementation of better policies by transport governmental institutions. (Author)

  17. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RURAL HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background- Accidents occur not only due to ignorance but also due to carelessness, thoughtlessness and over confidence. Human, vehicular and environmental factors play role before, during and after a Road Traffic Accidents (RTA. Road traffic injuries are partially predictable and hence preventable. Objectives- To study the pattern of road traffic accidents, socio demographic profile of road traffic injury victims seeking care at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences And Research, Mullana and to study the antecedent factors influencing the road traffic accidents. Material and Methods-The present cross-sectional study was carried out at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (MMIMSR, Mullana (Ambala. All the victims who reported to MMIMSR emergency and various OPD clinics of the institute between September 2009 to February 2011 were included in the study. Various parameters like age and sex distribution, time of occurrence, protective gears worn, injuries sustained, receipt of First -Aid, alcohol consumption, category of road user, vehicles involved in RTA, types of RTA, road conditions, environmental conditions etc were studied and valid conclusions were drawn. Results- There was a marked male preponderance (88.77 % with maximum involvement of younger age groups. Most of the accidents had taken place in the evening hours (6 pm -12 midnight. The vulnerable road users like motorized two wheeler, LMV and pedestrians constituted 41.52%, 19.39% and 13.41% respectively. Only 158 of 545 two-wheeler users wore a helmet at the time of injury. 16.24% of drivers did not have a valid driving license. Not using indicator lights and not following speed limits were two most common factors responsible for these RTA.

  18. Economic impact of closing low-volume rural bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The State of Kansas has approximately 25,464 bridges that are located on the state, county and : city roadway network. As the infrastructure in Kansas ages, bridges can become structurally : deficient or functionally obsolete. The Kansas Department o...

  19. Multiple job holding in rural villages and the Chinese road to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe; Jingzhong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the interrelations that exist between rural China's peasant economy and the wider economy in which it is embedded. In doing so it focuses on the circular flows that link town and countryside. Multiple job holding is strategic in this respect. The paper draws on research undertaken in a peasant village in Hebei Province. The research highlights some remarkable differences that exist between development processes in China and in other developing countries and traces these back to a combination of an enlightened rural policy and the strong linkages that exist between rural China and its urban "global factory".

  20. Social Impact of Improved Rural Roads: A Case Study from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the assessment reveal that the improvement of the road increased agricultural production, commercialization of agriculture and improved the timely availability of agricultural inputs to farmers. It has led to greater accessibility of markets, reduced transportation costs and enhanced food security. Other challenges ...

  1. Comparisons of Traffic Collisions between Expressways and Rural Roads in Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbok Lee

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study can be used as a guideline and a base line to develop a plan of action to prevent traffic accidents. It can also help to prepare formal regulations about a truck driver's vehicle maintenance and driving attitude for a precaution on road accidents.

  2. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  3. Use of ultralight aircraft for material location and road surveys in remote rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, DJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available . Botanical indicators in road construction include trees, shrubs, flowers and grasses, although ferns and fungi may also be relevant. The presence of many plant species and even the nature of their growth often depend on the mineralogical and physical... of leaves, abnormally shaped fruits, changes of colour in the flowers, disturbances in the rhythm of the flowering period and changes in growth form. Total plant biomass towards less dense or more open conditions is common in areas of ultramafic rock...

  4. A multi criteria analog model for assessing the vulnerability of rural catchments to road spills of hazardous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Hygor Evangelista; Pissarra, Teresa Cristina Tarlé [Departamento de Engenharia Rural, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal (Brazil); Farias do Valle Junior, Renato [Laboratório de Geoprocessamento, Instituto Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Campus Uberaba, Uberaba (Brazil); Fernandes, Luis Filipe Sanches [Centro de Investigação e Tecnologias Agroambientais e Biológicas, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Ap 1013, 5001–801 Vila Real (Portugal); Pacheco, Fernando António Leal, E-mail: fpacheco@utad.pt [Centro de Química de Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Ap 1013, 5001–801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Road spills of hazardous substances are common in developing countries due to increasing industrialization and traffic accidents, and represent a serious threat to soils and water in catchments. There is abundant literature on equations describing the wash-off of pollutants from roads during a storm event and there are a number of watershed models incorporating those equations in storm water quality algorithms that route runoff and pollution yields through a drainage system towards the catchment outlet. However, methods describing catchment vulnerability to contamination by road spills based solely on biophysical parameters are scarce. These methods could be particularly attractive to managers because they can operate with a limited amount of easily collectable data, while still being able to provide important insights on the areas more prone to contamination within the studied watershed. The purpose of this paper was then to contribute with a new vulnerability model. To accomplish the goal, a selection of medium properties appearing in wash-off equations and routing algorithms were assembled and processed in a parametric framework based on multi criteria analysis to define the watershed vulnerability. However, parameters had to be adapted because wash-off equations and water quality models have been developed to operate primarily in the urban environment while the vulnerability model is meant to run in rural watersheds. The selected parameters were hillside slope, ground roughness (depending on land use), soil permeability (depending on soil type), distance to water courses and stream density. The vulnerability model is a spatially distributed algorithm that was prepared to run under the IDRISI Selva software, a GIS platform capable of handling spatial and alphanumeric data and execute the necessary terrain model, hydrographic and thematic analyses. For illustrative purposes, the vulnerability model was applied to the legally protected Environmental Protection

  5. A multi criteria analog model for assessing the vulnerability of rural catchments to road spills of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Hygor Evangelista; Pissarra, Teresa Cristina Tarlé; Farias do Valle Junior, Renato; Fernandes, Luis Filipe Sanches; Pacheco, Fernando António Leal

    2017-01-01

    Road spills of hazardous substances are common in developing countries due to increasing industrialization and traffic accidents, and represent a serious threat to soils and water in catchments. There is abundant literature on equations describing the wash-off of pollutants from roads during a storm event and there are a number of watershed models incorporating those equations in storm water quality algorithms that route runoff and pollution yields through a drainage system towards the catchment outlet. However, methods describing catchment vulnerability to contamination by road spills based solely on biophysical parameters are scarce. These methods could be particularly attractive to managers because they can operate with a limited amount of easily collectable data, while still being able to provide important insights on the areas more prone to contamination within the studied watershed. The purpose of this paper was then to contribute with a new vulnerability model. To accomplish the goal, a selection of medium properties appearing in wash-off equations and routing algorithms were assembled and processed in a parametric framework based on multi criteria analysis to define the watershed vulnerability. However, parameters had to be adapted because wash-off equations and water quality models have been developed to operate primarily in the urban environment while the vulnerability model is meant to run in rural watersheds. The selected parameters were hillside slope, ground roughness (depending on land use), soil permeability (depending on soil type), distance to water courses and stream density. The vulnerability model is a spatially distributed algorithm that was prepared to run under the IDRISI Selva software, a GIS platform capable of handling spatial and alphanumeric data and execute the necessary terrain model, hydrographic and thematic analyses. For illustrative purposes, the vulnerability model was applied to the legally protected Environmental Protection

  6. Contribution to Accident Prediction Models Development for Rural Two-Lane Roads in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženko Glavić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades numerous research efforts have been conducted worldwide to determine the relationship between traffic accidents and traffic and road characteristics. So far, the mentioned studies have not been carried out in Serbia and in the region. This paper represents one of the first attempts to develop accident prediction models in Serbia. The paper provides a comprehensive literature review, describes procedures for collection and analysis of the traffic accident data, as well as the methodology used to develop the accident prediction models. The paper presents models obtained by both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. The obtained results are compared to the results of other studies and comparisons are discussed. Finally, the paper presents conclusions and important points for future research. The results of this research can find theoretical as well as practical application.

  7. The Road to Rural Primary Care: A Narrative Review of Factors That Help Develop, Recruit, and Retain Rural Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlier, Anna Beth; Galvin, Shelley L; Thach, Sarah; Kruidenier, David; Fagan, Ernest Blake

    2018-01-01

    To examine the literature documenting successes in recruiting and retaining rural primary care physicians. The authors conducted a narrative review of literature on individual, educational, and professional characteristics and experiences that lead to recruitment and retention of rural primary care physicians. In May 2016, they searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Grey Literature Report, and reference lists of included studies for literature published in or after 1990 in the United States, Canada, or Australia. The authors identified 83 articles meeting inclusion criteria. They synthesized results and developed a theoretical model that proposes how the findings interact and influence rural recruitment and retention. The authors' proposed theoretical model suggests factors interact across multiple dimensions to facilitate the development of a rural physician identity. Rural upbringing, personal attributes, positive rural exposure, preparation for rural life and medicine, partner receptivity to rural living, financial incentives, integration into rural communities, and good work-life balance influence recruitment and retention. However, attending medical schools and/or residencies with a rural emphasis and participating in rural training may reflect, rather than produce, intention for rural practice. Many factors enhance rural physician identity development and influence whether physicians enter, remain in, and thrive in rural practice. To help trainees and young physicians develop the professional identity of a rural physician, multifactorial medical training approaches aimed at encouraging long-term rural practice should focus on rural-specific clinical and nonclinical competencies while providing trainees with positive rural experiences.

  8. A Hard Road: Driving Local Action against Alcohol Related Problems in a Rural Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julaine Allan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Context is important in developing strategies to address alcohol related violence. Knowledge of local conditions is critical to action in rural areas. The aim of this study was to gather information about context specific alcohol related problems experienced by frontline workers in a regional centre to inform the local alcohol action plan. Frontline workers were invited to participate in one of five focus group discussions that investigated problems experienced as a result of other people’s alcohol use. Alcohol related problems were more frequently associated with time periods than any single group in the community. Social media was used to incite arguments between groups in different venues during the lock-out periods. The focus groups identified that the location of licensed premises and a taxi rank; and previous relationships between protagonists were the key contextual factors causing alcohol related problems. A second taxi rank was identified as a useful local management strategy. Supply reduction was suggested as a key factor in long term solutions to alcohol related problems in rural towns. The local liquor accord did not want to reduce supply of alcohol by closing late night venues earlier. Local action to reduce alcohol related problems will be limited to pragmatic solutions because supply reduction is unacceptable to those in the business of selling alcohol.

  9. Enrichment and sources of trace metals in roadside soils in Shanghai, China: A case study of two urban/rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Geng; Mao, Lingchen; Liu, Shuoxun; Mao, Yu; Ye, Hua; Huang, Tianshu; Li, Feipeng; Chen, Ling

    2018-08-01

    The road traffic has become one of the main sources of urban pollution and could directly affect roadside soils. To understand the level of contamination and potential sources of trace metals in roadside soils of Shanghai, 10 trace metals (Sb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) from two urban/rural roads (Hutai Road and Wunign-Caoan Road) were analyzed in this study. Antimony, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn concentrations were higher than that of soil background values of Shanghai, whereas accumulation of Cr, Co and Mn were minimal. Significantly higher Sb, Cd, Pb contents were found in samples from urban areas than those from suburban area, suggesting the impact from urbanization. The concentrations of Sb and Cd in older road (Hutai) were higher than that in younger road (Wunign-Caoan). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that Sb, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly controlled by traffic activities (e.g. brake wear, tire wear, automobile exhaust) with high contamination levels found near traffic-intensive areas; Cr, Co, Ni and Mn derived primarily from soil parent materials; Hg was related to industrial activities. Besides, the enrichment of Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn showed a decreasing trend with distance to the road edges. According to the enrichment factors (EF s ), 78.5% of Sb, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were in moderate or significant pollution, indicating considerable traffic contribution. In particular, recently introduced in automotive technology, accumulation of Sb has been recognized in 42.9% samples of both roads. The accumulation of these traffic-derived metals causes potential negative impact to human health and ecological environment and should be concerned, especially the emerging trace elements like Sb. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simplified methods for evaluating road prism stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Mark Ballerini; David Hall

    2003-01-01

    Mass failure is one of the most common failures of low-volume roads in mountainous terrain. Current methods for evaluating stability of these roads require a geotechnical specialist. A stability analysis program, XSTABL, was used to estimate the stability of 3,696 combinations of road geometry, soil, and groundwater conditions. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to...

  11. Development of regionalized SPFs for two-lane rural roads in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Gayah, Vikash V; Donnell, Eric T

    2017-11-01

    The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual (HSM) contains safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict annual crash frequencies for several roadway types. When applying these SPFs in a jurisdiction whose data were not used to develop the SPF, a calibration factor can be applied to adjust the expected crash frequency estimate to statewide or local conditions. Alternatively, the HSM suggests that transportation agencies may develop their own SPFs in lieu of applying the calibration factor to the HSM SPFs. However, the HSM does not provide guidance on the appropriate level of regionalization that should be adopted for either method, even though safety performance may vary considerably within a state. In light of this, the present study considers the development of local or regionalized SPFs for two-lane rural highways within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Three regionalization levels were considered: statewide, engineering district and individual counties. The expected crash frequency for each level of regionalization was compared to the reported crash frequency over an eight-year analysis period. The results indicate that district-level SPFs with county-level adjustment factors provide better predictive accuracy than the development of a statewide SPF or application of the HSM-calibrated SPF. The findings suggest that there are significant differences in safety performance across engineering districts within Pennsylvania. As such, other state transportation agencies developing SPFs or using calibration factors may also consider how variations across jurisdictions will affect predicted crash frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the relationships between drivers' familiarity and two-lane rural road accidents. A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Paolo; Berloco, Nicola; Colonna, Pasquale; Ranieri, Vittorio; Ryeng, Eirin

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that drivers' route familiarity/unfamiliarity (using different definitions of familiarity), and the interactions between familiar and unfamiliar drivers, may affect both the driving performances and the likelihood of road crashes. The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution in the search for relationships between familiarity and crashes by: 1) introducing a measure of familiarity based on the distance from residence; 2) analyzing a traffic and accident dataset referred to rural two-lane sections of the Norwegian highways E6 and E39; 3) using a multi-level approach, based on different perspectives, from a macro analysis to more detailed levels. In the macro analyses, the accident rates computed for different seasons and for different summer traffic variation rates (used as indicators of the share of familiar drivers in the flow) were performed. At the second level, a logistic regression model was used to explain the familiarity/unfamiliarity of drivers (based on their distance from residence), through variables retrieved from the database. In the last step, an in-depth analysis considering also accident types and dynamics was conducted. In the macro analysis, no differences were found between accident rates in the different conditions. Whereas, as emerged from the detailed analyses, the factors: high traffic volume, low summer traffic variation, autumn/winter, minor intersections/driveways, speed limits accident risk, possibly due to distraction and dangerous behaviors, while the influence of being unfamiliar on the accident proneness has some unclarified aspects. However, crashes to unfamiliar drivers may cluster at sites showing high summer traffic variation and in summer months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban-rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the contribution of road-deposited sediment (RDS) and its washoff process is essential for controlling urban runoff pollution. Ninety-seven RDS samples were collected along the urban-suburban-rural gradient from areas of five administrative units in the Beijing metropolitan region, including central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas. RDS washoff was evaluated with different particle sizes using a rainfall simulator. Heavy metal elements (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were estimated in both RDS and runoff samples. The RDS mass per unit area increased in the order UCA (21 ± 24 g/m(2)) ≈ CSA (20 ± 16 g/m(2)) runoff pollution contributions per unit area. Our findings imply that controlling the first flush in the UCA and CSA, and improving existing street cleaning methods and road surface conditions in the TRA, UVA, and RVA will be appropriate strategies for controlling runoff pollution from RDS.

  14. Water-soluble ions in nano/ultrafine/fine/coarse particles collected near a busy road and at a rural site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Chen, S.-J.; Huang, K.-L.; Lee, W.-J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Liao, C.-J.; Chaung, H.-C.; Chiu, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated water-soluble ions in the sized particles (particularly nano (PM 0.01-0.056 )/ultrafine (PM 0.01-0.1 )) collected using MOUDI and Nano-MOUDI samplers near a busy road site and at a rural site. The analytical results demonstrate that nano and coarse particles exhibited the highest (16.3%) and lowest (8.37%) nitrate mass ratios, respectively. The mass ratio of NO 3 - was higher than that of SO 4 2- in all the sized particles at the traffic site. The secondary aerosols all displayed trimodal distributions. The aerosols in ultrafine particles collected at the roadside site exhibited Aitken mode distributions indicating they were of local origin. This finding was not observed for those ultrafine particles collected at the rural site. The mass median diameters (MMDs) of the nano, ultrafine, and fine particles were smaller at the traffic site than at the rural site, possibly related to the contribution of mobile engine emissions. - NO 3 - > SO 4 2- in mass ratio, different from common observations in rural areas, was found in (particularly the nano) traffic-associated particles

  15. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume (1m3 hr-1) total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter (PM) chamber. The four PM10 and four TSP samplers were also tested in an oil pipe-cleaning field to ev...

  16. PREPARATION OF ULTRA-LOW VOLUME WEIGHT AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Koutny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved aerated concrete is a modern construction material that gains its popularity especially due to its thermal insulation performance resulting from low volume weight and porous structure with sufficient mechanical strength. Nowadays, there are attempts to use this material for thermal insulation purposes and to replace current systems, which have many disadvantages, mainly concerning durability. The key for improvement of thermal insulation properties is therefore obtaining a material based on autoclaved aerated concrete with extremely low volume weight (below 200 kg/m ³ ensuring good thermal isolation properties, but with sufficient mechanical properties to allow easy manipulation. This material can be prepared by foaming very fine powder materials such as silica fume or very finely ground sand. This paper deals with the possibilities of preparation and summarizes the basic requirements for successful preparation of such a material.

  17. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  18. Dust Prevention and Low-Volume Road Construction in South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Rasmus; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The dust reducing agent Dustex, which is made by lignosulphonate, has some more qualities than reducing the dust amounts. In several cases it is shown that the stability is increased. This is documented under some conditions, but some investigations could still be carried out. The use of the prod...

  19. Accelerated pavement testing of low-volume paved roads with geocell reinforcement : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed : by the highway departments of Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and New York, has : supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to study the rehabilitation : of low-vol...

  20. Aggregate strength for bituminous surfacings for low volume roads: a heavy vehicle simulator experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an investigation using the CSIR Transportek Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to determine the impact of using aggregates softer than specified in chip seals and to propose possible relaxations in the currently specified strength...

  1. road sector development and economic growth in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Regarding community roads, both the management and accountancy .... previous years and its impact on overall and sectoral economic growth. Descriptive analysis is deployed to capture the link between the road transport sector and performance indicators, like rural accessibility, road density, road network, road financing ...

  2. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  3. Accident prediction models for rural junctions on four European countries. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 6.1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azeredo Lopes, S. de & Lourenço Cardoso, J.

    2014-01-01

    The "Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET)" project targets objective A (Development of evaluation tools) of the Joint Call for Proposals for Safety at the Heart of Road Design ("The Call"). This project aims at developing suitable road safety engineering evaluation tools

  4. Who is left behind on the road to universal facility delivery? A cross-sectional multilevel analysis in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Larson, Elysia; Vail, Daniel; Chen, Qixuan; Mazuguni, Festo; Byalugaba, Beatrice; Mbaruku, Godfrey

    2015-08-01

    To examine factors associated with home delivery among women in Pwani Region, Tanzania, which has experienced a rapid rise in facility delivery coverage. Cross-sectional data from a population-based survey of women residing in rural areas of Pwani Region were linked to health facility locations. We fitted multilevel logistic models to examine individual and community factors associated with home delivery. A total of 752 (27.95%) of the 2691 women who completed the survey delivered their last child at home. Women were less likely to deliver at home if they had any primary education [odds ratio (OR) 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.79], were primiparous (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.73), had more exposure to media (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96) or had received more (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.96) or better quality antenatal care (ANC) services (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.67). Increased wealth was strongly associated with lower odds of home delivery (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39), as was living in a village that grew cash crops (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.88). Farther distance to hospital, but not to lower level facilities, was associated with higher likelihood of home delivery (OR 2.49; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.88). Poverty, multiparity, weak ANC and distance to hospital were associated with persistence of home delivery in a region with high coverage of facility delivery. A pro-poor path to universal coverage of safe delivery requires a greater focus on quality of care and more intensive outreach to poor and multiparous women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  6. Pontes protendidas de madeira: alternativa técnico-econômica para vias rurais Pre-stressed timber bridges: economic choice for rural roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita F. da Fonte

    2007-08-01

    minimize the budget needed to these improvements. This work reports on a technical and economical viability analysis of transversally pre-stressed timber bridges, for the use in rural and secondary roads. The analysis was made through design, construction and monitoring of the first pre-stress-laminated timber bridge in South America. The results show high performance, low cost, easy and quick execution.

  7. Housing Density and Ecosystem Function: Comparing the Impacts of Rural, Exurban, and Suburban Densities on Fire Hazard, Water Availability, and House and Road Distance Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many amenity-rich regions are experiencing rapid land-use change through low-density residential development or exurbanization. Those same natural-resource amenities that attracted migration are often degraded by housing growth and associated development. This study examines the impacts of exurbanization on three ecosystem indicators (fire hazard, water availability, and generalized distance effects of houses and roads and compares them to areas with rural and suburban housing densities in the Sonoita Plain, southeastern Arizona. We found that although they support significantly lower population densities, exurban areas have impacts on ecosystem function comparable to suburban areas. Exurban areas had the highest potential for fire, suggesting that it is the presence of people rather than the density that increases fire hazard. The increase in the number of wells in exurban areas far exceeded suburban areas and matched increases for agricultural use in rural areas. When the impacts of houses and roads on ecosystem function were considered, 98% of exurban areas were “highly” or “very highly” impacted, compared to 100% for suburban areas and 35% for rural areas. Since development in the area is not readily visible, assessing the spatial extent of impacts is important for understanding the vulnerability of systems and guiding decisions about development.

  8. Pedestrian Traffic Conditions of Rural Roads and Built-Up Areas: The Analysis of the Existing Situation and Possibilities of Improving Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemunas Abukauskas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of lengthy thorough investigations into traffic safety situation show that the percentage of pedestrians getting involved in road traffic accidents on Lithuanian roads is significantly higher (more than 33 % of the total number of injury and fatal accidents than that compared to the other European Union member-states. The article studies traffic safety problems and their factors causing the largest influence on the occurrence of these accidents. Considering valuable experience gained by foreign countries, investigation was carried out to establish general and main factors causing insufficient road safety conditions and significance of these factors to road safety. The article also shows the main activity improving road safety in Lithuania and discusses the effectiveness of strategic and local (temporary and long term measures to improve conditions for pedestrian road safety. Article in Lithuanian

  9. Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (β=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (β=1.3, Pbenefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (β=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (β=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (β=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (β=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Local government note: new perspectives of unsealed roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available in most countries. In South Africa they make up more than 75 per cent of the total road network and probably 95 per cent of the low volume road network. Unsealed roads come with various disadvantages over sealed roads, primarily the ongoing... and continual maintenance as well as the accompanying environmental problems. The maintenance, whether grader blading to restore riding quality or replacing the gravel lost under traffic and environmental actions is both costly and disruptive to the normal...

  11. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  12. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  13. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  14. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  15. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  16. Towards successful SPP treatment of local materials for road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-17

    Full Text Available This report discusses the use of certain proprietary soil stabilisers in low volume roads in South Africa. Although ionic soil stabilisers have been in use for many years, they have not been marketed to their fullest potential and in many cases have...

  17. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  18. 农村创业特点与高等农业院校大学生创业之路%Rural Business Characteristics and Pioneering Road of Students in the Higher Agricultural Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰花

    2012-01-01

    指出农村创业有条件差、资金周转慢、效益低、变数多等特点,高等农业院校大学生毕业后应根据农村的创业特点,选择正确的农村创业之路。正确的创业之路,首先是创业能力的培养;其次要了解农村、掌握农业和农民的特点,与农民融为一体;三是要通过就职于农村企业,积累农村企业的经营和管理经验;四是灵活运用社会关系学,争取得到政府在政策和资金上的支持。%Rural business has the characteristics of poor conditions,fund turnover slow,low benefit,more variability etc.Higher agricultural college graduates should according to the characteristics of the business choose the correct road.The correct road of the business,the first is the cultivation of creative ability.Second,to understand the countryside,master the characteristics of agriculture and farmers,and integrate with farmers.Third,through working for the rural enterprise,accumulate the managerial experience.Fourth,flexible use of social relations to get the government's support in the policy and financial.

  19. Characterization and classification rural housing in the middle river basin Guaitara, Nariño Spatial characterization and technology of rural housing as part of asset valuation of main road andino Qhapaq Ñan

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Gerardo Hernando; Docente tiempo completo Programa de Arquitectura Universidad de Nariño.; Afanador Hernández, Claudia; Docente tiempo completo Programa de Licenciatura y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de Nariño.; Castillo Valencia, William Arturo; Profesor del departamento de arquitectura, tiempo completo, dedicado a la investigación, miembro del observatorio de culturas urbanas; OCUR, Miembro: Association for Preservation Technology International E.U – estructuras patrimoniales históricas.

    2017-01-01

    The Inca culture contributes in Colombia with pre-Hispanic architecture through the main artery of roads identified as the Qhapaq Nan, Andean road system that dates from the chronicles of historians since the conquest, which enabled the transformation and adaptability of the environment in time and space, with the emergence of new Hispanic culture, about the concepts of habitability and soil management in terms of production activities, ownership, size and shape of the earth. Study the defini...

  20. Assessing the safety of the road network : a simple method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Research by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research in The Netherlands assessing the safety of the Dutch road network is presented. In The Netherlands urban and rural roads and motorways are used roughly equally, however accident rates vary greatly. These are discussed in this paper. Tables show

  1. Association of Very Low-Volume Practice With Vascular Surgery Outcomes in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Goodney, Philip; Cronenwett, Jack; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-08-01

    Little research has focused on very low-volume surgery, especially in the context of decreasing vascular surgery volume with the adoption of endovascular procedures. To investigate the existence and outcomes of open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAR) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed by very low-volume surgeons in New York. This cohort study examined inpatient data of patients undergoing elective OAR or CEA from 2000 to 2014 from all New York hospitals. Surgeons who performed 1 or less designated procedure per year on average were considered very low volume, as opposed to higher-volume surgeons. Temporal trends of the existence of very low-volume practice were evaluated. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital outcomes and health care resource use between patients treated by very low-volume surgeons and higher-volume surgeons for both OAR and CEA, adjusting for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics. There were 8781 OAR procedures and 68 896 CEA procedures included in the study. The mean (SD) patient age was 71.7 (8.4) years for OAR and 71.5 (9.1) years for CEA. A total of 614 surgeons performed OAR and 1071 performed CEA in New York during the study period. Of these, 318 (51.8%) and 512 (47.8%), respectively, were very low-volume surgeons. Very low-volume surgeons were less likely to be vascular surgeons. The number and proportion of very low-volume surgeons decreased over years. Compared with patients treated by higher-volume surgeons, those treated by very low-volume surgeons were more likely to have higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.41-3.08) following OAR and higher risks of postoperative myocardial infarction (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.03-3.26) and stroke (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.21-2.62) following CEA. Patients treated by very low-volume surgeons also had greater health care resource use following both surgeries, including prolonged length of stay (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) following OAR as

  2. Beneficial Use of Scrap Tire Rubber in Low-volume Road and Bridge Construction with Expansive Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    Billions of dollars in damages are attributed to expansive soils in the United States (Jones and Jones 1987) and in many other countries each year. Geotechnical design and analyses in/on/with expansive soils may involve additional complications that ...

  3. Rural roadway safety perceptions among rural teen drivers living in and outside of towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Roth, Lisa; Young, Tracy; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    To compare perceptions about rural road and general driving behaviors between teens who live in- and out-of-town from rural communities in Iowa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 160 teens anticipating their Intermediate License within 3 months upon enrollment into this study. Self-administered surveys were used to collect demographics and driving exposures (eg, frequency of driving, age when first drove unsupervised). Two Likert scales were included to measure agreement with safe driving behaviors on rural roads and general safe driving behaviors (eg, speeding, seat belt use). T-tests were calculated comparing mean composite scores between in- and out-of-town teens, and between mean rural road and general driving safety attitude scores. A linear regression multivariable model was constructed to identify predictors of the rural road score. While the majority of teens endorsed rural road and general safe driving behaviors, up to 40% did not. Thirty-two percent did not believe the dangers of animals on rural roads, and 40% disagreed that exceeding the speed limit is dangerous. In-town teens were less safety conscious about rural road hazards with a significantly lower mean composite score (4.4) than out-of-town teens (4.6); mean scores for general driving behaviors were similar. Living out-of-town and owning one's own car were significant predictors of increased rural road safety scores. Rural, in-town teens have poorer safety attitudes about rural roadway hazards compared with out-of-town teens. Interventions that involve education, parental supervision, and practice on rural roads are critical for preventing teen crashes on rural roads. No claim to original US government works.

  4. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  5. Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, P.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Electrokinetic pumping of low-volume rates was performed on-chip in channels of small cross sectional area and height in the sub-m range. The flow was detected with the current monitoring technique by monitoring the change in resistance of the fluid in the channel upon the electroosmosis-driven

  6. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  7. “Rejecting the inevitability of poverty”: Empower women for sustainable rural livelihoods through community-based employment intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the extent to which employment-intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects can be used as a tool to empower women to achieve sustainable rural livelihoods using Siyatentela rural road maintenance program in Mpumalanga...

  8. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  9. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  10. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  11. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  12. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  13. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had

  14. Road pricing, air pollution and external costs; Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)

  15. Road Maintenance in Africa: Approaches and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mostafa Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, roads are the dominant mode of passenger and freight transport, for which the need is growing rapidly. It is noticeable that most of the African countries do not do enough to ensure the sustainability of road infrastructure as it has been widely reported that roads are affected, to varying degrees, by premature deterioration. Most of the African countries have adopted institutional reforms, notably entailing the creation of road funds and road agencies, and made significant progress on road maintenance. However, many challenges remain to be addressed in all of them to ensure appropriate maintenance. Although spending on road maintenance has increased over time in all African countries it remains insufficient to cover the needs. Poorly maintained roads constrain mobility, significantly raise vehicle operating costs, increase accident rates and their associated human and property costs, and aggravate isolation, poverty, poor health, and illiteracy in rural communities. This paper focuses, in particular, on road maintenance in some African countries considering types of road maintenance and the different approaches aiming at a comparison to reflect on similarities and differences.

  16. Road Maintenance in Africa: Approaches and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Mostafa Hassan

    2018-06-01

    In Africa, roads are the dominant mode of passenger and freight transport, for which the need is growing rapidly. It is noticeable that most of the African countries do not do enough to ensure the sustainability of road infrastructure as it has been widely reported that roads are affected, to varying degrees, by premature deterioration. Most of the African countries have adopted institutional reforms, notably entailing the creation of road funds and road agencies, and made significant progress on road maintenance. However, many challenges remain to be addressed in all of them to ensure appropriate maintenance. Although spending on road maintenance has increased over time in all African countries it remains insufficient to cover the needs. Poorly maintained roads constrain mobility, significantly raise vehicle operating costs, increase accident rates and their associated human and property costs, and aggravate isolation, poverty, poor health, and illiteracy in rural communities. This paper focuses, in particular, on road maintenance in some African countries considering types of road maintenance and the different approaches aiming at a comparison to reflect on similarities and differences.

  17. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  18. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  19. Identificación y análisis de patologías en puentes de carreteras urbanas y rurales Identification and analysis of pathologies in bridges of urban and rural roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Tadeu Mascia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación con un gran número de puentes con importantes problemas patológicos fue el factor de motivación para llevar a cabo esta investigación. Puentes de tamaños mediano y pequeño tienen relevancia significativa en el desarrollo económico y social del país, pues deben garantizar el tránsito de personas, vehículos, materias primas y productos locales. Sin embargo, las precarias condiciones de los puentes en las zonas urbanas y rurales hacen difícil el desplazamiento, causando incomodidad e inseguridad para los usuarios. Por otro lado, los costos de transporte para los productores y el mantenimiento para los gobiernos locales continúan aumentando. Este artículo tiene la intención de evaluar las condiciones de conservación de puentes pequeños y medianos en la región urbana y rural de Campinas (SP-Brasil. Así, este estudio se basa en el análisis de cuatro puentes de esta región, en los que se presentan varios ejemplos sobre el terreno de las manifestaciones patológicas en puentes de concreto, acero y madera. Este artículo también se centra en el diseño de puentes y la relación con su estado patológico estableciendo conceptos que podrían aplicarse al método correctivo y a la identificación de la patología en puentes de concreto, acero y madera. Por último, el objetivo es concluir que la forma más adecuada para evitar un estado patológico es el mantenimiento preventivo.A concern with a great number of bridges with significant pathological problems was the motivating factor to carry out this research. Small and medium size bridges have significant relevance for the economic and social development of the country, because they must ensure the transit of people, vehicles with raw material and local produce. However, the precarious conditions of bridges in the urban and rural areas make the displacement difficult, causing discomfort and unsafety for users. Furthermore, the transportation costs for producers and the

  20. Geoprocessamento Aplicado ao Diagnóstico e Espacialização da Infra-estrutura Viária Rural / Geoprocessing Applied to the Diagnosis and Spacialization of the Rural Road Infra-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana G. Salbego

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo a aplicação de técnicas de geoprocessamento, visando o diagnóstico e espacialização da infra-estrutura viária rural do município de Nova Esperança do Sul, RS. A base cartográfica digital do município foi elaborada a partir de dados existentes em meio analógico (cartas topográficas - escala 1:50.000 e mapa da zona urbana -1:5.000 e levantamento de campo, através de receptor GPS de navegação. Através da sobreposição dos planos de informação referente à rede viária rural, foi possível realizar a análise temporal, constatando-se que o traçado estava bastante desatualizado, e avaliar a integração geométrica entre os dados, onde os deslocamentos apresentados em relação ao posicionamento foi avaliado a partir de dez pontos coletados em entroncamentos, comum aos planos de informação, obtendo-se como desvio padrão, 10,5727 m e 32,3446 m, para as coordenadas E e N, respectivamente, atendendo a PEC (precisão de exatidão cartográfica para mapas de classe C, na escala 1:50.000. Constatou-se a necessidade de manutenção/substituição de 05 obras de arte (pontes/ bueiros e 06 paradas de ônibus, as quais apresentam péssimas condições de conservação. O MNT nos permitiu a representação tridimensional do relevo e a obtenção dos perfis topográficos. O mapa de classes de declividade mostrou que o intervalo de classes que predomina no município é de 8-20%, definido como relevo ondulado, representando 38,53% da área total do município. Foram levantados e caracterizados os pontos e trechos críticos apresentados na rede viária rural. Os dados referentes à infra-estrutura viária rural foram armazenados em um banco de dados indexado ao mapa, possibilitando assim atividades de planejamento, gerenciamento, bem como a atualização constante dos dados. Neste sentido, pode-se concluir que a aplicação das técnicas de geoprocessamento mostraram-se bastante eficientes, embora mere

  1. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  2. Development of road infrastructure as a tool of transforming Ibiono ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Social Sciences ... Development of road infrastructure as a tool of transforming Ibiono Ibom local government area. V Umoren ... The improvement of transportation network in the rural area in this regard becomes imperative.

  3. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations. Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations. Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale. Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction. Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers. Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension.

  4. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Size-Selective Sampling Performance of Six Low-Volume “Total” Suspended Particulate (TSP) Inlets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from the comprehensive wind tunnel evaluation of six low-volume aerosol inlets are presented as a function of wind speed and aerodynamic particle diameter....

  6. The influence of road curvature on fatal crashes in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Robin; Lake, Iain R.; Kingham, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Bends in roads can cause crashes but a recent study in the UK found that areas with mostly curved roads had lower crash rates than areas with straighter roads. This present study aimed to replicate the previous research in a different country. Variations in the number of fatal road crashes...... occurring between 1996 and 2005 in 73 territorial local authorities across New Zealand were modelled against possible predictors. The predictors were traffic flow, population counts and characteristics, car use, socio-economic deprivation, climate, altitude and road characteristics including four measures...... of average road curvature. The best predictors of the number of fatal crashes on urban roads, rural state highways and other rural roads were traffic flow, speed limitation and socio-economic deprivation. Holding significant factors constant, there was no evidence that TLAs with the most curved roads had...

  7. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  8. Response of moose to a high‐density road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattles, David W.; Zeller, Katherine A.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Road networks and the disturbance associated with vehicle traffic alter animal behavior, movements, and habitat selection. The response of moose (Alces americanus) to roads has been documented in relatively rural areas, but less is known about moose response to roads in more highly roaded landscapes. We examined road‐crossing frequencies and habitat use of global positioning system (GPS)‐collared moose in Massachusetts, USA, where moose home ranges have road densities approximately twice that of previous studies. We compared seasonal road‐crossing frequencies of moose with a null movement model. We estimated moose travel speeds during road‐crossing events and compared them with speeds during other home range movements. To estimate the extent of the road effect zone and determine how roads influenced moose habitat use, we fit a third‐order resource selection function. With the exception of the lowest use road class (roads less than expected based on the null movement model and frequency decreased with increasing road size and traffic. Moose crossed roads faster than they traveled during other times. This effect increased with increasing road use intensity. Overall, roads were a major factor determining what portions of Massachusetts moose used and how they moved among habitat patches. Our results suggest that moose in Massachusetts can adapt to a high‐density road network, but the road effect is still strongly negative and, in some cases, is more pronounced than in study areas with lower road densities. Future road construction and the expansion of road networks may have a large effect on moose and other wildlife.

  9. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... major means of transporting agricultural produce from the farms to the markets as well as to ... methods were both employed to analyze the data gathered. ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural Production & Road. Network ... traffic over short, medium and long distances.

  10. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: Concepts for Lightweight & Low Volume EVA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Calle, Carlos; Mantovani, James

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment. The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics & Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 5/6 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  11. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  12. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  13. Just-in-Time Training for High-Risk Low-Volume Therapies: An Approach to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Stephanie; Lisanti, Amy Jo; Adams, Ann; Field, Cynthia; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2016-01-01

    High-risk low-volume therapies are those therapies that are practiced infrequently and yet carry an increased risk to patients because of their complexity. Staff nurses are required to competently manage these therapies to treat patients' unique needs and optimize outcomes; however, maintaining competence is challenging. This article describes implementation of Just-in-Time Training, which requires validation of minimum competency of bedside nurses managing high-risk low-volume therapies through direct observation of a return-demonstration competency checklist.

  14. Short-term performance effects of three different low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training.......001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players....

  15. The Relationship between Road Characteristics and Speed Collected from Floating Car Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and driver characteristics. The analysis is based on big data on speed and driver characteristics combined with data on road characteristics on 49 secondary rural two-lane roads in Denmark. Data is modelled using multivariate linear regression. The results show a primarily influence from road and shoulder......Speed is of great importance to the safety level of a road. Speed choice is strongly influenced by the road environment and the drivers’ assessment of safe speed level at a specific location. This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between speed and road characteristics and speed...

  16. Very Low Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is More Effective in Young Than Old Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulas Krusnauskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.

  17. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  18. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low.

  19. Neurologic Outcomes After Low-Volume, Ultrasound-Guided Interscalene Block and Ambulatory Shoulder Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Gaurav; Winger, Daniel G; Cortazzo, Megan; Kentor, Michael L; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative neurologic symptoms after interscalene block and shoulder surgery have been reported to be relatively frequent. Reports of such symptoms after ultrasound-guided block have been variable. We evaluated 300 patients for neurologic symptoms after low-volume, ultrasound-guided interscalene block and arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients underwent ultrasound-guided interscalene block with 16 to 20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine or a mix of 0.2% bupivacaine/1.2% mepivacaine solution, followed by propofol/ketamine sedation for ambulatory arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were called at 10 days for evaluation of neurologic symptoms, and those with persistent symptoms were called again at 30 days, at which point neurologic evaluation was initiated. Details of patient demographics and block characteristics were collected to assess any association with persistent neurologic symptoms. Six of 300 patients reported symptoms at 10 days (2%), with one of these patients having persistent symptoms at 30 days (0.3%). This was significantly lower than rates of neurologic symptoms reported in preultrasound investigations with focused neurologic follow-up and similar to other studies performed in the ultrasound era. There was a modest correlation between the number of needle redirections during the block procedure and the presence of postoperative neurologic symptoms. Ultrasound guidance of interscalene block with 16- to 20-mL volumes of local anesthetic solution results in a lower frequency of postoperative neurologic symptoms at 10 and 30 days as compared with investigations in the preultrasound period.

  20. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  1. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  2. Effects of new roads on environmental resource use in the Central Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Construction of roads into remote rural areas can improve livelihoods by reducing transportation costs, but may also have negative environmental impacts, such as increased deforestation. However, evidence of the effect of rural roads on household environmental income and reliance, as well as local...... income and reliance, and how are they affected by road establishment; and (iii) what are the short-term impacts of the construction of a rural road on local forest conservation? Following the Poverty Environment Network (PEN) methodology, income data from 176 randomly-sampled households were collected...... in 2006 from two similar Himalayan villages, Lete and Lulang, and again in 2012 after a new road was constructed in 2008 in Lete. Forest strata data were collected in Lete through permanent sample plots (n = 59) measured in 2005 and 2010 and used to estimate stock change (before and after road...

  3. Field evaluation of indoor thermal fog and ultra-low volume applications for control of Aedes aegypti, in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacies of a hand-held thermal fogger (PatriotTM) and hand-held Ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer (TwisterTM) with combinations of two different adulticides and an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen) were field assessed and compared for their impact on reducing dengue vector populations in Thaila...

  4. Why are some animal populations unaffected or positively affected by roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2013-11-01

    In reviews on effects of roads on animal population abundance we found that most effects are negative; however, there are also many neutral and positive responses [Fahrig and Rytwinski (Ecol Soc 14:21, 2009; Rytwinski and Fahrig (Biol Conserv 147:87-98, 2012)]. Here we use an individual-based simulation model to: (1) confirm predictions from the existing literature of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to negative effects of roads on animal population abundance, and (2) improve prediction of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to neutral and positive effects of roads on animal population abundance. Simulations represented a typical situation in which road mitigation is contemplated, i.e. rural landscapes containing a relatively low density (up to 1.86 km/km(2)) of high-traffic roads, with continuous habitat between the roads. In these landscapes, the simulations predict that populations of species with small territories and movement ranges, and high reproductive rates, i.e. many small mammals and birds, should not be reduced by roads. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results also predict that populations of species that obtain a resource from roads (e.g. vultures) do not increase with increasing road density. In addition, our simulations support the predation release hypothesis for positive road effects on prey (both small- and large-bodied prey), whereby abundance of a prey species increased with increasing road density due to reduced predation by generalist road-affected predators. The simulations also predict an optimal road density for the large-bodied prey species if it avoids roads or traffic emissions. Overall, the simulation results suggest that in rural landscapes containing high-traffic roads, there are many species for which road mitigation may not be necessary; mitigation efforts should be tailored to the species that show negative population responses to roads.

  5. Prevalence and prognosis of low-volume, oligorecurrent, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer amenable to lesion ablative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruycker, Aurélie; Lambert, Bieke; Claeys, Tom; Delrue, Louke; Mbah, Chamberlain; De Meerleer, Gert; Villeirs, Geert; De Vos, Filip; De Man, Kathia; Decaestecker, Karel; Fonteyne, Valérie; Lumen, Nicolaas; Ameye, Filip; Billiet, Ignace; Joniau, Steven; Vanhaverbeke, Friedl; Duthoy, Wim; Ost, Piet

    2017-12-01

    To describe the anatomical patterns of prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence after primary therapy and to investigate if patients with low-volume disease have a better prognosis as compared with their counterparts. Patients eligible for an 18-F choline positron-emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Eligible patients had asymptomatic biochemical recurrence after primary PCa treatment and testosterone levels >50 ng/mL. The number of lesions was counted per scan. Patients with isolated local recurrence (LR) or with ≤3 metastases (with or without LR) were considered to have low-volume disease and patients with >3 metastases to have high-volume disease. Descriptive statistics were used to report recurrences. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of prognostic variables on the time to developing castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). In 208 patients, 625 sites of recurrence were detected in the lymph nodes (N1/M1a: 30%), the bone (18%), the prostate (bed; 11%), viscera (4%), or a combination of any of the previous (37%). In total, 153 patients (74%) had low-volume recurrence and 55 patients (26%) had high-volume recurrence. The 3-year CRPC-free survival rate for the whole cohort was 79% (95% confidence interval 43-55), 88% for low-volume recurrences and 50% for high-volume recurrences (P < 0.001). Longer PSA doubling time at time of recurrence and low-volume disease were associated with a longer time to CRPC. Three out of four patients with PCa with a 18-F choline PET-CT-detected recurrence have low-volume disease, potentially amenable to local therapy. Patients with low-volume disease have a better prognosis as compared with their counterparts. Lymph node recurrence was the most dominant failure pattern. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High- versus low-volume polyethylene glycol plus laxative versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Horvath, Andrea; Szychta, Monika; Woynarowski, Marek; Wegner, Agnieszka; Wiernicka, Anna; Dadalski, Maciej; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Dziechciarz, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Many protocols of bowel preparation are available for use in children; however, none of them is commonly accepted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus low-volume PEG combined with bisacodyl (BPEG) versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children. Participants ages 10 to 18 years were randomly assigned to receive either PEG 60 or PEG 30 mL kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ plus oral bisacodyl 10 to 15 mg/day or sennosides 2 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for 2 days. A blinded assessment of bowel cleansing was made by the endoscopist according to the Aronchick and Ottawa scales. Patient acceptability was evaluated with the visual-analog scale. Analysis was done on an available case analysis basis. Of 240 patients enrolled in the study 234 patients were available for analysis of the efficacy of colon cleansing. There were no significant differences found among the 3 groups for the proportions of participants with excellent/good (PEG: 35/79, BPEG: 26/79, sennosides 25/76) and poor/inadequate (PEG: 20/79, BPEG: 28/79, sennosides 28/76) bowel preparation evaluated with the Aronchick scale and for the mean Ottawa total score (PEG: 5.47 ± 3.63, BPEG: 6.22 ± 3.3, sennosides: 6.18 ± 3.53). Acceptability of bowel cleansing protocol was similar in all of the groups (P = 0.8). All 3 cleansing methods showed similar efficacy and tolerability; however, none of them was satisfactory.

  7. DNA profiling of spermatozoa by laser capture microdissection and low volume-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Li

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling of sperm from complex biological mixtures such as sexual assault casework samples requires isolation of a pure sperm population and the ability to analyze low abundant samples. Current standard procedure for sperm isolation includes preferential lysis of epithelial contaminants followed by collection of intact sperm by centrifugation. While effective for samples where sperm are abundant, this method is less effective when samples contain few spermatozoa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM is a proven method for the isolation of cells biological mixtures, even when found in low abundance. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of LCM coupled with on-chip low volume PCR (LV-PCR for the isolation and genotyping of low abundance sperm samples. Our results indicate that this method can obtain complete profiles (13-16 loci from as few as 15 sperm cells with 80% reproducibility, whereas at least 40 sperm cells are required to profile 13-16 loci by standard 'in-tube' PCR. Further, LCM and LV-PCR of a sexual assault casework sample generated a DNA genotype that was consistent with that of the suspect. This method was unable, however, to analyze a casework sample from a gang rape case in which two or more sperm contributors were in a mixed population. The results indicate that LCM and LV-PCR is sensitive and effective for genotyping sperm from sperm/epithelial cell mixtures when epithelial lysis may be insufficient due to low abundance of sperm; LCM and LV-PCR, however, failed in a casework sample when spermatozoa from multiple donors was present, indicating that further study is necessitated.

  8. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K.D. Peterson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin® and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30 formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern.

  9. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p < 0.05). Magnitude of changes using effect size (ES) was examined between groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) in muscle and fat mass and percentages for whole body, upper limbs and trunk for ssMMF, but only upper limbs for ssRP. Body composition ES's ranged moderate to large for ssMMF (0.56 to 1.27) and ranged small to moderate for ssRP (0.28 to 0.52). ssMMF also significantly improved (P<0.05) total abdominal fat and increased intracellular water with moderate ES's (-0.62 and 0.56, respectively). Training to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  10. Acute responses of circulating microRNAs to low-volume sprint interval cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Fang eCui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-volume high-intensity interval training is an efficient and practical method of inducing physiological responses in various tissues to develop physical fitness and may also change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether miRNAs for muscle, heart, somatic tissue and metabolism were affected by 30-s intervals of intensive sprint cycling. We also examined the relationship of these miRNAs to conventional biochemical and performance indices. Eighteen healthy young males performed sprint interval cycling. Circulating miRNAs in plasma were detected using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR and normalized to Let-7d/g/i. In addition, we determined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone and cortisol, and anaerobic capacity. Compared to plasma levels before exercise muscle-specific miR-1 (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.02, miR-133a (0.46 ± 0.10 vs. 0.31 ± 0.06 and miR-133b (0.19 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01 decreased (all P < 0.05, while miR-206 and miR-499 remained unchanged. The levels of metabolism related miR-122 (0.62 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.03 and somatic tissues related miR-16 (1.74 ± 0.27 vs. 0.94 ± 0.12 also decreased (both P < 0.05. The post-exercise IGF-1 and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased, while testosterone concentrations did not. Plasma levels of miR-133b correlated to peak power (r = 0.712, P = 0.001 and miR-122 correlated to peak power ratio (r = 0.665, P = 0.003. In conclusion sprint exercise provokes genetic changes for RNA related to specific muscle or metabolism related miRNAs suggesting that miR-133b and miR-122 may be potential useful biomarkers for actual physiological strain or anaerobic capacity. Together, our findings on the circulating miRNAs may provide new insight into the physiological responses that are being performed during exercise and delineate mechanisms by which exercise confers distinct phenotypes and improves performance.

  11. Intraarterial CT Angiography Using Ultra Low Volume of Iodine Contrast – Own Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcarek, Jerzy; Kurcz, Jacek; Guziński, Maciej; Banasik, Mirosław; Miś, Marcin; Gołębiowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    High volume of intravenous contrast in CT-angiography may result in contrast-induced nephropathy. Intraarterial ultra-low volume of contrast medium results in its satisfactory blood concentration with potentially good image quality. The first main purpose was to assess the influence of the method on function of transplanted kidney in patients with impaired graft function. The second main purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of this method for detection of gastrointestinal and head-and-neck haemorrhages. Between 2010 and 2013 intraarterial CT-angiography was performed in 56 patients, including 28 with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There were three main subgroups: 18 patients after kidney transplantation, 10 patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 8 patients with head-and-neck hemorrhage. Contralateral or ipsilateral inguinal arterial approach was performed. The 4-French vascular sheaths and 4F-catheters were introduced under fluoroscopy. Intraarterial CT was performed using 64-slice scanner. The scanning protocol was as follows: slice thickness 0.625 mm, pitch 1.3, gantry rotation 0.6 sec., scanning delay 1–2 sec. The extent of the study was established on the basis of scout image. In patients with CKD 6–8 mL of Iodixanol (320 mg/mL) diluted with saline to 18–24 mL was administered at a speed of 4–5 mL/s. Vasculature was properly visualized in all patients. In patients with impaired renal function creatinine/eGFR levels remained stable in all but one case. Traditional arteriography failed and CT-angiography demonstrated the site of bleeding in 3 of 10 patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding (30%). In 8 patients with head-and-neck bleeding CT-angiography did not prove beneficial when compared to traditional arteriography. 1. Ultra-low contrast intraarterial CT-angiography does not deteriorate the function of transplanted kidneys in patients with impaired graft function. 2. 3D reconstructions allow for excellent visualization of

  12. Low-volume plus ascorbic acid vs high-volume plus simethicone bowel preparation before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Stefano; Angelini, Rita; Standoli, Monica; Patrizi, Gregorio; Culasso, Franco; Pontone, Paolo; Redler, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of low-volume plus ascorbic acid [polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc)] and high-volume plus simethicone [polyethylene glycol plus simethicone (PEG + Sim)] bowel preparations. METHODS: A total of one hundred and forty-four outpatients (76 males), aged from 20 to 84 years (median age 59.5 years), who attended our Department, were divided into two groups, age and sex matched, and underwent colonoscopy. Two questionnaires, one for patients reporting acceptability and the other for endoscopists evaluating bowel cleansing effectiveness according to validated scales, were completed. Indications, timing of examination and endoscopical findings were recorded. Biopsy forceps were used as a measuring tool in order to determine polyp endoscopic size estimation. Difficulty in completing the preparation was rated in a 5-point Likert scale (1 = easy to 5 = unable). Adverse experiences (fullness, cramps, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and insomnia), number of evacuations and types of activities performed during preparation (walking or resting in bed) were also investigated. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were selected for each group. The two groups were age and sex matched as well as being comparable in terms of medical history and drug therapies taken. Fourteen patients dropped out from the trial because they did not complete the preparation procedure. Ratings of global bowel cleansing examinations were considered to be adequate in 91% of PEG + Asc and 88% of PEG + Sim patients. Residual Stool Score indicated similar levels of amount and consistency of residual stool; there was a significant difference in the percentage of bowel wall visualization in favour of PEG + Sim patients. In the PEG + Sim group, 12 adenomas ≤ 10 mm diameter (5/left colon + 7/right colon) vs 9 (8/left colon + 1/right colon) in the PEG + Asc group were diagnosed. Visualization of small lesions seems to be one of the primary advantages of the

  13. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  14. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  15. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  16. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  17. Towards a political economy of roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    by the state and the mobility practices of Andean indigenous/rural society. While a location 'off the beaten track' could be a source of autonomy in the past, the article outlines reasons why people in post-conflict, neo-liberal Peru now dedicate much time and effort to road-building, even though this may...... potentially lead to loss of land, community control and greater impoverishment....

  18. At the end of the potholed road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna

    It took nearly 2 hours to drive the 60 km potholed Kenyan road from the administrative center in Laikipia North to the nearest big town by car or minibus. And much longer if riding on top of one of the heavy lorries transporting sand from dry riverbeds in the area to construction sites in town....... When young people travelled to town, they would often, when reaching the smoother part of the tarmac road, exclaim something like ‘now we have arrived in Kenya’ or ‘this is where development begins’, as if Laikipia North was not really part of the Kenyan state. The relation between pastoral communities...... proclaimed their community to be marginalized and in political opposition to the government, they also dreamed about infrastructure development and aspired to a closer incorporation in the Kenyan state and its development schemes. This paper explores the ambiguities of roads leading to rural places...

  19. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  1. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  2. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pratipal; Jain, Paresh; Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil; Dubey, Deepak; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patient...

  3. Report of concrete pavement evaluation : project 105 C-4181-01 Donahoo Road, Wyandotte County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The physical properties of hardened concrete cores and fresh concrete test results were compared with aggregate : gradation workability differences. The concrete cores were taken from a rural two-lane concrete road in northeastern Kansas : constructe...

  4. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  5. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater.

  6. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  7. Complex Liver Resections for Colorectal Metastases: Are They Safe in the Low-Volume, Resource-Poor Caribbean Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir O. Cawich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although many authorities suggest that major liver resections should only be carried out in high-volume specialized centres, many patients in the Caribbean do not have access to these health care systems. Presentation of a Case. A 50-year-old woman with a solitary colorectal metastasis invading the inferior vena cava underwent an extended left hepatectomy with caval resection and reconstruction. Several technical maneuvers were utilized that were suited to the resource-poor environment. Conclusion. We suggest that good outcomes can still be attained in the resource-poor, low-volume centres once dedicated and appropriately trained teams are available.

  8. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of a water-jet for low volume harvesting of fat tissue for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobek Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements of a water-jet for water-assisted liposuction (WAL are carried out to investigate the distribution of velocity and therefore momentum and acting force on the human sub-cutaneous fat tissue. These results shall validate CFD simulations and force sensor measurements of the water-jet and support the development of a new WAL device that is able to harvest low volumes of fat tissue for regenerative medicine even gentler than regular WAL devices.

  9. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    ), the minimum wind velocity required to initiate erosion, and sediment production were also quantified using a portable wind tunnel at monitoring sites. Additionally, numerous characteristics including gravel cover, particle-size distribution, soil compaction, and loose-erodible material were measured on road surfaces at monitoring sites. Preliminary results suggest that roads are an important regional dust source, as emissions from roads are comparable to non-road, rural sources that are being monitored concurrently. While gravel roads produce more dust per day on average, per vehicle emissions are larger on dirt roads. Dust flux decreases with distance from the road edge on all road types, however this decline is less pronounced on dirt roads. Portable wind tunnel results indicate that TFV is consistently lower on dirt versus gravel roads across all soil types. Fugitive dust flux is generally larger and more variable on dirt roads compared to gravel roads. Initial analyses suggest that several easily measurable road surface characteristics can potentially be used to predict both TFV and sediment production, including: total gravel cover, gravel particle-size classes, clay content, and road compaction. The relation between TFV and total gravel cover in particular appears to be non-linear, with TFV increasing rapidly above ~40% gravel cover.

  10. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  11. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    , is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing......D study focuses on answering two main research questions: 1) What is the importance of environmental income in assessments of poverty and poverty dynamics in rural forest reliant communities? and 2) What are the impacts of infrastructural development, in the form of rural roads, on rural household income......Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods...

  12. Low volume tubes are not effective to reduce the rate of hemolyzed specimens from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Bonelli, Patrizia; Graiani, Virna; Caleffi, Catia; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-02-01

    Spurious hemolysis is the leading source of nonconformities that can be recorded in diagnostic samples, especially those collected in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to assess whether the shift from regular to low volume blood collection tubes may reduce the rate of hemolysis in a large urban ED, where approximately 80% of blood collections are performed through catheters. In a former 5-month period, blood collection in the ED was performed using 5.0mL (13×100mm) plastic serum tubes, which were then completely replaced with 3.5mL (13×75mm) plastic serum tubes for another period of 5months. The rate of hemolyzed specimens (i.e., those containing a cell-free hemoglobin ≥0.5gL) collected in the two periods was compared by Fisher exact test. The rate of hemolyzed specimens received from the ED increased from 3.5% using 5.0mL plastic serum tubes to 5.2% after introduction of 3.5mL plastic serum tubes (p<0.001). The use of low volume tubes was not effective to decrease the hemolysis rate in a large urban ED. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and Application of a Low-Volume Flow System for Solution-State in Vivo NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Anaraki, Maryam; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Wagner, Nicole; Soong, Ronald; Kovacevic, Vera; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Ortiz Almirall, Xavier; Lane, Daniel; Simpson, Myrna J; Heumann, Hermann; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simpson, André J

    2018-06-18

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful technique, since it allows samples to be analyzed in their natural, unaltered state, criteria paramount for living organisms. In this study, a novel continuous low-volume flow system, suitable for in vivo NMR metabolomics studies, is demonstrated. The system allows improved locking, shimming, and water suppression, as well as allowing the use of trace amounts of expensive toxic contaminants or low volumes of precious natural environmental samples as stressors. The use of a double pump design with a sump slurry pump return allows algal food suspensions to be continually supplied without the need for filters, eliminating the possibility of clogging and leaks. Using the flow system, the living organism can be kept alive without stress indefinitely. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of the flow system, changes in the metabolite profile of 13 C enriched Daphnia magna over a 24-h period are compared when feeding laboratory food vs exposing them to a natural algal bloom sample. Clear metabolic changes are observed over a range of metabolites including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and a nucleotide demonstrating in vivo NMR as a powerful tool to monitor environmental stress. The particular bloom used here was low in microcystins, and the metabolic stress impacts are consistent with the bloom being a poor food source forcing the Daphnia to utilize their own energy reserves.

  14. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  15. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  16. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D S; Chapman, L; Thornes, J E

    2011-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry. (technical design note)

  17. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  18. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...... of continued conservation rather than road development....

  19. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  20. ERGONOMICS AND ROAD SAFETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are

  1. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  2. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  3. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    vehicles enable more renewable electricity to be integrated onto the electricity grid. This is particularly evident in 2050, since the price of fossil fuels increases while the price of renewable electricity and batteries decreases. Finally, the electric road scenarios can facilitate more reductions......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  4. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Supply Chains and Rural Development in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid income growth and urbanization are having profound impacts on the food system, food producers and rural areas in the developing Asia Pacific economies. Meeting the challenge of rural development will depend on better integrating rural areas with fast-growing urban areas where the composition of food demand is changing and the logistics of supply are growing more complex. Possible government options include investment in transportation infrastructure—roads, railroads and waterway—and pro...

  6. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    -related quality of life in lower New York Heart Association-stage HF patients, despite less time required as well as lower energy expenditure during TRE than during AMC. Therefore, TRE might represent a time-efficient exercise modality for improving adherence to exercise in patients with class I-II HF.......PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling...... (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function. METHODS: Twenty-eight HF patients (New York Heart Association class I-II) performed AMC (n = 14) or TRE (n = 14). Maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life...

  8. Study on air pollution monitoring in Korea using low volume air sampler by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Jong Hwa Moon, Young Ju Chung; Seung Yeon Cho; Sang Hun Kang

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the use of nuclear analytical techniques for air pollution studies and to study the feasibility of the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine monitoring tool to reveal environmental pollution sources. For the collection of air particulate samples, the Gent stacked filter unit, low volume sampler with Nucleopore membrane filters were used. Trace elements in samples collected at two suburban residential sites, Taejon and Wonju city in the Republic of Korea, were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the elemental concentrations were measured monthly and the enrichment factors were calculated for the fine (< 2 μm EAD) and coarse size (2-10 μm EAD) fractions. The analytical data were treated statistically to estimate the relationship between the two variables, the concentrations of elements and the total suspended particulate matter. The results were used to describe the emission source and their correlation. (author)

  9. Report of concrete pavement evaluation : project 105 C-4181-01 Donahoo Road, Wyandotte County : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The physical properties of hardened concrete cores and fresh concrete test results were compared with aggregate gradation workability differences. The concrete cores were taken from a rural two-lane concrete road in northeastern Kansas constructed in...

  10. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  11. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training in a community setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, Dejan; Wittmann, Felix; Fischer, Joachim E

    2018-06-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as an effective and time-efficient exercise strategy for health promotion. However, most HIIT studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient "low-volume" HIIT is based mainly on demanding "all-out" protocols. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30 min time-effort/week), non-all-out HIIT protocols, performed 2 ×/week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre. Thirty-four sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-min HIIT (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-min HIIT (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85-95% maximal heart rate (HR max ), or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, 76 min/week) at 65-75% HR max . The exercise protocols were well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. 2 × 4-HIIT and 5 × 1-HIIT exhibited lower dropout rates (17 and 8 vs. 30%) than MICT. All training modes improved VO 2max (2 × 4-HIIT: + 20%, P HIIT: + 27%, P HIIT protocols required 60% less time commitment. Both HIIT protocols and MICT had positive impact on cholesterol profiles. Only 5 × 1-HIIT significantly improved waist circumference (P HIIT can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) HIIT that requires as little as 30 min/week, either performed as 2 × 4-HIIT or 5 × 1-HIIT, may induce significant improvements in VO 2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.

  12. Low-volume resuscitation using polyethylene glycol-20k in a preclinical porcine model of hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Valerie; Limkemann, Ashley; Liebrecht, Loren; Blocher, Charles; Ferrada, Paula; Aboutanos, Michel; Mangino, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k) is highly effective for low-volume resuscitation (LVR) by increasing tolerance to the low-volume state. In our rodent shock model, PEG-20k increased survival and expanded the "golden hour" 16-fold compared to saline. The molecular mechanism is largely attributed to normalizations in cell and tissue fluid shifts after low-flow ischemia resulting in efficient microvascular exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate PEG-20k as an LVR solution for hemorrhagic shock in a preclinical model. Anesthetized male Yorkshire pigs (30-40 kg) were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 to 40 mm Hg. Once lactate reached 7 mmol/L, either saline (n = 5) or 10% PEG-20k (n = 5) was rapidly infused at 10% calculated blood volume. The primary outcome was LVR time, defined by the time from LVR administration to the time when lactate again reached 7 mmol/L. Other outcomes measured included MAP, heart rate, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, splanchnic blood flow, and hemoglobin. Relative to saline, PEG-20k given after controlled hemorrhage increased LVR time by 16-fold, a conservative estimate given that the lactate never rose after LVR in the PEG-20k group. Survival was 80% for PEG-20k LVR compared to 0% for the saline controls (p the intravascular compartment. In a preclinical model of controlled hemorrhagic shock, PEG-20k-based LVR solution increased tolerance to the shock state 16-fold compared to saline. Polyethylene glycol-20k is a superior crystalloid for LVR that may increase safe transport times in the prehospital setting and find use in hospital emergency departments and operating rooms for patients awaiting volume replacement or normalization of cell, tissue, and compartment fluid volumes.

  13. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratipal; Jain, Paresh; Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil; Dubey, Deepak; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patients were followed up clinically and with diuretic renogram at regular intervals. Results: Mean age, renal pelvic volume and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 25 years, 43.6 ml and 42.5 ml/min, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 21 years, 34.4 ml and 39.9 ml/min, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Mean operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement and mean hospital stay was 100min, 250 mg and 4 days, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 210 min, 300 mg and 4 days, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Only operative time was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05). Mean follow-up was 36 and 39 months and success rates were 91.2% and 88.8% in laparoscopy and endopyelotomy group, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant complication was seen in endopyelotomy group while two patients had hematuria (one requiring blood transfusion) and three had increased drain output for more than 3 days in laparoscopy group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endopyelotomy is associated with significantly less operative time and postoperative complication rate and provides equivalent success in comparison to nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with UPJO and low volume pelvis. It can be a preferred minimally invasive treatment modality for such patients. PMID:19468432

  14. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratipal Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patients were followed up clinically and with diuretic renogram at regular intervals. Results: Mean age, renal pelvic volume and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR was 25 years, 43.6 ml and 42.5 ml/min, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 21 years, 34.4 ml and 39.9 ml/min, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Mean operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement and mean hospital stay was 100min, 250 mg and 4 days, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 210 min, 300 mg and 4 days, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Only operative time was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05. Mean follow-up was 36 and 39 months and success rates were 91.2% and 88.8% in laparoscopy and endopyelotomy group, respectively (P < 0.05. No significant complication was seen in endopyelotomy group while two patients had hematuria (one requiring blood transfusion and three had increased drain output for more than 3 days in laparoscopy group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endopyelotomy is associated with significantly less operative time and postoperative complication rate and provides equivalent success in comparison to nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with UPJO and low volume pelvis. It can be a preferred minimally invasive treatment modality for such patients.

  15. Effect of dexamethasone in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blinded randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Alarasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: With the use of ultrasound, a minimal effective volume of 20 ml has been described for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. However achieving a long duration of analgesia with this minimal volume remains a challenge. We aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of analgesia in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Material and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group C received saline (2 ml + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and Group D received dexamethasone (8 mg + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Hemodynamic variables and visual analog scale (VAS score were noted at regular intervals until 450 min. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were measured. The incidence of "Halo" around brachial plexus was observed. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly earlier in dexamethasone group (10.36 ± 1.99 and 12 ± 1.64 minutes compared to control group (12.9 ± 2.23 and 18.03 ± 2.41 minutes. The duration of sensory and motor block was significantly prolonged in dexamethasone group (366 ± 28.11 and 337.33 ± 28.75 minutes compared to control group (242.66 ± 26.38 and 213 ± 26.80 minutes. The VAS score was significantly lower in dexamethasone group after 210 min. "Halo" was present around the brachial plexus in all patients in both the groups. Conclusion: Dexamethasone addition significantly increases the duration of analgesia in patients receiving low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. No significant side-effects were seen in patients receiving dexamethasone as an adjunct.

  16. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  18. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  19. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  20. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  1. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  2. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  3. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  4. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  5. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  6. Tool to manage Road Safety Deficiencies and risk of highway crashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Maldonado, G.; Baena Ruiz, L.; Garach Morcillo, L.; Oña Lopez, J. de

    2016-07-01

    In order to facilitate the management of the results obtained in the project “Analysis of the relationship between Road Safety Deficiencies, crashes and hazardous sections” financed by Public Works Agency of the Regional Government of Andalusia (AOPJA) and led by the research group TRYSE from University of Granada, a safety management tool has been developed. This application allows safety managers to consult some factors affecting crashes on two-lane rural highways.The main aim of that project was to analyze the influence of some road deficiencies on crashes and hazardous sections in the Complementary Road Network of Andalusia. These deficiencies were defined in a checklist and were identified by a road inspection. Decision Trees (DTs), that are a data mining technique that allows the extraction of Decision Rules (DRs), were used. DRs revealed the relationship between road deficiencies and crashes.The application allows two different analyses. A specific analysis of the Complementary Road Network of Andalusia, in which, particular safety problems can be identified, and the location of roads with those problems can be obtained. A more general analysis in which some characteristics related to road safety can be selected in order to know the combination of factors contributing to traffic crashes. Safety problems are based on data from Complementary Road Network of Andalusia but results can be extrapolated to other rural highways in Spain. (Author)

  7. Rural transformations in the context of changing rural-urban connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Ørtenblad, Sinne Borby; Msese, Lukelo

    , the infrastructure, including road systems and means of communication, has in general increased and improved. This development has among a number of other things caused changing patterns of mobility. These changes are highly interrelated and connected to changing rural-urban linkages, which include flows of people......, capital, resources, agricultural commodities, goods, services, technology and information, between rural and urban locations. We emphasize that the rural-urban connections go beyond the spatial dichotomy and that the linkages often occur in a dynamic rural-urban continuum. Influenced by these changes......, this paper sets out to elucidate patterns and dynamics of rural transformation in Tanzania in the context of changing rural-urban linkages by presenting data from a particularly dynamic region; namely Njombe Region in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Based on fieldwork conducted during 2014 and 2015...

  8. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  9. The numerical model for parametric studies of forest haul roads pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Ševelová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads pavement structures are considered to be low volume roads. These roads serve as a mean of transport of wood and people. Besides they are currently often used for recreational purpose. The construction of the pavements should be suitable for forest transportation irrespective of their low bearing capacity. These pavement structures are very specific for special unbound materials that are used in their construction. To meet the requirements of the pavement designs and simulation analysis the FEM model in the software ANSYS was created.This paper compares two material models used for the description of the behaviour of unbound materials. The first is linear elastic according to Hook theory (H model and the second one is nonlinear plastic model Drucker-Prager (D–P model. ANSYS software has been used to create flexible model based on the parametrers of variable principle. The flexible model is parametric to realize repeated calculations useful for optimization analysis.

  10. Road grip test in Arjeplog

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Niclas; Andrén, Henrik; Nybacka, Mikael; Fransson, Lennart; Larsson, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish road administration sees a need to improve the road grip estimation capacity for the Swedish road system. The challenge is to find methods to measure road grip fast and reliable. There where six different system types at the tests in Arjeplog, three continuous, two system measuring road grip through deceleration and one system based on GPS and accelerometers. Two system types used air craft runway tires. The other systems used either studded winter tires or friction winter tires. ...

  11. Analyze of Tourism Development Impacts on the Development of Rural Areas (Case Study: Kesselian County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi Koohbone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development in rural areas is one of the main strategies to achieve rural development. The aim of this descriptive-analytical study is to analyze the impact of rural tourism in the socio-economic development of rural areas (Kesselian County of Mazandaran province. Data collected using 190 questionnaires determined using Cochrane formula. The validity of the questionnaires were confirmed by Cronbach Alpha equal to 0.796. The results show that there is significant positive relationship between rural tourism and improve in rural household income, health, sewage and waste disposal systems as well as development of rural homes and roads. The factor analysis results show that the best important positive effects of rural tourism in rural areas are infrastructural development, economic development and development of employment; and main negative effects of rural tourism in rural areas are destruction of the business environment, increased of social abnormalities and destruction of cultural environment.

  12. Prediction of road accidents: A Bayesian hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deublein, Markus; Schubert, Matthias; Adey, Bryan T; Köhler, Jochen; Faber, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    In this paper a novel methodology for the prediction of the occurrence of road accidents is presented. The methodology utilizes a combination of three statistical methods: (1) gamma-updating of the occurrence rates of injury accidents and injured road users, (2) hierarchical multivariate Poisson-lognormal regression analysis taking into account correlations amongst multiple dependent model response variables and effects of discrete accident count data e.g. over-dispersion, and (3) Bayesian inference algorithms, which are applied by means of data mining techniques supported by Bayesian Probabilistic Networks in order to represent non-linearity between risk indicating and model response variables, as well as different types of uncertainties which might be present in the development of the specific models. Prior Bayesian Probabilistic Networks are first established by means of multivariate regression analysis of the observed frequencies of the model response variables, e.g. the occurrence of an accident, and observed values of the risk indicating variables, e.g. degree of road curvature. Subsequently, parameter learning is done using updating algorithms, to determine the posterior predictive probability distributions of the model response variables, conditional on the values of the risk indicating variables. The methodology is illustrated through a case study using data of the Austrian rural motorway network. In the case study, on randomly selected road segments the methodology is used to produce a model to predict the expected number of accidents in which an injury has occurred and the expected number of light, severe and fatally injured road users. Additionally, the methodology is used for geo-referenced identification of road sections with increased occurrence probabilities of injury accident events on a road link between two Austrian cities. It is shown that the proposed methodology can be used to develop models to estimate the occurrence of road accidents for any

  13. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  14. Effects of Low Volume Fraction of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Kun Yew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of low volume fraction (Vf of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers on the mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS high strength lightweight concrete mixtures. The slump, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity under various curing conditions have been measured and evaluated. The results indicate that an increase in PVA fibers decreases the workability of the concrete and decreases the density slightly. The 28-day compressive strength of oil palm shell fiber-reinforced concrete (OPSFRC high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC subject to continuous moist curing was within the range of 43–49 MPa. The average modulus of elasticity (E value is found to be 16.1 GPa for all mixes, which is higher than that reported in previous studies and is within the range of normal weight concrete. Hence, the findings of this study revealed that the PVA fibers can be used as an alternative material to enhance the properties of OPS HSLWC for building and construction applications.

  15. Hemodynamic stability ensured by a low dose, low volume, unilateral hypobaric spinal block: modification of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, L; Marcus, M; Peek, D; Borg, P; Jansen, J; Koster, J; Enk, D

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of an 89-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension, intermittent rapid atrial fibrillation and severe aortic valve stenosis, suffering from femoral neck fracture. Hyperbaric unilateral spinal anesthesia is a known technique to obtain stable hemodynamics combined with the possibility of continuous neurologic evaluation and preservation of cognitive functions. Because a hyperbaric unilateral technique can be very painful in case of traumatic hip fracture, a low dose, low volume, unilateral hypobaric spinal block may be an adequate alternative. In the present case report, a unilateral hypobaric spinal anesthesia was performed using 5 mg of bupivacaine in a 1.5 mL volume and a slow and steady, "air-buffered", directed injection technique, to allow an urgent hip arthroplasty. During surgery the patient was kept in the lateral recumbent position. Hemodynamics remained stable throughout the entire procedure without any need for vasoconstrictors. The impact of aortic valve stenosis combined with atrial fibrillation on anesthetic management and our considerations to opt for a unilateral hypobaric spinal anesthesia are discussed.

  16. Protein fiber linear dichroism for structure determination and kinetics in a low-volume, low-wavelength couette flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafforn, Timothy R; Rajendra, Jacindra; Halsall, David J; Serpell, Louise C; Rodger, Alison

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of soluble globular proteins relies heavily on x-ray crystallography techniques. Such an approach is often ineffective for investigations into the structure of fibrous proteins as these proteins generally do not crystallize. Thus investigations into fibrous protein structure have relied on less direct methods such as x-ray fiber diffraction and circular dichroism. Ultraviolet linear dichroism has the potential to provide additional information on the structure of such biomolecular systems. However, existing systems are not optimized for the requirements of fibrous proteins. We have designed and built a low-volume (200 microL), low-wavelength (down to 180 nm), low-pathlength (100 microm), high-alignment flow-alignment system (couette) to perform ultraviolet linear dichroism studies on the fibers formed by a range of biomolecules. The apparatus has been tested using a number of proteins for which longer wavelength linear dichroism spectra had already been measured. The new couette cell has also been used to obtain data on two medically important protein fibers, the all-beta-sheet amyloid fibers of the Alzheimer's derived protein Abeta and the long-chain assemblies of alpha1-antitrypsin polymers.

  17. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  18. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  19. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  20. A FAST AND ROBUST ALGORITHM FOR ROAD EDGES EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model and DTM (digital terrain model is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road. We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  1. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  2. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  3. Impact of infrastructure on rural household income and inequality in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Qaim, Matin; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    contributes to the literature by empirically analysing the effects of rural road construction on household income and income inequality in Nepal. Using a quasi-experimental design, a difference-in-difference approach is developed and employed to analyse household (n = 177) data before and after road...... construction. We find that the new road had a significantly positive impact on mean household income of USD 235 (28%). Contrary to expectations, we do not find an increase in income inequality. Compared to the counterfactual site, it appears that the road has rather contributed to decreasing income inequality....... The poorest households gained most from the road construction, making it a pro-poor development intervention....

  4. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RIatmospheric suspended particles. The factors were ranked and weighted based on road dust characteristics (the amounts, grain sizes, and mobilities of the road dust, and the concentrations and toxicities of metals in the road dust). We then applied the RIatmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RIatmospheric suspended particles and for controlling atmospheric particulate pollution caused by road dust emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the Impact of Road Condition Complexity on Driving Workload Based on Subjective Measurement using NASA TLX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior researchers indicate that mental load is one of the most important contributors to a traffic accident. The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact and the correlation of road condition and driving experience on driver’s mental workload. The driving test consists of 3 road complicity situation (urban road, highway, rural road with 26 drivers with average 21 years old in different experience level (average 4.08 years’ experience. NASA TLX questioner is used as subjective driver’s mental load measurement with three dimensions relate to the demands imposed on the subject (Mental, Physical and Temporal Demands and three to the interaction of a subject with the task (Effort, Frustration, and Performance. There are 3 cameras placed on the left side, right side and front car to identify the road condition. According to experiment, it was found that drivers felt that frustration level, business, and mental-demand factors dominate the impact on high-level workload (96.15%. Highway road conditions provide an average overall workload score of 62 (OWS which was better compared to city road (OWS = 69 and rural road (OWS = 66. Based on street complexity, it is necessary to improve road conditions that resemble highway road by reducing potential hazard.

  6. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  7. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  8. Design and Development of Virtual Reality Simulation for Teaching High-Risk Low-Volume Problem-Prone Office-Based Medical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemheney, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians' offices are not the usual place where emergencies occur; thus how staff remains prepared and current regarding medical emergencies presents an ongoing challenge for private practitioners. The very nature of low-volume, high-risk, and problem-prone medical emergencies is that they occur with such infrequency it is difficult for staff to…

  9. Comparing low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral-obturator block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Katja; Jensen, Kenneth; Tanggaard, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-RC) is often associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain even with a multimodal analgesic regimen. We aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy of low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral- obturator block in p...

  10. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  11. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  12. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  13. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  14. Self-explaining roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kaptein, N.

    1999-01-01

    As a means to a sustainable safe traffic environment the concept of Self-Explaining Roads (SER) has been developed. The SER concept advocates a traffic environment that elicits safe driving behaviour simply by its design. In order to support safe driving behaviour and appropriate speed choice,

  15. Effects of truck-mounted, ultra low volume mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera) in a suburban field setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Nicholas A.; Danka, Robert G.; Walker, Todd W.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of mosquito adulticides on honey bees under conditions that reflect actual field exposure. Whereas several studies have evaluated the toxicity of mosquito control products on honey bees, most have been laboratory based and have focused solely on acute mortality as a measure of impact. The goal of this study was to determine effects of routine applications of truck-based ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito adulticides (i.e., Scourge, Duet, and Deltagard) on honey bees in a suburban setting. The mosquito adulticides used in this study were pyrethroids with active ingredients resmethrin (Scourge), prallethrin and sumithrin (Duet), and deltamethrin (Deltagard), in which resmethrin, prallethrin, and sumithrin were synergized with piperonyl butoxide. We measured and compared mortality and detoxification enzyme activities (esterase and glutathione S-transferase) from sentinel beehives within and outside of mosquito control areas. Concurrently, colony health (i.e., number of adult bees, brood quantity and brood quality) was compared throughout the study period. No significant differences were observed in honey bee mortality, colony health or detoxification enzyme activities between treated (five sprayed areas each received one to three insecticide treatment) and control sites (four unsprayed areas that did not receive insecticide treatment) over the seven week study period. However, our laboratory study showed that exposure to resmethrin, the active ingredient in Scourge, caused significant inhibition of esterase activity compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that proper application of truck based insecticides for mosquito control results in little or no exposure and therefore minimal effects on domestic honey bees. PMID:29494661

  16. CONWIP versus POLCA: A comparative analysis in a high-mix, low-volume (HMLV) manufacturing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, T.; Standridge, C.

    2016-07-01

    Few studies comparing manufacturing control systems as they relate to high-mix, low-volume applications have been reported. This paper compares two strategies, constant work in process (CONWIP) and Paired-cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization (POLCA), for controlling work in process (WIP) in such a manufacturing environment. Characteristics of each control method are explained in regards to lead time impact and thus, why one may be advantageous over the other. An industrial system in the Photonics industry is studied. Discrete event simulation is used as the primary tool to compare performance of CONWIP and POLCA controls for the same WIP level with respect to lead time. Model verification and validation are accomplished by comparing historic data to simulation generated data including utilizations. Both deterministic and Poisson distributed order arrivals are considered. For the system considered in this case study, including order arrival patterns, a POLCA control can outperform a CONWIP parameter in terms of average lead time for a given level of WIP. At higher levels of WIP, the performance of POLCA and CONWIP is equivalent. The POLCA control helps limit WIP in specific áreas of the system where the CONWIP control only limits the overall WIP in the system. Thus, POLCA can generate acceptably low lead times at lower levels of WIP for conditions equivalent to the HMLV manufacturing systems studied. The study compliments and extends previous studies of CONWIP and POLCA performance to a HMLV manufacturing environment. It demonstrates the utility of discrete event simulation in that regard. It shows that proper inventory controls in bottleneck áreas of a system can reduce average lead time. (Author)

  17. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  18. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data for the purpose of legal prosecution and insurance claims. The accident data P41 form filled at the Police Stations are collated and forwarded to the Roads Department, Ministry of Roads and Public. Works for further processing and analysis (1, 12). The. Roads Department analyses the information in order to determine:.

  19. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  20. Low Impact Development Intensive Rural Construction Planning in Xu Fu Village Ningbo, China: Planning Review through Rural Resilience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmayri Lovina Hermaputi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu Fu Village Ningbo LID Intensive Rural Construction Planning is a cooperation project between Zhejiang University and Ningbo Institute of Technology which named "12th Five-Year National Science and Technology support program-the comprehensive demonstration of the key technology of the beautiful rural construction in the rapid urbanization area of the Yangtze River Delta". This plan focuses on intensive rural construction as part of rural development and construction project that applies the principles of low impact development. Xu Fu Village located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Currently, the rural growth brings the high impact of development, as a result of rapid urbanization growth arising several issues, such as low land use efficiency, dispersed rural residence, homestead occupies more, rural roads covering over, etc. Meanwhile, Xu Fu village wishes to develop its tourism potential. Thus, the intensive rural construction should be done to avoid the severe effect. The project result hopefully can improve the quality and level of rural residential planning, design, and construction; improve their living environment; save construction land and water use; and improve energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to review the Low Impact Development (LID Intensive Rural Construction in Xu Fu Village, Ningbo City through the rural resilience perspective. This paper will describe the project plan first, then review it through rural resilience perspective. This paper will elaborate the rural resilience theory and then review the rural resiliency through two parts; the first part is identifying rural resilience in rural infrastructure development based on the criteria created by Ayyob S. and Yoshiki Y. (2014, about urban resiliency criteria, and then the second part is reviewing Xu Fu Village resilience through Arup Resilience Qualities (2012, considering three rural resilience domain (economy, ecology, and cultural.

  1. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  2. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Markus; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. ► Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 °C/20 bar). ► Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. ► Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5–1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 °C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC–MS or LC–MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 ± 11 μg caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 ± 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 °C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of ∼150 μg caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee extracts and the headspace volatiles was performed, placing special emphasis on headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME

  3. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  4. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  5. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  6. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  7. A telecommunications journey rural health network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a multi-gigabit statewide fiber healthcare network, Radiology Consultants of Iowa (RCI) set out to provide instantaneous service to their rural, critical access, hospital partners. RCIs idea was to assemble a collection of technologies and services that would even out workflow, reduce time on the road, and provide superior service. These technologies included PACS, voice recognition enabled dictation, HL7 interface technology, an imaging system for digitizing paper and prior films, and modern communication networks. The Iowa Rural Health Telecommunication Project was undertaken to form a system that all critical access hospitals would participate in, allowing RCI radiologists the efficiency of "any image, anywhere, anytime".

  8. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  9. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  10. Validation of low-volume enrichment protocols for detection of Escherichia coli O157 in raw ground beef components, using commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imtiaz; Hughes, Denise; Jenson, Ian; Karalis, Tass

    2009-03-01

    Testing of beef destined for use in ground beef products for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become an important cornerstone of control and verification activities within many meat supply chains. Validation of the ability of methods to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 is critical to confidence in test systems. Many rapid methods have been validated against standard cultural methods for 25-g samples. In this study, a number of previously validated enrichment broths and commercially available test kits were validated for the detection of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in 375-g samples of raw ground beef component matrices using 1 liter of enrichment broth (large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocol). Standard AOAC International methods for 25-g samples in 225 ml of enrichment broth, using the same media, incubation conditions, and test kits, were used as reference methods. No significant differences were detected in the ability of any of the tests to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in samples of raw ground beef components when enriched according to standard or large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols. The use of large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols provides cost savings for media and logistical benefits when handling and incubating large numbers of samples.

  11. Impact of surgical experience on management and outcome of pancreatic surgery performed in high- and low-volume centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Marco; Bissolati, Massimiliano; Gentile, Daniele; Arriciati, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is one of the procedures in general surgery with the highest rate of life-threatening complications. The positive impact of the volume-outcome ratio on outcomes and mortality in pancreatic surgery (PS) has led to policy-level efforts toward centralization of care for PS that is currently under evaluation by some Regional Health Services. The role of the surgeon's experience and training is still under debate. The aim of this paper is to compare the outcomes of PS by the same surgeon in a high volume (HV) and in a low volume (LV) hospital to assess whether a specific training in PS could outdo the benefits of hospital volume. 124 pancreatic resections (98 PD) were conducted by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2014 in two different Italian hospitals with different PS volumes as well as in general surgical activities. The results were retrospectively analyzed. All data regarding demographics, oncological characteristics, surgical parameters and post-operative outcomes were compared between patients operated on in the HV (group A) and LV hospital (group B). The surgical experience in the LV hospital has been then divided into a first period (group B1) and in a second period (group B2). χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test (when variables were dichotomous) was used. The unpaired t test was used to compare continuous data between the two groups. Values are expressed as n. of cases (percent) for categorical data or as mean (standard deviation) for continuous data. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. From 2004 to 2014, 124 patients underwent pancreatic resection by the same surgeon: 69 in an HV hospital (group A) and 55 in an LV hospital (group B). We focused our attention on PD outcomes, 54 in group A and 44 in group B (22 in group B1 and 22 in group B2, accordingly to the aforementioned criteria). A higher incidence of ASA 3 patients, although not statistically significant, was found in group B than in group A (34 vs. 18%; p

  12. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  13. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...

  14. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  15. Information technology road map 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  16. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  17. Comparison of the outcomes for laparoscopic gastrectomy performed by the same surgeon between a low-volume hospital and a high-volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2014-05-01

    The volume-outcome relationship in laparoscopic surgery is controversial. This study was designed to identify differences in laparoscopic gastrectomy outcomes between a low-volume hospital and a high-volume center and to provide guidelines for overcoming the problems associated with a low-volume hospital. From April 2009 to November 2012, one surgeon performed 134 totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomies (TLDGs) at a high-volume center (HVC; ASAN Medical Center) and at a low-volume hospital (LVH; Hanyang University Guri Hospital). All laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies were excluded from this study. During the early period of laparoscopic gastrectomy at the low-volume hospital, TLDG with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (RYGJ) was performed according to the surgeon's choice. The reconstruction method was classified as gastroduodenostomy (GD) or RYGJ. Early surgical outcomes achieved at the LVH were investigated and compared with those obtained at the HVC. The early surgical outcomes differed significantly between the two hospitals. In particular, the postoperative complication rate for the patients who underwent TLDG RYGJ at the LVH was higher than at the HVC (LVH 15.4 % vs. HVC 0 %; p = 0.037). Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the mean operation time (TLDG GD: LVH 141.0 min vs. HVC 117.4 min, p = 0.001; TLDG RYGJ: LVH 186.3 min vs. HVC 134.6 min, p = 0.009) and length of hospital stay (TLDG GD: LVH 8.1 days vs. HVC 7.2 days, p = 0.044; TLDG RYGJ: LVH 11.5 day vs. HVC 6.8 day, p = 0.009). Although all the operations were performed by one experienced surgeon, the early surgical outcomes differed significantly between the low- and high-volume hospitals. Low-volume hospitals often lack well-trained surgical professionals such as first assistants and scrub nurses. Therefore, the authors recommend that a surgeon who works at an LVH should assess potential personnel shortages and find a solution before operating.

  18. Variation in critical care unit admission rates and outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure among high- and low-volume cardiac hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Bakal, Jeffrey A; Lin, Meng; Kaul, Padma; McAlister, Finlay A; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-02-27

    Little is known about cross-hospital differences in critical care units admission rates and related resource utilization and outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or heart failure (HF). Using a population-based sample of 16,078 patients admitted to a critical care unit with a primary diagnosis of ACS (n=14,610) or HF (n=1467) between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2013 in Alberta, Canada, we stratified hospitals into high (>250), medium (200 to 250), or low (<200) volume based on their annual volume of all ACS and HF hospitalization. The percentage of hospitalized patients admitted to critical care units varied across low, medium, and high-volume hospitals for both ACS and HF as follows: 77.9%, 81.3%, and 76.3% (P<0.001), and 18.0%, 16.3%, and 13.0% (P<0.001), respectively. Compared to low-volume units, critical care patients with ACS and HF admitted to high-volume hospitals had shorter mean critical care stays (56.6 versus 95.6 hours, P<0.001), more critical care procedures (1.9 versus 1.2 per patient, <0.001), and higher resource-intensive weighting (2.8 versus 1.5, P<0.001). No differences in in-hospital mortality (5.5% versus 6.2%, adjusted odds ratio 0.93; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.41) were observed between high- and low-volume hospitals; however, 30-day cardiovascular readmissions (4.6% versus 6.8%, odds ratio 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and cardiovascular emergency-room visits (6.6% versus 9.5%, odds ratio 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.94) were lower in high-volume compared to low-volume hospitals. Outcomes stratified by ACS or HF admission diagnosis were similar. Cardiac patients hospitalized in low-volume hospitals were more frequently admitted to critical care units and had longer hospitals stays despite lower resource-intensive weighting. These findings may provide opportunities to standardize critical care utilization for ACS and HF patients across high- and low-volume hospitals. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  19. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  20. Climate Change and Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinowsky, P.; Arndt, Channing

    2012-01-01

    to estimate the impact of individual climate stressors on road infrastructure in Mozambique. Through these models, stressor–response functions are introduced that quantify the cost impact of a specific stressor based on the intensity of the stressor and the type of infrastructure it is affecting. Utilizing...... four climate projection scenarios, the paper details how climate change response decisions may cost the Mozambican government in terms of maintenance costs and long-term roadstock inventory reduction. Through this approach the paper details how a 14% reduction in inventory loss can be achieved through...

  1. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  2. The impact of agricultural extension and roads on poverty and consumption growth in fifteen Ethiopian villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Gilligan, D.O.; Hoddinott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates whether public investments that led to improvements in road quality and increased access to agricultural extension services led to faster consumption growth and lower rates of poverty in rural Ethiopia. Estimating an Instrumental Variables model using Generalized Methods of

  3. Road profile estimation of city roads using DTPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Sun, Nian X.; Wang, Ming L.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a non-destructive and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring road profile of road and bridge deck with vehicles running at normal speed without stopping traffic. This approach uses an instantaneous and real-time dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) that can measure dynamic response of the tire-road interaction and increases the efficiency of currently used road profile measuring systems with vehicle body-mounted profilers and axle-mounted accelerometers. In this work, a prototype of real-time DTPS system has been developed and demonstrated on a testing van at speeds from 5 to 80 miles per hour (mph). A data analysis algorithm has been developed to remove axle dynamic motions from the measured DTPS data and to find the transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and the road profile. Field test has been performed to estimate road profiles. The road profile resolution is approximately 5 to 10 cm in width and sensitivity is 0. 3 cm for the height road surface features at driving speeds of 5 to 80 mph.

  4. Perception and Practice of Road Safety among Medical Students, Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Randah; El-Khawaga, Ghada; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2018-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards road safety and to determine their driving behavior and its relation to different related factors. This cross-sectional study involved 480 medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect student personal data, knowledge about road safety, attitude towards road safety, and driving practices. More than 40% of students experienced an injury in the previous year, mainly as a pedestrian (56%), and 15.2% practiced driving, although only 9.6% had a driving licence. Most of the students had correct road safety knowledge except for awareness that the safe time to read maps is when your vehicle is parked (44%), one should drive in the left lane (29.6%), and one should overtake from the right-hand lane only (25.8%). The majority of the students reported that road traffic injuries can be prevented (89.2%). The mean score of the driving practices of the students ranged from 0.66±1.04 to 2.44±6.28 and rural residents showed significantly higher score regarding errors and lapses. Good road safety knowledge and a favorable, low risk attitude, did not translate into improved road traffic behavior and this highlights the importance of stricter implementation of the existing rules and including road safety in medical education programs.

  5. Transport roads on peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, G

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory tests have given good experiences to develop the technology of building transport roads for truck on peat bogs. The experiences can be summarized in the following points: The bearing capacity can be increased 15-20 times by mixing down, to the depth of 0,5 m, a mixture of gypsum and T-lime. high bearing surface capacity has been achieved at laboratory tests by mixing sulfonated lignin/sodiumbichromate or cement into peat. These mixtures can take a load of 610 kPa will be tested in the field. An ordinary base machine can be used with some modifications for the new technique. Costs for building roads and stores with the new technique can save 6 MSEK/year in Sweden. Remainig problems at full scale tests are: Testroads should be built to get knowledge of settlement, bearing capacity cost of maintenance etc. Heavy metals pollution. Machinery for transportation and admixture of the stabilizing agents must be deloped. By experience a good mixture between firm soil and peat is difficult to achieve. Technique and dimensioning to make a soft mixture ought to be studied.

  6. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  7. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC) Along Federal Road F0023

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana; Prasetijo Joewono; Musa Wan Zahidah

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric design...

  8. Speed Choice and Curve Radius on Rural Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimme, Nicolai; Nielsen, Lea; Kjems, Erik

    2016-01-01

    with informative speed-calming measures as traffic signs, reflectors or surface painting. However, it has been the hypothesis that people are reducing their speed insufficiently and are driving too fast in most curved alignments – especially when they are driving there frequently. By knowing the speed near...... and in the curved alignments compared to the geometry of the curved alignments, it can be clarified, if and which speed-calming measures that are required. Using GNSS-based floating car data (FCD) from driving cars the speed near and in curved alignments is found. Single observation of FCD are connected to trips...

  9. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  10. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  11. Vejnettet og det urban-rurale landskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    and form and space and time. With this description it becomes clear that the development of modern road systems, which can be linked to the realisation of the functional divided city, has created a modern city which form and structure compromises the simple dichotomies city-country and centreperiphery...... of the traditional conception of the city. In this perspective the modern city appears more like an urban-rural landscape where urban and rural elements constitutes a complex patchwork. The character of this urban-rural landscape challenges the division among the traditional disciplines of urban and landscape......The western culture of planning has a tradition of considering infrastructure predominantly from technical, technocratic or historical perspectives that removes the focus away from infrastructure’s role in the mediating between culture and nature and in the production of the “city” (see Graham...

  12. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  13. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Cleland

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults.In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges, road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software.While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern, or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics.The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  14. Noise Costs from Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margorínová, Martina; Trojanová, Mária; Decký, Martin; Remišová, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Building and improving road infrastructure in Slovakia is currently influenced by the amount of state funding. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of each proposed solution of road project, which is based on life-cycle costs. Besides capital costs, social costs are also important, which valued the negative impacts due to road construction and operation on road users, the environment, and the population living in the affected area. Some components of social costs have shortcomings in quantifying and valuating, which need to be resolved. The one of important components which affects human health and the value of an area, and have some shortcomings are noise costs. Improvement of this component will lead to more accurate valuation of economic efficiency of roads.

  15. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  16. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  19. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  20. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  1. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  2. Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Shah, Vaibhav; Soares, João; Rodrigues, Helena

    2018-06-21

    Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the analysis of the training data sets; on the analysis of the attributes complexity, through the application of PCA techniques; and on the analysis of the attributes in the context of each anomaly type, using acceleration standard deviation attributes to observe how different anomalies classes are distributed in the Cartesian coordinates system. Overall, in this paper, we describe the main insights on road anomalies detection challenges to support the design and deployment of a new iteration of our system towards the deployment of a road anomaly detection service to provide information about roads condition to drivers and government entities.

  3. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  4. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  5. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (Psennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  6. [Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Zanelli, R; Corino, P; Bruno, S

    2007-01-01

    Every year many traffic accidents with fatal outcomes occur in our Country. According to the recent indications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the Piedmont region has financed the plan: Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field. The aims of the plan are to stimulate transport companies to the target of road safety and to improve and enforce sanitary surveillance, in order to improve the safety on road haulage and to prevent traffic injuries. the plan foresees, over a period of two years, a few encounters with all the interested parties (companies, police forces, labour unions etc). During those encounters we have to give a questionnaire for evaluating the companies' knowledge about the problem and we have to choose a common plan with the aim of improving road safety. The Piedmont regional plan recalls the need to increase the attention to numerous and diversified hazards for safety on road haulage. It also imposes the choice of measures that include: risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, sanitary surveillance and clinical interventions (diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational accidents).

  7. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  8. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  9. Theatre of Rural Empowerment: The Example of Living Earth Nigeria Foundation's Community Theatre Initiative in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betiang, Liwhu

    2010-01-01

    About 60% of Nigerians live in rural areas with poor access roads and health facilities, near-absent communication media, unemployment, alienation and disempowerment by the political leadership. This scenario has excluded the rural Nigerian from meaningful participation in development action. A bottom-up participatory approach to…

  10. Using GeoVisual Analytics for understanding the distribution of complex movement patterns on the arterial roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    streets by igniting traffic rules. This will be studied on the basis of clusters of big unexplainable deviations from driving speed in FCD. The results will allow us to uncover meaningful patterns from complex traffic movements in populated areas, and provide some recommendations that are critical......Arterial roads have a particular operational significance and play a substantial role in the mobility and economic development of the modern society. They make up the majority of the road transport in urban and rural areas, and allow high-speed movement despite speed limitations and traffic...... controlling elements urban areas. In densely populated areas, where the presence of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) is high, a high-speed movement is problematic from a road safety perspective, since many VRUs do crossroads by ignoring regardless of regulation and design limitations of the road network...

  11. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African Road Safety Manual (SARSM) was published in 1999 and includes guidelines on road safety audits (RSA). The development of SARSM was a proactive process for improving the road environment with respect to road safety but was never...

  12. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in a...

  13. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified...

  14. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...

  15. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  16. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  17. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  18. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  19. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  20. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners,

  1. Modeling road-tyre noise

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Mário M. Abreu; Santos, Luís Picado; Freitas, Elisabete F.

    2008-01-01

    The growing awareness by the broader public of the consequences to health and wellbeing due to road noise has led to a growing number of legal requirements being produced to deal with this matter, both in the design of new or assessment of existing infrastructure. In this article the purpose is to make an up-to-date review of existing studies being carried out to deliver models for predicting noise produced from tyre-road contact, taking account of different methodological appr...

  2. Innovation as Road Safety Felicitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Mitra, A.; Kumar, J.; Sahoo, B.

    2018-03-01

    Transportation via Roads should only be used for safely commuting from one place to another. In 2015, when 1.5 Million people, across the Globe started out on a journey, it was meant to be their last. The Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2015, reflected this data from 180 countries as road traffic deaths, worldwide. In India, more than 1.37 Lakh[4] people were victims of road accidents in 2013 alone. That number is more than the number of Indians killed in all the wars put together. With these disturbing facts in mind, we found out some key ambiguities in the Indian Road Traffic Management systems like the non-adaptive nature to fluctuating traffic, pedestrians and motor vehicles not adhering to the traffic norms strictly, to name a few. Introduction of simple systems would greatly erase the effects of this silent epidemic and our Project aims to achieve the same. It would introduce a pair of Barricade systems to cautiously separate the pedestrians and motor vehicles to minimise road mishaps to the extent possible. Exceptional situations like that of an Ambulance or any emergency vehicles will be taken care off by the use of RFID tags to monitor the movement of the Barricades. The varied traffic scenario can be guided properly by using the ADS-B (Automatic Detection System-Broadcast) for monitoring traffic density according to the time and place.

  3. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  4. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK; Jan KEMPA

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the ...

  5. Automatic speed management systems : great safety potential ? Paper presented at the Fourth European workshop on Recent Developments in Road Safety Research, October 22-23, 1991 at Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt) Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of a speed management project in the Netherlands, carried out and evaluated by SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research. The following hypotheses form the basis of the four experiments conducted on two-lane rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h: (1) Drivers will comply to

  6. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  7. Improving Results of Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair at a Low-Volume Hospital by Risk-Adjusted Selection of Treatment in the Endovascular Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibmer, Andreas; Meyer, Bernhard; Albrecht, Thomas; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Kruschewski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have observed both higher mortality rates and lower utilization of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) at low-volume centers. This article presents the results of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair at a low-volume center in the endovascular era and investigates whether postprocedural mortality can be improved by extension of EVAR application also in this setting. This is an 11.6-year retrospective cohort study of 132 patients undergoing elective surgical or endovascular AAA repair at a tertiary care academic hospital between 1997 and July 2008, i.e., a median volume of 12 cases per year. The study was divided into two periods of time according to the respective indications and contraindications for EVAR, which substantially changed in 2005. During period 1, only aneurysms with necks ≥20 mm long and not involving the iliac arteries were treated endoluminally. Beginning in 2005, indication for EVAR was expanded to aortoiliac aneurysms with a minimum neck length of 15 mm. Preoperative risk was assessed by the SVS/AAVS comorbidity score. During the first period (1997-2004) 18.4% (16/87) of all patients received EVAR. By extending anatomical confines and indications for EVAR in 2005, the utilization rate of EVAR increased to 40.0% (18/45) during the second period (2005-July 2008; p = 0.007). Prevalence of preoperative risk factors did not change during the two observation periods. In contrast to period 1, high-risk patients were preferentially treated endoluminally during the second period, resulting in a significantly higher median SVS/AAVS score in the EVAR group (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in median length of stay at the intensive/intermediate care unit (5 vs. 2 days; p = 0.006) and length of in-hospital stay (20 vs. 12.5 days; p < 0.001) was observed during period 2. Overall perioperative mortality was reduced from 6.9% during the first period to 2.2% during the second period (p = 0.256). EVAR mortality was 0%, mortality after

  8. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  9. Street Lighting Infrastructure Assessment Using Discriminant and GIS Method on Mount Merapi Evacuation Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdihar, R. P.; Maryono, M.; Widjonarko, W.; Rahayu, S.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to assess street lighting infrastructure in rural-urban of Mount Merapi Evacuation road. Three evacuation road/corridor; Mriyan-Boyolali, Wonodoyo-Boyolali and Samiran-Boyolali are selected as case study. By using discriminant this study examine 6 variables namely type of lamp, physical component, height, time, power and cons consumption. In addition this study also using GIS method to assessing geographical feature as of previous result. According to the discriminant analysis, the characteristic of street lighting could be distinguished as two characteristic, while from the GIS assessment, the study found three characteristic of geographical street lighting feature.

  10. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  11. Limited impacts of truck-based ultra-low-volume applications of mosquito adulticides on mortality in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, F D; Margotta, J W; Pokhrel, V; Walker, T W; Vaeth, R H; Hoffman, W C; Fritz, B K; Danka, R G; Rinderer, T E; Aldridge, R L; Linthicum, K J; Ottea, J A; Healy, K B

    2017-12-01

    Adulticides applied against mosquitoes can reduce vector populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impacts of these insecticides on pollinators and other non-target organisms are of concern to mosquito control professionals, beekeepers and others. We evaluated mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Apis mellifera when caged insects were exposed to low and high label rates of four common adulticides (Aqua-Pursuit™ [permethrin], Duet® [prallethrin + sumithrin], Fyfanon® [malathion] and Scourge® [resmethrin]) at six distances up to 91.4 m from a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume sprayer. Honey bee mortality was both absolutely low (61 m had limited impacts on honey bee mortality while providing effective mosquito control.

  12. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these...

  13. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  14. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  15. Transitioning to the direct anterior approach in total hip arthroplasty. Is it a true muscle sparing approach when performed by a low volume hip replacement surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Dan-Viorel; Caterev, Sergiu; Bolboacă, Sorana-Daniela; Cosma, Dan; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald Gheorghe; Todor, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to establish if the transition from a lateral approach (LA) to the direct anterior approach (DAA) for a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon during the steep learning curve can be performed maintaining the muscle sparing approach of the DAA without increasing the complication rates. In this controlled, prospective, randomized clinical study we investigated 70 patients (35 DAA, 35 LA) with similar demographics that underwent a total hip arthroplasty. Assessment of the two approaches consisted of determining the invasiveness through serum markers for muscle damage (i.e. myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), the operative parameters such as post-operative pain and rescue medication consumption, the component positioning and complication rates. Post-operative myoglobin levels were higher (p < 0.001) in the LA group (326.42 ± 84.91 ng/mL) as compared to the DAA group (242.80 ± 71.03 ng/mL), but with no differences regarding other biomarkers for muscle damage. Pain levels were overall lower in the DAA group, with a statistical and clinical difference during surgery day (p < 0.001) associated with lower (p < 0.001) rescue medication consumption (median 1 (1; 3) mg morphine vs. 3 (2; 4) mg morphine). Most patients in the LA group reported chronic post-operative pain throughout all three evaluated months, while the majority of patients in the DAA group reported no pain after week six. Component positioning did not differ significantly between groups and neither did complication rates. The DAA can be transitioned from the LA safely, without higher complication rates while maintaining its muscle spearing advantages when performed by a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon.

  16. Evaluation of Clensia®, a new low-volume PEG bowel preparation in colonoscopy: Multicentre randomized controlled trial versus 4L PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Cristiano; Cesaro, Paola; Bazzoli, Franco; Saracco, Giorgio Maria; Cipolletta, Livio; Buri, Luigi; Crosta, Cristiano; Petruzziello, Lucio; Ceroni, Liza; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Giordanino, Chiara; Elia, Chiara; Rotondano, Gianluca; Bianco, Maria A; Simeth, Catrin; Consalvo, Danilo; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Fiori, Giancarla; Campanale, Mariachiara; Costamagna, Guido

    2017-06-01

    Success of colonoscopy is linked to the adequacy of bowel cleansing. Polyethylene glycol 4L (PEG 4L) solutions are widely used for colonic cleansing but with limitations concerning tolerability and acceptability. To demonstrate the equivalence of a new low-volume PEG containing citrates and simeticone (Clensia) versus a standard PEG 4L. In this, multicentre, randomised, observer-blind trial, patients received either Clensia 2L or PEG 4L solution. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with colon cleansing evaluated as excellent or good. 422 patients received Clensia (n=213) or PEG 4L (n=209). Rate of excellent/good bowel cleansing was 73.6% and 72.3% in Clensia and PEG 4L group respectively. Clensia was demonstrated to be equivalent to PEG 4L. No SAEs were observed. Clensia showed better gastrointestinal tolerability (37.0% vs 25.4%). The acceptability was significantly better with Clensia in terms of proportion of subjects who felt no distress (Clensia 72.8% vs PEG 4L 63%, P=0.0314) and willingness-to-repeat (93.9% vs 82.2%, P=0.0002). The rate of optimal compliance was similar with both formulations (91.1% for Clensia vs 90.9% for PEG 4L, P=0.9388). The low-volume Clensia is equally effective and safe in bowel cleansing compared to the standard PEG 4L, with better gastrointestinal tolerability and acceptability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  18. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  19. Road safety analysis on Achmad Yani frontage road Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machsus; Prayogo, I.; Chomaedhi; Hayati, D. W.; Utanaka, A.

    2017-11-01

    This research discusses road safety analysis on the operation of frontage road on the west side of Achmad Yani Road Surabaya. This research began by conducting survey on secondary data of traffic accidents. In addition, primary data survey was conducted to obtain traffic data, geometric road data, and other supporting data at the study site along the west side frontage of Ahmad Yani Road Surabaya. Devices used in this research include camera, handy cam, speed gun, counters of vehicles, rolling meter, computer and others. In outline, the stages to conduct this research are divided into 4 stages, namely 1.the preparation stage, 2.data collection and processing, 3. analysis and discussion, and 4. conclusion. The results of this study showed that the accident characteristics of the frontage road are (i) 3 accidents occured per month, (ii) motorcycles was accounted for the largest proportion of accidents which amounted to 74.6 percent, (iii) there were 3 accident victims per month, and (iv) material losses per month worths 1.2 million. The accident rate in 2016 was 0.04 crashes per one million vehicle travels per kilometer, while during 2 months in 2017 it was 0.15 accidents per one million vehicle travels per kilometer. Black spot area of accident is located on Sta 2 + 800 to 2 + 900 which is in front of Graha Pena building and DBL Arena. The high rate of accidents is influenced by the speed of the vehicle which 85 percentile exceeds the speed limit of 40km per hour.

  20. Micro-Study of the Evolution of Rural Settlement Patterns and Their Spatial Association with Water and Land Resources: A Case Study of Shandan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libang Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance between population and water and land resources is an important part of regional sustainable development. It is also significant for the ecological civilization in China and can help solve the Three Rural Issues (agriculture, countryside and farmers in China. The Silk Road Economic Belt and Maritime Silk Road in twenty-first Century Strategy have brought new opportunities for the Hexi Corridor, which is facing challenges in the sustainable development of rural settlements. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal-spatial differentiation of rural settlement patterns in Shandan County of Hexi Corridor and studied the spatial association between rural settlements and water-land resources. Results show that the total area of rural settlement patches (CA, the number of rural settlement patches (NP, the mean patch area (MPS, the maximum patch areas (MAXP, the minimum patch areas (MINP and the density of rural settlement patches (PD changed more rapidly from 1998 to 2008 than from 2008 to 2015. In the second period, the indices mentioned before did not change significantly. The kernel density of rural settlements is basically consistent in three periods. Rural settlements mainly distribute along major roads and the hydrographic network and the kernel density of rural settlements decreases in the direction away from these roads and the hydrographic network. In addition, rural settlements in Shandan County are densely distributed in some regions and sparsely distributed in other regions. The dispersion degree of rural settlements increased from 1998 to 2008 and tended to be stable after 2008. These lead to the dispersion, hollowing and chaos of rural settlements in Shandan County. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Shandan County is closely related to that of cultivated land and the hydrographic network. Our results might provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable utilization of water and land resources in Shandan County

  1. Road Safety Related Behaviours of Romanian Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria LOTREAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the behaviors with risk for road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. Material and Method: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the study sample consisting of 1598 junior high school students, senior high school students and university students aged 11-24 years from both urban and rural areas of two counties (Cluj and Hunedora of Romania. Results: The results show that around 80% of the junior high school students and more than 90% of the senior high school students and university students who go by bike do not wear helmets or use them rarely when they are cycling. Seatbelts are used more frequently than the helmets, but still more than one third of the junior high school students and senior high school students and a quarter of the university students do not use seatbelts or use them rarely. In the month previous the survey around one quarter of the students travelled in a car whose driver used alcohol before driving. Moreover, 15% of the university students who drove recognized that, at least once during their life, they did this after they used alcohol. Conclusions: The results indicate that comprehensive actions must be developed in order to prevent road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. They must include educational programs for youngsters and parents as well as adoption and enforcement of legislative measures and technical actions, which promote road safety.

  2. Material and component road map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Industrial Technology Foundation Editorial Department

    2007-09-01

    This book is comprised of two parts. One is divided into five chapters, which deals with summary of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry tendency of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry analysis and vision of environment-friendly coloring technology, analysis on core technology for environment-friendly coloring technology, with eco-friendly water paint and painting skill and eco-friendly surface treatment skill using electrochemical process. The other is divided into five chapters, which handles outline of display printing technology road map market trends of display painting, analysis and vision of display painting deduction of core-technology for display painting and analysis of core-technology for display painting. It has Diagrams for eco-friendly coloring technology road map and core-technology display painting road map.

  3. Comparison of human exposure pathways in an urban brownfield: reduced risk from paving roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kyle; Farrell, Richard E; Siciliano, Steven D

    2012-10-01

    Risk assessments often do not quantify the risk associated with soil inhalation. This pathway generally makes a negligible contribution to the cumulative risk, because soil ingestion is typically the dominant exposure pathway. Conditions in northern or rural centers in Canada characterized by large areas of exposed soil, including unpaved roads, favor the resuspension of soil particles, making soil inhalation a relevant risk pathway. The authors determined and compared human exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil ingestion and inhalation and analyzed the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks before and after roads were paved in a northern community. To determine the inhalation exposure, three size fractions of airborne particulate matter were collected (total suspended particulates [TSP], particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) before and after roads were paved. Road paving reduced the concentration of many airborne contaminants by 25 to 75%, thus reducing risk. For example, before paving, the carcinogenic risk associated with inhalation of Cr was 3.4 excess cancers per 100,000 people exposed, whereas after paving, this risk was reduced to 1.6 in 100,000. Paving roads reduced the concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP; p roads is an effective method of reducing risk from the inhalation of soil particles. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  5. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  6. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  7. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  8. How do the definitions of urban and rural matter for transportation safety? Re-interpreting transportation fatalities as an outcome of regional development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their integration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistently demonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investigates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three different definitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates per person-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin. The three urban-rural continua are defined by: (1) popular impressions of urban, suburban, and rural places using a system from regional economics; (2) population density; and (3) the intensity of commute flows to core urbanized areas. In this analysis, the three definitions captured different people and places within each continuum level, highlighting rural heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, the three definitions resulted in similar fatality rate gradients, suggesting a potentially latent "rural" characteristic. We then used field observations of urban-rural transects to refine the definitions. When accounting for the presence of higher-density towns and villages in rural places, we found that low-density urban places such as suburbs and exurbs have fatality rates more similar to those in rural places. These findings support the need to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes instead of urban-rural categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  10. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  11. VT Data - E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  12. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  13. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  14. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  15. Development of Vehicle Platoon Distribution Models and Simulation of Platoon Movements on Indiana Rural Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Shou; Shamo, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, traffic volumes have experienced a rapid growth of approximately 30% in Indiana. Traffic data indicates that more than 70% of vehicles travel in platoons on Indiana highway corridors in the vicinity of urban areas. At a rural highway intersection consisting of a major road with high traffic volume and a minor road with low traffic volume, it is very common that the green time cannot be used efficiently, especially when the vehicle detectors on the major road are imbedded clos...

  16. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  17. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  18. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  19. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  20. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as

  1. Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    Rapporten bidrager til at styrke det faglige grundlag for at kunne reducere luftforureningens konsekvenser for folkesundheden igennem den måde som prisstrukturen for road pricing indrettes på. Der er gennemført en analyse af, hvordan prisstrukturen kan differentieres i sted og tid, således...

  2. Functional requirements of road lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the

  3. A randomized controlled trial comparing a standard postoperative diet with low-volume high-calorie oral supplements following colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Wahed, S; O'Dair, G; Gemmell, L; Hainsworth, P; Horgan, A F

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative oral nutritional supplementation is becoming a part of most patient care pathways. This study examined the effects of low-volume high-calorie prescribed supplemental nutrition on patient outcome following elective colorectal surgery. Patients undergoing elective colorectal resections were randomized to a prescribed nutritional supplementation group (SG) [standard diet + 6 × 60 ml/day of Pro-Cal (60 ml = 200 kcal + 4 g protein)] or conventional postoperative diet group (CG) (standard diet alone). Preoperative and daily postoperative hand-grip strengths were measured using a grip dynamometer after randomization. Daily food intake, return of bowel activity, nausea score for the first 3 days and postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) were prospectively recorded. Micro-diet standardized software was used to analyse food diaries. Nonparametric tests were used to analyse the data. Fifty-five patients were analysed (SG 28, CG 27). There was no difference in median preoperative and postoperative handgrip strengths at discharge within each group (SG 31.7 vs 31.7 kPa, P = 0.932; CG 28 vs 28.1 kPa, P = 0.374). The total median daily calorie intake was higher in SG than CG (SG 818.5 kcal vs CG 528 kcal; P = 0.002). There was no difference in median number of days to first bowel movement (SG 3 days vs CG 4 days, P = 0.096). The median LOS was significantly shorter in SG than CG (6.5 vs 9 days; P = 0.037). Prescribed postoperative high-calorie, low-volume oral supplements in addition to the normal dietary intake are associated with significantly better total daily oral calorie intake and may contribute to a reduced postoperative hospital stay. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. A PRACTICAL MODEL OF LOW-VOLUME HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES PERFORMANCE AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS THAT RESEMBLE 'ALL-OUT' SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts × 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts × 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05 following training were found in VO2max (9.6%, power at VO2max (12.8%, Tmax (48.4%, peak power output (10.3% and mean power output (17.1%. In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%, power at VO2max (16.1%, Tmax (54.2%, peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05, but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions

  5. Rural Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  6. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community has a significant impact on the local economy. In rural areas, Medicare reimbursement is a critical source of that healthcare spending, particularly since the higher percentage of elderly population in rural areas mean that Medicare accounts for ...

  7. Forest road erosion control using multiobjective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Thompson; John Sessions; Kevin Boston; Arne Skaugset; David Tomberlin

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads are associated with accelerated erosion and can be a major source of sediment delivery to streams, which can degrade aquatic habitat. Controlling road-related erosion therefore remains an important issue for forest stewardship. Managers are faced with the task to develop efficient road management strategies to achieve conflicting environmental and economic...

  8. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a road...

  9. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  10. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation

  11. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  12. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to...

  13. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are definitely...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What...

  15. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  16. Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoru, I P

    1994-06-01

    The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to

  17. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  18. Urban-rural differences in self-reported limiting long-term illness in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A

    2003-12-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in health in Scotland and to examine the factors associated with health inequalities in urban and rural areas. The data used in this study were limiting long-term illness (LLTI) and socio-economic data collected by the 1991 Census. A rurality indicator was created using Scottish Household Survey rurality classifications. Multilevel Poisson regression modelling was carried out with LLTI as a health indicator for each type of rurality within Scotland. A variety of socio-economic factors were investigated for each rurality. Areas with the highest Standardized Illness Ratios (SIRs) (>125) are predominantly urban whereas the lowest SIRs (rural areas. Rural communities are more heterogeneous than urban areas in terms of their social make-up with relation to health; however, when these areas are split according to minor road length and different socio-economic factors are added, the model fit for each new model is improved and the reduction in total variation is comparable with that of the urban models. These findings suggest that rural areas should not be treated as a homogeneous group but should be subdivided into rural types.

  19. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    agents by government to teach farmers climate change adaptation and mitigation ... Keywords: Adaptation strategy, climate change, information needs, rural farmers, ..... 0.059 -0.035 0.059. Bad road network. 0.757. 0.294 -0.117 0.138. Poor electricity. 0.750. 0.231 -0.020 0.135. Poor use of local dialect. 0.191 -0.116 0.304.

  20. Seasonality of Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  1. Rapid analysis of NSAIDs binding to β-cyclodextrin using the simultaneous measurement of absorption and circular dichroism with a novel multi-cell low-volume device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel Dahab, Ali; El-Hag, Dhia

    2012-10-01

    One of the relatively recent and most widely used approaches to reduce side effects associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the complexation of NSAIDs with Cyclodextrins (CyD). So far, CyD interaction with drugs is not well understood. There have been many reports along these lines; however, rarely do these studies exploit the full potential of optical techniques. The purpose of this work is to produce a versatile, compact, low-volume, routine apparatus for the simultaneous measurements of absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) which allows for the concurrent use of three different pathlengths for binding studies of NSAIDs/CyD as a function of pH. A new rotating multi-cell holder which holds four cells was designed and manufactured. The work was achieved using an effective novel method for binding titration employing four separate flow cells connected in series in a flow system involving a titration flask and a pump. The pK(a), binding constants, stoichiometry and structural co-conformations of NSAIDs/β-CyD complexes were elucidated and determined with accuracy. The system proved to be efficient and the analysis time was reduced to less than or equal to one fourth of total analysis time used in one-cell systems, with possible automation for high-throughput analysis.

  2. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaudis, H; Pupelis, G; Zeiza, K; Boka, V

    2012-01-01

    Experience with administration of synbiotics (prebiotics/probiotics) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity. The aim of this trial was evaluation of the feasibility and perspective of early clinical application of oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplements in patients with SAP. 90 SAP patients were enrolled during the period from 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to the feeding mode. CONTROL (n = 32) group received standard whole protein feeding formula. SYNBIO (n = 30) and FIBRE groups (n = 28) received early (within first 24-48 hours) synbiotic or prebiotic supplements. Oral administration of synbiotics or prebiotics was commenced when patients were able to sip water. Daily provided average volume and calories of synbiotic/prebiotic blends were smaller compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.001. Oral administration of synbiotic/prebiotic supplements was associated with lower infection rate (pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis) compared to the CONTROL, (p = 0.03; p = 0.001), lower rate of surgical interventions, p = 0.005, shorter ICU (p = 0.05) and hospital stay (p = 0.03). Synbiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut resulted in reduced mortality rate compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.02. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut seems to be a potentially valuable complement to the routine treatment protocol of SAP.

  3. Potentiometric titration in a low volume of solution for rapid assay of uranium. Application to quantitative electro-reduction of uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Murali, N.; Mallika, C.; Falix Lawrence; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive PC based potentiometric titration technique for the assay of uranium using low volumes of sample aliquot (25-100 μL) along with all reagents (total volume of solution being less than 2.5 mL) is presented. The technique involves modification of the well known Davies and Gray Method recommended for assay of uranium(VI) in nuclear materials by introducing an innovative potentiometric titration device with a mini cell developed in-house. After appropriate chemical conditioning the titration is completed within a couple of minutes with display of online titration plot showing the progress of titration. The first derivative plot generated immediately after titration provides information of end point. The main advantage of using this technique is to carry out titration with minimum volumes of sample and reagents generating minimum volume of wastes after titration. The validity of the technique was evaluated using standard certified samples. This technique was applied for assay of uranium in a typical sample collected from fuel reprocessing laboratory. Further, the present technique was deployed in investigating the optimum conditions for efficient in situ production of U(IV). The precision in the estimation of uranium is highly satisfactory (RSD less than 1.0%). (author)

  4. Dispensing of very low volumes of ultra high viscosity alginate gels: a new tool for encapsulation of adherent cells and rapid prototyping of scaffolds and implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepp, Michael M; Ehrhart, Friederike; Shirley, Stephen G; Howitz, Steffen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    We present a tool for dispensing very low volumes (20 nL or more) of ultra high viscosity (UHV) medical-grade alginate hydrogels. It uses a modified piezo-driven micrometering valve, integrated into a versatile system that allows fast prototyping of encapsulation procedures and scaffold production. Valves show excellent dispensing properties for UHV alginate in concentrations of 0.4% and 0.7% and also for aqueous liquids. An optimized process flow provides excellent handling of biological samples under sterile conditions. This technique allows the encapsulation of adherent cells and structuring of substrates for biotechnology and regenerative medicine. A variety of cell lines showed at least 70% viability after encapsulation (including cell lines that are relevant in regenerative medicine like Hep G2), and time-lapse analysis revealed cells proliferating and showing limited motility under alginate spots. Cells show metabolic activity, gene product expression, and physiological function. Encapsulated cells have contact with the substrate and can exchange metabolites while being isolated from macromolecules in the environment. Contactless dispensing allows structuring of substrates with alginate, isolation and transfer of cell-alginate complexes, and the dispensing of biological active hydrogels like extracellular matrix-derived gels.

  5. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  6. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  7. RURAL DEVELOPMENT: MORE THAN SINGLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT DESARROLLO RURAL: MÁS QUE DESARROLLO AGRÍCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachón Ariza Fabio Alberto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural development as the notion of development has been strongly influenced by the idea of economic growth. Conversely, the rural development road has been focus on agricultural modernization of production systems, intensive use of chemical inputs to increase levels and technology transfer. The actual rural reality has conducted to a revaluation of what rural means and therefore its development. In these sense has grown the importance of rural related activities linked to the diversification and generating of extra revenues for rural families. This could be one of the cases behind this change in perceptions on previous rural development, giving more importance to other aspects such as cultural diversity, community participation, decision taking, decentralization processes, cultural values, and in consequence hot associate rural development with agricultural development.El desarrollo rural al igual que el sólo desarrollo, ha estado fuertemente influenciado por la idea que lo liga con el crecimiento económico. Concebido de esta forma, la manera como se ha intentado alcanzar desarrollo rural ha sido por medio de la modernización de los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, del uso indiscriminado de insumos químicos para aumentar los niveles productivos y de transferencia de tecnología. La realidad que se vive en el sector rural ha hecho que se evolucione hacia una revaloración de lo que significa lo rural y, de esta manera, también su desarrollo. Por este camino han tomado más importancia actividades conexas a lo productivo agropecuario y también la diversificación de las formas de generación de ingresos para las familias rurales. Ésta podría ser una de las causas para que también cambie la percepción que existía sobre el desarrollo rural y se brinde más importancia a otros aspectos como la aceptación de la diversidad, la participación de la comunidad en la toma de decisiones, la descentralización de la administración, el

  8. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the Personnel Continuing Education, the Hazardous Road Behaviour Monitoring, the Social Education for Safe Behaviour on Road, the Teaching Personnel Improvement, the Area Development and Planning Process Improvement, the Road Infrastructure Design Quality Improvement, and the Road and Traffic Management Process Efficiency Improvement. The basic aim of each system has been discussed as well as the most important tasks implemented as its part. The Road Safety Improvement Programme for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship presented in this article is a part of the National Road Safety Programme 2013-2020. Moreover, it is not only an original programme in Poland, but also a universal project that may be adapted for other voivodeships as well.

  9. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  10. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of magnetic particulates in road dust accumulated on roadside snow using magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucko, Michal S.; Magiera, Tadeusz; Johanson, Bo; Petrovsky, Eduard; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the applicability of snow surveying in the collection and detailed characterization of vehicle-derived magnetic particles. Road dust extracted from snow, collected near a busy urban highway and a low traffic road in a rural environment (southern Finland), was studied using magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological analyses. Significant differences in horizontal distribution of mass specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) were noticed for both roads. Multi-domain (MD) magnetite was identified as the primary magnetic mineral. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of road dust from both roads revealed: (1) angular-shaped particles (diameter ∼1-300 μm) mostly composed of Fe, Cr and Ni, derived from circulation of motor vehicles and (2) iron-rich spherules (d ∼ 2-70 μm). Tungsten-rich particles (d < 2 μm), derived from tyre stud abrasion were also identified. Additionally, a decreasing trend in χ and selected trace elements was observed with increasing distance from the road edge. - Highlights: → Snow surveying is an effective method in studies of vehicle-derived particles. → Multi-domain (MD) magnetite was identified as the primary magnetic mineral. → Particles mostly composed of Fe, Cr and Ni were identified in the roadside snow. → Snow located near the road is contaminated by heavy metals. - Snow surveying is an effective method in detailed studies of vehicle-derived magnetic particles.

  12. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dons, Evi; Temmerman, Philip; Van Poppel, Martine; Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m 3 ) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m 3 ), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m 3 ). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds ( 3 for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m 3 for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only. - Highlights: ► Aethalometers, an electronic diary and GPS were used to measure exposure in transport ► More than 1500 trips with active modes and in motorized transport are studied ► Exposure is higher on highways, in urban areas and during traffic peak hours. ► Traffic intensity is the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure. ► Exposure

  13. Resource Roads demonstration project : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    British Columbia's vast network of resource roads are considered to be amongst the most dangerous, high-risk workplaces in the province. Resource roads, also known as industrial roads, forest service roads, or petroleum development roads, present several unique safety challenges as workplaces. They are built for the purpose of access, egress and transport of materials, resources, equipment and people. However, the lack the same diligence of enforcement and a consistent design, construction, maintenance and standard for use as public highways or municipal roads. There are also safety challenges related to public use of resource roads. This report presented a project, called ResourceRoads by WorkSafe BC that focused on the organization and implementation of a management structure that would provide a system of coordination and a process of compliance for the users of the defined road systems. The project was based on information gathered in two forest districts of Prince George and the South Peace Forest Districts. A committee consisting of the actual owner of the road and other users was formed. The report presented a history of British Columbia's resource road system, and discussed resource roads as industrial workplaces and worksites, as well as resource road fatality statistics. The demonstration project was outlined in terms of project leadership; scope; strategic objectives; project purpose; performance objectives; project communication; demonstration areas; and project stages. Project fundamentals and project findings were also presented along with recommendations and responses to the Auditor General report and the Forest Safety Ombudsman report. It was concluded that potential uses of new technologies for resource road vehicles should be reviewed. tabs., figs.

  14. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  16. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  17. Politics of contemporary "Silk Roads"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Litvinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently in mass media we can find the idea about a new Silk Road or the concept of "Silk Road Economic Belt" which has been formulated by the Chinese PresidentXi Jinping on September 7,2013, during his official visit to Kazakhstan. This project is not only the creation of a transport, power and trade corridor, and also the project which will promote development of tourism in the region and to strengthening of cultural exchanges of China with the countries of Central Asia, it also includes construction of a network of high-speed fiber-optical networks. The economic strip of the Silk Road will begin in China and pass across the Central and the Southern Asia, part of branches across the territory of the Russian Federation and to leave to Europe. This international investment project assumes creation of a continental transport way. For implementation of overland part of "A great Silk Road is a three railway corridors (northern, central have to be constructed and southern They have form a basis for development of other means of transport, including automobile subsequently. Construction of these three railway corridors acts as the most important and necessary stage of implementation of the project. The government of China declares that creation of an economic belt of the Silk way is a revival of once prospering trade-transport and cultural corridor from Asia to Europe which will promote activization of a friendly exchange between the people of the different countries. Further all this has to connect trade and economic space of Europe and Asia in a whole that has to serve implementation of deeper economic cooperation, between the countries participating in him, to increase in a trade turnover and expansion of scientific and technical exchanges between them.

  18. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  19. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  20. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  1. Efficacy and safety of ERCP in a low-volume hospital Eficacia y seguridad de la CPRE en un hospital con bajo volumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Riesco-López

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: there is little scientific evidence on the outcomes of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP performed in low-volume hospitals; however, in our country, it is growing up its implementation. The objectives of our study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this technique performed by two endoscopists with basic training in a center of this nature and analyze the learning curve in the first procedures. Patients and methods: single-center retrospective study of the first 200 ERCP performed in our hospital (analyzing the evolution between the first 100 and 100 following procedures, comparing them with the quality standards proposed in the literature. Results: from February 2009 to April 2011, we performed 200 ERCP in 169 patients, and the most common indications were: Choledocholithiasis (77 %, tumors (14.5 % and other conditions (8.5 %. The cannulation rate rose from 85 % in the first 100 ERCP to 89 % in the next 100 procedures, clinical success from 81 % to 87 %, decreasing the post-ERCP acute pancreatitis rate from 11 % to 4 %, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB from 3 % to 2 % and acute cholangitis from 4 % to 1 %. There was a death from a massive UGIB in a cirrhotic patient in the first group of patients and a case of biliary perforation resolved by surgery in the second one. Conclusions: the results obtained after performing 200 procedures support the ability to practice ERCP in low-volume hospitals obtaining levels of efficacy and safety in accordance with published quality standards.Introducción y objetivos: existe poca evidencia científica sobre los resultados de la CPRE realizada en hospitales con bajo volumen, sin embargo su puesta en marcha en nuestro medio es creciente. Los objetivos de nuestro estudio son evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de dicha técnica realizada por dos endoscopistas biliares noveles en un centro de estas características y analizar la curva de aprendizaje en los

  2. The Maternity Care Nurse Workforce in Rural U.S. Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Almanza, Jennifer; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    To describe the maternity care nurse staffing in rural U.S. hospitals and identify key challenges and opportunities in maintaining an adequate nursing workforce. Cross-sectional survey study. Maternity care units within rural hospitals in nine U.S. states. Maternity care unit managers. We calculated descriptive statistics to characterize the rural maternity care nursing workforce by hospital birth volume and nursing staff model. We used simple content analysis to analyze responses to open-ended questions and identified themes related to challenges and opportunities for maternity care nursing in rural hospitals. Of the 263 hospitals, 51% were low volume (maternity care nurses. They did, however, identify significant challenges related to recruiting nurses, maintaining adequate staffing during times of census variability, orienting and training nurses, and retaining experienced nurses. Rural maternity care unit managers recognize the importance of nursing and have varied staffing needs. Policy implementation and programmatic support to ameliorate challenges may help ensure that an adequate nursing staff can be maintained, even in small-volume rural hospitals. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Childhood Safety Education: An Overview of Safety Curriculum in Outer Metropolitan, Regional and Rural NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennifer; Saltmarsh, Sue; Klopper, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on preliminary findings from a 2008 survey and telephone interviews with 27 directors of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services located in regional and rural districts of the Australian state of New South Wales. Data from the study suggests that some areas of safety education--most notably road/traffic safety and…

  4. In-Vehicle Dynamic Curve-Speed Warnings at High-Risk Rural Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Lane-departure crashes at horizontal curves represent a significant portion of fatal crashes on rural Minnesota roads. Because of this, solutions are needed to aid drivers in identifying upcoming curves and inform them of a safe speed at which they s...

  5. Effects of scale and efficiency of rural traffic calming on safety, accessibility and wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of scale and efficiency of regional traffic calming on traffic safety, rural accessibility, and survival of wildlife. We distinguish by the scale of road networks affected and considered the efficiencies of various bundling of traffic flows on designated routes.

  6. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  7. Mobile assessment of on-road air pollution and its sources along the East-West Highway in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Tenzin; Knibbs, Luke D.; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposures in transportation microenvironments are poorly represented by ambient stationary monitoring. A number of on-road studies using vehicle-based mobile monitoring have been conducted to address this. Most previous studies were conducted on urban roads in developed countries where the primary emission source was vehicles. Few studies have examined on-road pollution in developing countries in urban settings. Currently, no study has been conducted for roadways in rural environments where a substantial proportion of the population live. This study aimed to characterize on-road air quality on the East-West Highway (EWH) in Bhutan and identify its principal sources. We conducted six mobile measurements of PM10, particle number (PN) count and CO along the entire 570 km length of the EWH. We divided the EWH into five segments, R1-R5, taking the road length between two district towns as a single road segment. The pollutant concentrations varied widely along the different road segments, with the highest concentrations for R5 compared with other road segments (PM10 = 149 μg/m3, PN = 5.74 × 104 particles/cm-3, CO = 0.19 ppm), which is the final segment of the road to the capital. Apart from vehicle emissions, the dominant sources were road works, unpaved roads and roadside combustion activities. Overall, the highest contributions above the background levels were made by unpaved roads for PM10 (6 times background), and vehicle emissions for PN and CO (5 and 15 times background, respectively). Notwithstanding the differences in instrumentation used and particle size range measured, the current study showed lower PN concentrations compared with similar on-road studies. However, concentrations were still high enough that commuters, road maintenance workers and residents living along the EWH, were potentially exposed to elevated pollutant concentrations from combustion and non-combustion sources. Future studies should focus on assessing the dispersion patterns of

  8. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  9. Two cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume stage II seminoma: results of a retrospective, single-center case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Stöhr, Brigitte; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    To report on the oncological outcome and toxicity of patients treated with 2 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume metastatic stage II seminoma. We retrospectively identified a case series of 15 patients with seminoma stage IIA (26.7%) and IIB (73.3%) who underwent chemotherapy consisting of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (PEB) (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, bleomycin 30 mg on days 1, 8 and 15) according to patient preference (refusing a 3rd cycle of PEB) or institutional practice in the last decades. Complete staging before chemotherapy was available in all patients. Patient age, the side and diameter of the primary tumor, the size of the lymph nodes before and after chemotherapy, acute and late toxicity of chemotherapy, the incidence of second malignancies, the relapse-free rate and cancer-specific mortality were recorded. Chemotherapy was well tolerated and no episode of febrile neutropenia occurred. Thrombocytopenia grade 4 was not seen in any patient, while leukopenia grade 4 was observed in 4 (26.6%) patients. The mean (range) lymph node size decreased significantly from 2.54 cm (1.1-4.0) before chemotherapy to 0.75 cm (0.4-2.2) after chemotherapy (p < 0.001). After a median (range) follow-up of 60 (13-185) months, no patient had relapsed, no patient had died as a result of seminoma and second malignancy was seen in only 1 (6.6%) patient. These excellent long-term results from a retrospective case series of 2 cycles of PEB in stage IIA/IIB seminoma patients represent a hint for further research with a view to reducing treatment burden. However, these incidental findings should be studied in prospective trials prior to drawing any conclusions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  11. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  12. Construction and maintenance of underground mine roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, A.S.; Seedsman, R.W. [Coffey Partners International Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the underground workplace. An underground coal industry funded project was recently completed on underground mine road construction and maintenance. This paper discusses practical approaches to construction and maintenance of underground mine roads using transferable civil technologies and innovative techniques. Mine pavements are generally low-cost (relative to civil roads), constructed to varying standards using locally available materials to best meet the mobility needs of the mine. Performance of pavements is thus largely dependent on the environmental conditions, quality of the available road making materials, maintenance policies and available resources. This paper explains the causes of bad roads in various underground environments. It details available management strategies, construction and water control techniques, road maintenance and vehicle considerations. It concludes that the trend to larger rubber tires mining equipment needs to be matched with construction and maintenance of high quality road surfaces. For large operations, the total cost due to poor roads may equate to in excess of $A1 million per annum. The strategies outlined in this paper provide the basis for construction and maintenance of underground mine roads to help achieve desired production targets. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  13. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of low-volume polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution as bowel preparations for colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Standard-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG gut lavage solutions are safe and effective, but they require the consumption of large volumes of fluid. A new lower-volume solution of PEG plus ascorbic acid has been used recently as a preparation for colonoscopy. AIM: A meta-analysis was performed to compare the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. STUDY: Electronic and manual searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. After a methodological quality assessment and data extraction, the pooled estimates of bowel preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing, compliance with preparation, willingness to repeat the same preparation, and the side effects were calculated. We calculated pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR by fixed- and/or random-effects models. We also assessed heterogeneity among studies and the publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were identified for analysis. The pooled OR for preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing and for compliance with preparation for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were 1.08 (95% CI = 0.98-1.28, P = 0.34 and 2.23 (95% CI = 1.67-2.98, P<0.00001, respectively, compared with those for standard-volume PEG. The side effects of vomiting and nausea for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were reduced relative to standard-volume PEG. There was no significant publication bias, according to a funnel plot. CONCLUSIONS: Low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid gut lavage achieved non-inferior efficacy for bowel cleansing, is more acceptable to patients, and has fewer side effects than standard-volume PEG as a bowel preparation method for colonoscopy.

  14. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  15. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...

  16. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  17. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  18. Knowledge-Based Detection and Assessment of Damaged Roads Using Post-Disaster High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Qiming; Zhao, Jianghua; Ye, Xin; Feng, Xiao; Qin, Xuebin; Yang, Xiucheng

    2015-01-01

    Road damage detection and assessment from high-resolution remote sensing image is critical for natural disaster investigation and disaster relief. In a disaster context, the pairing of pre-disaster and post-disaster road data for change detection and assessment is difficult to achieve due to the mismatch of different data sources, especially for rural areas where the pre-disaster data (i.e., remote sensing imagery or vector map) are hard to obtain. In this study, a knowledge-based method for ...

  19. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  20. Extended investigation on road fatality in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N B; Hoque, M A; Steele, M C; Yong, S Y

    2018-06-08

    Road fatality is one of the leading causes of death in Brunei with 79 deaths in 1993, the highest ever recorded. The Brunei government has been trying to reduce this by implementing new traffic measures and successfully reduced fatalities to 24 fatalities in 2014. Yearly road fatality has been fluctuating, but there has been a declining tendency overall. The aim of this study is to investigate road fatality in Brunei by extending the research. We developed a multiple regression model and carried out an analysis on road fatality in Brunei. Our analysis indicates that the road fatality appears to rise depending on the increase in the number of young drivers between 15 to 24 years and the number of unemployed people. Comparisons of Brunei road fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles are made with some other countries and we conclude that Brunei has approximately the same rate as Australia in 2014.

  1. Problematics of Reliability of Road Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawowiak, Michał; Kuczaj, Mariusz

    2018-06-01

    This article refers to the reliability of road rollers used in a selected roadworks company. Information on the method of road rollers service and how the service affects the reliability of these rollers is presented. Attention was paid to the process of the implemented maintenance plan with regard to the machine's operational time. The reliability of road rollers was analyzed by determining and interpreting readiness coefficients.

  2. Road safety and trade and industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, derive income from road crashes. Trade and industry can also be of importance for road safety. Particularly the transport sector, the car industry and insurers take several initiatives which for example...

  3. Road weather information for travelers : improving road weather messages and dissemination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) recently completed a study titled Human Factors Analysis of Road Weather Advisory and Control Information (Publication No. FHWAJPO- 10-053). The goal of the study was to...

  4. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  5. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  6. Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors

  7. POROUS STRUCTURE OF ROAD CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Having a great number of concrete structure classifications it is recommended to specify the following three principal types: microstructure – cement stone structure; mesostructure – structure of cement-sand mortar in concrete; macrostucture – two-component system that consists of mortar and coarse aggregate. Every mentioned-above structure has its own specific features which are related to the conditions of their formation. Thus, microstructure of cement stone can be characterized by such structural components as crystal intergrowth, tobermorite gel, incompletely hydrated cement grains and porous space. The most important technological factors that influence on formation of cement stone microstructure are chemical and mineralogical cement composition, its grinding fineness, water-cement ratio and curing condition. Specific cement stone microstructure is formed due to interrelation of these factors. Cement stone is a capillary-porous body that consists of various solid phases represented predominantly by sub-microcrystals of colloidal dispersion. The sub-microcrystals are able adsorptively, osmotically and structurally to withhold (to bind some amount of moisture. Protection of road concrete as a capillary-porous body is considered as one of the topical issues. The problem is solved with the help of primary and secondary protection methods. Methods of primary protection are used at the stage of designing, preparation and placing of concrete. Methods of secondary protection are applied at the operational stage of road concrete pavement. The paper considers structures of concrete solid phase and characteristics of its porous space. Causes of pore initiation, their shapes, dimensions and arrangement in the concrete are presented in the paper. The highest hazard for road concrete lies in penetration of aggressive liquid in it and moisture transfer in the cured concrete. Water permeability of concrete characterizes its filtration factor which

  8. Development and enhancement of road lighting principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekrias, A.

    2010-07-01

    The work starts with a short introduction concerning the history of road lighting, outlining the trends and changes that have taken place in road lighting research during the past century. The introduction is followed by a review of trends, directions, and problems in current road lighting research and practice. The following part of the work introduces an advanced approach to road lighting measurements and calculations, based on the use of an imaging luminance photometer and the Road LumiMeter v2.0 computer program. The work sets out to investigate the variations in the characteristics of the quality of the road lighting at the same pilot locations in relation to the calculation methods used. In the work mesopic visual performance and the effects of the spectral transmittance of the vehicle windshield on the visibility conditions of the driver are also analysed. The work continues with road lighting measurements in various weather conditions in order to study the effects of snowy and wet road surface conditions on road lighting luminances. The results show that in Finland, snowy conditions offer very good opportunities to save electricity without adversely affecting either the safety of driving or the quality of road lighting. The following measurements set out to investigate the contribution of halogen and high-intensity discharge headlights to road lighting and whether this has a conflicting effect on the luminance contrasts of various targets located on the road or at the side of the road. The results indicate that, in general, the use of vehicle headlights in the presence of road lighting reduces the luminance contrasts of targets. The work continues with road lighting visibility experiments which study the visibility of achromatic and coloured targets in MH lamp and HPS lamp installations. The results show that colours have a major effect on target visibility if the road is illuminated with a light source with adequate colour rendering properties. Finally

  9. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  10. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  11. Evaluation of Shortest Paths in Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Shehzad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization is a key factor in almost all the topics of operations research / management science and economics.The road networks can be optimized within different constraints like time, distance, cost and traffic running onthe roads.This study is based on optimization of real road network by means of distances. Two main objectives arepursued in this research: 1 road distances among different routes are composed in detail; 2 two standardalgorithms (Dijkstra and Floyd-Warshall algoritms are applied to optimize/minimize these distances for bothsingle-source and all-pairs shortest path problems.

  12. Roads Belong in the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Roads are often associated with a fragmentation or splintering of landscapes and their natural connectivity; particularly in relation to ‘green infrastructure’ they are often considered problematic elements that rupture and barricade. Conversely, as part of larger networks, roads can be considered...... important elements in the creation of new, ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. This argument will be unfolded and substantiated in this article through theoretical reflections which conceptually re-locate road networks...... in the urban landscape, supported by relevant reference projects that illustrate the potential of road networks as a platform for ‘green infrastructure’....

  13. The Development of child road safety competence : the new approach tо road safety education

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkonis, Rytis

    2005-01-01

    The education and information are the strategies of the Road safety. However, some of the documents and scientific findings revealed the chaotic, desultory and theoretically groundless Road safety education and it can be stated that Road safety education system in Lithuania is still being established. The shortage of the theoretical and empirical base of Road safety education is slowing down the process of the system development. Aim of the research is to disclose the assumptions for developm...

  14. The Use of Theatre Tours in Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; And Others

    The Scottish Road Safety Campaign and the Road Safety Council of Wales have made a large investment in theater tours as a method of providing road safety education. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a road safety message delivered by a theater group, Road Safety Officers (RSOs), or, teachers for pupils in upper secondary classes.…

  15. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic

  16. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of technological prevention method of road accident related to driver and vehicle. ... road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; road safety.

  17. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  18. Road map for photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  19. Split-dose administration of a dual-action, low-volume bowel cleanser for colonoscopy: the SEE CLEAR I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Douglas K; Katz, Philip O; Bertiger, Gerald; Vanner, Stephen; Hookey, Lawrence C; Alderfer, Vivian; Joseph, Raymond E

    2013-07-01

    New bowel cleansers for colonoscopy that lead to improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability are needed. This study evaluated a nonphosphate, dual-action, low-volume, orange-flavored preparation containing sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate (P/MC). Multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized, noninferiority study. University hospitals, academic medical centers, and private clinics across the United States. Adults preparing for colonoscopy. P/MC versus 2 L of polyethylene glycol solution (2L PEG-3350) and two 5-mg bisacodyl tablets. This phase 3 study investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of split-dose administration of P/MC versus day-before dosing of 2L PEG-3350 and two 5-mg bisacodyl tablets (SEE CLEAR I study). Efficacy was evaluated by using the Aronchick and Ottawa scales; noninferiority and superiority analyses were performed. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs). Tolerability was measured via a patient questionnaire. The intent-to-treat population consisted of 601 patients who self-administered P/MC (n = 304) or 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (n = 297). P/MC was superior to 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets in overall colon cleansing (84.2% vs 74.4%; 1-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 3.4) (Aronchick scores of excellent or good) and in cleansing of the ascending (89.5% vs 78.8%; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 4.9), mid (transverse and descending) (92.4% vs 85.9%; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 1.6), and rectosigmoid (92.4% vs 87.2%; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 0.4) segments of the colon (Ottawa scores of excellent, good, or fair). Commonly reported AEs related to the bowel preparations were nausea, vomiting, headache, and chills. Patient-reported tolerability, including ease of consumption and taste, was significantly higher for P/MC than 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (P PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  1. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  2. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  3. Road deaths in the Netherlands. [Previously known as: Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road deaths in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. In 2016, there were 629 road deaths in the Netherlands. After the years of

  4. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 11th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. Since 2014, progress has virtually ground to a halt. 2016

  5. Visibility of road markings on wet road surfaces : a literature study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The English version of B 14153 is presented. Road markings, notably lane markers, are often only poorly visible when the road is wet. This is particularly a problem at night on unlit roads. A study is made of whether a solution for this problem can be found on the basis of the known, published

  6. Overview of the neural network based technique for monitoring of road condition via reconstructed road profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available on the road and driver to assess the integrity of road and vehicle infrastructure. In this paper, vehicle vibration data are applied to an artificial neural network to reconstruct the corresponding road surface profiles. The results show that the technique...

  7. Construction of Three-Dimensional Road Surface and Application on Interaction between Vehicle and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative description is given to three-dimensional micro and macro self-similar characteristics of road surface from the perspective of fractal geometry using FBM stochastic midpoint displacement and diamond-square algorithm in conjunction with fractal characteristics and statistical characteristics of standard pavement determined by estimation method of box-counting dimension. The comparative analysis between reconstructed three-dimensional road surface spectrum and theoretical road surface spectrum and correlation coefficient demonstrate the high reconstruction accuracy of fractal reconstructed road spectrum. Furthermore, the bump zone is taken as an example to reconstruct a more arbitrary 3D road model through isomorphism of special road surface with stochastic road surface model. Measurement is taken to assume the tire footprint on road surface to be a rectangle, where the pressure distribution is expressed with mean stiffness, while the contact points in the contact area are replaced with a number of springs. Two-DOF vehicle is used as an example to analyze the difference between three-dimensional multipoint-and-plane contact and traditional point contact model. Three-dimensional road surface spectrum provides a more accurate description of the impact effect of tire on road surface, thereby laying a theoretical basis for studies on the dynamical process of interaction of vehicle-road surface and the road friendliness.

  8. RoADS: A road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atzmueller, Martin; Chin, Alvin; Janssen, Frederik; Schweizer, Immanuel; Trattner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we

  9. RoADS: A road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we

  10. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  11. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  12. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  13. Fatigue cracking in road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the problem of modelling fatigue phenomena occurring in the road pavement. The example of two selected pavements shows the changes occurring under the influence of the load in different places of the pavement layers. Attention is paid to various values of longitudinal and transverse strains generated at the moment of passing the wheel on the pavement. It was found that the key element in the crack propagation analysis is the method of transferring the load to the pavement by the tire and the strain distribution in the pavement. During the passage of the wheel in the lower layers of the pavement, a complex stress state arises. Then vertical, horizontal and tangent stresses with various values appear. The numerical analyses carried out with the use of finite element methods allowed to assess the strain and stress changes occurring in the process of cracking road pavement. It has been shown that low-thickness pavements are susceptible to fatigue cracks arising "bottom to top", while pavements thicker are susceptible to "top to bottom" cracks. The analysis of the type of stress allowed to determine the cracking mechanism.

  14. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  15. Renewable energy for rural development in Ethiopia: the case for new energy policies and institutional reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    This article argues the case for introducing new energy policies in Ethiopia that will ensure energy initiatives for rural development meet the desired expectations. A review of the rural energy sector in Ethiopia is presented. Rural communities have for centuries relied solely on traditional biomass energy sources, human and animal power. In addition, sample findings show that the basic stock of traditional biomass energy resources is dwindling fast for two reasons: one, due to rapid population growth; and two, due to the absence of energy substitutes for traditional energy sources. Renewable energy technologies and other modern energy technologies are almost non-existent. In terms of budgetary allocation, rural energy development has not received a fair share of public investment in comparison to education, rural road construction and health. A key policy recommendation made in this article is the need for commitment from concerned authorities to the use of renewables for spurring rural development. This could be done through increasing the budget allocation to rural energy, which is currently negligible. Other policy recommendations include the modification of existing institutional frameworks for rural energy delivery, and the design and implementation of appropriate rural energy initiatives suitable for productive activities and sustainable development. (Author)

  16. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  17. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  18. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  19. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  20. Rural tourism development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BarneyM

    Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.

  1. Networking the rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiongson, K H; Arneson, S I

    1993-04-01

    A branch network of affiliate hospitals has been providing home care services to rural North Dakota residents successfully for a decade. Here's how this effective system meets the special challenges that a rural environment poses for hiring, training, scheduling, and supporting home care aides.

  2. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  3. Use of porous asphalt on major roads in Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Roads with high traffic volumes are synonymous with high road related noise levels. In Johannesburg road related noise pollution is recognised as a negative environmental impact. The Noise Pollution Unit of Johannesburg City Council regularly...

  4. Executive report : toll roads, toll rates, and driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    State and federal research has examined toll roads and attempted to identify methods to make toll roads a more attractive option for drivers. Researchers examined various views of toll road transactions and concluded: : Truckers and trucking comp...

  5. Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    The nature of urban road transportation problems in Nigeria as at today can .... study. These are: Road network development between 1960 and 2006 ... roads in the Western region was tarred, ..... other smaller transport system (in this case.

  6. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  7. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  8. IMPROVEMENT WORKS OF THE SCHRODINGER ROAD

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-TFM; GSM 164478; ST-TFM Group; Tel. 72296; GSM 164478

    2000-01-01

    Division ST will proceed, as from Monday September 4, with improvement works of the SCHRÖDINGER road with the aim of facilitating the passing conditions of vehicles (see plan). These works will last for two weeks during which traffic will be forbidden on this section of road. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  9. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Lind, B.

    2009-01-01

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  11. Road safety 'results focus' - ready to launch?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of road safety interventions in South Africa are disappointing and the cost of road safety related casualties and damage and drain on public resources are possibly to the upper side of the typical range of 2 to 3 per cent of Gross...

  12. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  13. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  14. Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann Gucinski; Michael J. Furniss; Robert R. Ziemer; Martha H. Brookes

    2001-01-01

    Effects of roads in forested ecosystems span direct physical and ecological ones (such as geomorphic and hydrologic effects), indirect and landscape level ones (such as effects on aquatic habitat, terrestrial vertebrates, and biodiversity conservation), and socioeconomic ones (such as passive-use value, economic effects on development and range management). Road...

  15. Overview of Nanotechnology in Road Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Arpit Singh; Dr. Sangita; Arpan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has changed our vision, expectations, and abilities to control the material world. This paper examines and document applicable nanotechnology based product that can be improve the overall competitiveness of the Road engineering industry. In this review, nanotechnology is applying in road sector.

  16. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  17. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems...

  18. Area Wide Road User Charging in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced.......The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced....

  19. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  20. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  1. ROAD REPAIR WORKS ON THE MEYRIN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-TFM Group

    2001-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 23 July, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for one week depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  2. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  3. Does the Maya Forest Need More Roads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Burgués, Irene

    levels of poverty found in this area. But more and better roads usually bring more people and expand farms. Decision-makers are therefore confronted with a seeming conflict between conservation and development goals. Would new roads be bad or good for the Maya Forest region? To help answer that question...

  4. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  5. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... altering the normal flow of water in streambeds or drainage channels; (6) Prevent or control damage to... part of any road shall be located in the channel of an intermittent or perennial stream unless... 816.57 of this chapter. (2) Roads shall be located to minimize downstream sedimentation and flooding...

  6. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... altering the normal flow of water in streambeds or drainage channels; (6) Prevent or control damage to... part of any road shall be located in the channel of an intermittent or perennial stream unless... 817.57 of this chapter. (2) Roads shall be located to minimize downstream sedimentation and flooding...

  7. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  8. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce, some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following:Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of

  9. Rumblings and Rainfall, Rebels, Remittances and Roads- The complex landscape of slope failure in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Sudmeier, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2017-04-01

    During the first monsoon season following the deadly 2015 Gorkha earthquake, 27 people were killed during two events in Nepal's Western Region due to debris flows triggered by a 24-hour, 315 mm cloudburst (Devkota et al. 2015). Both events were linked with roads: the first was caused by an accumulation of water on a newly constructed road above a steep, deforested slope, the second wiped out a major road and destroyed 10 houses. These deadly landslides were not triggered solely by extreme rainfall, but rather a complex combination of earthquakes, intensified rainfall associated with climate change and an explosion of unplanned rural road construction fueled by an increase in foreign investment, remittances and decentralisation of budgets and power from the central government to local villages. This complexity is explored through a trend data analysis on the number of landslides, landslide fatalities, rainfall intensity, and the road network in Nepal between 1980-2014 (McAdoo et al, submitted). Of most concern are the poorly constructed roads in Nepal's Middle Hill districts ( 1000-3000 m above sea level, humid, subtropical) as they are proliferating at an unprecedented pace without proper alignment, drainage, grading or maintenance. They are occurring in areas which frequently receive up to 4,000-5,000 mm of precipitation per year, causing considerable loss in lives, livelihoods and investment. Landslide fatalities increased from 88 on average for the period 1982-1995 to 130 deaths per year for the period 2007-2014 (Desinventar, 2016). Contrary to numerous studies which show a strong link between rainfall and landslides, our trend analysis demonstrates a decoupling of climate and the geomorphic drivers, pointing to other factors, namely the exponential road construction trend to explain the increase in landslide fatalities. Nepal has some of the oldest manuals and well-trained cadres in low-cost green engineering practices, yet these are rarely applied. To reverse

  10. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  11. Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  13. Removing non-urban roads from the National Land Cover Database to create improved urban maps for the United States, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying change in urban land provides important information to create empirical models examining the effects of human land use. Maps of developed land from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of the conterminous United States include rural roads in the developed land class and therefore overestimate the amount of urban land. To better map the urban class and understand how urban lands change over time, we removed rural roads and small patches of rural development from the NLCD developed class and created four wall-to-wall maps (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011) of urban land. Removing rural roads from the NLCD developed class involved a multi-step filtering process, data fusion using geospatial road and developed land data, and manual editing. Reference data classified as urban or not urban from a stratified random sample was used to assess the accuracy of the 2001 and 2006 urban and NLCD maps. The newly created urban maps had higher overall accuracy (98.7 percent) than the NLCD maps (96.2 percent). More importantly, the urban maps resulted in lower commission error of the urban class (23 percent versus 57 percent for the NLCD in 2006) with the trade-off of slightly inflated omission error (20 percent for the urban map, 16 percent for NLCD in 2006). The removal of approximately 230,000 km2 of rural roads from the NLCD developed class resulted in maps that better characterize the urban footprint. These urban maps are more suited to modeling applications and policy decisions that rely on quantitative and spatially explicit information regarding urban lands.

  14. TOWARDS FINANCING AND PLANNING ROAD SAFETY AUDIT OPERATIONS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Adetunji ODELEYE, M.Sc.

    2000-01-01

    Finally, this paper suggests commissioning of a National Road Research Fund, with a view to developing an efficient road safety audit operational system. Also, the introduction of private initiatives and a Community-based Approach in road administration, as well as decentralization of road administration framework at all levels, will greatly help “engineer out” potentially unsafe features across Nigerian roads, towards a better road traffic environment in the 21st century.

  15. Road icing forecasting and detecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongke; Zheng, Jinnan; Li, Peiqi; Wang, Qiucai

    2017-05-01

    Regard for the facts that the low accuracy and low real-time of the artificial observation to determine the road icing condition, and it is difficult to forecast icing situation, according to the main factors influencing the road-icing, and the electrical characteristics reflected by the pavement ice layer, this paper presents an innovative system, that is, ice-forecasting of the highway's dangerous section. The system bases on road surface water salinity measurements and pavement temperature measurement to calculate the freezing point of water and temperature change trend, and then predicts the occurrence time of road icing; using capacitance measurements to verdict the road surface is frozen or not; This paper expounds the method of using single chip microcomputer as the core of the control system and described the business process of the system.

  16. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.

  17. Roads Belong In the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    In spite of being an essential part of the system of automobility and as such playing an important role in the development of urban landscapes, road networks seldom attracts much attention among architects involved in the planning and design of urban landscapes. One reason is probably found...... in the dominance of the zoning approach to planning, where road planning easily becomes isolated and reduced to a matter of traffic regulation and transport economy. Another possible reason could be, as suggested by the Australian landscape architect Christopher Sawyer, that road networks like other...... as landscape architects engage with road networks in profound ways, which moves beyond the purely visual and pictorial? Is it possible to conceptually (re)locate road networks in the landscape? The paper will address these questions by discussing different understandings of landscape and its relation...

  18. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    CERN Document Server

    van Bommel, Wout

    2015-01-01

    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  19. A dual-action, low-volume bowel cleanser administered the day before colonoscopy: results from the SEE CLEAR II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Philip O; Rex, Douglas K; Epstein, Michael; Grandhi, Nav K; Vanner, Stephen; Hookey, Lawrence C; Alderfer, Vivian; Joseph, Raymond E

    2013-03-01

    Optimal bowel preparation is vital for the efficacy and safety of colonoscopy. The inconvenience, discomfort, required consumption of large volumes of product, and potential adverse effects associated with some bowel preparations deter patients from colonoscopy and may provide inadequate cleansing. A dual-action, non-phosphate, natural orange-flavored, low-volume preparation containing sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate (P/MC) is currently being reviewed for bowel cleansing. This was a phase 3, randomized, multicenter, assessor-blinded, prespecified non-inferiority, head-to-head study to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of day-before administration of P/MC vs. 2L polyethylene glycol solution and two 5-mg bisacodyl tablets (2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (HalfLytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit)) in adult patients preparing for colonoscopy (SEE CLEAR II Study). The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of P/MC to 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets in overall colon cleansing using a modified Aronchick scale. In addition, efficacy in the ascending, mid (transverse and descending), and recto-sigmoid segments of colon was evaluated using a modified Ottawa scale. Patient acceptability and tolerability of the bowel preparations were assessed via a standard questionnaire. Safety was assessed based on the monitoring of adverse events (AEs) and meaningful findings on clinical evaluations including physical examinations, vital sign measurements, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). A total of 603 patients were randomized to receive either P/MC (n = 300) or 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (n = 303). Based on the Aronchick scale, successful overall cleansing was similar in patients receiving P/MC (83.0%) and patients receiving 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (79.7%). P/MC demonstrated non-inferiority to 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets in overall cleansing of the colon, as measured by the Aronchick scale

  20. Self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport to address road safety, accelerated road deterioration and transport productivity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle overloading and road safety continue to be major problems in South Africa notwithstanding efforts at more effective enforcement by the road and traffic authorities. Overloading causes premature road deterioration and, together...