WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-mass wide pairs

  1. Investigating the Properties of Low-Mass Stars Using Spectra of Wide Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluns, Kyle; West, A. A.; Dhital, S.; Massey, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a study designed to characterize wide, low-mass (Sun) binaries identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We examine the SDSS database level completeness (for identifying visual binaries) and analyze the pairs that both have individual SDSS spectra. A comprehensive by-eye examination reveals that a significant fraction of the sources within 1" of the primary stellar source are misclassified as duplicate detections and, hence, are omitted from the photometric primary catalog in the SDSS database. This discrepancy has a noticeable effect on estimates of the binary fraction, mass function, luminosity function, and other studies that rely on large, photometric samples of low-mass stars. Due to their coeval nature, binaries with at least one low-mass component are important for calibrating the age-activity relation and the relative metallicity scales. Better defined stellar ages and metallicities allow for a proper analysis of stellar and Galactic evolution using ubiquitous low-mass stars. We constructed a spectroscopic sample of wide binaries, for which there is at least one low-mass component and an individual spectrum for each star. Each binary was verified using measurements of their common proper motions and a chance alignment probability calculated from a six-dimensional model of the Milky Way. The orbital separation of the binary components provides an extra age constraint due to mechanisms that destroy wide binaries during thin-disk dynamical heating. We evaluate the behavior of the magnetic activity in coeval systems, with a specific focus on the dependence of activity on orbital separation and location in the Galactic disk. The preliminary results of our analysis will help calibrate the age-activity relation in M dwarfs. In addition, we calibrate the relative metallicity scale for metal poor K and M dwarfs using a modified index based on TiO and CaH molecular band features.

  2. Discovery of a Wide Low-mass Binary System in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2005-01-01

    Using the near-infrared spectrometer SpeX and its slit-viewing camera at the IRTF, I have resolved a low-mass member of the Upper Scorpius OB association into a double star. From K-band images of the pair, DENIS-P J161833.2-251750.4 A and B, I measure a separation of 0.96" and a magnitude difference of dK=0.42 mag. I present resolved 0.8-2.5 micron spectroscopy of the two objects, both of which exhibit signatures of youth in the shape of their H- and K-band continua, demonstrating that both are members of Upper Scorpius rather than field stars. In addition, through a comparison to optically-classified pre-main-sequence objects, I derive a spectral type near M5 for each component, corresponding to a mass of ~0.15 Msun with the evolutionary models of Chabrier and Baraffe. The probability that this pair is composed of unrelated M-type members of Upper Scorpius is ~10^-5. When added to the recent discoveries of other wide, easily disrupted low-mass binaries, this new system further establishes that the formation ...

  3. Nuclear parton density modifications from low-mass lepton pair production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, M; König, F

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential of low-mass lepton pair production in proton-ion collisions at the LHC to constrain nuclear modifications of parton densities. Similarly to prompt photon production, the transverse momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by the QCD Compton process, but has virtually no fragmentation or isolation uncertainties. Depending on the orientation of the proton and ion beams and on the use of central or forward detector components, all interesting regions of nuclear effects (shadowing, antishadowing, isospin and EMC effects) can be probed. Ratios of cross sections allow to eliminate theoretical scale and bare-proton parton density errors as well as many experimental systematic uncertainties.

  4. Nuclear parton density modifications from low-mass lepton pair production at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M.; Klasen, M.; König, F.

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential of low-mass lepton pair production in proton-ion collisions at the LHC to constrain nuclear modifications of parton densities. Similarly to prompt photon production, the transverse momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by the QCD Compton process, but has virtually no fragmentation or isolation uncertainties. Depending on the orientation of the proton and ion beams and on the use of central or forward detector components, all interesting regions of nuclear effects (shadowing, antishadowing, isospin and EMC effects) can be probed. Ratios of cross sections allow to eliminate theoretical scale and bare-proton parton density errors as well as many experimental systematic uncertainties.

  5. Nuclear parton density modifications from low-mass lepton pair production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, M., E-mail: matthiasbrandt@uni-muenster.de; Klasen, M., E-mail: michael.klasen@uni-muenster.de; König, F., E-mail: f.koenig@uni-muenster.de

    2014-07-15

    In this article, we investigate the potential of low-mass lepton pair production in proton–ion collisions at the LHC to constrain nuclear modifications of parton densities. Similarly to prompt photon production, the transverse momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by the QCD Compton process, but has virtually no fragmentation or isolation uncertainties. Depending on the orientation of the proton and ion beams and on the use of central or forward detector components, all interesting regions of nuclear effects (shadowing, antishadowing, isospin and EMC effects) can be probed. Ratios of cross sections allow to eliminate theoretical scale and bare-proton parton density errors as well as many experimental systematic uncertainties.

  6. Tidal capture formation of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries from wide binaries in the field

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2015-01-01

    We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. This diffusion process can drive the binary into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact at peri-center and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. The formation rate of LMXBs through this channel mostly depends on the number of such BH wide binaries progenitors, which in turn depends on the velocity kicks imparted to BHs (or NSs) at birth. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal...

  7. Discovery And Characterization of Wide Binary Systems With a Very Low Mass Component

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Frédérique; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Gagné, Jonathan; Davison, Cassy L; Malo, Lison; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Reylé, Céline

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 14 low-mass binary systems containing mid-M to mid-L dwarf companions with separations larger than 250 AU. We also report the independent discovery of 9 other systems with similar characteristics that were recently discovered in other studies. We have identified these systems by searching for common proper motion sources in the vicinity of known high proper motion stars, based on a cross-correlation of wide area near-infrared surveys (2MASS, SDSS, and SIMP). An astrometric follow-up, for common proper motion confirmation, was made with SIMON and/or CPAPIR at the OMM 1.6 m and CTIO 1.5 m telescopes for all the candidates identified. A spectroscopic follow-up was also made with GMOS or GNIRS at Gemini to determine the spectral types of 11 of our newly identified companions and 10 of our primaries. Statistical arguments are provided to show that all of the systems we report here are very likely to be physical binaries. One of the new systems reported features a brown dwarf companion: L...

  8. Origin of the low-mass electron pair excess in light nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhou, P

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of electron pair production in elementary p+p and d+p reactions at 1.25 GeV/u with the HADES spectrometer. For the first time, the electron pairs were reconstructed for n+p reactions by detecting the proton spectator from the deuteron breakup. We find that the yield of electron pairs with invariant mass Me+e- > 0.15 GeV/c2 is about an order of magnitude larger in n+p reactions as compared to p+p. A comparison to model calculations demonstrates that the production mechanism is not sufficiently described yet. The electron pair spectra measured in C+C reactions are compatible with a superposition of elementary n+p and p+p collisions, leaving little room for additional electron pair sources in such light collision systems.

  9. DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WIDE BINARY SYSTEMS WITH A VERY LOW MASS COMPONENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Gagné, Jonathan; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada); Davison, Cassy L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Malo, Lison [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, 65–1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Reylé, Céline, E-mail: baron@astro.umontreal.ca [Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté-Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France)

    2015-03-20

    We report the discovery of 14 low-mass binary systems containing mid-M to mid-L dwarf companions with separations larger than 250 AU. We also report the independent discovery of nine other systems with similar characteristics that were recently discovered in other studies. We have identified these systems by searching for common proper motion sources in the vicinity of known high proper motion stars, based on a cross-correlation of wide area near-infrared surveys (2MASS, SDSS, and SIMP). An astrometric follow-up, for common proper motion confirmation, was made with SIMON and/or CPAPIR at the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic 1.6 m and CTIO 1.5 m telescopes for all the candidates identified. A spectroscopic follow-up was also made with GMOS or GNIRS at Gemini to determine the spectral types of 11 of our newly identified companions and 10 of our primaries. Statistical arguments are provided to show that all of the systems we report here are very likely to be physical binaries. One of the new systems reported features a brown dwarf companion: LSPM J1259+1001 (M5) has an L4.5 (2M1259+1001) companion at ∼340 AU. This brown dwarf was previously unknown. Seven other systems have a companion of spectral type L0–L1 at a separation in the 250–7500 AU range. Our sample includes 14 systems with a mass ratio below 0.3.

  10. Wide low-mass binary model for the origin of axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, M. de; Heuvel, E.P.J. van den

    1985-10-17

    An accreting binary model has been proposed by recent workers to account for the origin of the axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources. The authors show that the only type of binary system that can produce the observed structural properties, is a relatively wide neutron star binary, in which the companion of the neutron star is a low-mass giant. Binaries of this type are expected to resemble closely the eight brightest galactic bulge X-ray sources as well as the progenitors of the two wide radio pulsar binaries.

  11. LOW-MASS TERTIARY COMPANIONS TO SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. I. COMMON PROPER MOTION SURVEY FOR WIDE COMPANIONS USING 2MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Peter R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 3003, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy, E-mail: peter.allen@fandm.edu [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We report the first results of a multi-epoch search for wide (separations greater than a few tens of AU), low-mass tertiary companions of a volume-limited sample of 118 known spectroscopic binaries within 30 pc of the Sun, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and follow-up observations with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes. Note that this sample is not volume complete but volume limited, and, thus, there is incompleteness in our reported companion rates. We are sensitive to common proper motion companions with separations from roughly 200 AU to 10,000 AU ({approx}10'' {yields} {approx} 10'). From 77 sources followed-up to date, we recover 11 previously known tertiaries, 3 previously known candidate tertiaries, of which 2 are spectroscopically confirmed and 1 rejected, and 3 new candidates, of which 2 are confirmed and 1 rejected. This yields an estimated wide tertiary fraction of 19.5{sup +5.2}{sub -3.7}%. This observed fraction is consistent with predictions set out in star formation simulations where the fraction of wide, low-mass companions to spectroscopic binaries is >10%.

  12. New Low-Mass Wide Companions to Members of the Sco-Cen OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Molly; Mamajek, Eric E.; Luhman, Kevin; Murphy, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted a survey for wide common proper motion companions to 512 members of the Upper Cen-Lup (UCL) and Lower Cen-Cru (LCC) subgroups of the Sco-Cen OB association using astrometry and photometry from the SPM4 catalog. Companion candidates were selected within 3 arcminutes (23 kau = 0.11 pc at d = 130 pc). We find that 12% of the Sco-Cen members have stellar companions in the separation range 3-20 kau. Optical spectra of 16 candidate companions were taken with the new COSMOS spectrograph on the Blanco 4-m telescope and the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. The spectroscopic survey yielded 14 M-type stars with Na I surface gravity index indicative of pre-MS status, of which half were Li-rich (along with two background giant interlopers). Seven stars in the range M1-M4.5 appear to be Li depleted, but otherwise seem to be pre-MS due to their chromospheric activity, low surface gravity via the Na I index, and their co- movement with other young stars in Sco-Cen. We suggest that these stars represent the Li depletion boundary for UCL and LCC. We acknowledge support from NSF award AST-1313029 and the REU Site in Physics and Astrophysics at the University of Rochester supported by NSF award PHY-1156339.

  13. Enhanced production of low-mass electron-positron pairs in 40-AGeV Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V I

    2003-01-01

    We report on first measurements of low-mass electron pairs in Pb-Au collisions at the lower SPS beam energy of 40 AGeV. The pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2 e+ e- annihilation with a modified rho-propagator. They may be linked to chiral symmetry restoration and support the notion that the in-medium modifications of the rho are more driven by baryon density than by temperature.

  14. Enhanced production of low-mass electron-positron pairs in 40-AGeV Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanović, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Milov, A; Miśkowiec, D; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S; Slívová, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-07-25

    We report on first measurements of low-mass electron-positron pairs in Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS beam energy of 40 AGeV. The observed pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2e(+)e(-) annihilation with a modified rho propagator. They may be linked to chiral symmetry restoration and support the notion that the in-medium modifications of the rho are more driven by baryon density than by temperature.

  15. Low-mass lepton pair production in Pb-Au collisions at 40 A center dot GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Shimansky, S S; Slívova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-01-01

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS has previously measured e **+e**- pair production in 160 A center dot GeV Pb-Au collisions. In the mass region m greater than 0.2 GeV/c**2, an enhancement of 2.7 plus or minus 0.4(stat.) plus or minus 0.5(syst.) compared to the expectation from known hadronic decay sources was observed. In the 40 A center dot GeV data taken in 1999, an enhancement is again found; a preliminary analysis gives an even larger value of 5.0 plus or minus 1.3(stat.). The results are compared to theoretical model calculations based on pi**+ pi**- annihilation with a modified rho- propagator; they may be related to chiral symmetry restoration. 17 Refs.

  16. Low-mass lepton pair production in Pb–Au collisions at 40 A$\\cdot$GeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanja Damjanović; CERES/NA45 Collaboration; D Adamová; G Agakichiev; H Appelshäuser; V Belaga; P Braun-Munzinger; A Cherlin; S Damjanović; T Dietel; L Dietrich; A Drees; S I Esumi; K Filimonov; K Fomenko; Z Fraenkel; C Garabatos; P Glässel; G Hering; J Holeczek; V Kushpil; B Lenkeit; A Maas; A Marín; J Milosević; A Milov; D Miśkowiec; Y Panebrattsev; O Petchenova; V Petrácek; A Pfeiffer; J Rak; I Ravinovich; P Rehak; M Richter; H Sako; W Schmitz; J Schukraft; S Sedykh; W Seipp; S Shimansky; J Slívová; H J Specht; J Stachel; M Sumbera; H Tilsner; I Tserruya; J P Wessels; T Wienold; B Windelband; J P Wurm; W Xie; S Yurevich; V Yurevich

    2003-05-01

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS has previously measured +- pair production in 160 A$\\cdot$GeV Pb–Au collisions. In the mass region > 0.2 GeV/c2, an enhancement of 2.7 ± 0.4(stat.)± 0.5(syst.) compared to the expectation from known hadronic decay sources was observed. In the 40 A$\\cdot$GeV data taken in 1999, an enhancement is again found; a preliminary analysis gives an even larger value of 5.0 ± 1.3(stat.). The results are compared to theoretical model calculations based on +- annihilation with a modified -propagator; they may be related to chiral symmetry restoration.

  17. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  18. A Thermal Infrared Imaging Study of Very Low-Mass, Wide Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Upper Scorpius Stars: Constraining Circumstellar Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Vanessa; Currie, Thayne; Su, Kate Y L; Esposito, Simone; Hill, John M; Hoffmann, William F; Jones, Terry; Kim, Jihun; Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Nelson, Matthew J; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Skrutskie, Michael F; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Wilson, John C

    2013-01-01

    We present a 3-5um LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low-masses/mass ratios (M_BD < 25M_Jup; M_BD / M_star ~ 1-2%), and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4um and 24um photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/secondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24um excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4um excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24um excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4um colors of HIP 7853...

  19. Characterization of Low-mass, Wide-separation Substellar Companions to Stars in Upper Scorpius: Near-infrared Photometry and Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lachapelle, François-René; Gagné, Jonathan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Janson, Markus; Helling, Christiane; Witte, Soeren

    2015-01-01

    We present new 0.9-2.45 $\\mu$m spectroscopy ($R \\sim 1000$), and $Y$, $J$, $H$, $K_s$, $L^\\prime$ photometry, obtained at Gemini North, of three low-mass brown dwarf companions on wide orbits around young stars of the Upper Scorpius OB association: HIP 78530 B, [PGZ2001] J161031.9-191305 B, and GSC 06214-00210 B. We use these data to assess the companions' spectral type, temperature, surface gravity and mass, as well as the ability of the BT-Settl and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models to reproduce the spectral features of young substellar objects. For completeness, we also analyze the archival spectroscopy and photometry of the Upper Scorpius planetary mass companion 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Based on a comparison with model spectra we find that the companions, in the above order, have effective temperatures of 2700, 2500, 2300 and 1700 K. These temperatures are consistent with our inferred spectral types, respectively M7 $\\beta$, M9 $\\gamma$, M9 $\\gamma$, and L4 $\\gamma$. From bolometric luminosities estimated ...

  20. Stability, Chaos and Entrapment of Stars in Very Wide Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    irregular moons by the Sun– Jupiter sys- tem, which can only happen in the thin layer of chaotic motion separating the regions of scattering and stability...Entrapment Of Stars In Very Wide Pairs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Naval Observatory,3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW,Washington,DC,20392 8

  1. Search for a low-mass pseudoscalar Higgs boson produced in association with a pair of b-quarks and decaying to tau leptons at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Caillol, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    A search is reported for a light pseudoscalar A boson decaying to a pair of tau leptons, produced in association with a pair of b quarks, in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models. The results are based on pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of s = sqrt(8) TeV accumulated by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. Pseudoscalar A boson masses are probed between 25 and 80 GeV and upper limits are set on the production cross section times branching fraction to tau pairs between 7 and 39 pb at the 95pct confidence level. For masses below 80 GeV, this search excludes the pseudoscalar A boson in Type 2 two-Higgs-doublet models with negative Yukawa coupling to down-type fermions.

  2. Search for a low-mass pseudoscalar Higgs boson produced in association with a bb‾ pair in pp collisions at s=8 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khachatryan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A search is reported for a light pseudoscalar Higgs boson decaying to a pair of τ leptons, produced in association with a bb‾ pair, in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models. The results are based on pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb−1. Pseudoscalar boson masses between 25 and 80 GeV are probed. No evidence for a pseudoscalar boson is found and upper limits are set on the product of cross section and branching fraction to τ pairs between 7 and 39 pb at the 95% confidence level. This excludes pseudoscalar A bosons with masses between 25 and 80 GeV, with SM-like Higgs boson negative couplings to down-type fermions, produced in association with bb‾ pairs, in Type II, two-Higgs-doublet models.

  3. Measurement of low-mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in 1 and 2 A GeV C-C collision with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudol, M.; Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B.; Roy-Stephan, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 - Univ. Paris Sud, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), Orsay Cedex (France); Agakishiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Kozuch, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T. [Jagiellonian Univ. of Cracow, Smoluchowski Inst. of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Duran, I.; Garzon, J.A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Marin, J. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Belyaev, A.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Ierusalimov, A.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bielcik, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Muench, M.; Palka, M.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Simon, R.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Zumbruch, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Blanco, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Bortolotti, A.; Iori, I.; Michalska, B. [Sezione di Milano, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Sailer, B.; Schmah, A.; Weber, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Diaz, J.; Gil, A. [Univ. de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain)] [and others

    2009-07-15

    HADES is a secondary generation experiment operated at GSI Darmstadt with the main goal to study dielectron production in proton, pion and heavy ion induced reactions. The first part of the HADES mission is to reinvestigate the puzzling pair excess measured by the DLS collaboration in C+C and Ca+Ca collisions at 1 A GeV. For this purpose dedicated measurements with the C+C system at 1 and 2 A GeV were performed. The pair excess above a cocktail of free hadronic decays has been extracted and compared to the one measured by DLS. Furthermore, the excess is confronted with predictions of various model calculations. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in low-mass bottom-quark pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Majersky, O.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry, AFB , in b b ¯ pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions and identified by muons from semileptonic b -hadron decays. The event sample is collected at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector and corresponds to 6.9 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We obtain an integrated asymmetry of AFB(b b ¯ ) =(1.2 ±0.7 )% at the particle level for b -quark pairs with invariant mass, mb b ¯ , down to 40 GeV /c2 and measure the dependence of AFB(b b ¯ ) on mb b ¯ . The results are compatible with expectations from the standard model.

  5. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in low-mass bottom-quark pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Marchese, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; D'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Ramos, J P Fernández; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; López, O González; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucà, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Majersky, O; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Fernández, I Redondo; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Sorin, V; Song, H; Stancari, M; Denis, R St; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W -M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2016-01-01

    We report a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry, $A_{FB}$, in $b\\bar{b}$ pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions and identified by muons from semileptonic $b$-hadron decays. The event sample was collected at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV with the CDF II detector and corresponds to 6.9 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. We obtain an integrated asymmetry of $A_{FB}(b\\bar{b})=(1.2 \\pm 0.7)$\\% at the particle level for $b$-quark pairs with invariant mass, $m_{b\\bar{b}}$, down to $40$ GeV/$c^2$ and measure the dependence of $A_{FB}(b\\bar{b})$ on $m_{b\\bar{b}}$. The results are compatible with expectations from the standard model.

  6. Measurement of low-mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in 2 AGeV C-C collisions with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudol, Malgorzata

    2007-07-01

    The search for a modification of hadron properties inside nuclear matter at normal and/or high temperature and density is one of the most interesting issues of modern nuclear physics. Dilepton experiments, give insight into the properties of strong interaction and the nature of hadron mass generation. One of these research tools is the HADES spectrometer. HADES is a high acceptance dilepton spectrometer installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of HADES is the measurement of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c{sup 2} in pion- and proton-induced reactions, as well as in heavy-ion collisions. The goal is to investigate the properties of the vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and of other hadrons reconstructed from e{sup +}e{sup -} decay pairs. Dileptons are penetrating probes allowing to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, the measurement of such dilepton pairs is difficult because of a very large background from other processes in which leptons are created. This thesis presents the analysis of the data provided by the first physics run with the HADES spectrometer. For the first time e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in C+C collisions at an incident energy of 2 GeV per nucleon have been collected with sufficient statistics. This experiment is of particular importance since it allows to address the puzzling pair excess measured by the former DLS experiment at a beam energy 1.04 AGeV. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents the physics case which is addressed in the work. In the second chapter the HADES spectrometer is introduced with the characteristic of specific detectors which are part of the spectrometer. Chapter three focusses on the issue of charged-particle identification. The fourth chapter discusses the reconstruction of the di-electron spectra in C+C collisions. In this part of the thesis a comparison with theoretical models is included as well

  7. Search for low mass vector resonances decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-05-30

    A search is reported for a narrow vector resonance decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 inverse femtobarns. The vector resonance is produced at large transverse momenta, with its decay products merged into a single jet. The resulting signature is a peak over background in the distribution of the invariant mass of the jet. The results are interpreted in the framework of a leptophobic vector resonance and no evidence is found for such particles in the mass range of 100-300 GeV. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section are presented in a region of mass-coupling phase space previously unexplored at the LHC. The region below 140 GeV has not been explored by any previous experiments.

  8. Search for low mass vector resonances decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; 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Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; 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Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Nazlim Agaras, Merve; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Bainbridge, Robert; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Patterson, Alex; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Mantilla, Cristina; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Benaglia, Andrea; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    A search is reported for a narrow vector resonance decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb$^{-1}$. The vector resonance is produced at large transverse momenta, with its decay products merged into a single jet. The resulting signature is a peak over background in the distribution of the invariant mass of the jet. The results are interpreted in the framework of a leptophobic vector resonance and no evidence is found for such particles in the mass range of 100-300 GeV. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section are presented in a region of mass-coupling phase space previously unexplored at the LHC. The region below 140 GeV has not been explored by any previous experiments.

  9. Search for Low Mass Vector Resonances Decaying to Quark-Antiquark Pairs in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Ambrogi, F; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Grossmann, J; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krammer, N; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Madlener, T; Mikulec, I; Pree, E; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Spanring, M; Spitzbart, D; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wittmann, J; Wulz, C-E; Zarucki, M; Chekhovsky, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; De Wolf, E A; Di Croce, D; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; De Bruyn, I; De Clercq, J; Deroover, K; Flouris, G; Lontkovskyi, D; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Roskas, C; Salva, S; Tytgat, M; Verbeke, W; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Melo De Almeida, M; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Misheva, M; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Gao, X; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Courbon, B; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Abdelalim, A A; Mohammed, Y; Salama, E; Dewanjee, R K; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Negro, G; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Sahin, M Ö; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Charlot, C; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Lobanov, A; Martin Blanco, J; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Stahl Leiton, A G; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Jansová, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Tonon, N; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Finco, L; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Mukherjee, S

    2017-09-15

    A search is reported for a narrow vector resonance decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.7   fb^{-1}. The vector resonance is produced at large transverse momenta, with its decay products merged into a single jet. The resulting signature is a peak over background in the distribution of the invariant mass of the jet. The results are interpreted in the framework of a leptophobic vector resonance and no evidence is found for such particles in the mass range of 100-300 GeV. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section are presented in a region of mass-coupling phase space previously unexplored at the LHC. The region below 140 GeV has not been explored by any previous experiments.

  10. Search for low mass vector resonances decaying into quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-09-30

    A search for narrow vector resonances decaying into quark-antiquark pairs is presented. The analysis is based on data collected in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. The hypothetical resonance is produced with sufficiently high transverse momentum that its decay products are merged into a single jet with two-prong substructure. A signal would be identified as a peak over a smoothly falling background in the distribution of the invariant mass of the jet, using novel jet substructure techniques. No evidence for such a resonance is observed within the mass range of 50-300 GeV. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section, and presented in a mass-coupling parameter space. The limits further constrain simplified models of dark matter production involving a mediator interacting between quarks and dark matter particles through a vector or axial-vector current. In the framework of these models, the results are the most sensitive to date, extending for the first time the search region to masses below 100 GeV.

  11. Search for low mass vector resonances decaying into quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for narrow vector resonances decaying into quark-antiquark pairs is presented. The analysis is based on data collected in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. The hypothetical resonance is produced with sufficiently high transverse momentum that its decay products are merged into a single jet with two-prong substructure. A signal would be identified as a peak over a smoothly falling background in the distribution of the invariant mass of the jet, using novel jet substructure techniques. No evidence for such a resonance is observed within the mass range of 50-300 GeV. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section, and presented in a mass-coupling parameter space. The limits further constrain simplified models of dark matter production involving a mediator interacting between quarks and dark matter particles through a vector or axial-vector current. In the framework ...

  12. CARMENES science preparation: characterisation of M dwarfs with low-resolution spectroscopy and search for low-mass wide companions to young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    This thesis is focused on the study of low-mass objects that can be targets of exoplanet searches with near-infrared spectrographs in general and CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs; see Quirrenbach et al. 2014) in particular. The CARMENES consortium comprises 11 institutions from Germany and Spain that are building a high-resolution spectrograph (R=82,000) with two channels, visible (0.55 - 1.05 um) and infrared (0.95 - 1.7 um), for the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It will observe a sample of 300 M dwarfs in 600 nights of guaranteed time during at least three years, starting in January 2016. The final sample will be chosen from the 2200 M dwarfs included in the CARMENCITA input catalogue. For these stars, we have obtained and collected a large amount of data: spectral types, radial and rotational velocities, photometry in several bands, etc. Part of the e effort of the science preparation necessary for the final selection of targets for CARMENES and other near-infrared spectrographs has been collected in two publications, which are presented in this PhD thesis. In the first publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...577A.128A), we obtained low-resolution spectra for 753 stars using the CAFOS spectrograph at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope. The main goal was to derive accurate spectral types, which are fundamental parameters for the sample selection. We used a grid of 49 standard stars, from spectral types K3V to M8V, together with a double least-square minimisation technique and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. In addition, we quantified the surface gravity, metallicity and chromospheric activity of the sample, in order to detect low-gravity stars (giants and very young), metal-poor and very metal-poor stars (subdwarfs), and very active stars. In the second publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...583A..85A), we searched for common proper

  13. Measurements of 42 Wide CPM Pairs with a CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the use of a Skyris 618C color CCD camera as a means of obtaining data for analysis in the measurement of wide common proper motion stars. The equipment setup is described and data collection procedure outlined. Results of the measures of 42 CPM stars are presented, showing the Skyris is a reliable device for the measurement of double stars.

  14. A wide deep infrared look at the Pleiades with UKIDSS : new constraints on the substellar binary fraction and the low-mass initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodieu, N.; Dobbie, P.D.; Deacon, N.R.; Hodgkin, S.T.; Hambly, N.C.; Jameson, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a deep wide-field near-infrared survey of 12 deg2 of the Pleiades conducted as part of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). We have extracted over 340 high-probability proper motion (PM) me

  15. A wide deep infrared look at the Pleiades with UKIDSS : new constraints on the substellar binary fraction and the low-mass initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodieu, N.; Dobbie, P.D.; Deacon, N.R.; Hodgkin, S.T.; Hambly, N.C.; Jameson, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a deep wide-field near-infrared survey of 12 deg2 of the Pleiades conducted as part of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). We have extracted over 340 high-probability proper motion (PM)

  16. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  17. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Oelkers, Ryan J; Dhital, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    Despite the maturity of stellar astrophysics, the formation and evolution of binary star systems still remain key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10^3 AU) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies makes it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales. The SLoWPoKES I & II catalogs provided the largest and most complete sample of low-mass, wide binary pairs, creating a testbed for the formation and evolution scenarios of multiple star systems. We present an extension of these catalogs, the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES). This catalog identifies 1,887 candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10^3-10^5.5 AU (0.002-1.5 pc) using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. We find each pair to have, at most, a false positive probability of 0.05 and therefore a total expectation...

  18. Effects of ionic strength and ion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solon, Kimberly; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Mbamba, Christian Kazadi

    2015-01-01

    ) and ion pairing on modelling of anaerobic digestion processes in such plant-wide models of wastewater treatment. Using the BSM2 as a case study with a number of model variants and cationic load scenarios, this paper presents the effects of an improved physico-chemical description on model predictions....... The paper describes: 1) how the anaerobic digester performance is affected by physico-chemical corrections; 2) the effect on pH and the anaerobic digestion products (CO2, CH4 and H2); and, 3) how these variations are propagated from the sludge treatment to the water line. Results at high ionic strength......Plant-wide models of wastewater treatment (such as the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 or BSM2) are gaining popularity for use in holistic virtual studies of treatment plant control and operations. The objective of this study is to show the influence of ionic strength (as activity corrections...

  19. Search for a low-mass pseudoscalar Higgs boson produced in association with a $\\mathrm{ b \\bar{b} }$ pair in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sudhakar, Katta; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; 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Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Gunion, Jack; Jian, Yun; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; 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Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; 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Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Christian, Allison; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    A search is reported for a light pseudoscalar Higgs boson decaying to a pair of $\\tau$ leptons, produced in association with a $\\mathrm{ b \\bar{b} }$ pair, in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models. The results are based on pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. Pseudoscalar boson masses between 25 and 80 GeV are probed. No evidence for a pseudoscalar boson is found and upper limits are set on the production cross section times branching fraction to $\\tau$ pairs between 7 and 39 pb at the 95% confidence level. This search excludes a pseudoscalar Higgs boson with mass below 80 GeV, in Type II two-Higgs-doublet models with a negative coupling of standard model-like Higgs boson to down-type fermions.

  20. Search for a low-mass pseudoscalar Higgs boson produced in association with a $\\mathrm{ b \\bar{b} }$ pair in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario

    2016-07-10

    A search is reported for a light pseudoscalar Higgs boson decaying to a pair of $\\tau$ leptons, produced in association with a $\\mathrm{ b \\bar{b} }$ pair, in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models. The results are based on pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. Pseudoscalar boson masses between 25 and 80 GeV are probed. No evidence for a pseudoscalar boson is found and upper limits are set on the production cross section times branching fraction to $\\tau$ pairs between 7 and 39 pb at the 95% confidence level. This search excludes a pseudoscalar Higgs boson with mass below 80 GeV, in Type II two-Higgs-doublet models with a negative coupling of standard model-like Higgs boson to down-type fermions.

  1. Effects of ion strength and ion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Solon, Kimberly;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the influence of ionic strength (as activity corrections) andion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion processes in wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs). Using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) as a case study, this paper presents...... the effects that an improved physico-chemical description will have on the predicted effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices. The acid-base equilibria implemented in the Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) are modified to account for non-ideal aqueous-phase chemistry. The model corrects...... processes. Results at high ionic strength demonstrate that corrections to account for non-ideal conditions lead to significant differences in predicted process performance. In addition, the paper describes: 1) how the anaerobic digester performance is affected; 2) the effect on pH and the anaerobic...

  2. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, Chase; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-pT probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC data set of p p collisions with ∫L d t =4 fb-1 should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic Z' model which couples only to quarks, for Z' masses ranging from 20 - 500 GeV /c2 .

  3. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Shimmin, Chase

    2016-01-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra, due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-$p_{\\textrm{T}}$ probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC dataset of $pp$ collisions with $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 4\\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic $Z'$ model which couples only to quarks, for $Z'$ masses ranging from 20-500 GeV/c$^2$.

  4. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, J S

    2001-01-01

    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting low-mass disk galaxies.

  5. Cool dwarfs in wide multiple systems. Paper 5: New astrometry of 54 wide pairs with M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés-Contreras, M; Montes, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the membership in double, triple or higher-order-multiplicity systems of 54 pairs with at least one bright M dwarf in the solar neighbourhood. These M dwarfs are potential targets of radial-velocity surveys for exoplanets. We measure angular separations and position angles from optical images taken with TCP and CAMELOT at the IAC80 telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, and complement them with our measurements on photographic plate digitizations. We also use data in the Washington Double Star Catalogue and other bibliographic sources. We confirm the physical binding of 52 multiple systems, for which we comprehensively compile, derive and provide basic astrophysical parameters in a homogeneous way (spectral types, heliocentric distances, projected physical separations, individual masses, estimated orbital periods, binding energies). Of the 52 systems, 38 are double, 11 are triple and three are quadruple with a variety of architectures. Four systems contain white dwarfs, six systems display va...

  6. Low-Mass Diffraction at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Lämsä, Jerry; Orava, Risto

    2011-01-01

    The expected resonance structure for the low-mass single diffractive states from a Regge-dual model elaborated paper by the present authors in a previous is predicted. Estimates for the observable low-mass single diffraction dissociation (SDD) cross sections and efficiencies for single diffractive events simulated by PYTHIA 6.2 as a function of the diffractive mass are given.

  7. Multiplicity and clustering in Taurus star-forming region. I. Unexpected ultra-wide pairs of high-order multiplicity in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncour, Isabelle; Duchêne, Gaspard; Moraux, Estelle

    2017-02-01

    tight and comparatively massive stars (MM), by one single and one multiple (SM), or by two distant low-mass singles (SS) stars. These UWPs are biased towards high multiplicity and higher-stellar-mass components at shorter separations. The multiplicity fraction per ultra-wide pair with separation less than 10 kAU may be as high as 83.5 ± 19.6%. Conclusions: We suggest that these young pre-main sequence UWPs may be pristine imprints of their spatial configuration at birth resulting from a cascade fragmentation scenario of the natal molecular core. They could be the older counterparts, at least for those separated by less than 10 kAU, to the ≤0.5 Myr prestellar cores/Class 0 multiple objects observed at radio/millimeter wavelengths.

  8. Low-Mass VOST Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A cylindrical, low-mass, high-efficiency, leak-proof cryogenic valve will be designed using composites and exotic metals. Based upon cryogenically-proven Venturi...

  9. Low-Mass VOST Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two low-mass, linear throttling, high-efficiency, leak-proof cryogenic valves of diameters 1/2" and 4" will be built and tested. Based upon cryogenically-proven...

  10. Genome-wide linkage analysis of inguinal hernia in pigs using affected sib pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubert Helge

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inguinal and scrotal hernias are of great concern to pig producers, and lead to poor animal welfare and severe economic loss. Selection against these conditions is highly preferable, but at this time no gene, Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL, or mode of inheritance has been identified in pigs or in any other species. Therefore, a complete genome scan was performed in order to identify genomic regions affecting inguinal and scrotal hernias in pigs. Records from seedstock breeding farms were collected. No clinical examinations were executed on the pigs and there was therefore no distinction between inguinal and scrotal hernias. The genome scan utilised affected sib pairs (ASP, and the data was analysed using both an ASP test based on Non-parametric Linkage (NPL analysis, and a Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT. Results Significant QTLs (p Conclusion For the first time in any species, a genome scan has revealed suggestive QTLs for inguinal and scrotal hernias. While this study permitted the detection of chromosomal regions only, it is interesting to note that several promising candidate genes, including INSL3, MIS, and CGRP, are located within the highly significant QTL regions. Further studies are required in order to narrow down the suggestive QTL regions, investigate the candidate genes, and to confirm the suggestive QTLs in other populations. The haplotype associated with inguinal and scrotal hernias may help in achieving selection against the disorder.

  11. Epigenome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in paired samples of adipose tissue and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Chu, Su; Loucks, Eric B; Lin, Chien-Ling; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-03-03

    Many epigenetic association studies have attempted to identify DNA methylation markers in blood that are able to mirror those in target tissues. Although some have suggested potential utility of surrogate epigenetic markers in blood, few studies have collected data to directly compare DNA methylation across tissues from the same individuals. Here, epigenomic data were collected from adipose tissue and blood in 143 subjects using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. The top axis of epigenome-wide variation differentiates adipose tissue from blood, which is confirmed internally using cross-validation and externally with independent data from the two tissues. We identified 1,285 discordant genes and 1,961 concordant genes between blood and adipose tissue. RNA expression data of the two classes of genes show consistent patterns with those observed in DNA methylation. The discordant genes are enriched in biological functions related to immune response, leukocyte activation or differentiation, and blood coagulation. We distinguish the CpG-specific correlation from the within-subject correlation and emphasize that the magnitude of within-subject correlation does not guarantee the utility of surrogate epigenetic markers. The study reinforces the critical role of DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and cellular phenotypes across tissues, and highlights the caveats of using methylation markers in blood to mirror the corresponding profile in the target tissue.

  12. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  13. Deep inside low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnel, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Low-mass stars exhibit, at all stages of their evolution, the signatures of complex physical processes that require challenging modeling beyond standard stellar theory. In this review, we recall the most striking observational evidences that probe the interaction and interdependence of various transport processes of chemicals and angular momentum in these objects. We then focus on the impact of atomic diffusion, large scale mixing due to rotation, and internal gravity waves on stellar properties on the main sequence and slightly beyond.

  14. Deep inside low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Talon, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    Low-mass stars exhibit, at all stages of their evolution, the signatures of complex physical processes that require challenging modeling beyond standard stellar theory. In this review, we recall the most striking observational evidences that probe the interaction and interdependence of various transport processes of chemicals and angular momentum in these objects. We then focus on the impact of atomic diffusion, large scale mixing due to rotation, and internal gravity waves on stellar properties on the main sequence and slightly beyond.

  15. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  16. Differentially methylated DNA regions in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for rheumatoid arthritis.An epigenome - wide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jørgen Svendsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In an explorative epigenome-wide association study (EWAS to search for gene independent, differentially methylated DNA positions (DMPs and regions (DMRs associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA by studying monozygotic (MZ twin pairs discordant for rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood samples from 28 monozygotic (MZ twin pairs discordant for RA. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and immunosuppressive treatment were included as covariates. Pathway analysis was performed using GREAT.Results: Smoking was significantly associated with hypomethylation of a DMR overlapping the promoter region of the RNF5 and the AGPAT1, which are implicated in inflammation and autoimmunity, whereas DMARD treatment induced hypermethylation of the same region. Additionally, the promotor region of both S100A6 and EFCAB4B were hypomethylated and both genes have previously been associated with RA. We replicated several candidate genes identified in a previous EWAS in treatment naïve RA singletons. Gene set analysis indicated the involvement of immunologic signatures and cancer-related pathways in RA.Conclusion: We identified several differentially methylated regions associated with RA which may represent environmental effects or consequences of the disease and plausible biological pathways pertinent to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

  17. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assiro, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Cappelli, L. [Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale (Italy); Cascella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Università del Salento (Italy); De Lorenzis, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Ignatov, F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); L' Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Miccoli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Onorato, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); Perillo, M. [EnginSoft S.p.a., Trento (Italy); Piacentino, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); Rella, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Rossetti, F. [EnginSoft S.p.a., Trento (Italy); Spedicato, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tassielli, G., E-mail: giovanni.tassielli@le.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100–200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50–100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce.

  18. The Frequency of Low-mass Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, S J; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Marcy, G W; Carter, B; Bailey, J; Wittenmyer, R A

    2009-01-01

    We report first results from the Anglo-Australian Telescope Rocky Planet Search - an intensive, high-precision Doppler planet search targeting low-mass exoplanets in contiguous 48 night observing blocks. On this run we targeted 24 bright, nearby and intrinsically stable Sun-like stars selected from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search's main sample. These observations have already detected one low-mass planet reported elsewhere (HD16417b), and here we reconfirm the detection of HD4308b. Further, we have Monte-Carlo simulated the data from this run on a star-by-star basis to produce robust detection constraints. These simulations demonstrate clear differences in the exoplanet detectability functions from star to star due to differences in sampling, data quality and intrinsic stellar stability. They reinforce the importance of star-by-star simulation when interpreting the data from Doppler planet searches. The simulations indicate that for some of our target stars we are sensitive to close-orbiting planets as sma...

  19. Methanol emission from low mass protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, S; Tielens, A G G M; Caux, E; Le Floc'h, B; Faure, A; Castets, A; Flower, D R

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of methanol lines in a sample of Class 0 low mass protostars. Using a 1-D radiative transfer model, we derive the abundances in the envelopes. In two sources of the sample, the observations can only be reproduced by the model if the methanol abundance is enhanced by about two order of magnitude in the inner hot region of the envelope. Two other sources show similar jumps, although at a lower confidence level. The observations for the other three sources are well reproduced with a constant abundance, but the presence of a jump cannot be ruled out. The observed methanol abundances in the warm gas around low mass protostars are orders of magnitude higher than gas phase chemistry models predict. Hence, in agreement with other evidences, this suggest that the high methanol abundance reflects recent evaporation of ices due to the heating by the newly formed star. The observed abundance ratios of CH3 OH, H2 CO, and CO are in good agreement with grain surface chemistry models. However, the abs...

  20. Genome-wide identification and characterization of Notch transcription complex-binding sequence-paired sites in leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Eric; Arnett, Kelly L; Wang, Hongfang; Zang, Chongzhi; Taing, Len; Liu, Hudan; Pear, Warren S; Shirley Liu, X; Blacklow, Stephen C; Aster, Jon C

    2017-05-02

    Notch transcription complexes (NTCs) drive target gene expression by binding to two distinct types of genomic response elements, NTC monomer-binding sites and sequence-paired sites (SPSs) that bind NTC dimers. SPSs are conserved and have been linked to the Notch responsiveness of a few genes. To assess the overall contribution of SPSs to Notch-dependent gene regulation, we determined the DNA sequence requirements for NTC dimerization using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay and applied insights from these in vitro studies to Notch-"addicted" T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. We found that SPSs contributed to the regulation of about a third of direct Notch target genes. Although originally described in promoters, SPSs are present mainly in long-range enhancers, including an enhancer containing a newly described SPS that regulates HES5 expression. Our work provides a general method for identifying SPSs in genome-wide data sets and highlights the widespread role of NTC dimerization in Notch-transformed leukemia cells. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Magnetometer Searches for Ultra Low Mass Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    New spin interactions arise in a variety of extensions to the Standard Model. Well-known spin-dependent effects, such as permanent electric dipole moments and violations of Lorentz and CPT symmetries, have been searched for in many experiments. The existence of low-mass axion-like particles would also generate spin-dependent effects that can be searched for in similar experiments, but often with unique signatures. Since particles with spin also have a magnetic moment, such experiments are automatically sensitive to ordinary magnetic fields and one of the challenges is to eliminate such effects, using for example, two different spin species in a co-magnetometer arrangement. I will describe several past and on-going experiments using co-magnetometers based on nuclear spin-polarized noble gases. These experiments are used to search for both axion-like dark matter and for axion-mediated forces that are independent of dark matter.

  2. Olivier Chesneau's work on low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Eric, Lagadec

    2015-01-01

    During his too short career, Olivier Chesneau pioneered the study of the circumstellar environments of low mass evolved stars using very high angular resolution techniques. He applied state of the art high angular resolution techniques, such as optical interferometry and adaptive optics imaging, to the the study of a variety of objects, from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae, via e.g. Born Again stars, RCB stars and Novae. I present here an overview of this work and most important results by focusing on the paths he followed and key encounters he made to reach these results. Olivier liked to work in teams and was very strong at linking people with complementary expertises to whom he would communicate his enthusiasm and sharp ideas. His legacy will live on through the many people he inspired.

  3. Mass Function of Low Mass Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Yahagi, H; Yoshii, Y; Yahagi, Hideki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    The mass function of dark halos in a Lambda-dominated cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) universe is investigated. 529 output files from five runs of N-body simulations are analyzed using the friends-of-friends cluster finding algorithm. All the runs use 512^3 particles in the box size of 35 h^{-1}Mpc to 140 h^{-1}Mpc. Mass of particles for 35 h^{-1} Mpc runs is 2.67 times 10^7 h^{-1} M_{solar}. Because of the high mass resolution of our simulations, the multiplicity function in the low-mass range, where the mass is well below the characteristic mass and $\

  4. CFFF low mass flow DCW generator operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberry, J. T.; Galanga, F. L.; Frazier, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of testing of the low mass flow diagonal conducting sidewall MHD generator in the CFFF is given. These summaries include details of the powered generator tests conducted during the 1985 LMF4 test series. A presentation of experimental generator electrical data collected during these tests is included. The quality of these data is discussed and a review of representative data presentations is made as a means of identifying phenomena associated with coal-fired MHD generators. Unique characteristics of coal slag effects upon electrical performance are seen in the voltage profiles and power characteristics for the generator. Fundamental theoretical analyses of the generator are used to qualify the levels of generator performance that were demonstrated during testing. These analyses are directed at isolating possible sources that have caused performance deficiencies and anomalies seen in the test data.

  5. Fundamental properties of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ribas, I; Jordi, C; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G; Gallardo, J

    2007-01-01

    Numerous investigations on the fundamental properties of low-mass stars using eclipsing binaries indicate a strong discrepancy between theory and observations that is still awaiting explanation. Current models seem to predict radii for stars less massive than the Sun that are some 10% smaller than observed, while their effective temperatures are some 5% larger. Here we discuss recent new observational data that are relevant to this issue and review the progress made in understanding the origin of the important differences with theoretical calculations. Notably, we provide evidence that stellar activity may be responsible for the mismatch between observations and theory through two different channels: inhibition of convection or effects of a significant starspot coverage. The activity hypothesis is put to a test with observational diagnostics and some of the consequences of the large starspot coverage are evaluated. We conclude that stellar activity likely plays a key role in defining the properties of active ...

  6. Bent by baryons: the low mass galaxy-halo relation

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; McCarthy, Ian G; Qu, Yan; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos is of vital importance for evaluating theoretical predictions of structure formation and galaxy formation physics. We show that the widely used method of abundance matching based on dark matter only simulations fails at the low mass end because two of its underlying assumptions are broken: only a small fraction of low mass (below 10^9.5 solar masses) halos host a visible galaxy, and halos grow at a lower rate due to the effect of baryons. In this regime, reliance on dark matter only simulations for abundance matching is neither accurate nor self-consistent. We find that the reported discrepancy between observational estimates of the halo masses of dwarf galaxies and the values predicted by abundance matching does not point to a failure of LCDM, but simply to a failure to account for baryonic effects. Our results also imply that the Local Group contains only a few hundred observable galaxies in contrast with the thousands of faint dwarfs that abundance matchi...

  7. Low-mass stars: Open problems all along their evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heners N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although low-mass stars have a comparatively simple structure, current stellar models are far from reproducing them accurately. In light of the observational progress, in particular of asteroseismology, the deficits of the theory of stellar structure and evolution become increasingly evident, and can no longer be hidden under the carpet of observational errors. In my brief review I will discuss a number of obvious problems of the models, which are mainly – and not surprisingly so – connected with convective and other mixing processes. They begin already on the pre-main sequence and continue throughout the complete evolution. In addition to the deficits in the treatment of physical processes I will also address our difficulties in obtaining completely satisfying agreement between different numerical codes. It will be shown that this concerns already the main sequence evolution of low-mass stars without a convective core. Keeping this in mind, it is no surprise that models for stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch differ widely.

  8. Modeling water emission from low-mass protostellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; Van Dishoeck, E F; Hogerheijde, M R; Jørgensen, J K

    2008-01-01

    Within low-mass star formation, water vapor plays a key role in the chemistry and energy balance of the circumstellar material. The Herschel Space Observatory will open up the possibility to observe water lines originating from a wide range of excitation energies.Our aim is to simulate the emission of rotational water lines from envelopes characteristic of embedded low-mass protostars. A large number of parameters that influence the water line emission are explored: luminosity, density,density slope and water abundances.Both dust and water emission are modelled using full radiative transfer in spherical symmetry. The temperature profile is calculated for a given density profile. The H2O level populations and emission profiles are in turn computed with a non-LTE line code. The results are analyzed to determine the diagnostic value of different lines, and are compared with existing observations. Lines can be categorized in: (i) optically thick lines, including ground-state lines, mostly sensitive to the cold ou...

  9. Accretion Disks around Young Low Mass Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola D´Alessio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, it has become clear that almost half of the low mass pre-main sequence stars are surrounded by disks, which are responsible for the observed infrared and optical-UV excess emission. The characterization of the structure of circumstellar disks is a crucial step towards understanding the early stellar evolution and planet formation. The thesis summarized here presents physical models of the detailed structure of accretion disks surrounding T Tauri stars. The disks are assumed to be in steady state, in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, and with a turbulent viscosity described by the alpha-prescription. We consider different heating mechanisms: viscous dissipation, heating by cosmic rays and radioactive decay, irradiation by the central star or irradiation by an infalling envelope. The energy is transported in the vertical direction by radiation, convection and the turbulent flux. Give n the disk structure, we calculate its emission by integrating the radiative transfer equation for an arbitrary orientation of the disk relative to the line of sight. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs and images are compared with observations, and disk properties can be inferred or constrained.

  10. Low mass dimuon production with the ALICE muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Casula, Ester Anna Rita

    Low mass vector meson ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\phi$) production provides key information on the hot and dense state of strongly interacting matter produced in high-energy heavy ion collisions (called Quark Gluon Plasma). Strangeness enhancement is one of the possible signatures of the Quark Gluon Plasma formation and can be accessed through the measurement of $\\phi$ meson production with respect to $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ mesons, while the measurement of the $\\phi$ nuclear modification factor provides a powerful tool to probe the production dynamics and hadronization process in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Vector mesons can be detected through their decays into muon pairs with the ALICE muon spectrometer. This thesis presents the results on the measurement of the $\\phi$ differential cross section, as a function of the transverse momentum, in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV; the measurement of the $\\phi$ yield and of the nuclear modification factor $R_{pA}$ at forward and backward rapidity, as a function...

  11. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - XI. A new method for measuring the influence of the closest companion out to wide separations

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, David R; Ellison, Sara L; Bluck, Asa F L; Simard, Luc; Mendel, J Trevor; Moreno, Jorge; Torrey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We describe a statistical approach for measuring the influence that a galaxy's closest companion has on the galaxy's properties out to arbitrarily wide separations. We begin by identifying the closest companion for every galaxy in a large spectroscopic sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We then characterize the local environment of each galaxy by using the number of galaxies within 2 Mpc and by determining the isolation of the galaxy pair from other neighbouring galaxies. We introduce a sophisticated algorithm for creating a statistical control sample for each galaxy, matching on stellar mass, redshift, local density and isolation. Unlike traditional studies of close galaxy pairs, this approach is effective in a wide range of environments, regardless of how far away the closest companion is (although a very distant closest companion is unlikely to have a measurable influence on the galaxy in question). We apply this methodology to measurements of galaxy asymmetry, and find that the presence of nearb...

  12. An evaluation of the genetic-matched pair study design using genome-wide SNP data from the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Timothy Tehua; Lao, Oscar; Nothnagel, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    of cases (76.0%), the BOM of a given individual, based on the complete marker set, came from a different recruitment site than the individual itself. A second marker set, specifically selected for ancestry sensitivity using singular value decomposition, performed even more poorly and was no more capable......Chip Human Mapping 500K Array) from 2457 individuals, sampled at 23 different recruitment sites across Europe. Using pair-wise identity-by-state (IBS) as a matching criterion, we tried to derive a subset of markers that would allow identification of the best overall matching (BOM) partner for a given...... individual, based on the IBS status for the subset alone. However, our results suggest that, by following this approach, the prediction accuracy is only notably improved by the first 20 markers selected, and increases proportionally to the marker number thereafter. Furthermore, in a considerable proportion...

  13. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - XI. A new method for measuring the influence of the closest companion out to wide separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, David R.; Qamar, Farid D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Bluck, Asa F. L.; Simard, Luc; Mendel, J. Trevor; Moreno, Jorge; Torrey, Paul

    2016-09-01

    We describe a statistical approach for measuring the influence that a galaxy's closest companion has on the galaxy's properties out to arbitrarily wide separations. We begin by identifying the closest companion for every galaxy in a large spectroscopic sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We then characterize the local environment of each galaxy by using the number of galaxies within 2 Mpc and by determining the isolation of the galaxy pair from other neighbouring galaxies. We introduce a sophisticated algorithm for creating a statistical control sample for each galaxy, matching on stellar mass, redshift, local density and isolation. Unlike traditional studies of close galaxy pairs, this approach is effective in a wide range of environments, regardless of how faraway the closest companion is (although a very distant closest companion is unlikely to have a measurable influence on the galaxy in question). We apply this methodology to measurements of galaxy asymmetry, and find that the presence of nearby companions drives a clear enhancement in galaxy asymmetries. The asymmetry excess peaks at the smallest projected separations (<10 kpc), where the mean asymmetry is enhanced by a factor of 2.0 ± 0.2. Enhancements in mean asymmetry decline as pair separation increases, but remain statistically significant (1σ-2σ) out to projected separations of at least 50 kpc.

  14. Low-mass visual companions to nearby G-dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the 2MASS Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20", 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to the companion frequency of 0.13+-0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions - a necessary step towards reaching unbiased mu...

  15. The formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that ~60% of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2Msun. Currently, there is no consensus on how these objects form. I will briefly review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will focus on the disc fragmentation theory and discuss how it addresses critical observational constraints, i.e. the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will examine whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in low-mass star and brown dwarf formation.

  16. Low-Mass Planar Photonic Imaging Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a revolutionary electro-optical (EO) imaging sensor concept that provides a low-mass, low-volume alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope...

  17. New calculations of cross-sections and charge asymmetries for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering in e+e- collisions near the Z-peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. H.

    1994-03-01

    A new event generator for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering, BHAGENE3, is presented. Both electroweak and higher order (beyond O(α) QED corrections are included. Comparisons are made with results from the programs, based on the structure function formalism, ALIBABA, TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. For the case of the final states l+l-γγ ( l = e, μ, τ) BHAGENE3 results are compared with those of Monte Carlo generators that use the exact O( α2) amplitudes.

  18. Low mass dimuon production in proton and ion induced interactions at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Bellaiche, F G; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Bussière, A; Capony, V; Casagrande, L; Castor, J I; Chambon, T; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Contardo, D; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Descroix, E; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Ferreira, R; Filippov, S N; Fleuret, F; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Gorodetzky, P; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Guillaud, J P; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kossakowski, R; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Liaud, P; Lourenço, C; MacCormick, M; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Monteno, M; Mourgues, S; Musso, A; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Racca, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Ronceux, B; Ropotar, I; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Staley, F; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Varela, J; Vercellin, Ermanno; Willis, N

    2000-01-01

    The low mass dimuon spectra collected in p-U collisions by the NA38 experiment significantly exceeds the total cross section expected from previous analysis, done by other experiments. The `excess' events have a harder \\pt\\ distribution than the muon pairs from $\\eta$ and $\\omega$ Dalitz decays, expected to dominate the mass window 0.4--0.65~GeV/$c^2$. We conjecture that the excess events might be due to \\qqbar\\ annihilations, negligible at low \\pt\\ but made visible by the \\mt\\ cut applied in the NA38 data. Taking this assumption to parametrise the p-U spectra, we proceed with the analysis of the S-Cu, S-U and Pb-Pb data, collected by the NA38 and NA50 experiments, where we find that the measured mass spectra does not seem to exceed the expected low mass `cocktail' by more than 20\\,\\%.

  19. The Low-mass Populations in OB Associations

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, C; Sherry, W; Mamajek, E; Mathieu, R; Walter, F; Zinnecker, H; Briceno, Cesar; Preibisch, Thomas; Sherry, William; Mamajek, Eric; Mathieu, Robert; Walter, Frederick; Zinnecker, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Low-mass stars 0.1 ~< M ~< 1 Msun) in OB associations are key to addressing some of the most fundamental problems in star formation. The low-mass stellar populations of OB associations provide a snapshot of the fossil star-formation record of giant molecular cloud complexes. Large scale surveys have identified hundreds of members of nearby OB associations, and revealed that low-mass stars exist wherever high-mass stars have recently formed. The spatial distribution of low-mass members of OB associations demonstrate the existence of significant substructure ("subgroups"). This "discretized" sequence of stellar groups is consistent with an origin in short-lived parent molecular clouds within a Giant Molecular Cloud Complex. The low-mass population in each subgroup within an OB association exhibits little evidence for significant age spreads on time scales of ~10 Myr or greater, in agreement with a scenario of rapid star formation and cloud dissipation. The Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the stellar popula...

  20. The Thermal Pulses of Very-Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschy, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-mass stars can develop secularly unstable hydrogen-burning shells late in their life. Since the thermal pulses that go along are driven at the bottoms of very shallow envelopes, the stars' luminosities and effective temperatures react strongly during a pulse cycle. Towards the end of the Galaxy's stelliferous era, the hydrogen-shell flashing very-low-mass single stars should inflict an intricate light-show performed by the large population of previously inconspicuous dim stars. Unfortunately, this natural spectacle will discharge too late for mankind to indulge in. Not all is hopeless, though: In the case of close binary-star evolution, hydrogen-shell flashes of mass-stripped, very-low mass binary components can develop in a fraction of a Hubble time. Therefore, the Galaxy should be able put forth a few candidates that are going to evolve through a H-shell flash in a humanity-compatible time frame.

  1. HD 98800: An Opportunity to Measure True Masses for Low-Mass PMS Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David

    1999-07-01

    HD 98800 became interesting when IRAS found it to have a large infrared excess, indicating a substantial dust disk. But ``HD 98800'' is, in fact, a quadruple system consisting of four K and M stars, and its Hipparcos parallax has now shown that this is a pre-main sequence system. The four stars are in two visible objects, each of which is a spectroscopic binary with a period of about one year. In particular, the Ba-Bb pair is an SB2 with an estimated semi-major axis of about 20 milliarcsec. In TRANS mode, FGS1R can cleanly resolve the Ba-Bb pair and can determine the relative orbit and luminosities for the two components. POS mode observations lead to an absolute orbit and a more precise parallax than is currently available. In this program we propose to follow the HD 98800 Ba-Bb pair over the course of a full orbit during Cycle 8. The combination of FGS1R-TRANS and FGS1R-POS observations will provide gravitational masses for two low-mass PMS stars. In addition, the co nstraints of coevality and knowled ge of the astrophysical properties of the components {temperatures, luminosities, composition} make these observations a crucial test of our models of pre-main sequence evolution. These may be the first true masses determined for low-mass PMS objects, and so can provide a fundamental test of PMS evolutionary tracks.

  2. Direct search for low mass dark matter particles with CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, J. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cease, H.; Diehl, H.T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Estrada, J., E-mail: estrada@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Flaugher, B.; Harrison, N.; Jones, J.; Kilminster, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Molina, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FIUNA), Asuncion (Paraguay); Smith, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Schwarz, T. [University of California at Davis, CA (United States); Sonnenschein, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    A direct dark matter search is performed using fully-depleted high-resistivity CCD detectors. Due to their low electronic readout noise (R.M.S. {approx}7 eV) these devices operate with a very low detection threshold of 40 eV, making the search for dark matter particles with low masses ({approx}5 GeV) possible. The results of an engineering run performed in a shallow underground site are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technology in the low mass region.

  3. Benchmark low-mass objects in Moving Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compile a sample of ultracool dwarfs that will serve as benchmarks for testing theoretical formation and evolutionary models, we selected low-mass cool (>M7 objects that are potentially members of five known young Moving Groups in the solar neighbourhood. We have studied the kinematics of the sample, finding that 49 targets belong to the young disk area, from which 36 are kinematic member of one of the five moving groups under study. Some of the identified low-mass members have been spectroscopically characterised (Teff, log g and confirmed as young members through a detailed study of age indicators.

  4. KOI-126: A Triply-Eclipsing Hierarchical Triple with Two Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Joshua A; Ragozzine, Darin; Holman, Matthew J; Quinn, Samuel N; Latham, David W; Buchhave, Lars A; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Cochran, William D; Cote, Miles T; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B; Haas, Michael R; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Li, Jie; Lissauer, Jack J; MacQueen, Phillip J; Middour, Christopher K; Orosz, Jerome A; Rowe, Jason F; Steffen, Jason H; Welsh, William F; 10.1126/science.1201274

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has been monitoring the light from 150,000 stars in its primary quest to detect transiting exoplanets. Here we report on the detection of an eclipsing stellar hierarchical triple, identified in the Kepler photometry. KOI-126 (A,(B, C)), is composed of a low-mass binary (masses M_B = 0.2413+/-0.0030 M_Sun, M_C = 0.2127+/-0.0026 M_Sun; radii R_B = 0.2543+/-0.0014 R_Sun, R_C = 0.2318+/-0.0013 R_Sun; orbital period P_1 = 1.76713+/-0.00019 days) on an eccentric orbit about a third star (mass M_A = 1.347+/-0.032 M_Sun; radius R_A = 2.0254+/-0.0098 R_Sun; period of orbit around the low-mass binary P_2 = 33.9214+/-0.0013 days; eccentricity of that orbit e_2 = 0.3043+/-0.0024). The low-mass pair probe the poorly sampled fully-convective stellar domain offering a crucial benchmark for theoretical stellar models.

  5. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector Ar...

  6. Low-Mass, Low-Power Hall Thruster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing an electric propulsion system capable of producing 20 mN thrust with input power up to 1,000 W and specific impulse ranging from 1,600 to 3,500 seconds. The key technical challenge is the target mass of 1 kg for the thruster and 2 kg for the power processing unit (PPU). In Phase I, Busek Company, Inc., developed an overall subsystem design for the thruster/cathode, PPU, and xenon feed system. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a low-mass power processing architecture that replaces four of the DC-DC converters of a typical PPU with a single multifunctional converter and a low-mass Hall thruster design employing permanent magnets. In Phase II, the team developed an engineering prototype model of its low-mass BHT-600 Hall thruster system, with the primary focus on the low-mass PPU and thruster. The goal was to develop an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput to enable radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). This is important because REP offers the benefits of nuclear electric propulsion without the need for an excessively large spacecraft and power system.

  7. On the development of low mass shaking force balanced manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanisic, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever mechanisms have to run at high speeds, dynamic balancing (shaking force and shaking moment balancing) becomes an important issue to reduce machine vibrations. This article considers Fischer’s method of principal vectors for shaking force balancing with low mass addition. A method based on l

  8. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  9. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector...

  10. Terrestrial planets and water delivery around low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.; Guilera, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Theoretical and observational studies suggest that protoplanetary disks with a wide range of masses could be found around low-mass stars. Aims: We analyze planetary formation processes in systems without gas giants around M3- and M0-type stars of 0.29 M⊙ and 0.5 M⊙, respectively. In particular, we assume disks with masses of 5% and 10% of the mass of the star. Our study focuses on the formation of terrestrial-like planets and water delivery in the habitable zone (HZ). Methods: First, we use a semi-analytical model to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase. Then, a N-body code is used to analyze the last giant impact phase after the gas dissipation. Results: For M3-type stars, five planets with different properties are formed in the HZ. These planets have masses of 0.072 M⊕, 0.13 M⊕ (two of them), and 1.03 M⊕, and have water contents of 5.9%, 16.7%, 28.6%, and 60.6% by mass, respectively. Then, the fifth planet formed in the HZ is a dry world with 0.138 M⊕. For M0-type stars, four planets are produced in the HZ with masses of 0.28 M⊕, 0.51 M⊕, 0.72 M⊕, and 1.42 M⊕, and they have water contents of 26.7%, 45.8%, 68%, and 50.5% by mass, respectively. Conclusions: M3- and M0-type stars represent targets of interest for the search of exoplanets in the HZ. In fact, the Mars-mass planets formed around M3-type stars could maintain habitable conditions in their early histories. Thus, the search for candidates around young M3-type stars could lead to the detection of planets analogous to early Mars. Moreover, Earth-mass planets should also be discovered around M3-type stars and, sub- and super-Earths should be detected around M0-type stars. Such planets are very interesting since they could maintain habitable conditions for very long.

  11. Miniature Low-Mass Drill Actuated by Flextensional Piezo Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    characteristics of low mass, small size, low power, and low axial loads for sampling.

  12. A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Solon, Kimberly; Vrecko, Darko; Tait, Stephan; Batstone, Damien J; Jeppsson, Ulf; Gernaey, Krist V

    2015-11-15

    There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics. Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems. In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation/pairing is presented and interfaced with industry standard models. The module accounts for extensive consideration of non-ideality, including ion activities instead of molar concentrations and complex ion pairing. The general equilibria are formulated as a set of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) instead of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) in order to reduce the overall stiffness of the system, thereby enhancing simulation speed. Additionally, a multi-dimensional version of the Newton-Raphson algorithm is applied to handle the existing multiple algebraic inter-dependencies. The latter is reinforced with the Simulated Annealing method to increase the robustness of the solver making the system not so dependent of the initial conditions. Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under different anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions. The same framework is implemented in the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) (WWTP3) as well, predicting pH values at different cationic/anionic loads. In this way, the general applicability/flexibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated, by implementing the aqueous phase chemistry module in some

  13. Dynamical corotation torques on low-mass planets

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2014-01-01

    We study torques on migrating low-mass planets in locally isothermal discs. Previous work on low-mass planets generally kept the planet on a fixed orbit, after which the torque on the planet was measured. In addition to these static torques, when the planet is allowed to migrate it experiences dynamical torques, which are proportional to the migration rate and whose sign depends on the background vortensity gradient. We show that in discs a few times more massive than the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, these dynamical torques can have a profound impact on planet migration. Inward migration can be slowed down significantly, and if static torques lead to outward migration, dynamical torques can take over, taking the planet beyond zero-torque lines set by saturation of the corotation torque in a runaway fashion. This means the region in non-isothermal discs where outward migration is possible can be larger than what would be concluded from static torques alone.

  14. Accurate Low-Mass Stellar Models of KOI-126

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of an eclipsing hierarchical triple system with two low-mass stars in a close orbit (KOI-126) by Carter et al. (2011) appeared to reinforce the evidence that theoretical stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce the observational mass-radius relation for low-mass stars. We present a set of stellar models for the three stars in the KOI-126 system that show excellent agreement with the observed radii. This agreement appears to be due to the equation of state implemented by our code. A significant dispersion in the observed mass-radius relation for fully convective stars is demonstrated; indicative of the influence of physics currently not incorporated in standard stellar evolution models. We also predict apsidal motion constants for the two M-dwarf companions. These values should be observationally determined to within 1% by the end of the Kepler mission.

  15. Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaris M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.

  16. The different baryonic Tully-Fisher relations at low masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.; Santos-Santos, Isabel; Stinson, Greg

    2016-06-01

    We compare the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) of simulations and observations of galaxies ranging from dwarfs to spirals, using various measures of rotational velocity Vrot. We explore the BTFR when measuring Vrot at the flat part of the rotation curve, Vflat, at the extent of H I gas, Vlast, and using 20 per cent (W20) and 50 per cent (W50) of the width of H I line profiles. We also compare with the maximum circular velocity of the parent halo, V_max^DM, within dark matter only simulations. The different BTFRs increasingly diverge as galaxy mass decreases. Using Vlast one obtains a power law over four orders of magnitude in baryonic mass, with slope similar to the observed BTFR. Measuring Vflat gives similar results as Vlast when galaxies with rising rotation curves are excluded. However, higher rotation velocities would be found for low-mass galaxies if the cold gas extended far enough for Vrot to reach a maximum. W20 gives a similar slope as Vlast but with slightly lower values of Vrot for low-mass galaxies, although this may depend on the extent of the gas in your galaxy sample. W50 bends away from these other relations towards low velocities at low masses. By contrast, V_max^DM bends towards high velocities for low-mass galaxies, as cold gas does not extend out to the radius at which haloes reach V_max^DM. Our study highlights the need for careful comparisons between observations and models: one needs to be consistent about the particular method of measuring Vrot, and precise about the radius at which velocities are measured.

  17. Formation and composition of planets around very low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alibert, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of planets around very low mass stars raises the question of the formation, composition and potential habitability of these objects. We use planetary system formation models to infer the properties, in particular their radius distribution and water content, of planets that may form around stars ten times less massive than the Sun. Our planetary system formation and composition models take into account the structure and evolution of the protoplanetary disk, the planetary mass growth by accretion of solids and gas, as well as planet-planet, planet-star and planet-disk interactions. We show that planets can form at small orbital period in orbit about low mass stars. We show that the radius of the planets is peaked at about 1 rearth and that they are, in general, volatile rich especially if proto-planetary discs orbiting this type of stars are long-lived. Close-in planets orbiting low-mass stars similar in terms of mass and radius to the ones recently detected can be formed within the framewo...

  18. Base-pair-resolution genome-wide mapping of active RNA polymerases using precision nuclear run-on (PRO-seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Dig Bijay; Kwak, Hojoong; Booth, Gregory T; Jonkers, Iris H; Danko, Charles G; Patel, Ravi K; Waters, Colin T; Munson, Katie; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T

    2016-08-01

    We provide a protocol for precision nuclear run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) and its variant, PRO-cap, which map the location of active RNA polymerases (PRO-seq) or transcription start sites (TSSs) (PRO-cap) genome-wide at high resolution. The density of RNA polymerases at a particular genomic locus directly reflects the level of nascent transcription at that region. Nuclei are isolated from cells and, under nuclear run-on conditions, transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases incorporate one or, at most, a few biotin-labeled nucleotide triphosphates (biotin-NTPs) into the 3' end of nascent RNA. The biotin-labeled nascent RNA is used to prepare sequencing libraries, which are sequenced from the 3' end to provide high-resolution positional information for the RNA polymerases. PRO-seq provides much higher sensitivity than ChIP-seq, and it generates a much larger fraction of usable sequence reads than ChIP-seq or NET-seq (native elongating transcript sequencing). Similarly to NET-seq, PRO-seq maps the RNA polymerase at up to base-pair resolution with strand specificity, but unlike NET-seq it does not require immunoprecipitation. With the protocol provided here, PRO-seq (or PRO-cap) libraries for high-throughput sequencing can be generated in 4-5 working days. The method has been applied to human, mouse, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans cells and, with slight modifications, to yeast.

  19. The statistical challenge of constraining the low-mass IMF in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Weisz, Daniel R.; Quataert, Eliot

    2017-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to explore the statistical challenges of constraining the characteristic mass (mc) and width (σ) of a lognormal sub-solar initial mass function (IMF) in Local Group dwarf galaxies using direct star counts. For a typical Milky Way (MW) satellite (MV = -8), jointly constraining mc and σ to a precision of ≲ 20 per cent requires that observations be complete to ≲ 0.2 M⊙, if the IMF is similar to the MW IMF. A similar statistical precision can be obtained if observations are only complete down to 0.4 M⊙, but this requires measurement of nearly 100× more stars, and thus, a significantly more massive satellite (MV ˜ -12). In the absence of sufficiently deep data to constrain the low-mass turnover, it is common practice to fit a single-sloped power law to the low-mass IMF, or to fit mc for a lognormal while holding σ fixed. We show that the former approximation leads to best-fitting power-law slopes that vary with the mass range observed and can largely explain existing claims of low-mass IMF variations in MW satellites, even if satellite galaxies have the same IMF as the MW. In addition, fixing σ during fitting leads to substantially underestimated uncertainties in the recovered value of mc (by a factor of ˜4 for typical observations). If the IMFs of nearby dwarf galaxies are lognormal and do vary, observations must reach down to ˜mc in order to robustly detect these variations. The high-sensitivity, near-infrared capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope have the potential to dramatically improve constraints on the low-mass IMF. We present an efficient observational strategy for using these facilities to measure the IMFs of Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  20. Where are the Low-mass Population III Stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Sudo, Kae; Yokoi, Shingo; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tominaga, Nozomu; Susa, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    We study the number and the distribution of low-mass Population III (Pop III) stars in the Milky Way. In our numerical model, hierarchical formation of dark matter minihalos and Milky-Way-sized halos are followed by a high-resolution cosmological simulation. We model the Pop III formation in H2 cooling minihalos without metal under UV radiation of the Lyman-Werner bands. Assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF) from 0.15 to 1.0 M ⊙ for low-mass Pop III stars, as a working hypothesis, we try to constrain the theoretical models in reverse by current and future observations. We find that the survivors tend to concentrate on the center of halo and subhalos. We also evaluate the observability of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies, and constraints on the number of Pop III survivors per minihalo. The higher latitude fields require lower sample sizes because of the high number density of stars in the galactic disk, the required sample sizes are comparable in the high- and middle-latitude fields by photometrically selecting low-metallicity stars with optimized narrow-band filters, and the required number of dwarf galaxies to find one Pop III survivor is less than 10 at <100 kpc for the tip of red giant stars. Provided that available observations have not detected any survivors, the formation models of low-mass Pop III stars with more than 10 stars per minihalo are already excluded. Furthermore, we discuss the way to constrain the IMF of Pop III stars at a high mass range of ≳10 M ⊙.

  1. A genome-wide association study of monozygotic twin-pairs suggests a locus related to variability of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surakka, Ida; Whitfield, John B; Perola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein...

  2. Optimisation of low-mass drift chambers for HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabatos, C.; Karig, W.; Muentz, C.; Steigerwald, A.; Stroth, J.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zentek, A.; Bethge, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Glonti, L.; Smykov, L.; Zanewsky, Yu. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR), 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Bokemeyer, H.; Koenig, W.; Stelzer, H.; Zumbruch, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-07-21

    A set of low-mass drift chambers designed for the tracking of di-electrons in the HADES spectrometer is presented. Short radiation length is ensured by using a Helium-based gas mixture and aluminium cathode wires, whereas the acceptance is maximised by limiting the width of the side frames of the detectors. The measured performance of these devices, which improves with increasing concentration of quencher gas, is shown and discussed. Position resolutions down to 70 {mu}m have been obtained under stable operation. Long-term gain stability is also reported. (orig.)

  3. Optimisation of low-mass drift chambers for HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabatos, C.; Karig, W.; Müntz, C.; Steigerwald, A.; Stroth, J.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zentek, A.; Bethge, K.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Glonti, L.; Smykov, L.; Zanewsky, Yu; Bokemeyer, H.; Koenig, W.; Stelzer, H.; Zumbruch, P.

    A set of low-mass drift chambers designed for the tracking of di-electrons in the HADES spectrometer is presented. Short radiation length is ensured by using a Helium-based gas mixture and aluminium cathode wires, whereas the acceptance is maximised by limiting the width of the side frames of the detectors. The measured performance of these devices, which improves with increasing concentration of quencher gas, is shown and discussed. Position resolutions down to 70 μm have been obtained under stable operation. Long-term gain stability is also reported.

  4. Compact Stars in low-mass X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Sk. Monowar; Molla, Sajahan; Jafry, Md. Abdul Kayum; Kalam, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model for compact stars in low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) namely KS 1731-260, EXO 1745-248 and 4U 1608-52. Here we investigate the physical phenomena of a compact star in the LMXBs. Using our model, we have calculated central density, surface density, mass(M) and red-shift for the above mentioned compact stars, which is very much consistent with the reported data. We also obtain the possible equation of state(EOS) of the stars which is physically acceptable.

  5. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking regi...

  6. High and low mass Axion Haloscopes at UWA

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, Ben T; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We consider the design of a haloscope experiment (ORGAN) to probe for axions at 26.6 GHz. The motivation for this search is to perform the first direct test of a result which claims a possible axion signal at this frequency. There are many technical issues and optimisations that must be considered in the design of a high mass axion haloscope. We discuss the current status of the ORGAN experiment, as well as its future. We also discuss low mass axion haloscopes employing lumped 3D LC resonators.

  7. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass f...

  8. Young stars of low mass in the Gum nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. A.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations are presented for four recently formed stars in the vicinity of the Gum nebula which are heavily obscured by surrounding dust and are associated with small reflection nebulae. HH46 is the only currently active star of the sample, and it is found to have a spectral type in the range of late G-early K, with superimposed emission lines of H-alpha, Ca II, Fe I, Fe II, and weak He I at near zero velocities. It is suggested that the observed scenario of low-mass stars in an older massive star environment may be analogous to the circumstances surrounding the birth of the sun.

  9. SETI Observations of Low Mass Stars at the SETI Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Gerald R.

    2017-05-01

    Are planets orbiting low-mass stars suitable for the development of life? Observations in the near future, including radio, will help to assess whether atmospheres do persist over long timescales for planets orbiting nearby M dwarfs, and clarify the nature of the radiation that penetrates to the surface of these planets. These are important ingredients for assessing planetary habitability, yet the question of habitability can be answered only with the positive measurement of an unambiguous biosignature. Radio and optical SETI observations capable of detecting technological activities of intelligent inhabitants could provide the most compelling evidence for the habitability of exoplanets orbiting M dwarfs. In this presentation we shall consider what information can be gleaned from our observations so far. The SETI Institute is currently undertaking a large survey of 20,000 low mass stars that is now about 30% complete. The frequency coverage on each star is about 450 MHz bandwidth (per star) over a range of selected frequencies from 1-10 GHz. From these observations we derive quantitative results relating to the probability that M dwarfs are actually inhabited.

  10. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binaries. II. IK Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.; Yang, Y.-G.

    2005-06-01

    BV photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary IK Per were obtained during three nights in 2002 December. The photometric elements were computed using the Wilson-Devinney code. The results reveal that IK Per is an A-type overcontact binary system with a low mass ratio of q=0.17 and a large degree of overcontact of 60%. The asymmetry of the light curves (i.e., the O'Connell effect) is explained by spot models. The observed long-term orbital period decrease [dP/dt=-(2.5+/-0.09)×10-7 days yr-1] is probably influenced by the presence of a third body in the system. The low mass ratio, high degree of overcontact, and secular orbital decrease all indicate that the situation of IK Per resembles those of FG Hya, GR Vir, and AW UMa. Because of the decrease of their orbital periods, the shrinking of the inner and outer critical Roche lobes will lead the common envelopes to overlap more, and finally the systems will evolve into single rapid-rotation stars.

  11. Where are the low mass Pop III stars ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Yokoi, Shingo; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tominaga, Nozomu; Susa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We study the number and the distribution of low mass Pop III stars in the Milky Way. In our numerical model, hierarchical formation of dark matter minihalos and Milky Way sized halos are followed by a high resolution cosmological simulation, which can predict the spatial distribution of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way. We model the Pop III formation in H$_2$ cooling minihalos without metal under UV radiation of the Lyman-Werner bands. Assuming a Kroupa IMF from 0.15 to 1.0 Msun for low mass Pop III stars, as a working hypothesis, we try to constrain the theoretical models in reverse by current and future observations. We find that the number of survivors is proportional to the halo mass and the number of Pop III per minihalo. Thus, the distribution of survivors reflects that of dark matter and the survivors tend to concentrate on the center of halo and subhalos. We also evaluate the observability of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies, and constraints on the number of Pop III survivors pe...

  12. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    CERN Document Server

    Pierens, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an un...

  13. Powerful Winds from Low-Mass Stars: V374 Peg

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Opher, M; Donati, J -F; Gombosi, T I

    2010-01-01

    The rapid rotation (P=0.44 d) of the M dwarf V374Peg (M4) along with its intense magnetic field point toward magneto-centrifugal acceleration of a coronal wind. In this work, we investigate the structure of the wind of V374Peg by means of 3D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulations. For the first time, an observationally derived surface magnetic field map is implemented in MHD models of stellar winds for a low mass star. We show that the wind of V374Peg deviates greatly from a low-velocity, low-mass-loss rate solar-type wind. We find general scaling relations for the terminal velocities, mass-loss rates, and spin-down times of highly magnetized M dwarfs. In particular, for V374Peg, our models show that terminal velocities across a range of stellar latitudes reach ~(1500-2300) n_{12}^{-1/2} km/s, where n_{12} is the coronal wind base density in units of 10^{12} cm^{-3}, while the mass-loss rates are about 4 x 10^{-10} n_{12}^{1/2} Msun/yr. We also evaluate the angular-momentum loss of V374Peg, which p...

  14. A spectral differential characterization of low-mass companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubchik Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach with which the dynamical mass of low-mass companions around cool stars can be found. In order to discover companions to late-type stars the stellar spectrum is removed. For this we substract two spectra obtained at different orbital phases from each other in order to discover the companion spectrum in the difference spectrum in which the companion lines appear twice (positive and negative signal. The resulting radial velocity difference of these two signals provides the true mass of the companion. For our test case GJ1046, an M2V dwarf with a low-mass companion that most likely is a brown dwarf we select the CO line region in the K-band. We show that the dynamical mass of a faint companion to an M dwarf can be determined using our spectral differential technique. Only if the companion rotates rapidly and has a small radial velocity amplitude due to a high mass, does blending occur for all lines so that our approach fails. In addition to determining the companion mass, we restore the single companion spectrum from the difference spectrum using singular value decomposition.

  15. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular cl...

  16. Formation of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, P.

    2012-11-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds.

  17. Exploring Low-Mass Dark Matter with CRESST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.; Gorla, P.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kluck, H.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J. C.; Loebell, J.; Münster, A.; Pagliarone, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Reindl, F.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Tanzke, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Türkoglu, C.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2016-08-01

    The CRESST-II (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) experiment, whose second phase has been successfully finished in summer 2015, aims at the direct detection of dark matter particles. The intrinsic radiopurity of CaWO_4 crystals, the capability to reject recoil events from alpha-surface contamination, and the energy threshold were significantly improved compared to previous runs of the experiment. A moderate exposure of 29 kg-days acquired by one ˜ 250 g CaWO_4 detector provides competitive limits on the spin-independent dark matter particle-nucleon cross section and probes a new region of parameter space for dark matter particle masses below 3 GeV/c^2. The potential for low-mass dark matter particle search can be further exploited by a new detector design planned for CRESST-III. We describe the experimental strategy for the near future and give projections for the sensitivity.

  18. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  19. Star Formation Triggered by Low-Mass Clump Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsionas, Spyridon; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    We investigate by means of high-resolution numerical simulations the phenomenology of star formation triggered by low-velocity collisions between low-mass molecular clumps. The simulations are performed using an SPH code which satisfies the Jeans condition by invoking On-the-Fly Particle Splitting (Kitsionas & Whitworth 2002). The efficiency of star formation appears to increase with increasing clump mass and/or decreasing impact parameter b and/or increasing clump velocity. For bcompressed layers which fragment into filaments that break up into cores. Protostellar objects then condense out of the cores and accrete from them. The resulting accretion rates are comparable to those of Class 0 objects. The densities in the filaments are sufficient that they could be mapped in ammonia or CS line radiation in nearby star formation regions. The phenomenology of star formation observed in our simulations compares rather well with the observed filamentary distribution of young stars in Taurus (Hartmann 2002).

  20. Optimizing Cryogenic Detectors for Low-Mass WIMP Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Q.; Billard, J.; Juillard, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results from a study dedicated to the optimization of cryogenic detectors for low-mass WIMP searches. Considering a data-driven background model from the EDELWEISS-III experiment, and two analysis methods, namely profile likelihood and boosted decision tree, we indentify the main experimental constraints and performances that have to be improved. We found that there is a clear difference in how to optimize the detector setup whether focusing on WIMPs with masses below 5 GeV or above. Finally, in the case of a hundred-kg scale experiment, we discuss the requirements to probe most of the parameter space region delimited by the ultimate neutrino bound below 6 GeV.

  1. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  2. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  3. LEO P: AN UNQUENCHED VERY LOW-MASS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-20

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ∼0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M{sub ⊙}. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ∼10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites.

  4. Chemical tracers of episodic accretion in low-mass protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Ruud; Jorgensen, Jes K

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Accretion rates in low-mass protostars can be highly variable in time. Each accretion burst is accompanied by a temporary increase in luminosity, heating up the circumstellar envelope and altering the chemical composition of the gas and dust. This paper aims to study such chemical effects and discusses the feasibility of using molecular spectroscopy as a tracer of episodic accretion rates and timescales. Methods: We simulate a strong accretion burst in a diverse sample of 25 spherical envelope models by increasing the luminosity to 100 times the observed value. Using a comprehensive gas-grain network, we follow the chemical evolution during the burst and for up to 10^5 yr after the system returns to quiescence. The resulting abundance profiles are fed into a line radiative transfer code to simulate rotational spectra of C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, and N2H+ at a series of time steps. We compare these spectra to observations taken from the literature and to previously unpublished data of HCO+ and N2H+ 6-5 from th...

  5. Searches for Low Mass Higgs Boson at the Tevatron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sforza Federico

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the result of the searches for a low mass Standard Model Higgs boson performed at the Tevatron pp¯ $par p$ collider (√s = 1.96 TeV by the CDF and D0 experiments with an integrated luminosity of up to 8.5 fb-1. Individual searches are discussed and classified according to their sensitivity. Primary channels rely on the associate production with a vector boson (WH or ZH and the H → bb¯ $H o bar b$ decay channel (favored for MH ≲ 135 GeV/c2. Event selection is based on the leptonic decay of the vector boson and the identification of b–hadron enriched jets. Each individual channel is sensitive, for MH = 115 GeV/c2, to less than 5 times the SM expected cross section and the most sensitive channels can exclude a production cross section of 2.3×σHSM Secondary channels rely on a variety of final states. Although they are from 2 to 5 times less sensitive than any primary channel, they contribute to the Tevatron combination and, in some cases, they pose strong constrains on exotic Higgs boson models.

  6. Model Atmospheres From Very Low Mass Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, F; Freytag, B

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of brown dwarfs in 1994, and the discovery of dust cloud formation in the latest Very Low Mass Stars (VLMs) and Brown Dwarfs (BDs) in 1996, the most important challenge in modeling their atmospheres as become the understanding of cloud formation and advective mixing. For this purpose, we have developed radiation hydrodynamic 2D model atmosphere simulations to study the formation of forsterite dust in presence of advection, condensation, and sedimentation across the M-L-T VLMs to BDs sequence (Teff = 2800 K to 900 K, Freytag et al. 2010). We discovered the formation of gravity waves as a driving mechanism for the formation of clouds in these atmospheres, and derived a rule for the velocity field versus atmospheric depth and Teff , which is relatively insensitive to gravity. This rule has been used in the construction of the new model atmosphere grid, BT-Settl, to determine the microturbulence velocity, the diffusion coefficient, and the advective mixing of molecules as a function of depth. ...

  7. Structure and evolution of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Chabrier, Gilles; Baraffe, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    We present extensive calculations of the structure and the evolution of low-massstars in the range 0.07-0.8 $\\msol$, for metallicities $-2.0\\le \\mh \\le 0.0$. These calculations are based on the most recent description of the microphysics characteristic of these dense and cool objects and on the lattest generation of grainless non-grey atmosphere models. We examine the evolution of the different mechanical and thermal properties of these objects as a function of mass and metallicity. We also demonstrate the inaccuracy of grey models and $T(\\tau)$ relationships under these conditions. We provide detailed tables of the mass-radius-luminosity-effective temperature relations for various ages and metallicities, aimed at calibrating existing or future observations of low-mass stars and massive brown dwarfs. We derive new hydrogen-burning minimum masses, within the afore-mentioned metallicity range. These minimum masses are found to be smaller than previous estimates, a direct consequence of non-grey effects. At last...

  8. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C

    2010-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector has been designed for a peak luminosity of 10^34cm-2s-1 and a total dose corresponding to 2 years of LHC operation at a radius of 4 cm from the interaction region. Parts of the pixel detector will have to be replaced until 2015. The detector performance will be degraded for two reasons: radiation damage of the innermost layers and the planned increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 2-3. Based on the experience in planning, constructing and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking region.

  9. Flare activity on low-mass eclipsing binary GJ 3236*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmelcer, L.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Bílek, F.; Dubovský, P.; Hoňková, K.; Vraštil, J.

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of optical flares on the very low-mass red-dwarf eclipsing binary GJ 3236 and the results of our 2014-2016 photometric campaign. In total, this binary was monitored photometrically in all filters for about 900 h, which has revealed a flare rate of about 0.06 flares per hour. The amplitude of its flares is the largest among those detected in the V band (∼1.3 mag), R band (∼0.8 mag), I band (∼0.2 mag) and clear band (∼0.5 mag). The light curves of GJ 3236 were analysed and the statistics of detected flare events are presented. The energy released during individual flares was calculated as up to 2.4 × 1027 J and compared with other known active stars. The cumulative distribution of flare energies appears to follow a broken power law. The flare activity of this binary also plays an important role in the precise determination of its physical parameters and evolutionary status.

  10. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Konopacky, Q M; Fabrycky, D C; Macintosh, B A; White, R J; Barman, T S; Rice, E L; Hallinan, G; Duchene, G

    2012-01-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of eleven very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (vsini > 10 km/s), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest vsini, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semi-major axes <3.5 AU, have component vsini values that differ by greater than 3sigma. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each comp...

  11. SHIELD: Comparing Gas and Star Formation in Low Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Yaron G; Nims, Elise; Cannon, John M; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Józsa, Gyula I G; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D; Warren, Steven R; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E C; Haurberg, Nathalie; Ott, Jürgen; Saintonge, Amelie; Cave, Ian; Hagen, Cedric; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Marshall, Melissa V; Thomann, Clara M; Van Sistine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the relationships between atomic, neutral hydrogen (HI) and star formation (SF) in the 12 low-mass SHIELD galaxies. We compare high spectral (~0.82 km/s/channel) and spatial resolution (physical resolutions of 170 pc - 700 pc) HI imaging from the VLA with H\\alpha and far-ultraviolet imaging. We quantify the degree of co-spatiality between star forming regions and regions of high HI column densities. We calculate the global star formation efficiencies (SFE, $\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$ / $\\Sigma_{\\rm HI}$), and examine the relationships among the SFE and HI mass, HI column density, and star formation rate (SFR). The systems are consuming their cold neutral gas on timescales of order a few Gyr. While we derive an index for the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation of N ~ 0.68 $\\pm$ 0.04 for the SHIELD sample as a whole, the values of N vary considerably from system to system. By supplementing SHIELD results with those from other surveys, we find that HI mass and UV-based SFR are strongly correlated over five orders of ma...

  12. The low mass ratio contact binary system V728 Herculis

    CERN Document Server

    Erkan, Naci

    2015-01-01

    We present the orbital period study and the photometric analys of the contact binary system V728 Her. Our orbital period analysis shows that the period of the system increases (dP/dt=1.92x10^-7dyr^-1) and the mass transfer rate from the less massive component to more massive one is 2.51x10^-8M_suny^-1. In addition, an advanced sinusoidal variation in period can be attributed to the light-time effect by a tertiary component or the Applegate mechanism triggered by the secondary component. The simultaneous multicolor BVR light and radial velocity curves solution indicates that the physical parameters of the system are M1=1.8M_sun, M2=0.28M_sun, R1=1.87R_sun, R2=0.82R_sun, L1=5.9L_sun, and L2=1.2L_sun. We discuss the evolutionary status and conclude that V728 Her is a deep (f=81%), low mass ratio (q=0.16) contact binary system.

  13. Tracing Cold HI Gas in Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Steven R; Stilp, Adrienne M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Ott, Juergen; Walter, Fabian; Petersen, Eric A; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (HI) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array - ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T $\\lesssim$ 1400 K) HI from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc/beam. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total HI mass and nine magnitudes in M_B. We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low dispersion (<6 km/s) component of the spectrum. Most HI spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km/s. Cold HI is found in 23 of 27 (~85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality control cuts. The cold HI contributes ~20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm HI. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold HI emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions <6 km/s) are found primarily beyon...

  14. Structure and evolution of low-mass Population II stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán, J.; D'Antona, F.; Mazzitelli, I.

    2000-08-01

    The focus of the present paper is on the detailed description of the internal structures of low mass, population II stars, to clarify some issues about these stellar models and, mainly, their present reliability for observational comparisons. We then explore 1) the role of the local convective model; 2) the differences between "grey" and "non grey" models, and between models in which the photospheric boundary conditions are set at different optical depths (τph = 3 or 100); 3) the role of the equation of state (EoS), both in the atmospheric models and in the interior. One of the major conclusions of the paper is a cautionary note about the usage of the additive volume law in EoS calculations. The dependence of the HR diagram locations and mass luminosity relations on metal and helium content are also discussed. A few comparisons with globular cluster stars show that: 1) general consistency of distance scales and morphologies in the HR diagram is found, when comparing ground based measurements in the Johnson B and V bands and observations in the HST bands; 2) a discrepancy between models and observations may exist for more metal rich clusters; 3) the plausible hypothesis that the mass function in the globular cluster NGC 6397 behaves smoothly until the lower limit of the main sequence poses constraints on the mass-luminosity relation at the lowest end of the main sequence. The evolutionary tracks are available at the WEB location http://www.mporzio.astro.it.

  15. Most Double Degenerate Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries Merge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Kenyon, Scott J; Gianninas, A

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the merger rate of double degenerate binaries containing extremely low mass (ELM) <0.3 Msun white dwarfs in the Galaxy. Such white dwarfs are detectable for timescales of 0.1 Gyr -- 1 Gyr in the ELM Survey; the binaries they reside in have gravitational wave merger times of 0.001 Gyr -- 100 Gyr. To explain the observed distribution requires that most ELM white dwarf binary progenitors detach from the common envelope phase with <1 hr orbital periods. We calculate the local space density of ELM white dwarf binaries and estimate a merger rate of 3e-3/yr over the entire disk of the Milky Way; the merger rate in the halo is 10 times smaller. The ELM white dwarf binary merger rate exceeds by a factor of 40 the formation rate of stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries, marginally exceeds the rate of underluminous supernovae, and is identical to the formation rate of R CrB stars. On this basis, we conclude that ELM white dwarf binaries can be the progenitors of all observed AM CVn and possibly underlum...

  16. Improving PARSEC models for very low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yang; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Barbieri, Mauro; Kong, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Many stellar models present difficulties in reproducing basic observational relations of very low mass stars (VLMS), including the mass--radius relation and the optical colour--magnitudes of cool dwarfs. Here, we improve PARSEC models on these points. We implement the T--tau relations from PHOENIX BT-Settl model atmospheres as the outer boundary conditions in the PARSEC code, finding that this change alone reduces the discrepancy in the mass--radius relation from 8 to 5 per cent. We compare the models with multi--band photometry of clusters Praesepe and M67, showing that the use of T--tau relations clearly improves the description of the optical colours and magnitudes. But anyway, using both Kurucz and PHOENIX model spectra, model colours are still systematically fainter and bluer than the observations. We then apply a shift to the above T--tau relations, increasing from 0 at T_eff = 4730 K to ~14% at T_eff = 3160 K, to reproduce the observed mass--radius radius relation of dwarf stars. Taking this experiment...

  17. Evolution of Low-Mass Population III Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suda, T; Itoh, N; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of low-mass Pop.III of mass 0.8-1.1 Msun is followed from the main sequence to the onset of H mixing into a convective zone driven by the He core flash. We examine the dependence of stellar structure on the adopted input physics and find that consideration of the non-resonant term in the 3-alpha reaction rate is crucial, since the CN cycle is activated when the abundance by number of 12C produced by this reaction is no larger than 10^-11-10^-9. This explains why recent computations of Pop.III do not find a He flash occurring at the bottom of the H-burning shell at the beginning of the H shell burning phase, as first found by Fujimoto et al.(1990) who did not include the non-resonant term in their calculations. We confirm that, if the non-resonant term of the 3-alpha reaction rate is not included in the input physics, the He-H flash in the shell occurs for M >= 1.0 Msun. We also find that the treatment of the EOS for the Coulomb liquid region, where electron conduction and radiation compete, is i...

  18. On the low-mass diskless population of Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, Belén López; Merín, Bruno; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouy, Hervé; Barrado, David; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We combine published optical and near-infrared photometry to identify new low-mass candidate members in an area of about 0.64 deg^2 in Corona Australis, using the S-parameter method developed by Comer\\'on et al. (2009). Five new candidate members of the region are selected, with estimated ages between 3 and 15 Myr, and masses between 0.05 and 0.15 M_Sun. Using Spitzer photometry, we confirm that these objects are not surrounded by optically thick disks. However, one of them is found to display excess at 24 micron, thus suggesting it harbours a disk with an inner hole. With an estimated mass of 0.07 M_Sun according to the SED fitting, this is one of the lowest-mass objects reported to possess a transitional disk. Including these new members, the fraction of disks is about 50% among the total Corona Australis population selected by the same criteria, lower than the 70% fraction reported by Sicilia-Aguilar et al. (2008) for this region. Even so, we find a ratio of transitional to primordial disks (45%) very simi...

  19. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XI. V1191 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Soonthornthum, B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI) c bands obtained on one night in 2009 for the short-period close-binary system V1191 Cygni are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Van Hamme code shows that V1191 Cyg is a W-type overcontact binary system and suggests that it has a high degree of overcontact (f = 68.6%) with very low mass ratio, implying that it is at the late stage of overcontact evolution. The absolute parameters of V1191 Cyg are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of light minimum with others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 26.7 years and an amplitude of 0.023 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (dP/dt = +4.5(± 0.1) × 10-7 days yr-1). The cyclic period oscillation may be caused by the magnetic activity cycles of either of the components or the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body with a mass of m 3 = 0.77 M sun and an orbital radius of a 3 = 7.6 AU, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. The secular orbital period increase can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With the period increases, V1191 Cyg will evolve from its present low mass ratio, high filled overcontact state to a rapidly rotating single star when its orbital angular momentum is less than three times the total spin angular momentum. V1191 Cyg is too blue for its orbital period and it is an unusual W-type overcontact system with such a low mass ratio and high fill-out overcontact configuration, which is worth monitoring continuously in the future.

  20. Characterization of the Very-low-mass Secondary in the GJ 660.1AB System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Choban, Caleb; Escala, Ivanna; Lopez, Mike A.; Jin, Yuhui; Tamiya, Tomoki; Tallis, Melisa; Rockward, Willie

    2016-02-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the low-mass binary star system GJ 660.1AB, a pair of nearby M dwarfs for which we have obtained separated near-infrared spectra (0.9-2.5 μm) with the SpeX spectrograph. The spectrum of GJ 660.1B is distinctly peculiar, with a triangular-shaped 1.7 μm peak that initially suggests that it is a low-surface-gravity, young brown dwarf. However, we rule out this hypothesis and determine instead that this companion is a mild subdwarf (d/sdM7) based on the subsolar metallicity of the primary, [Fe/H] = -0.63 ± 0.06. Comparison of the near-infrared spectrum of GJ 660.1B to two sets of spectral models yields conflicting results, with a common effective temperature of Teff = 2550-2650 K, but alternately low surface gravity ({log}g = {4.4}-0.5+0.5) and very low metallicity ([M/H] = -{0.96}-0.24+0.19), or high surface gravity ({log}g = 5.0-5.5) and slightly subsolar metallicity ([M/H] = -{0.20}-0.19+0.13). We conjecture that insufficient condensate opacity and excessive collision-induced H2 absorption in the models bias them toward low surface gravities and a metallicity that is inconsistent with the primary and points toward improvements needed in the spectral modeling of metal-poor, very-low-mass dwarfs. The peculiar spectral characteristics of GJ 660.1B emphasize that care is needed when interpreting surface gravity features in the spectra of ultracool dwarfs.

  1. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA):Growing up in a bad neighbourhood - how do low-mass galaxies become passive?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Luke J. M.; Robotham, Aaron S G; Driver, SP; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Baldry, IK; J. Bland-Hawthorn; Brough, S.; Brown, M; Cluver, Michelle E.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Mahajan, Smriti; Moffett, Amanda J.; Owers, M.

    2016-01-01

    Both theoretical predictions and observations of the very nearby Universe suggest that low-mass galaxies(log10[M*/M⊙] < 9.5) are likely to remain star-forming unless they are affected by their local environment. To test this premise, we compare and contrast the local environment of both passive and star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass, using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. We find that passive fractions are higher in both interacting pair and group galaxies than the fie...

  2. Probing the Inner 200 AU of Low-Mass Protostars with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. K.; Bourke, T. L.; Di Francesco, J.; Lee, C.-F.; Myers, P. C.; Ohashi, N.; Schoeier, F. L.; Takakuwa, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wilner, D. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2005-12-01

    We present high angular resolution (1"; 200 AU) observations from a large program studying deeply embedded low-mass protostars (class 0 objects) with the Submillimeter Array. In total 9 different sources have been observed in a wide variety of lines of common molecular species together with continuum. The observations are interpreted on basis of detailed dust and line radiative transfer models. The continuum observations resolve the innermost regions of the protostellar envelopes and place strong constraints on the presence and properties of their circumstellar disks. The line observations reveal the complex structure of these sources, for example, the chemical and dynamical variations throughout the envelopes and the importance of the outflows on both. The research of JKJ was supported by NASA Origins Grant NAG5-13050. The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  3. Dust Heating by Low-mass Stars in Massive Galaxies at z<1

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Kobayashi, M A R; Ichikawa, T; Fukui, Y

    2015-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data and multi-wavelength photometric catalog, we investigated the dust temperature of passively evolving and star-forming galaxies at 0.2 10^{10} Msun have a relatively high dust temperature of Tdust > 20 K, for which the formation efficiency of molecular hydrogen on the surface of dust grains in the diffuse ISM is expected to be very low from the laboratory experiments. The fraction of passively evolving galaxies strongly depends on the expected dust temperature at all redshifts and increases rapidly with increasing the temperature around Tdust ~ 20 K. These results suggest that the dust heating by low-mass stars in massive galaxies plays an important role for the continuation of their passive evolution, because the lack of the shielding effect of the molecular hydrogen on the UV radiation can prevent the gas cooling and formation of new stars.

  4. On pulsar-driven mass ejection in low-mass X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Fu; Xiang-Dong Li

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence for mass ejection in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) driven by radio pulsar activity during X-ray quiescence.We consider the condition for mass ejection by comparing the radiation pressure from a millisecond pulsar,and the gas pressure at the inner Lagrange point or at the surrounding accretion disk.We calculate the critical spin period of the pulsar below which mass ejection is allowed.Combining with the evolution of the mass transfer rate,we present constraints on the orbital periods of the systems.We show that mass ejection could happen in both wide and compact LMXBs.It may be caused by transient accretion due to thermal instability in the accretion disks in the former,and irradiation-driven mass-transfer cycles in the latter.

  5. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Macintosh, B. A.; White, R. J.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Hallinan, G.; Duchêne, G.

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s-1), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes lsim3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3σ. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  6. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Macintosh, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Fabrycky, D. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Hallinan, G. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail: macintosh1@llnl.gov, E-mail: konopacky@di.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: fabrycky@ucolick.org, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: barman@lowell.edu, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: gh@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: gduchene@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s{sup -1}), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at {approx}30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes {approx}<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3{sigma}. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  7. A genome-wide linkage analysis for the personality trait neuroticism in the Irish affected sib-pair study of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Neale, Michael C; Riley, Brien P; Patterson, Diana G; Walsh, Dermot; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-06-05

    Neuroticism is a personality trait which reflects individual differences in emotional stability and vulnerability to stress and anxiety. Consistent evidence shows substantial genetic influences on variation in this trait. The present study seeks to identify regions containing susceptibility loci for neuroticism using a selected sib-pair sample from Ireland. Using Merlin regress, we conducted a 4 cM whole-genome linkage analysis on 714 sib-pairs. Evidence for linkage to neuroticism was found on chromosomes 11p, 12q, and 15q. The highest linkage peak was on 12q at marker D12S1638 with a Lod score of 2.13 (-log p = 2.76, empirical P-value neuroticism, with male specific linkage regions on chromosomes 1, 4, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 22, and female specific linkage regions on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, 12, 13, and 18. Some genome regions reported in the present study replicate findings from previous linkage studies of neuroticism. These results, together with prior studies, indicate several potential regions for quantitative trait loci for neuroticism that warrant further study.

  8. LkHα 262/263: the paradigm of multiplicity vs disk fraction in low-mass stellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; Rebolo, R.; Oscoz, A.; Labadie, L.; Pérez-Garrido, A.

    2017-03-01

    The study of multiple systems and their link with the presence of discs around their components is key to understanding the evolution of low-mass pre-main sequence stars. Although there are indications that high-multiplicity systems are much more frequent among very young stars, until now, only a few of these young low-mass stellar systems have been confirmed. Here, we present high spatial resolution i band imaging of the system formed by LkHα 262 and LkHα 263, in the MBM12 cloud. It was obtained during the first commissioning period of the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope, using its Lucky Imaging mode. The multiple system LkHα 262/263 is composed of four low-mass very young M-type stars and some discs, including an edge-on disc around LkHα 263C. The AOLI data combined with previously available and newly obtained optical and infrared imaging show that the three components of LkHα 263 are co-moving, that there is orbital motion in the AB pair (0.41arcsec separation), and, remarkably, that LkHα 262-263 is a common proper motion system with a less than 1 mas/yr relative motion. According to BT-settl models the mass of each of the five components is close to 0.4 M and the age is in the range 1-2 Myr. We also give marginal evidence of a cooler companion to LkHα 262, at less than 0.15 arcsec, turning LkHα 262-263 into a five-component likely gravitationally bounded system. The presence of discs in some of the components offers an interesting opportunity to investigate the formation and evolution of discs in the early stages of multiple very low-mass systems.

  9. A Large-Area Search for Low-Mass Objects in Upper Scorpius II: Age and Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Slesnick, Catherine L; Carpenter, John M

    2008-01-01

    We present continued results from a wide-field, ~150 deg^2, optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the northern part of the ~5 Myr-old Upper Scorpius OB Association. Photometry and spectral types were used to derive effective temperatures and luminosities and place newly identified association members onto a theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From our survey, we have discovered 145 new low mass members of the association, and determined ~10% of these objects to be actively accreting material from a surrounding circumstellar disk. Based on comparison of the spatial distributions of low and high mass association members, we find no evidence for spatial segregation by mass within the northern portion of the association. Measured data are combined with pre-main sequence evolutionary models to derive a mass and age for each star. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that, taking into account known observational uncertainties, the observed age dispersion for the low mass population in USco is consis...

  10. High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat pipes are widely used for passive, two-phase electronics cooling. As advanced high power, high performance electronics in space based and terrestrial...

  11. A Complex Organic Slushy Bathing Low-Mass Protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous companions of young forming stars. They were first observed in hot cores surrounding high-mass protostars [e.g., 1], but have since also been detected in the environs of several low-mass counterparts [e.g., 2]. Recent studies have shown that colder envelopes and positions with impinging outflows may also glow with emission from complex organic species [e.g., 3, 4]. For this meeting, I would like to present physicochemical modeling results on the synthesis of complex organics in an envelope-cavity system that is subject to non-thermal processing. This includes wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations with RADMC [5] and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network [6]. The results show that the morphology of such a system delineates three distinct regions: the cavity wall layer with time-dependent and species-variant enhancements; a torus rich in complex organic ices, but not reflected in gas-phase abundances; and the remaining outer envelope abundant in simpler solid and gaseous molecules. Within the adopted paradigm, complex organic molecules are demonstrated to have unique lifetimes and be grouped into early and late species [7]. Key chemical processes for forming and destroying complex organic molecules will be discussed. In addition, the results of adding newly experimentally verified routes [8] into the existing chemical networks will be shown.[1] Blake G. A., Sutton E. C., Masson C. R., Phillips T. G., 1987, ApJ, 315, 621[2] Jørgensen J. K., Favre C., Bisschop S. E., Bourke T. L., van Dishoeck E. F., Schmalzl M., 2012, ApJ, 757, L4[3] Arce H. G., Santiago-García J., Jørgensen J. K., Tafalla M., Bachiller R., 2008, ApJ, 681, L21[4] Öberg K. I., Bottinelli S., Jørgensen J. K., van Dishoeck E. F., 2010, ApJ, 716, 825[5] Dullemond C. P., Dominik C., 2004, A&A, 417, 159[6] Walsh C., Millar T. J., Nomura H., Herbst E., Widicus Weaver S., Aikawa Y., Laas J. C., Vasyunin A. I., 2014, A&A, 563, A33[7] Drozdovskaya

  12. A plant wide aqueous phase chemistry model describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, X.; Mbamba, C. Kazadi; Solon, K.;

    There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics (Batstone et al., 2012). Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description......, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems (Ikumi et al., 2014). In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation......). Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 (Henze et al., 2000) comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under...

  13. Dust Heating By Low-mass Stars in Massive Galaxies at z< 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisawa, M.; Morishita, T.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Ichikawa, T.; Fukui, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data and multi-wavelength photometric catalog, we investigated the dust temperature of passively evolving and star-forming galaxies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.0 in the CANDELS fields. We estimated the stellar radiation field by low-mass stars from the stellar mass and surface brightness profile of these galaxies and then calculated their steady-state dust temperature. At first, we tested our method using nearby early-type galaxies with the deep far-IR data by the Herschel Virgo cluster survey and confirmed that the estimated dust temperatures are consistent with the observed temperatures within the uncertainty. We then applied the method to galaxies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.0, and found that most passively evolving galaxies with {{M}star}\\gt {{10}10} {{M}⊙ } have relatively high dust temperatures of {{T}dust}\\gt 20 K, for which the formation efficiency of molecular hydrogen on the surface of dust grains in the diffuse ISM is expected to be very low from the laboratory experiments. The fraction of passively evolving galaxies strongly depends on the expected dust temperature at all redshifts and increases rapidly increasing temperature around {{T}dust}˜ 20 K. These results suggest that the dust heating by low-mass stars in massive galaxies plays an important role in the continuation of their passive evolution because the lack of the shielding effect of the molecular hydrogen on the UV radiation can prevent the gas cooling and formation of new stars.

  14. Low-mass molecular dynamics simulation: A simple and generic technique to enhance configurational sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping, E-mail: pang@mayo.edu

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Reducing atomic masses by 10-fold vastly improves sampling in MD simulations. • CLN025 folded in 4 of 10 × 0.5-μs MD simulations when masses were reduced by 10-fold. • CLN025 folded as early as 96.2 ns in 1 of the 4 simulations that captured folding. • CLN025 did not fold in 10 × 0.5-μs MD simulations when standard masses were used. • Low-mass MD simulation is a simple and generic sampling enhancement technique. - Abstract: CLN025 is one of the smallest fast-folding proteins. Until now it has not been reported that CLN025 can autonomously fold to its native conformation in a classical, all-atom, and isothermal–isobaric molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This article reports the autonomous and repeated folding of CLN025 from a fully extended backbone conformation to its native conformation in explicit solvent in multiple 500-ns MD simulations at 277 K and 1 atm with the first folding event occurring as early as 66.1 ns. These simulations were accomplished by using AMBER forcefield derivatives with atomic masses reduced by 10-fold on Apple Mac Pros. By contrast, no folding event was observed when the simulations were repeated using the original AMBER forcefields of FF12SB and FF14SB. The results demonstrate that low-mass MD simulation is a simple and generic technique to enhance configurational sampling. This technique may propel autonomous folding of a wide range of miniature proteins in classical, all-atom, and isothermal–isobaric MD simulations performed on commodity computers—an important step forward in quantitative biology.

  15. Characterization of the Very Low Mass Secondary in the GJ 660.1AB System

    CERN Document Server

    Aganze, Christian; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Choban, Caleb; Escala, Ivanna; Lopez, Mike A; Jin, Yuhui; Tamiya, Tomoki; Tallis, Melisa; Rockward, Willie

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic analysis of the low mass binary star system GJ 660.1AB, a pair of nearby M dwarfs for which we have obtained separated near-infrared spectra (0.9-2.5 $\\mu$m) with the SpeX spectrograph. The spectrum of GJ 660.1B is distinctly peculiar, with a triangular-shaped 1.7 $\\mu$m peak that initially suggests it to be a low surface gravity, young brown dwarf. However, we rule out this hypothesis and determine instead that this companion is a mild subdwarf (d/sdM7) based on the subsolar metallicity of the primary, [Fe/H] = $-$0.63$\\pm$0.06. Comparison of the near-infrared spectrum of GJ 660.1B to two sets of spectral models yields conflicting results, with a common effective temperature T$_{eff}$ = 2550-2650 K, but alternately low surface gravity ($\\log{g}$ = 4.4$\\pm$0.5 cgs) and very low metallicity ([M/H] = $-$0.96$^{+0.19}_{-0.24}$), or high surface gravity ($\\log{g}$ = 5.0-5.5) and slightly subsolar metallicity ([M/H] =$-$0.20$^{+0.13}_{-0.19}$). We conjecture that insufficient condensate op...

  16. Preserving chemical signatures of primordial star formation in the first low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Bromm, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We model early star forming regions and their chemical enrichment by Population III (Pop III) supernovae with nucleosynthetic yields featuring high [C/Fe] ratios and pair-instability supernova (PISN) signatures. We aim to test how well these chemical abundance signatures are preserved in the gas prior to forming the first long-lived low-mass stars (or second-generation stars). Our results show that second-generation stars can retain the nucleosynthetic signature of their Pop III progenitors, even in the presence of nucleosynthetically normal Pop III core-collapse supernovae. We find that carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars are likely second-generation stars that form in minihaloes. Furthermore, it is likely that the majority of Pop III supernovae produce high [C/Fe] yields. In contrast, metals ejected by a PISN are not concentrated in the first star forming haloes, which may explain the absence of observed PISN signatures in metal-poor stars. We also find that unique Pop III abundance signatures in the gas are q...

  17. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

  18. A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Solon, Kimberly;

    2015-01-01

    to increase the robustness of the solver making the system not so dependant of the initial conditions. Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1......) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under different anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions. The same framework is implemented in the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) (WWTP3) as well, predicting pH values......There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics. Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description, require a major...

  19. A New Code for Nonradial Stellar Pulsations and its Application to Low - Mass, Helium White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H

    2002-01-01

    We present a finite difference code intended for computing linear, adiabatic, nonradial pulsations of spherical stars. This code is based on a general Newton - Raphson technique in order to handle the relaxation of the eigenvalue (square of the eigenfrequency) of the modes and their corresponding eigenfunctions. This code has been tested computing the pulsation spectra of polytropic spheres finding a good agreement with previous work. Then, we have coupled this code to our evolutionary code and applied it to the computation of the pulsation spectrum of a low mass, pure - helium white dwarf of 0.3 M_{sun} for a wide range of effective temperatures. In making this calculation we have taken an evolutionary time step short enough such that eigenmodes corresponding to a given model are used as initial approximation to those of the next one. Specifically, we have computed periods, period spacing, eigenfunctions, weight functions, kinetic energies and variational periods for a wide range of modes. To our notice this...

  20. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Morton, Timothy D., E-mail: dpiskorz@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  1. New light on dark stars red dwarfs, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I Neill

    2000-01-01

    Perhaps the most common question that a child asks when he or she sees the night sky from a dark site for the first time is: 'How many stars are there?' This happens to be a question which has exercised the intellectual skills of many astronomers over the course of most of the last century, including, for the last two decades, one of the authors of this text. Until recently, the most accurate answer was 'We are not certain, but there is a good chance that almost all of them are M dwarfs. ' Within the last three years, results from new sky-surveys - particularly the first deep surveys at near­ infrared wavelengths - have provided a breakthrough in this subject, solidifying our census of the lowest-mass stars and identifying large numbers of the hitherto almost mythical substellar-mass brown dwarfs. These extremely low-luminosity objects are the central subjects of this book, and the subtitle should be interpreted accordingly. The expression 'low-mass stars' carries a wide range of meanings in the astronomical...

  2. Low-mass molecular dynamics simulation: a simple and generic technique to enhance configurational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2014-09-26

    CLN025 is one of the smallest fast-folding proteins. Until now it has not been reported that CLN025 can autonomously fold to its native conformation in a classical, all-atom, and isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This article reports the autonomous and repeated folding of CLN025 from a fully extended backbone conformation to its native conformation in explicit solvent in multiple 500-ns MD simulations at 277K and 1atm with the first folding event occurring as early as 66.1ns. These simulations were accomplished by using AMBER forcefield derivatives with atomic masses reduced by 10-fold on Apple Mac Pros. By contrast, no folding event was observed when the simulations were repeated using the original AMBER forcefields of FF12SB and FF14SB. The results demonstrate that low-mass MD simulation is a simple and generic technique to enhance configurational sampling. This technique may propel autonomous folding of a wide range of miniature proteins in classical, all-atom, and isothermal-isobaric MD simulations performed on commodity computers-an important step forward in quantitative biology. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of feedback and reionization on star formation in low-mass dwarf galaxy haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Christine M; Johnston, Kathryn V; Smith, Britton D; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Sharma, Sanjib; Tumlinson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the evolution of a 10^9 Msun dark matter halo in a cosmological setting with an adaptive-mesh refinement code as an analogue to local low luminosity dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the roles of reionization and supernova feedback in determining the star formation histories of low mass dwarf galaxies. We include a wide range of physical effects, including metal cooling, molecular hydrogen formation and cooling, photoionization and photodissociation from a metagalactic background, a simple prescription for self-shielding, star formation, and a simple model for supernova driven energetic feedback. We carry out simulations excluding each major effect in turn. We find that reionization is primarily responsible for expelling most of the gas in our simulations, but that supernova feedback is required to disperse the dense, cold gas in the core of the halo. Moreover, we show that the timing of reionization can produce an order of magnitude dif...

  4. Not Alone: Tracing the Origins of Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs Through Multiplicity Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Siegler, N; Close, L; Allen, P; Lowrance, P J; Gizis, J; Burgasser, Adam J.; Siegler, Nick; Close, Laird; Allen, Peter; Lowrance, Patrick; Gizis, John

    2006-01-01

    The properties of multiple stellar systems have long provided important empirical constraints for star formation theories, enabling (along with several other lines of evidence) a concrete, qualitative picture of the birth and early evolution of normal stars. At very low masses (VLM; M = 0.8) occurring infrequently (perhaps 10-30%). Both the frequency and maximum separation of stellar and brown dwarf binaries steadily decrease for lower system masses, suggesting that VLM binary formation and/or evolution may be a mass-dependent process. There is evidence for a fairly rapid decline in the number of loosely-bound systems below ~0.3 M_sun, corresponding to a factor of 10-20 increase in the minimum binding energy of VLM binaries as compared to more massive stellar binaries. This wide-separation ``desert'' is present among both field (~1-5 Gyr) and older (> 100 Myr) cluster systems, while the youngest (<~10 Myr) VLM binaries, particularly those in nearby, low-density star forming regions, appear to have somewhat...

  5. BANYAN. VIII. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Anne; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Doyon, René; Chen, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082$-$4337102 (M4.5), J08561384$-$1342242 (M8$\\,\\gamma$), J12474428$-$3816464 (M9$\\,\\gamma$) and J02265658$-$5327032 (L0$\\,\\delta$), and are candidate members of the TW Hya ($\\sim10\\pm 3\\,$Myr), Columba ($\\sim 42^{+6}_{-4}\\,$Myr) and Tucana-Horologium ($\\sim 45\\pm 4\\,$Myr) associations, with masses of $120$ and $13-18\\,M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$. The M8$-$L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are po...

  6. A decreased probability of habitable planet formation around low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N; Meadows, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Smaller terrestrial planets ( 0.3 Earth mass habitable planets decreases for low-mass stars for every realistic combination of parameters. This "habitable fraction" is small for stellar masses below a mass in the interval 0.5 to 0.8 Solar masses, depending on disk parameters, an interval that excludes most M stars. Radial mixing and therefore water delivery are inefficient in lower-mass disks commonly found around low-mass stars, such that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of most low-mass stars are likely to be small and dry.

  7. J/ψ suppression and low mass dileptons in the NA60 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The NA60 experiment, at CERN SPS, has studied muon pairs production in p-A and A-A collisions at 158 GeV. After an introduction to explain why the dimuon measurements are a useful tool to investigate the formation of a deconfined medium and how these measurements can be performed, from an experimental point of view, a review of the status of the field is presented, with particular emphasis on the NA60 results. The NA60 experimental apparatus, in fact, allows to perform high precision measurements, and therefore to obtain high quality results. Concerning the so called “low mass region” (0.2 2.9 GeV is dominated by the J/ψ whose suppression is usually considered one of the main signatures for the formation of a deconfined medium. However also cold nuclear matter effects, not related to the hot matter, may reduce the J/ψ yield. Therefore, the study of p-A collisions allows the determination of the J/ψ behaviour in cold nuclear matter, representing the reference with respect to which the J/ψ yield in A-A collisions must be compared. NA60 results show that indeed an “anomalous suppression” is present in central In-In collisions. However, it is clear that to correctly quantify the amount of suppression exceeding the one due to cold nuclear matter, a precise determination of this reference must be performed. To advance in this direction, NA60 has also collected high quality p-A data at the same energy as the one of the A-A interactions.

  8. Detection of a very low mass star in an eclipsing binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Anandarao, B. G.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2016-10-01

    We report the detection of a very low mass star (VLMS) companion to the primary star 1SWASP J234318.41+295556.5A (J2343+29A), using radial velocity (RV) measurements from the PARAS (PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search) high-resolution echelle spectrograph. The periodicity of the single-lined eclipsing binary (SB1) system, as determined from 20 sets of RV observations from PARAS and 6 supporting sets of observations from SOPHIE data, is found to be 16.953 d as against the 4.24 d period reported from SuperWASP photometry. It is likely that inadequate phase coverage of the transit with SuperWASP photometry led to the incorrect determination of the period for this system. We derive the spectral properties of the primary star from the observed stellar spectra: Teff = 5125 ± 67 K, [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.14 and logg = 4.6 ± 0.14, indicating a K1V primary. Applying the Torres relation to the derived stellar parameters, we estimate a primary mass 0.864_{-0.098}^{+0.097} M⊙ and a radius of 0.854_{-0.060}^{+0.050} R⊙. We combine RV data with SuperWASP photometry to estimate the mass of the secondary, MB = 0.098 ± 0.007 M⊙, and its radius, RB = 0.127 ± 0.007 R⊙, with an accuracy of ˜7 per cent. Although the observed radius is found to be consistent with the Baraffe's theoretical models, the uncertainties on the mass and radius of the secondary reported here are model dependent and should be used with discretion. Here, we establish this system as a potential benchmark for the study of VLMS objects, worthy of both photometric follow-up and the investment of time on high-resolution spectrographs paired with large-aperture telescopes.

  9. The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs: A Multi-Wavelength Perspective on Low-Mass Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies drawn from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) catalog. HST/Spitzer joint program GO-12658 revealed the stellar populations of the first 12 SHIELD galaxies (Cannon et al. 2011), allowing accurate distance measurements (McQuinn et al. 2014) and detailed studies of the patterns of recent star formation in each galaxy (McQuinn et al. 2015). These HST and Spitzer images are a critical interpretive benchmark for ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy (Haurberg et al. 2015), as well as for sensitive VLA HI spectral line imaging of the SHIELD galaxies (McNichols et al. 2016; Teich et al. 2016). These results have furthered our understanding of the evolution of galaxies in a mass regime that was previously only sparsely populated. With the low-redshift ALFALFA catalog now complete, the scope of the SHIELD program has been expanded to include all 82 galaxies that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich, low-mass galaxies. In HST program 13750, images of 18 more SHIELD galaxies have again set the physical scales for supporting HI spectral line imaging with both the VLA and the WSRT (Gordon et al. 2016). Taken as a whole, the ongoing SHIELD program is one of the most comprehensive multiwavelength studies of the physical properties of low-mass galaxies outside of the Local Group.

  10. Photometric Identification of the low-Mass Population of Orion OB1b I: The sigma Ori Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, W H; Wolk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We report an optical photometric survey of 0.89 sq. degrees of the Orion OB1b association centered on sigma Ori. This region includes most of the sigma Ori cluster, the highest density region within Orion OB1b. We have developed a statistical procedure to identify the young, low-mass pre-main sequence population of the association. We estimate that the cluster has ~160 members in the mass range (0.2pair of clusters, except for the ~2 Myr difference in their ages.

  11. Wireless, Low Mass, High Sensitivity Sensing Sheet for Structural Sensing and Long Term Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs sensor systems to inspect space structures with minimum human interaction. These systems must be highly integrated and self-sufficient, low mass, simple...

  12. Low-mass dark matter search results from full exposure of PandaX-I experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Xiang; Tan, Andy; Chen, Yunhua; Cui, Xiangyi; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl L; Gong, Haowei; Guo, Guodong; He, Ming; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Xiang; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Pushkin, Kirill; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbing; Shi, Yuji; Stephenson, Scott; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; You, Yinghui; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search using the full 80.1\\;live-day exposure of the first stage of the PandaX experiment (PandaX-I) located in the China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory. The PandaX-I detector has been optimized for detecting low-mass WIMPs, achieving a photon detection efficiency of 9.6\\%. With a fiducial liquid xenon target mass of 54.0\\,kg, no significant excess event were found above the expected background. A profile likelihood analysis confirms our earlier finding that the PandaX-I data disfavor all positive low-mass WIMP signals reported in the literature under standard assumptions. A stringent bound on the low mass WIMP is set at WIMP mass below 10\\,GeV/c$^2$, demonstrating that liquid xenon detectors can be competitive for low-mass WIMP searches.

  13. Recent advances in the theoretical modeling of pulsating low-mass He-core white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H; Calcaferro, L M; Serenelli, A M; Kepler, S O; Jeffery, C S

    2016-01-01

    Many extremely low-mass (ELM) white-dwarf (WD) stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period nonradial $g$-mode pulsations, and constitute the class of ELMV pulsating WDs. In addition, several low-mass pre-WDs, which could be precursors of ELM WDs, have been observed to show short-period photometric variations likely due to nonradial $p$ modes and radial modes. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-WD stars, the pre-ELMV stars. Here, we present the recent results of a thorough theoretical study of the nonadiabatic pulsation properties of low-mass He-core WDs and pre-WDs on the basis of fully evolutionary models representative of these stars.

  14. Real-time turbulence profiling with a pair of laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors for wide-field adaptive optics systems on large to extremely large telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, L; Ellerbroek, B L

    2010-11-01

    Real-time turbulence profiling is necessary to tune tomographic wavefront reconstruction algorithms for wide-field adaptive optics (AO) systems on large to extremely large telescopes, and to perform a variety of image post-processing tasks involving point-spread function reconstruction. This paper describes a computationally efficient and accurate numerical technique inspired by the slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) method to perform this task in real time from properly selected Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements accumulated over a few hundred frames from a pair of laser guide stars, thus eliminating the need for an additional instrument. The algorithm is introduced, followed by a theoretical influence function analysis illustrating its impulse response to high-resolution turbulence profiles. Finally, its performance is assessed in the context of the Thirty Meter Telescope multi-conjugate adaptive optics system via end-to-end wave optics Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS HYDROGEN-BURNING STARS, BROWN DWARFS, AND PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS FORMED THROUGH DISK FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, S. P., E-mail: yunli@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) via disk fragmentation. As disk fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of Stamatellos and Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting disks. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2, respectively. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km s{sup −1}, with some runaway escapers with velocities over 30 km s{sup −1}. Roughly 6% (set 1) and 2% (set 2) of the companions pair up into very low-mass binary systems, resulting in respective binary fractions of 3.2% and 1.2%. The majority of these pairs escape as very low-mass binaries, while others remain bound to the host star in hierarchical configurations (often with retrograde inner orbits). Physical collisions with the host star (0.43 and 0.18 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) and between companions (0.08 and 0.04 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) are relatively common and their frequency increases with increasing disk mass. Our study predicts observable properties of very low-mass binaries, low-mass hierarchical systems, the BD desert, and free-floating BDs and PMOs in and near young stellar groupings, which can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of very low-mass

  16. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 WIDE BINARIES IDENTIFIED IN SDSS WITHOUT PROPER MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhital, Saurav [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); West, Andrew A.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: dhitals@erau.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  17. Properties and Star Formation Histories of Intermediate Redshift Dwarf Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Gallego, J.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2017-03-01

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the Universe. We present improved constraints on the physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of intermediate redshift LMSFGs selected by their stellar mass or blue-compact-dwarf-like properties. Our work takes advantage of the deep UV-to-FIR photometric coverage available on the Extended-Chandra Deep Field South and our own dedicated deep VLT/VIMOS optical spectroscopy programs. On the one hand, we estimate the stellar mass (M_{*}), star formation rate (SFR), and SFH of each galaxy modeling its spectral energy distribution. We use a novel approach by Pacifici et al. 2012, that (1) consistently combines photometric (broad-band) and spectroscopic (emission line fluxes and equivalent widths) data, and (2) uses physically-motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the SFR as a function of time. On the other hand, we characterize the properties of their interstellar medium by analyzing the emission line features visible in the VIMOS spectroscopy. The final sample includes 91 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 ≤ logM_{*}/M_{⊙} ≤ 9.5) at 0.3 wide range of properties, and possibly, different evolutionary stages. Despite the individual differences, the average SFH that we obtain suggests a late and fast (˜2 Gyr prior their observation) assembly scenario for this type of system.

  18. Dynamical formation of Black Hole Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in the field - an alternative to common envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Klencki, Jakub; Gładysz, Wojciech; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Very wide binaries (> 500 AU) are subject to numerous encounters with flying-by stars in the Galactic field and can be perturbated into highly eccentric orbits (e ~ 0.99). For such systems tidal interactions at close pericenter passages can lead to orbit circularization and possibly mass transfer, consequently producing X-Ray binaries without the need for common envelope. We test this scenario for the case of Black Hole Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (BH LMXBs) by performing a population synthesis from primordial binaries with numerical treatment of random stellar encounters. We test various models for the threshold pericenter distance under which tidal forces cause circularization. We find that fly-by interactions can produce a current population of ~ 60$-$220 BH LMXBs in the Galactic field and the results are sensitive to the assumption on tidal circularization efficiency. We show that the most likely donors are low-mass stars (< 1 Msun, at the onset of mass transfer) as observed in the population of known sour...

  19. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): growing up in a bad neighbourhood - how do low-mass galaxies become passive?

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, L J M; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Cluver, M E; Holwerda, B W; Hopkins, A M; Lara-Lopez, M A; Mahajan, S; Moffett, A J; Owers, M S; Phillipps, S

    2015-01-01

    Both theoretical predictions and observations of the very nearby Universe suggest that low-mass galaxies (log$_{10}$[M$_{*}$/M$_{\\odot}$]<9.5) are likely to remain star-forming unless they are affected by their local environment. To test this premise, we compare and contrast the local environment of both passive and star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass, using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. We find that passive fractions are higher in both interacting pair and group galaxies than the field at all stellar masses, and that this effect is most apparent in the lowest mass galaxies. We also find that essentially all passive log$_{10}$[M$_{*}$/M$_{\\odot}$]<8.5 galaxies are found in pair/group environments, suggesting that local interactions with a more massive neighbour cause them to cease forming new stars. We find that the effects of immediate environment (local galaxy-galaxy interactions) in forming passive systems increases with decreasing stellar mass, and highlight that this is poten...

  20. Evolutionary implications of the new triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate for low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dotter, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Context: Ogata et al. (2009; hereafter OKK) presented a theoretical determination of the triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate. Their rate differs from the NACRE rate by many orders of magnitude at temperatures relevant for low mass stars. Aims: We explore the evolutionary implications of adopting the OKK triple-alpha reaction rate in low mass stars and compare the results with those obtained using the NACRE rate. Methods: The triple-alpha reaction rates are compared by following the evolution of stellar models at 1 and 1.5 Msol with Z=0.0002 and Z=0.02. Results: Results show that the OKK rate has severe consequences for the late stages of stellar evolution in low mass stars. Most notable is the shortening--or disappearance--of the red giant phase. Conclusions: The OKK triple-alpha reaction rate is incompatible with observations of extended red giant branches and He burning stars in old stellar systems.

  1. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  2. Visual orbit for the low-mass binary Gliese 22 AC from speckle interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woitas, J; Docobo, J A; Leinert, C; Leinert, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Based on 14 data points obtained with near-infrared speckle interferometry and covering an almost entire revolution, we present a first visual orbit for the low-mass binary system Gliese 22 AC. The quality of the orbit is largely improved with respect to previous astrometric solutions. The dynamical system mass is 0.592 +- 0.065 solar masses, where the largest part of the error is due to the Hipparcos parallax. A comparison of this dynamical mass with mass-luminosity relations on the lower main sequence and theoretical evolutionary models for low-mass objects shows that both probably underestimate the masses of M dwarfs. A mass estimate for the companion Gliese 22 C indicates that this object is a very low-mass star with a mass close to the hydrogen burning mass limit.

  3. Measuring the Initial Mass Function of Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffries, R D

    2012-01-01

    I review efforts to determine the form and any lower limit to the initial mass function in the Galactic disk, using observations of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the field, young clusters and star forming regions. I focus on the methodologies that have been used and the uncertainties that exist due to observational limitations and to systematic uncertainties in calibrations and theoretical models. I conclude that whilst it is possible that the low-mass IMFs deduced from the field and most young clusters are similar, there are too many problems to be sure; there are examples of low-mass cluster IMFs that appear to be very discrepant and the IMFs for brown dwarfs in the field and young clusters have yet to be reconciled convincingly.

  4. Evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries: dependence on the mass of the compact object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xu; Tao Li; Xiang-Dong Li

    2012-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations to simulate the evolution of low-mass X-ray binary systems.For the accreting compact object we consider the initial mass of 1.4,10,20,100,200,500 and 1000 M☉,corresponding to neutron stars (NSs),stellarmass black holes (BHs) and intermediate-mass BHs.Mass transfer in these binaries is driven by nuclear evolution of the donors and/or orbital angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking and gravitational wave radiation.For the different systems,we determine their bifurcation periods Pbif that separate the formation of converging systems from the diverging ones,and show that Pbif changes from ~ 1 d to (≥)3 d for a 1 M☉ donor star,with increasing initial accretor mass from 1.4 to 1000 M☉.This means that the dominant mechanism of orbital angular momentum loss changes from magnetic braking to gravitational radiation.As an illustration we compare the evolution of binaries consisting of a secondary star of 1 M☉ at a fixed initial period of 2 d.In the case of the NS or stellar-mass BH accretor,the system evolves to a well-detached He white dwarf-neutron star/black hole pair,but it evolves to an ultracompact binary if the compact object is an intermediate-mass BH.Thus the binary evolution heavily depends upon the mass of the compact object.However,we show that the final orbital period-white dwarf mass relation found for NS low-mass X-ray binaries is fairly insensitive to the initial mass of the accreting star,even if it is an intermediate-mass BH.

  5. The Diversity of Low-mass Exoplanets Characterized via Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack. J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2016-10-01

    Transit timing variations (TTV) in multi-transiting systems enables precise characterizations of low-mass planets and their orbits. The range of orbital periods and incident fluxes with detailed TTV constraints complements the radial velocity sample for low-mass planets, pushing exoplanet characterization to the regime sub-Earth size planets and out to Mercury-like distances. This has revealed an astonishing diversity in the density of super-Earth mass planets. We summarize these and other contributions to exoplanet science from TTVs.

  6. First detection of a low-mass stellar halo around the young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    We have identified several lithium-rich low-mass (0.08low-mass objects. Candidates were selected on the basis of DENIS and 2MASS photometry, NOMAD astrometry and extensive follow-up spectroscopy.

  7. Formation of wide binaries by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Dunham, Michael M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Bergin, Edwin A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the formation of wide-binary systems of very low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.1 solar masses, M⊙) is challenging 1,2,3 . The most obvious route is through widely separated low-mass collapsing fragments produced by turbulent fragmentation of a molecular core4,5. However, close binaries or multiples from disk fragmentation can also evolve to wide binaries over a few initial crossing times of the stellar cluster through tidal evolution6. Finding an isolated low-mass wide-binary system in the earliest stage of formation, before tidal evolution could occur, would prove that turbulent fragmentation is a viable mechanism for (very) low-mass wide binaries. Here we report high-resolution ALMA observations of a known wide-separation protostellar binary, showing that each component has a circumstellar disk. The system is too young7 to have evolved from a close binary, and the disk axes are misaligned, providing strong support for the turbulent fragmentation model. Masses of both stars are derived from the Keplerian rotation of the disks; both are very low-mass stars.

  8. On the mass assembly of low-mass galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Tissera, Patricia B; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are studied in order to analyse generic trends for the stellar, baryonic and halo mass assembly of low-mass galaxies (M_* 2, the overall properties of simulated galaxies are not in large disagreement with those derived from observations.

  9. Revealing the physics of r modes in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, W.C.G.; Andersson, N.; Haskell, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the astrophysical constraints on the gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability in accreting neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries. We use recent results on superfluid and superconducting properties to infer the core temperature in these neutron stars and show the diversity of the o

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy of ices toward low-mass embedded protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, ACA; Pontoppidan, KM; Lahuis, F; Jorgensen, JK; Augereau, JC; Blake, GA; Brooke, TY; Dullemond, CP; Evans, NJ; Geers, [No Value; Hogerheijde, MR; Kessler-Silacci, J; Knez, C; Morris, P; Noriega-Crespo, A; Schoier, FL; van Dishoeck, EF; Allen, LE; Harvey, PM; Koerner, DW; Mundy, LG; Myers, PC; Padgett, DL; Sargent, AI; Stapelfeldt, KR

    2004-01-01

    Sensitive 5-38 mum Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based 3-5 mum spectra of the embedded low-mass protostars B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS show deep ice absorption bands superposed on steeply rising mid-infrared continua. The ices likely originate in the circumstellar envelopes. The CO2 bending mode at 1

  11. The Influence of Environment on the Chemical Evolution in Low-mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The mean alpha-to-iron abundance ratio ([$\\alpha$/Fe]) of galaxies is sensitive to the chemical evolution processes at early time, and it is an indicator of star formation timescale ($\\tau_{{\\rm SF}}$). Although the physical reason remains ambiguous, there is a tight relation between [$\\alpha$/Fe] and stellar velocity dispersion ($\\sigma$) among massive early-type galaxies (ETGs). However, no work has shown convincing results as to how this relation behaves at low masses. We assemble 15 data sets from the literature and build a large sample that includes 192 nearby low-mass ($18<\\sigma<80$~\\kms) ETGs. We find that the [$\\alpha$/Fe]-$\\sigma$ relation generally holds for low-mass ETGs, except in extreme environments. Specifically, in normal galaxy cluster environments, the [$\\alpha$/Fe]-$\\sigma$ relation and its intrinsic scatter are, within uncertainties, similar for low-mass and high-mass ETGs. However, in the most massive relaxed galaxy cluster in our sample, the zero point of the relation is higher an...

  12. Microlensing discovery of a population of very tight, very low mass binary brown dwarfs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.

    2013-01-01

    the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M ☉ and 0.034 M ☉, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known...

  13. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes, or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth only hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Here we focus on searches for black holes with masses of 10^4-10^6 solar masses that are found at galaxy centers. We will refer to black holes in this mass range as "low-mass" black holes, since they are at the low-mass end of supermassive black holes. We review the searches for low-mass black holes to date and show tentative evidence, from the number of low-mass black holes that are ...

  14. The role of low-mass star clusters in massive star formation. The Orion Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Jimenez-Serra, I; Rodriguez-Franco, A

    2013-01-01

    To distinguish between the different theories proposed to explain massive star formation, it is crucial to establish the distribution, the extinction, and the density of low-mass stars in massive star-forming regions. We analyze deep X-ray observations of the Orion massive star-forming region using the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) catalog. We studied the stellar distribution as a function of extinction, with cells of 0.03 pc x 0.03 pc, the typical size of protostellar cores. We derived stellar density maps and calculated cluster stellar densities. We found that low-mass stars cluster toward the three massive star-forming regions: the Trapezium Cluster (TC), the Orion Hot Core (OHC), and OMC1-S. We derived low-mass stellar densities of 10^{5} stars pc^{-3} in the TC and OMC1-S, and of 10^{6} stars pc^{-3} in the OHC. The close association between the low-mass star clusters with massive star cradles supports the role of these clusters in the formation of massive stars. The X-ray observations show for ...

  15. The hot core around the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 : Scoundrels rule!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazaux, S; Tielens, AGGM; Ceccarelli, C; Castets, A; Wakelam, [No Value; Caux, E; Parise, B; Teyssier, D

    2003-01-01

    While warm dense gas is prevalent around low-mass protostars, the presence of complex saturated molecules-the chemical inventory characteristic of hot cores-has remained elusive in such environments. Here we report the results of an IRAM 30 m study of the molecular composition associated with the lo

  16. Catalogue of Galactic low-mass X-ray binaries (Liu+, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.Z.; van Paradijs, J.A.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new edition of the catalogue of the low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The catalogue contains source name(s), coordinates, finding chart, X-ray luminosity, system parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristic properties of 18

  17. Low-Mass Active Galactic Nuclei with Rapid X-Ray Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the optical spectroscopic properties of 12 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with candidate low-mass black holes (BHs) selected by Kamizasa et al. through rapid X-ray variability. The high-quality, echellette Magellan spectra reveal broad H$\\alpha$ emission in all the sources, allowing us to estimate robust viral BH masses and Eddington ratios for this unique sample. We confirm that the sample contains low-mass BHs accreting at high rates: the median $M_{\\rm BH} = 1.2\\times 10^6M_\\odot$ and median $L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd}=0.44$. The sample follows the $M_{\\rm BH}-\\sigma_*$ relation, within the considerable scatter typical of pseudobulges, the probable hosts of these low-mass AGNs. Various lines of evidence suggest that ongoing star formation is prevalent in these systems. We propose a new strategy to estimate star formation rates in AGNs hosted by low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies, based on modification of an existing method using the strength of [O II] $\\lambda 3727$, [O III] $\\la...

  18. A Study in Blue: The Baryon Content of Isolated Low Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, Jeremy D; Blanton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We study the baryon content of low mass galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR8), focusing on galaxies in isolated environments where the complicating physics of galaxy-galaxy interactions are minimized. We measure neutral hydrogen (HI) gas masses and line-widths for 148 isolated galaxies with stellar mass between $10^7$ and $10^{9.5} M_{\\odot}$. We compare isolated low mass galaxies to more massive galaxies and galaxies in denser environments by remeasuring HI emission lines from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey 40% data release. All isolated low mass galaxies either have large atomic gas fractions or large atomic gas fractions cannot be ruled out via their upper limits. We measure a median atomic gas fraction of $f_{\\rm gas} = 0.82 \\pm 0.13$ for our isolated low mass sample with no systems below 0.30. At all stellar masses, the correlations between galaxy radius, baryonic mass and velocity width are not significantly affected by environment. Finally, we estimate a median b...

  19. Discovery of an outflow of the very low-mass star ISO 143

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Pohl, A

    2012-01-01

    We discover that the very young very low-mass star ISO143 (M5) is driving an outflow based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden [SII] emission lines at 6716A and 6731A observed in UVES/VLT spectra. ISO143 is only one of a handful of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars (M5-M8) for which an outflow has been detected and that show that the T Tauri phase continues at very low masses. We have found the outflow of ISO143 to be intrinsically asymmetric and the accretion disk to not obscure the outflow, as solely the red outflow component is visible in the [SII] lines. ISO143 is only the third T Tauri object showing a stronger red outflow component in spectro-astrometry, after RW Aur (G5) and ISO217 (M6.25). We show here that including ISO143 two out of seven outflows confirmed in the very low-mass regime (M5-M8) are intrinsically asymmetric. We measure a spatial extension of the outflow in [SII] of up to 200-300 mas (about 30-50 AU) and velocities of up to 50-70 km/s. We detect furthermore line emission of ISO143 in ...

  20. LOW-MASS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH RAPID X-RAY VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    We present a detailed study of the optical spectroscopic properties of 12 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with candidate low-mass black holes (BHs) selected by Kamizasa et al. through rapid X-ray variability. The high-quality, echellette Magellan spectra reveal broad Hα emission in all the sources, allowing us to estimate robust virial BH masses and Eddington ratios for this unique sample. We confirm that the sample contains low-mass BHs accreting at high rates: the median M{sub BH} = 1.2 × 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙} and median L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} = 0.44. The sample follows the M{sub BH}–σ{sub *} relation, within the considerable scatter typical of pseudobulges, the probable hosts of these low-mass AGNs. Various lines of evidence suggest that ongoing star formation is prevalent in these systems. We propose a new strategy to estimate star formation rates in AGNs hosted by low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies, based on modification of an existing method using the strength of [O ii] λ3727, [O iii] λ5007, and X-rays.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very low mass objects in ONC (Rodriguez-Ledesma+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, M. V.; Mundt, R.; Eisloeffel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Table 1 lists the 638 very low mass objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster with magnitudes between 14-21mag in I band for which NIR (JHK) photometry is available. The I band data is from Rodriguez-Ledesma et al. (2009, Cat. ) and JHK data from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VLT. (1 data file).

  2. The formation of low-mass helium white dwarfs orbiting pulsars: Evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries below the bifurcation period

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, Alina; Langer, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally believed to be old neutron stars (NSs) which have been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion of matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). However, many details of this recycling scenario remain to be understood. Here we investigate binary evolution in close LMXBs to study the formation of radio MSPs with low-mass helium white dwarf companions (He WDs) in tight binaries with orbital periods P_orb = 2-9 hr. In particular, we examine: i) if such observed systems can be reproduced from theoretical modelling using standard prescriptions of orbital angular momentum losses (i.e. with respect to the nature and the strength of magnetic braking), ii) if our computations of the Roche-lobe detachments can match the observed orbital periods, and iii) if the correlation between WD mass and orbital period (M_WD, P_orb) is valid for systems with P_orb < 2 days. Numerical calculations with a detailed stellar evolution code were used to trace the mass-tra...

  3. Using K2 to Investigate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Schlieder, Joshua E.; K2 CHAI Consortium

    2016-10-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the repurposed Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. Unlike the original Kepler mission, which stared at a single region of the sky for four years, K2 observes each field for a much shorter timespan of roughly 80 days. While planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars would be unlikely to transit even once during an 80-day interval, planets in the habitable zones of faint low-mass stars have much shorter orbital periods and may even transit multiple times during a single K2 campaign. Accordingly, M and K dwarfs are frequently nominated as K2 Guest Observer targets and K2 has already observed significantly more low-mass stars than the original Kepler mission. While the K2 data are therefore an enticing resource for studying the properties and frequency of planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars, many K2 target stars are not well-characterized and some candidate low-mass stars are actually giants or reddened Sun-like stars. We are improving the characterization of K2 planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars by using SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and TripleSpec on the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory to acquire near-infrared spectra of K2 target stars. We then employ empirically-based relations to determine the temperatures, radii, luminosities, and metallicities of K2 planet candidate host stars. Refining the stellar parameters allows us to identify astrophysical false positives and better constrain the radii and insolation flux environments of bona fide transiting planets. I will present our resulting catalog of stellar properties and discuss the prospects for using K2 data to investigate whether planet occurrence rates for mid-M dwarfs are similar to those for early-M and late-K dwarfs.

  4. Evolution of the major merger galaxy pair fraction at z < 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, R. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Lin, L.; Chou, R. C. Y.; Huang, S.; Lin, J. H.; Chang, K. H. [Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Foucaud, S. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2014-11-10

    We present a study of the largest available sample of near-infrared selected (i.e., stellar mass selected) dynamically close pairs of galaxies at low redshifts (z < 0.3). We combine this sample with new estimates of the major merger pair fraction for stellar mass selected galaxies at z < 0.8, from the Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1). We construct our low-redshift K-band selected sample using photometry from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the K band (∼2.2 μm). Combined with all available spectroscopy, our K-band selected sample contains ∼250, 000 galaxies and is >90% spectroscopically complete. The depth and large volume of this sample allow us to investigate the low-redshift pair fraction and merger rate of galaxies over a wide range in K-band luminosity. We find the major merger pair fraction to be flat at ∼2% as a function of K-band luminosity for galaxies in the range 10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in contrast to recent results from studies in the local group that find a substantially higher low-mass pair fraction. This low-redshift major merger pair fraction is ∼40%-50% higher than previous estimates drawn from K-band samples, which were based on 2MASS photometry alone. Combining with the RCS1 sample, we find a much flatter evolution (m = 0.7 ± 0.1) in the relation f {sub pair}∝(1 + z) {sup m} than indicated in many previous studies. These results indicate that a typical L ∼ L* galaxy has undergone ∼0.2-0.8 major mergers since z = 1 (depending on the assumptions of merger timescale and percentage of pairs that actually merge).

  5. A statistical analysis of seeds and other high-contrast exoplanet surveys: massive planets or low-mass brown dwarfs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Spiegel, David S. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Turner, Edwin L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Mede, Kyle; Kuzuhara, Masayuki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Schlieder, Joshua E.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Wisniewski, John P. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, Nice (France); Biller, B. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Carson, J. [College of Charleston, Charleston, SC (United States); Currie, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O. [Subaru Telescope, Hilo, Hawai' i (United States); Goto, M. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Munich (Germany); Hashimoto, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2014-10-20

    We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (κ And b, two ∼60 M {sub J} brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD–35 2722B). For some analyses we add a currently unpublished set of SEEDS observations, including the detections GJ 504b and GJ 758B. We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of all stellar ages using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most of the integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis of the distribution function derived from radial-velocity planets, finding model-dependent values of ∼30-100 AU. Finally, we model the entire substellar sample, from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ∼5 M {sub J}, with a single power-law distribution. We find that p(M, a)∝M {sup –0.65} {sup ±} {sup 0.60} a {sup –0.85} {sup ±} {sup 0.39} (1σ errors) provides an adequate fit to our data, with 1.0%-3.1% (68% confidence) of stars hosting 5-70 M {sub J} companions between 10 and 100 AU. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.

  6. Non-conservative evolution of spherical and distorted low mass close binary systems including systemic mass loss and gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of low mass, close binary systems driven primarily by gravitational radiation loss is studied within the framework of both a semi-analytic formulation and a sophisticated numerical (Henyey) method. One of the major advantages associated with the semi-analytic formulation is the facility with which it can be applied to a wide range of physical phenomena. In particular, the effects of several modes of systemic (advective) mass loss have been investigated including a mode which crudely models novae events. An allowance for the possible uncertainty in the Landau-Lifshitz formula for quadrupole radiation has also been incorporated. Although the investigation is restricted to the use of equilibrium (main sequence) models for the mass-losing secondary, it is possible to comment on the value of the minimum period for cataclysmic variables. The semi-analytic formulation has also been used to illustrate the importance of low mass, X-ray binaries as a means of determining the lower limit of the coupling constant of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. Detailed information concerning the structure of the secondary of close binary systems is calculated by means of a Henyey scheme. Tidal and rotational distortion has been included in the formulation and the evolution of a (1 + .75) M/sub sun/ binary system is studied both for the case of spherical symmetry and with the inclusion of distortional effects. A (.4 + 1) M/sub sun/ system is evolved past the point of minimum period. Good agreement is found between the theoretical value and the observed period cut-off.

  7. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  8. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  9. Low-Mass Dielectron Production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb Collisions with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Reichelt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration measures the production of low-mass dielectrons in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. The main detectors used in the analyses are the Inner Tracking System, Time Projection Chamber and Time-Of-Flight detector, all located at mid-rapidity. The dielectron yield in p-Pb collisions shows an overall agreement with the hadronic cocktail. The pair transverse momentum distributions are sensitive to the contributions from open heavy-flavours. In Pb-Pb collisions, uncorrected background-subtracted yields have been extracted in two centrality classes. In pp collisions the production of virtual photons relative to the inclusive yield is determined by analyzing the dielectron excess with respect to the expected hadronic sources. The direct photon cross section is then calculated and found to be in agreement with NLO pQCD calculations. A feasibility study for LHC Run 3 after the ALICE upgrade indicates the possibility for a future measurement of the early effective temperature.

  10. Low Mass Dimuon Production in p-A Collisions at 400 GeV/c with the NA60 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uras, Antonio; De Falco, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The NA60 experiment has studied low-mass muon pair production in proton-nucleus collisions with a system of Be, Cu, In, W, Pb and U targets using a 400 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN SPS. The mass spectrum is well described by the superposition of the two-body and Dalitz decays of the light neutral mesons eta, rho, omega, eta' and phi. A new measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factors of the eta and omega was performed. The values found agree with the previous available measurements, improving their uncertainty thanks to the higher statistics, and confirm the discrepancy with the prediction of the Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) model in the case of the electromagnetic form factor of the omega meson; for this latter, the comparison of the data to an improved calculation including also a direct point-like term is discussed. The pT spectra for the omega and phi mesons are studied in the full pT range accessible, up to pT = 2 GeV/c. The pT spectrum of the eta meson is also considered, starting from pT...

  11. The low-mass X-ray binary-millisecond radio pulsar birthrate problem revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the birthrate problem for low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) and millisecond radio pulsars(MRPs) in this paper.We consider intermediate-mass and low-mass X-ray binaries(I/LMXBs) to be the progenitors of MRPs,and calculate their evolutionary response to the cosmic star formation rate(SFR) both semi-analytically and numerically.With a typical value(1 Gyr) of the LMXB lifetime,one may expect comparable birthrates of LMXBs and MRPs,but the calculated number of LMXBs is an order of magnitude higher than that observed in the Galaxy.Instead,we suggest that the birthrate problem could be solved if most MRPs have evolved from faint to rather than bright LMXBs.The former may have a population of-104 in the Galaxy.

  12. Microlensing Discovery of a Population of Very Tight, Very Low-mass Binary Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J -Y; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Bozza, V; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, K; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Takino, S; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Almeida, L A; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Gorbikov, E; Jablonski, F; Henderson, C B; Hwang, K -H; Janczak, J; Jung, Y -K; Kaspi, S; Lee, C -U; Malamud, U; Maoz, D; McGregor, D; Munoz, J A; Park, B -G; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Browne, P; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dodds, P; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Glitrup, M; Grundahl, F; Gu, S -H; Hardis, S; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hornstrup, A; Hundertmark, M; Jessen-Hansen, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wambsganss, J; Wertz, O; Zimmer, F; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Cassan, A; Cole, A A; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Menzies, J W; Sahu, K C; Zub, M; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the brown-dwarf mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low-mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 Msun and 0.034 Msun, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field brown-dwarf binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that brown dwarf binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 Msun. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of brown-dwarf binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  13. MICROLENSING DISCOVERY OF A POPULATION OF VERY TIGHT, VERY LOW MASS BINARY BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bozza, V. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Chote, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-10

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M{sub Sun} and 0.034 M{sub Sun }, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of {approx}0.02 M{sub Sun }. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  14. Can transport peak explain the low-mass enhancement of dileptons at RHIC?

    CERN Document Server

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel relation between the low-mass enhancement of dielectrons observed at PHENIX and transport coefficients of QGP such as the charge diffusion constant $D$ and the relaxation time $\\tau_{\\rm J}$. We parameterize the transport peak in the spectral function using the second-order relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics by Israel and Stewart. Combining the spectral function and the full (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamical evolution with the lattice EoS, theoretical dielectron spectra and the experimental data are compared. Detailed analysis suggests that the low-mass dilepton enhancement originates mainly from the high-temperature QGP phase where there is a large electric charge fluctuation as obtained from lattice QCD simulations.

  15. Can transport peak explain the low-mass enhancement of dileptons at RHIC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Y.; Hamagaki, H.; Hatsuda, T.; Hirano, T.

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel relation between the low-mass enhancement of dielectrons observed at PHENIX and transport coefficients of QGP such as the charge diffusion constant D and the relaxation time τJ. We parameterize the transport peak in the spectral function using the second-order relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics by Israel and Stewart. Combining the spectral function and the full (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamical evolution with the lattice EoS, theoretical dielectron spectra and the experimental data are compared. Detailed analysis suggests that the low-mass dilepton enhancement originates mainly from the high-temperature QGP phase where there is a large electric charge fluctuation as obtained from lattice QCD simulations.

  16. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-Infrared High Resolution Spectra of Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Gagné, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Bottom, Michael; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Beichman, Charles; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Johnson, John; Ciardi, David; Wallace, James; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Tanner, Angelle; Crawford, Timothy; Latham, David; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL's narrow wavelen...

  17. 2D dynamics of the radiation zone of low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hypolite, Delphine; Rieutord, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic fields generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars. Still the rotation of the close center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interactions of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. Among them, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone may be very important leading to the formation of tachoclines. In the solar convective region, the equator is rotating faster than the pole while numerical simulations predict either a solar or an anti-solar rotation in other low mass stars envelopes depending on their convective Rossby number. In this work, we therefore build for the first time 2D steady hydrodynamical models of l...

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary results from our archival Spitzer Space Telescope program aimed at characterizing the mid-IR properties of compact objects, both isolated and in binary systems, i.e. white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and magnetars. Most of these sources are too faint at mid-IR wavelengths to be observable from the ground, so this study provides the very first comprehensive look at the mid-IR emission of these objects. Here we present our results for the low mass X-ray binaries. We considered all of the systems listed in the most recent catalog of Liu et al. (2007) that have known optical counterparts. The particular goals of our projects encompass: to establish the mid-IR spectral energy distribution, to search for the signatures of jets, circumbinary disks, low mass or planetary companions and debris disks, and to study the local environment of these sources.

  19. The ELM Survey. VII. Orbital Properties of Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of 15 extremely low mass (5 < log{g} < 7) white dwarf candidates, 9 of which are in ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries. Our targeted ELM Survey sample now includes 76 binaries. The sample has a lognormal distribution of orbital periods with a median period of 5.4 hr. The velocity amplitudes imply that the binary companions have a normal distribution of mass with 0.76 Msun mean and 0.25 Msun dispersion. Thus extremely low mass white dwarfs are found in binaries with a typical mass ratio of 1:4. Statistically speaking, 95% of the white dwarf binaries have a total mass below the Chandrasekhar mass and thus are not Type Ia supernova progenitors. Yet half of the observed binaries will merge in less than 6 Gyr due to gravitational wave radiation; probable outcomes include single massive white dwarfs and stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries.

  20. Inner edge of accretion disks in low mass X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 汪珍如

    1995-01-01

    The magnitude of the inner edge of accretion disks in low mass X-ray binaries is controversial in theoretical considerations and observations. Using the inner boundary conditions of accretion disks the inner disk radius has been calculated by taking into account the effect of feedback radiation and the deviation of disk rotation from Keplerian. Results have been applied to the observations and possible interpretations have been proposed for the X-ray spectra and quasiperiodic oscillations.

  1. Supernova enrichment of planetary systems in low-mass star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rhana B.; Parker, Richard J.

    2017-02-01

    The presence and abundance of short-lived radioisotopes 26Al and 60Fe in chondritic meteorites implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive stars that exploded as supernovae (SNe). Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters (>1000 M⊙) than lower mass clusters. However, photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs from massive stars and dynamical interactions with passing stars can inhibit planet formation in clusters with radii of ˜1 pc. We investigate whether low-mass (50-200 M⊙) star clusters containing one or two massive stars are a more likely avenue for early Solar system enrichment as they are more dynamically quiescent. We analyse N-body simulations of the evolution of these low-mass clusters and find that a similar fraction of stars experience SN enrichment than in high-mass clusters, despite their lower densities. This is due to two-body relaxation, which causes a significant expansion before the first SN even in clusters with relatively low (100 stars pc-3) initial densities. However, because of the high number of low-mass clusters containing one or two massive stars, the absolute number of enriched stars is the same, if not higher than for more populous clusters. Our results show that direct enrichment of protoplanetary discs from SNe occurs as frequently in low-mass clusters containing one or two massive stars (>20 M⊙) as in more populous star clusters (1000 M⊙). This relaxes the constraints on the direct enrichment scenario and therefore the birth environment of the Solar system.

  2. Review of LHC experimental results on low mass bosons in extended two Higgs doublet models

    CERN Document Server

    Aggleton, Robin; Bomark, Nils-Erik; Moretti, Stefano; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A number of searches at the LHC looking for low mass ($2m_{\\mu} - 62\\ \\mathrm{GeV}$) bosons in $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\ \\mathrm{TeV}$ data have recently been published. We summarise the most pertinent ones, and look at how their limits affect a variety of supersymmetric models which can give rise to such light bosons: the 2HDM (Types I and II), the NMSSM, and the nMSSM.

  3. TREX-DM: a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Peiro, A

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter experiments are recently focusing their detection techniques in low-mass WIMPs, which requires the use of light elements and low energy threshold. In this context, we describe the TREX-DM experiment, a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection. Its main goal is the operation of an active detection mass $\\sim$0.3 kg, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee and fully built with previously selected radiopure materials. This work describes the commissioning of the actual setup situated in a laboratory on surface and the updates needed for a possible physics run at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in 2016. A preliminary background model of TREX-DM is also presented, based on a Geant4 simulation, the simulation of the detector's response and two discrimination methods: a conservative muon/electron and one based on a neutron source. Based on this background model, TREX-DM could be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. In particular it could be sensitive, e.g., to t...

  4. Low-mass pre--main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] The stellar Initial Mass Function (IMF) suggests that sub-solar stars form in very large numbers. Most attractive places for catching low-mass star formation in the act are young stellar clusters and associations, still (half-)embedded in star-forming regions. The low-mass stars in such regions are still in their pre--main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary phase. The peculiar nature of these objects and the contamination of their samples by the evolved populations of the Galactic disk impose demanding observational techniques for the detection of complete numbers of PMS stars in the Milky Way. The Magellanic Clouds, the companion galaxies to our own, demonstrate an exceptional star formation activity. The low extinction and stellar field contamination in star-forming regions of these galaxies imply a more efficient detection of low-mass PMS stars than in the Milky Way, but their distance from us make the application of special detection techniques unfeasible. Nonetheless, imaging with the Hubble Space Te...

  5. Environmental Effects on the Metal Enrichment of Low Mass Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Vasiliki; Iglesias-Paramo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local Universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history (SFH), as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies finding well defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster e...

  6. The low mass star and sub-stellar populations of the 25 Orionis group

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, Juan José; Mateu, Cecilia; Hernández, Jesús; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G; Allen, Lori

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of the low mass star and brown dwarf population of the 25 Orionis group. Using optical photometry from the CIDA Deep Survey of Orion, near IR photometry from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy and low resolution spectroscopy obtained with Hectospec at the MMT, we selected 1246 photometric candidates to low mass stars and brown dwarfs with estimated masses within $0.02 \\lesssim M/M_\\odot \\lesssim 0.8$ and spectroscopically confirmed a sample of 77 low mass stars as new members of the cluster with a mean age of $\\sim$7 Myr. We have obtained a system initial mass function of the group that can be well described by either a Kroupa power-law function with indices $\\alpha_3=-1.73\\pm0.31$ and $\\alpha_2=0.68\\pm0.41$ in the mass ranges $0.03\\leq M/M_\\odot\\leq 0.08$ and $0.08\\leq M/M_\\odot\\leq0.5$ respectively, or a Scalo log-normal function with coefficients $m_c=0.21^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$ and $\\sigma=0.36\\pm0.03$ in the mass range $0.03\\leq M/M_\\odot\\leq0.8$. From th...

  7. Stochastic Star Formation & Feedback: Mapping Low-Mass Galaxies to Dark Matter Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Chris; Robotham, Aaron S G; Lewis, Geraint F; Wilkinson, Mark I

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of observed satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (hereafter MW) with dark matter subhaloes in cosmological $N$-body simulations of MW-mass haloes suggest that such subhaloes, if they exist, are occupied by satellites in a stochastic fashion. We examine how inefficient massive star formation and associated supernova feedback in high-redshift progenitors of present-day low-mass subhaloes might contribute to this stochasticity. Using a Monte Carlo approach to follow the assembly histories of present-day low-mass haloes with $10^7 \\lesssim M \\leq 10^{10}$ ${\\rm M}_{\\odot}$, we identify when cooling and star formation is likely to proceed, and observe that haloes with present-day masses $\\lesssim 10^9 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ never grow sufficiently massive to support atomic hydrogen line cooling. Noting that the star formation timescale decreases sharply with stellar mass as $t_{\\rm PMS} \\propto m_{\\ast}^{-2.5}$, we argue that, should the conditions for high mass star formation arise in low-mass haloes, the ens...

  8. The HI mass function as a probe of photoionisation feedback on low mass galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Han-Seek; Power, C; Park, Jaehong; Lagos, C d P; Baugh, C M

    2015-01-01

    We explore the galaxy formation physics governing the low mass end of the HI mass function in the local Universe. Specifically, we predict the effects on the HI mass function of varying i) the strength of photoionisation feedback and the redshift of the end of the epoch of reionization, ii) the cosmology, iii) the supernovae feedback prescription, and iv) the efficiency of star formation. We find that the shape of the low-mass end of the HI mass function is most affected by the critical halo mass below which galaxy formation is suppressed by photoionisation heating of the intergalactic medium. We model the redshift dependence of this critical dark matter halo mass by requiring a match to the low-mass end of the HI mass function. The best fitting critical dark matter halo mass decreases as redshift increases in this model, corresponding to a circular velocity of $\\sim 50 \\, {\\rm km \\,s}^{-1}$ at $z=0$, $\\sim 30 \\, {\\rm km\\, s}^{-1}$ at $z \\sim 1$ and $\\sim 12 \\, {\\rm km \\, s}^{-1}$ at $z=6$. We find that an ev...

  9. SHIELD II: AGC 198507 - An Extremely Rare Low-Mass Galaxy Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolina Borg Stevens, Karin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. New HST imaging of one of these sample galaxies, AGC 198507, has revealed it to be a very rare interacting system; to our knowledge this is one of only a few known interactions in this extreme mass range. WSRT imaging indicates that the bulk of the HI is associated with the more luminous AGC 198507, while low surface brightness gas extends toward and coincides with the less luminous companion, which is separated by roughly 1.5 kpc from AGC 198507. Here we present new VLA B configuration HI imaging that allows us to localize the HI gas, to examine the rotational dynamics of AGC 198507, and to study the nature of star formation in this unique low-mass interacting system.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. SHIELD: EVLA HI Spectral Line Observations of Low-mass Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazzo, Masao; Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies. Using the now-complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) source catalog, 82 systems are identified that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich, low-mass galaxies. These systems harbor neutral gas reservoirs smaller than 3x10^7 M_sun, thus populating the faint end of the HI mass function with statistical confidence for the first time. Here we present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array D-configuration HI spectral line observations of 32 previously unobserved galaxies. These low angular resolution (~40" beam) images localize the HI gas; with a few exceptions, the HI gas is co-spatial with the optical centers of the galaxies. These images provide the first glimpse of the neutral interstellar medium in these systems.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant 1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  11. Evidence for the rapid formation of low mass early-type galaxies in dense environments

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Puzia, Thomas H; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the environmental dependence of star formation timescales in low mass galaxies using the [$\\alpha$/Fe] abundance ratio as an evolutionary clock. We present integrated [$\\alpha$/Fe] measurements for 11 low mass ($M_\\star \\sim 10^9~M_\\odot$) early-type galaxies (ETGs) with a large range of cluster-centric distance in the Virgo Cluster. We find a gradient in [$\\alpha$/Fe], where the galaxies closest to the cluster center (the cD galaxy, M87) have the highest values. This trend is driven by galaxies within a projected radius of 0.4~Mpc (0.26 times the virial radius of Virgo~A), all of which have super-solar [$\\alpha$/Fe]. Galaxies in this mass range exhibit a large scatter in the [$\\alpha$/Fe]--$\\sigma$ diagram, and do not obviously lie on an extension of the relation defined by massive ETGs. In addition, we find a correlation between [$\\alpha$/Fe] and globular cluster specific frequency ($S_N$), suggesting that low-mass ETGs that formed their stars over a short period of time, were also efficient at f...

  12. Powerful Radio Emission From Low-mass Supermassive Black Holes Favors Disk-like Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Xu, D W; Wei, J Y

    2016-01-01

    The origin of spin of low-mass supermassive black hole (SMBH) is still a puzzle at present. We here report a study on the host galaxies of a sample of radio-selected nearby ($z<0.05$) Seyfert 2 galaxies with a BH mass of $10^{6-7} M_\\odot$. By modeling the SDSS $r$-band images of these galaxies through a 2-dimensional bulge+disk decomposition, we identify a new dependence of SMBH's radio power on host bulge surface brightness profile, in which more powerful radio emission comes from a SMBH associated with a more disk-like bulge. This result means low-mass and high-mass SMBHs are spun up by two entirely different modes that correspond to two different evolutionary paths. A low-mass SMBH is spun up by a gas accretion with significant disk-like rotational dynamics of the host galaxy in the secular evolution, while a high-mass one by a BH-BH merger in the merger evolution.

  13. On the Formation of Galactic Black Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chen; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are 24 black hole (BH) X-ray binary systems that have been dynamically confirmed in the Galaxy. Most of them are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) comprised of a stellar-mass BH and a low-mass donor star. Although the formation of these systems has been extensively investigated, some crucial issues remain unresolved. The most noticeable one is that, the low-mass companion has difficulties in ejecting the tightly bound envelope of the massive primary during the spiral-in process. While initially intermediate-mass binaries are more likely to survive the common envelope (CE) evolution, the resultant BH LMXBs mismatch the observations. In this paper, we use both stellar evolution and binary population synthesis to study the evolutionary history of BH LMXBs. We test various assumptions and prescriptions for the supernova mechanisms that produce BHs, the binding energy parameter, the CE efficiency, and the initial mass distributions of the companion stars. We obtain the birthrate and the distribution...

  14. The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation of Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steven Ray

    This thesis presents four different studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) and stellar content of ˜40 nearby (D ≲ 4 Mpc), low-mass galaxies. We aim to address two fundamental questions: "How do stellar processes effect the ISM in low-mass galaxies?" and "What are the local gas conditions which lead to molecular cloud formation?". Much of the data presented here come from our survey the "Very Large Array - Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury" (VLA-ANGST). VLA-ANGST is a targeted atomic hydrogen (H I) emission line survey directed towards 35 low-mass galaxies selected from the ANGST Hubble Space Telescope (HST) galaxy sample of the nearby universe. The VLA-ANGST project is the largest survey of its kind, demanding nearly 600 hours of VLA observing time. This unprecedented amount of observing time gives us data which has long lasting legacy value for its wealth of high resolution and high sensitivity information on the H I gas content and dynamics in a large sample of nearby, low-mass galaxies. H I data from the VLA-ANGST project will be used to explore the interactions between the gas and stellar content as well as trace the underlying dark matter distribution. Combining the H I and HST data with other tracers of recent star formation (e.g., emission processes from far ultraviolet star light, dust in the infrared, and carbon monoxide in the submillimeter) provides a comprehensive census of each galaxy, useful for understanding their evolution. We investigate the role of multiple generations of star formation in the formation of large, kiloparsec scale cavities observed in the global H I distributions of five nearby, low mass galaxies. The small gravitational potential wells of some low-mass galaxies allow the outflow of energy from stellar processes (e.g., winds, supernovae, etc.) to help shape their gas distributions. We find that stellar processes produce ample energy (at least an order of magnitude or more) to have been the dominant

  15. The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD)

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Haynes, Martha P; Janowiecki, Steven; Parker, Angela; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Engstrom, Eric; Huang, Shan; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Ott, Juergen; Saintonge, Amelie; Skillman, Evan D; Allan, John; Erny, Grace; Fliss, Palmer; Smith, AnnaLeigh

    2011-01-01

    We present first results from the "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs" (SHIELD), a multi-configuration EVLA study of the neutral gas contents and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the 10^6-10^7 Solar mass range detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We describe the survey motivation and concept demonstration using VLA imaging of 6 low-mass galaxies detected in early ALFALFA data products. We then describe the primary scientific goals of SHIELD and present preliminary EVLA and WIYN 3.5m imaging of the 12 SHIELD galaxies. With only a few exceptions, the neutral gas distributions of these extremely low-mass galaxies are centrally concentrated. In only 1 system have we detected HI column densities higher than 10^21 cm^-2. Despite this, the stellar populations of all of these systems are dominated by blue stars. Further, we find ongoing star formation as traced by H alpha emission in 10 of the 11 galaxies with H alpha imaging obtained to date. Taken together these results suggest th...

  16. The Coronal Temperatures of Low-Mass Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We study the X-ray emission of low-mass main-sequence stars to derive a reliable general scaling law between coronal temperature and the level of X-ray activity. Methods. We collect ROSAT measurements of hardness ratios and X-ray luminosities for a large sample of stars to derive which stellar X-ray emission parameter is most closely correlated with coronal temperature. We calculate average coronal temperatures for a sample of 24 low-mass main-sequence stars with measured emission measure distributions (EMDs) collected from the literature. These EMDs are based on high-resolution X-ray spectra measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra. Results. We confirm that there is one universal scaling relation between coronal average temperature and surface X-ray flux, Fx, that applies to all low-mass main-sequence stars. We find that coronal temperature is related to Fx by Tcor=0.11 Fx^0.26, where Tcor is in MK and Fx is in erg/s/cm^2.

  17. The coronal temperatures of low-mass main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C. P.; Güdel, M.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We study the X-ray emission of low-mass main-sequence stars to derive a reliable general scaling law between coronal temperature and the level of X-ray activity. Methods: We collect ROSAT measurements of hardness ratios and X-ray luminosities for a large sample of stars to derive which stellar X-ray emission parameter is most closely correlated with coronal temperature. We calculate average coronal temperatures for a sample of 24 low-mass main-sequence stars with measured emission measure distributions (EMDs) collected from the literature. These EMDs are based on high-resolution X-ray spectra measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra. Results: We confirm that there is one universal scaling relation between coronal average temperature and surface X-ray flux, FX, that applies to all low-mass main-sequence stars. We find that coronal temperature is related to FX by T̅cor = 0.11 FX0.26, where T̅cor is in MK and FX is in erg s-1 cm-2.

  18. Probing the circumstellar environments of very young low-mass stars using water masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, S.; Vogel, S. N.; Myers, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The VLA is used to search nearby very young low-mass stars for water maser emission. The sample consists of 26 low-luminosity IRAS sources embedded in dense molecular cores, a class of sources suspected to be newly forming low-mass stars on the order of a few hundred thousand years old. Three sources were detected. High spatial resolution maps show the region of maser emission is generally confined to an area smaller than about 0.5 arcsec near the star, and the velocities of individual components span intervals ranging from 20 to 40 km/s. It is inferred from the fact that the maser velocities are too large to be due to gravitational motions in at least two of the sources that the masers are associated with the winds from the young low-mass stars. A comparison of the high spatial resolution maser data to lower-resolution CO data shows no evidence for higher collimation close to the star; the stellar wind cavity appears to have similar collimation at 10 exp 15 cm as at 10 exp 7 to 10 exp 18 cm.

  19. The Stellar Mass - Halo Mass Relation for Low Mass X-ray Groups at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Shannon G; Williams, Rik J; Mulchaey, John S; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J; Shectman, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Since z~1, the stellar mass density locked in low mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ~8. Here we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low mass X-ray groups at 0.5wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ~3-4% of the total mass of group halos with masses 10^{12.8}

  20. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. I. Adiabatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Many low-mass white dwarfs with masses M∗/M⊙ ≲ 0.45, including the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs (M∗/M⊙ ≲ 0.20 - 0.25), have recently been discovered in the field of our Galaxy through dedicated photometric surveys. The subsequent discovery of pulsations in some of them has opened the unprecedented opportunity of probing the internal structure of these ancient stars. Aims: We present a detailed adiabatic pulsational study of these stars based on full evolutionary sequences derived from binary star evolution computations. The main aim of this study is to provide a detailed theoretical basis of reference for interpreting present and future observations of variable low-mass white dwarfs. Methods: Our pulsational analysis is based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star. We computed adiabatic radial (ℓ = 0) and non-radial (ℓ = 1,2) p and g modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects on stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, as well as the effects of element diffusion. Results: We found that for white dwarf models with masses below ~ 0.18 M⊙, g modes mainly probe the core regions and p modes the envelope, therefore pulsations offer the opportunity of constraining both the core and envelope chemical structure of these stars via asteroseismology. For models with M∗ ≳ 0.18 M⊙, on the other hand, g modes are very sensitive to the He/H compositional gradient and therefore can be used as a diagnostic tool for constraining the H envelope thickness. Because both types of objects have not only very distinct evolutionary histories (according to whether the progenitor stars have experienced CNO-flashes or not), but also have strongly different pulsation properties, we propose to

  1. Diversity of planetary systems in low-mass disks: Terrestrial-type planet formation and water delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Ronco, María Paula

    2014-01-01

    Several studies, observational and theoretical, suggest that planetary systems with only rocky planets should be the most common in the Universe. We study the diversity of planetary systems that might form around Sun-like stars in low-mass disks without giant planets. We focus on the formation process of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) and analyze their water contents with the goal to determine systems of astrobiological interest. Besides, we study the formation of planets on wide orbits because they can be detected with the microlensing technique. N-body simulations of high resolution (embryos + planetesimals) are developed for a wide range of surface density profiles. The surface density profile combines a power law to the inside of the disk of the form r^{-gamma}, with an exponential decay to the outside. We adopt a disk of 0.03M_sun and values of gamma = 0.5, 1 and 1.5. All our simulations form planets in the HZ with different masses and final water contents depending on the 3 profiles. For...

  2. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  3. The Initial Mass Function of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Young, Erick T.; Cotera, Angela S.; Chen, H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Schneider, Glenn; Thompson, Rodger I.

    2000-09-01

    We have obtained images of the Trapezium Cluster (140''×140'' 0.3 pc×0.3 pc) with the Hubble Space Telescope Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Combining these data with new ground-based K-band spectra (R=800) and existing spectral types and photometry, we have constructed an H-R diagram and used it and other arguments to infer masses and ages. To allow comparison with the results of our previous studies of IC 348 and ρ Oph, we first use the models of D'Antona & Mazzitelli. With these models, the distributions of ages of comparable samples of stars in the Trapezium, ρ Oph, and IC 348 indicate median ages of ~0.4 Myr for the first two regions and ~1-2 Myr for the latter. The low-mass initial mass functions (IMFs) in these sites of clustered star formation are similar over a wide range of stellar densities (ρ Oph, n=0.2-1×103 pc-3 IC 348, n=1×103 pc-3 Trapezium, n=1-5×104 pc-3) and other environmental conditions (e.g., presence or absence of OB stars). With current data, we cannot rule out modest variations in the substellar mass functions among these clusters. We then make the best estimate of the true form of the IMF in the Trapezium by using the evolutionary models of Baraffe et al. and an empirically adjusted temperature scale and compare this mass function to recent results for the Pleiades and the field. All of these data are consistent with an IMF that is flat or rises slowly from the substellar regime to about 0.6 Msolar and then rolls over into a power law that continues from about 1 Msolar to higher masses with a slope similar to or somewhat larger than the Salpeter value of 1.35. For the Trapezium, this behavior holds from our completeness limit of ~0.02 Msolar and probably, after a modest completeness correction, even from 0.01-0.02 Msolar. These data include ~50 likely brown dwarfs. We test the predictions of theories of the IMF against (1) the shape of the IMF, which is not log-normal, in clusters and the field, (2) the

  4. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars From MARVELS IV: A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-Mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Peng; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; de Mello, Gustavo F Porto; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Eastman, Jason D; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Bradley, Alaina C Shelden; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J C; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 years. Our Keplerian fit using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of $90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187}$ days, an eccentricity of $0.4375 \\pm 0.0040$ and a semi-amplitude of $2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55}$ m s$^{-1}$. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature $T_{\\rm{eff}}=6004 \\pm 34$ K, a surface gravity $\\log g$ [cgs] $=4.55 \\pm 0.17$ and a metallicity [Fe/H] $=+0.04 \\pm 0.06$. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. (2010), yields 1.10$\\pm$0.09 $M_{\\sun}$ and 0.92$\\pm$0.19 $R_{\\sun}$. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is $65.0 \\pm 2.9 M_{Jup}$, indicating that it is likely to be either a...

  5. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). V. Age-Dating Low-Mass Companions to Members and Interlopers of Young Moving Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Liu, Michael C; Schlieder, Joshua E; Mann, Andrew W; Dupuy, Trent J; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Flagg, Laura; Weinberger, Alycia J; Aller, Kimberly M; Allers, Katelyn N; Best, William M J; Kotson, Michael C; Montet, Benjamin T; Herczeg, Gregory J; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Eric L; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A; Hayward, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7-M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8-120 Myr) in the literature. The inferred masses of the companions (~10-100 Mjup) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars so we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. 2MASS J02155892-0929121 C is a new M7 substellar companion (40-60 Mjup) with clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and hence youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ~40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (1 Gyr) tidally-locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with ...

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE STAR FORMATION OF THE LOW-MASS SHIELD GALAXIES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  7. THEORETICAL LIMITS ON MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTHS IN LOW-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Matthew K.; Weber, Maria A.; Chabrier, Gilles [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Massey, Angela P., E-mail: browning@astro.ex.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Observations have suggested that some low-mass stars have larger radii than predicted by 1D structure models. Some theoretical models have invoked very strong interior magnetic fields (of order 1 MG or more) as a possible cause of such large radii. Whether fields of that strength could in principle be generated by dynamo action in these objects is unclear, and we do not address the matter directly. Instead, we examine whether such fields could remain in the interior of a low-mass object for a significant amount of time, and whether they would have any other obvious signatures. First, we estimate the timescales for the loss of strong fields by magnetic buoyancy instabilities. We consider a range of field strengths and simple morphologies, including both idealized flux tubes and smooth layers of field. We confirm some of our analytical estimates using thin flux tube magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the rise of buoyant fields in a fully convective M-dwarf. Separately, we consider the Ohmic dissipation of such fields. We find that dissipation provides a complementary constraint to buoyancy: while small-scale, fibril fields might be regenerated faster than they rise, the dissipative heating associated with such fields would in some cases greatly exceed the luminosity of the star. We show how these constraints combine to yield limits on the internal field strength and morphology in low-mass stars. In particular, we find that for stars of 0.3 solar masses, no fields in flux tubes stronger than about 800 kG are simultaneously consistent with both constraints.

  8. Evidence for Cluster to Cluster Variations in Low-mass Stellar Rotational Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Carl T.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Terndrup, Donald M.

    2016-12-01

    The concordance model for angular momentum evolution postulates that star-forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence that can be modeled with assumptions about protostar-disk coupling, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per data set from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star-disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star-disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13 Myr) as our natural post-disk case. There is no evidence for extremely long-lived disks as an alternative to core-envelope decoupling. However, our wind models cannot evolve rapid rotators from h Per to older systems consistently, and we find that this result is robust with respect to the choice of angular momentum loss prescription. We outline two possible solutions: either there is cosmic variance in the distribution of stellar rotation rates in different clusters or there are substantially enhanced torques in low-mass rapid rotators. We favor the former explanation and discuss observational tests that could be used to distinguish them. If the distribution of initial conditions depends on environment, models that test parameters by assuming a universal underlying distribution of initial conditions will need to be re-evaluated.

  9. Search for light curve modulations among Kepler candidates. Three very low-mass transiting companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Ribas, A.; Barrado, D.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Light curve modulations in the sample of Kepler planet candidates allows the disentangling of the nature of the transiting object by photometrically measuring its mass. This is possible by detecting the effects of the gravitational pull of the companion (ellipsoidal modulations) and in some cases, the photometric imprints of the Doppler effect when observing in a broad band (Doppler beaming). Aims: We aim to photometrically unveil the nature of some transiting objects showing clear light curve modulations in the phase-folded Kepler light curve. Methods: We selected a subsample among the large crop of Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) based on their chances to show detectable light curve modulations, i.e., close (a< 12 R⋆) and large (in terms of radius, according to their transit signal) candidates. We modeled their phase-folded light curves with consistent equations for the three effects, namely, reflection, ellipsoidal and beaming (known as REB modulations). Results: We provide detailed general equations for the fit of the REB modulations for the case of eccentric orbits. These equations are accurate to the photometric precisions achievable by current and forthcoming instruments and space missions. By using this mathematical apparatus, we find three close-in very low-mass companions (two of them in the brown dwarf mass domain) orbiting main-sequence stars (KOI-554, KOI-1074, and KOI-3728), and reject the planetary nature of the transiting objects (thus classifying them as false positives). In contrast, the detection of the REB modulations and transit/eclipse signal allows the measurement of their mass and radius that can provide important constraints for modeling their interiors since just a few cases of low-mass eclipsing binaries are known. Additionally, these new systems can help to constrain the similarities in the formation process of the more massive and close-in planets (hot Jupiters), brown dwarfs, and very low-mass companions.

  10. Current Advances in the Computational Simulation of the Formation of Low-Mass Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R I; Inutsuka, S; Padoan, P; Tomisaka, K

    2005-10-24

    Developing a theory of low-mass star formation ({approx} 0.1 to 3 M{sub {circle_dot}}) remains one of the most elusive and important goals of theoretical astrophysics. The star-formation process is the outcome of the complex dynamics of interstellar gas involving non-linear interactions of turbulence, gravity, magnetic field and radiation. The evolution of protostellar condensations, from the moment they are assembled by turbulent flows to the time they reach stellar densities, spans an enormous range of scales, resulting in a major computational challenge for simulations. Since the previous Protostars and Planets conference, dramatic advances in the development of new numerical algorithmic techniques have been successfully implemented on large scale parallel supercomputers. Among such techniques, Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics have provided frameworks to simulate the process of low-mass star formation with a very large dynamic range. It is now feasible to explore the turbulent fragmentation of molecular clouds and the gravitational collapse of cores into stars self-consistently within the same calculation. The increased sophistication of these powerful methods comes with substantial caveats associated with the use of the techniques and the interpretation of the numerical results. In this review, we examine what has been accomplished in the field and present a critique of both numerical methods and scientific results. We stress that computational simulations should obey the available observational constraints and demonstrate numerical convergence. Failing this, results of large scale simulations do not advance our understanding of low-mass star formation.

  11. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  12. Long-term variability of low-mass X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider modulations of mass captured by the compact object from the companion star’s stellar wind in Low Mass X-ray Binaries with late type giants. Based on 3D simulations with two different hydrodynamic codes used Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches – the SPH code GADGET and the Eulerian code PLUTO, we conclude that a hydrodynamical interaction of the wind matter within a binary system even without eccentricity results in variability of the mass accretion rate with characteristic time-scales close to the orbital period. Observational appearances of this wind might be similar to that of an accretion disc corona/wind.

  13. Evolution of Low-Mass X-ray Binaries: the Effect of Donor Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are thought to originate from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The discovery of eclipsing radio MSPs including redbacks and black widows indicates that evaporation of the donor star by the MSP's irradiation takes place during the LMXB evolution. In this work, we investigate the effect of donor evaporation on the secular evolution of LMXBs, considering different evaporation efficiencies and related angular momentum loss. We find that for widening LMXBs, the donor star leaves a less massive white dwarf than without evaporation; for contracting systems, evaporation can speed up the evolution, resulting in dynamically unstable mass transfer and possibly the formation of isolated MSPs.

  14. Evolution of Low-mass X-Ray Binaries: The Effect of Donor Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are thought to originate from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The discovery of eclipsing radio MSPs, including redbacks and black widows, indicates that evaporation of the donor star by the MSP’s irradiation takes place during the LMXB evolution. In this work, we investigate the effect of donor evaporation on the secular evolution of LMXBs, considering different evaporation efficiencies and related angular momentum loss. We find that for widening LMXBs, the donor star leaves a less massive white dwarf than without evaporation; for contracting systems, evaporation can speed up the evolution, resulting in dynamically unstable mass transfer and possibly the formation of isolated MSPs.

  15. Variable Low-Mass X-ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sivakoff, Gregory R; Juett, Adrienne M; Sarazin, Craig L; Irwin, Jimmy A

    2007-01-01

    As the Chandra X-ray Observatory mission matures, increasing numbers of nearby galaxies are being observed multiple times, sampling the variability of extragalactic X-ray binaries on timescales extending from seconds to years. We present results on luminous low-mass X-ray binaries from several early-type galaxies. We show that instantaneous LMXB luminosity functions of early-type galaxies do not significantly change between observations; a relatively low fraction of sources are strongly variable on <~ 5 yr timescales. We discuss the implications that a relatively small number of transient LMXBs are being discovered in early-type galaxies.

  16. Accretion disc atmospheres and winds in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo, M Díaz

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, X-ray spectroscopy has enabled a wealth of discoveries of photoionised absorbers in X-ray binaries. Studies of such accretion disc atmospheres and winds are of fundamental importance to understand accretion processes and possible feedback mechanisms to the environment. In this work, we review the current observational state and theoretical understanding of accretion disc atmospheres and winds in low-mass X-ray binaries, focusing on the wind launching mechanisms and on the dependence on accretion state. We conclude with issues that deserve particular attention.

  17. Stellar models for very low mass main sequence stars the role of model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Brocato, E; Castellani, V

    1997-01-01

    We present Very Low Mass stellar models as computed including non-grey model atmospheres for selected assumptions about the star metallicities. The role of atmospheres is discussed and the models are compared with models based on the Eddington approximation and with similar models appeared in the recent literature. Theoretical predictions concerning both the HR diagram location and the mass-luminosity relation are presented and discussed in terms of expectations in selected photometric bands. Comparison with available observational data concerning both galactic globular clusters and dwarfs in the solar neighborhood reveals a satisfactory agreement together with the existence of some residual mismatches.

  18. The spectra of accretion discs in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, R R

    1995-01-01

    We present self-consistent models for the radiative transfer in Shakura-Sunyaev accretion discs in bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB). Our calculations include the full effects of incoherent Compton scattering and the vertical temperature structure within the disc, as well as the effects of Doppler blurring and gravitational redshift. We find that the observed X-ray spectra are well fit by exponentially cutoff power-law models. The difference between the observed total spectrum and our calculated disc spectrum should reveal the spectrum of the disc/neutron star boundary layer and other emitting regions considered to be present in LMXB.

  19. CubeSat mechanical design: creating low mass and durable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Gilbert; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the mechanical design of a low-mass, low-cost spacecraft for use in a multi-satellite sensing constellation. For a multi-spacecraft mission, aggregated small mass and cost reductions can have significant impact. One approach to mass reduction is to make cuts into the structure, removing material. Stress analysis is used to determine the level of material reduction possible. Focus areas for this paper include determining areas to make cuts to ensure that a strong shape remains, while considering the comparative cost and skill level of each type of cut. Real-world results for a CubeSat and universally applicable analysis are presented.

  20. Formation and Detection of Earth Mass Planets around Low Mass Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Ryan; Laughlin, Greg

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an in-situ formation scenario for Earth-mass terrestrial planets in short-period, potentially habitable orbits around low-mass stars (M_star < 0.3 M_sun). We then investigate the feasibility of detecting these Earth-sized planets. Our simulations of terrestrial planet formation follow the growth of planetary embryos in an annular region around a fiducial M7 primary. Our simulations couple a semi-analytic model to a full N-body integration to follow the growth from ~3x10^21 g to...

  1. New Results for Two Optically Faint Low Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Stefanie

    1997-01-01

    We present optical photometry of the low mass X-ray binary systems GX 349+2 and Ser X-1. Extensive VRI photometry of the faint optical counterpart (V=18.4) to GX 349+2 reveals a period of 22.5 +/- 0.1 h and half-amplitude 0.2 mag. This result confirms and extends our previously reported 22 h period. No color change is detected over the orbit, although the limits are modest. We also report the discovery of two new variable stars in the field of GX 349+2, including a probable W UMa system. Ser ...

  2. Shockingly low water abundances in Herschel/PACS observations of low-mass protostars in Perseus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karska, A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Dishoeck, E. F. van

    2014-01-01

    Protostars interact with their surroundings through jets and winds impacting on the envelope and creating shocks, but the nature of these shocks is still poorly understood. Our aim is to survey far-infrared molecular line emission from a uniform and significant sample of deeply-embedded low......-mass young stellar objects in order to characterize shocks and the possible role of ultraviolet radiation in the immediate protostellar environment. Herschel/PACS spectral maps of 22 objects in the Perseus molecular cloud were obtained as part of the `William Herschel Line Legacy' survey. Line emission from...

  3. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 < Mstar < 10^8 Msun) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived from analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) Lower mass galaxies quench earlier than higher mass galaxies; (2) Inside of virial radius there is no correlation between a satellite's current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; (3) There are hints of systematic differences in quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  4. The low-mass YSO CB230-A: investigating the protostar and its jet with NIR spectroscopy and Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; Brand, Jan; di Fabrizio, Luca; Wouterloot, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A jet from the low-mass YSO CB230-A had been discovered in NIR narrow-band images. We aim to investigate the physical properties of the region from where the jet is launched. Our analysis was carried out using low-resolution NIR spectra acquired with the camera NICS at the TNG telescope, with JH and HK grisms and a 1 arcsec-wide slit. These observational data were complemented with infrared photometric data from the Spitzer space telescope archive. The relevant physical properties of CB230-A were constrained by SED fitting of fluxes from the NIR to the mm. The YSO spectrum exhibits a significant number of atomic and molecular emission and absorption features. The characteristics of this spectrum suggest that we are observing a region in the close vicinity of CB230-A, i. e. its photosphere and/or an active accretion disk. The spectra of the knots in the jet contain a large number of emission lines, including a rich set of [FeII] lines. Emission due to H2 and [FeII] are not spatially correlated, confirming that...

  5. Dynamical formation of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries in the field: an alternative to the common envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klencki, Jakub; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Gładysz, Wojciech; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Very wide binaries (>500 au) are subject to numerous encounters with fly-by stars in the Galactic field and can be perturbed into highly eccentric orbits (e ∼ 0.99). For such systems, the tidal interactions at close pericentre passages can lead to orbit circularization and, possibly, to mass transfer, consequently producing X-ray binaries without the need for the common envelope. We test this scenario for the case of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) by performing a population synthesis with a numerical treatment of random stellar encounters. We test various models for the threshold pericentre distance under which the tidal forces cause circularization. We estimate that fly-by interactions can produce a current population of ∼60-220 BH LMXBs in the Galactic field. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the tidal circularization efficiency and the BH natal kick, because zero to very small kick velocities of several km s-1 are required for the wide systems to survive the BH formation (∼60 per cent of the cases in our simulations). We show that the most likely donors are low-mass stars (<1 M⊙; at the onset of mass transfer) as observed in the population of known sources (∼20). However, the low number of systems formed along this route is in contrast with the most recent observational estimate of the number of dormant BH LMXBs in the Galaxy 104-108. If, indeed, the numbers are so high, alternative formation channels of BHs with low-mass donors need to be identified.

  6. The baryonic mass assembly of low-mass halos in a Lambda-CDM Universe

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Tissera, Patricia B; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the dark, gas, and stellar mass assembly histories of low-mass halos (Mvir ~ 10^10.3 - 10^12.3 M_sun) identified at redshift z = 0 in cosmological numerical simulations. Our results indicate that for halos in a given present-day mass bin, the gas-to-baryon fraction inside the virial radius does not evolve significantly with time, ranging from ~0.8 for smaller halos to ~0.5 for the largest ones. Most of the baryons are located actually not in the galaxies but in the intrahalo gas; for the more massive halos, the intrahalo gas-to-galaxy mass ratio is approximately the same at all redshifts, z, but for the least massive halos, it strongly increases with z. The intrahalo gas in the former halos gets hotter with time, being dominant at z = 0, while in the latter halos, it is mostly cold at all epochs. The multiphase ISM and thermal feedback models in our simulations work in the direction of delaying the stellar mass growth of low-mass galaxies.

  7. TREX-DM: a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low mass WIMP detection

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Gomez, H; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Peiro, A; Rodriguez, A

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter experiments are recently focusing their detection techniques in low-mass WIMPs, which requires the use of light elements and low energy threshold. In this context, we present the TREX-DM experiment, a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection. Its main goal is the operation of an active detection mass $\\sim$0.300 kg, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee and fully built with previously selected radiopure materials. This article describes the actual setup, the first results of the comissioning in Ar+2\\%iC$_4$H$_{10}$ at 1.2 bar and the future updates for a possible physics run at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in 2016. A first background model is also presented, based on Geant4 simulations and a muon/electron discrimination method. In a conservative scenario, TREX-DM could be sensitive to DAMA/LIBRA and other hints of positive WIMPs signals, with some space for improvement with a neutron/electron discrimination method or the use of other light gases.

  8. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences: II. Nonadiabatic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass ($M_{\\star}/M_{\\sun} \\lesssim 0.45$) white dwarfs, including the so called extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM, $M_{\\star}/M_{\\sun } \\lesssim 0.18-0.20$), are being currently discovered in the field of our Galaxy through dedicated photometric surveys. The fact that some of them pulsate opens the unparalleled chance for sounding their interiors. We present a detailed nonadiabatic pulsational analysis of such stars based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from $0.1554$ to $0.4352 M_{\\sun}$ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially $1 M_{\\sun}$ ZAMS star and a $1.4 M_{\\sun}$ neutron star. We have computed nonadiabatic radial modes and nonradial g and p modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational stability properties of these objects with stellar parameters such as the stellar mass, the effective temperature, and the convective efficiency. We found that a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and ...

  9. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  10. A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

  11. A pulsation search among young brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A., E-mail: amc@ipac.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla and Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters σ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  12. Spatially resolved atomic and molecular emission from the very low-mass star IRS54

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, R Garcia; Weigelt, G; Nisini, B; Antoniucci, S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular outflows from very low-mass stars (VLMSs) and brown dwarfs (BDs) have been studied very little, and only a few objects have been directly imaged. Using VLT SINFONI K-band observations, we spatially resolved, for the first time, the H2 emission around IRS54, a ~0.1-0.2 Msun Class I source. The molecular emission shows a complex structure delineating a large outflow cavity and an asymmetric molecular jet. In addition, new [FeII] VLT ISAAC observations at 1.644um allowed us to discover the atomic jet counterpart which extends down to the central source. The outflow structure is similar to those found in low-mass Class I young stellar objects (YSOs) and Classical TTauri stars (CTTSs). However, its Lacc/Lbol ratio is very high (~80%), and the derived mass accretion rate is about one order of magnitude higher than in objects with similar mass, pointing to the young nature of the investigated source.

  13. Direct evidence of hierarchical assembly at low masses from isolated dwarf galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, S.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.; Patton, D. R.; Privon, G. C.; Besla, G.; Kallivayalil, N.; Putman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The demographics of dwarf galaxy populations have long been in tension with predictions from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) paradigm 1-4 . If primordial density fluctuations were scale-free as predicted, dwarf galaxies should themselves host dark-matter subhaloes 5 , the most massive of which may have undergone star formation resulting in dwarf galaxy groups. Ensembles of dwarf galaxies are observed as sate­llites of more massive galaxies 6-9 , and there is observational 10 and theoretical 11 evidence to suggest that these satellites at redshift z = 0 were captured by the massive host halo as a group. However, the evolution of dwarf galaxies is highly susceptible to environment 12-14 , making these satellite groups imperfect probes of ΛCDM in the low-mass regime. Here we report one of the clearest examples yet of hierarchical structure formation at low masses: using deep multi-wavelength data, we identify seven isolated, spectroscopically confirmed groups of only dwarf galaxies. Each group hosts three to five known members, has a baryonic mass of ~4.4 × 109 to 2 × 1010 solar masses (M ⊙), and requires a mass-to-light ratio of <100 to be gravitationally bound. Such groups are predicted to be rare theoretically and found to be rare observationally at the current epoch, and thus provide a unique window into the possible formation mechanism of more massive, isolated galaxies.

  14. A High-Precision NIR Survey for RV Variable Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Gao, Peter; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Furlan, Elise; Davison, Cassy; Tanner, Angelle; Henry, Todd J; Riedel, Adric R; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Latham, David; Bottom, Michael; White, Russel; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John A; Ciardi, David R; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen R; Mamajek, Eric E; Walp, Bernie; Crawford, Timothy J; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire S; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a precise near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) survey of 32 low-mass stars with spectral types K2-M4 using CSHELL at the NASA IRTF in the $K$-band with an isotopologue methane gas cell to achieve wavelength calibration and a novel iterative RV extraction method. We surveyed 14 members of young ($\\approx$ 25-150 Myr) moving groups, the young field star $\\varepsilon$ Eridani as well as 18 nearby ($<$ 25 pc) low-mass stars and achieved typical single-measurement precisions of 8-15 m s$^{-1}$ with a long-term stability of 15-50 m s$^{-1}$. We obtain the best NIR RV constraints to date on 27 targets in our sample, 19 of which were never followed by high-precision RV surveys. Our results indicate that very active stars can display long-term RV variations as low as $\\sim$ 25-50 m s$^{-1}$ at $\\approx$ 2.3125 $\\mu$m, thus constraining the effect of jitter at these wavelengths. We provide the first multi-wavelength confirmation of GJ 876 bc and independently retrieve orbital parameters...

  15. Theoretical constraints on properties of low-mass neutron stars from EOS of inner crust matters

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    By employing four typical equation of states (EOSs) of the inner crust matters, the constraint on properties of low-mass neutron stars are theoretically investigated. Based on the well known fact that there is a big gap between the neutron stars and white dwarfs in the mass-radius sequence of compact stars, here we explicitly point out the forbidden region for the central density and stellar radius to form a compact stars, that is, there is no compact star in the nature having central density in the region from about $10^{12}~kg/m^3$ to $10^{17}~kg/m^3$, and there is also no compact star having a radius in the region from about 400 km to 2000 km. It is found that for a low-mass neutron star with central densities at subnuclear densities, the stellar mass is mainly determined by the softness of the EOS at the higher density region ($ > 10^{16}~\\textrm{kg.m}^{-3}$) while the stellar radius is dependent on the softness of the EOS at lower density region ($ < 10^{16}~\\textrm{kg.m}^{-3}$). For a stable neutron ...

  16. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiao-Bo; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Ting-Gui; Fan, Xiaohui; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic search of low-mass black holes (BHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with broad Halpha emission lines, aiming at building a homogeneous sample that is more complete than previous ones for fainter, less highly accreting sources. For this purpose, we developed a set of elaborate, automated selection procedures and applied it uniformly to the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Special attention is given to AGN--galaxy spectral decomposition and emission-line deblending. We define a sample of 309 type 1 AGNs with BH masses in the range $8 \\times 10^4$--$2 \\times 10^6$ \\msun (with a median of $1.2 \\times 10^6$ solar mass), using the virial mass estimator based on the broad Halpha line. About half of our sample of low-mass BHs differs from that of Greene & Ho, with 61 of them discovered here for the first time. Our new sample picks up more AGNs with low accretion rates: the Eddington ratios of the present sample range from $<~0.01$ to ~1, with 30% below 0.1. ...

  17. Detection of C3O in the low-mass protostar Elias 18

    CERN Document Server

    Palumbo, M E; Siringo, C; Trigilio, C

    2008-01-01

    We have performed new laboratory experiments which gave us the possibility to obtain an estimate of the amount of carbon chain oxides (namely C3O2, C2O, and C3O) formed after irradiation (with 200 keV protons) of pure CO ice, at 16 K. The analysis of laboratory data indicates that in dense molecular clouds, when high CO depletion occurs, an amount of carbon chain oxides as high as 2-3x10^-3 with respect to gas phase carbon monoxide can be formed after ion irradiation of icy grain mantles. Then we have searched for gas phase C2O and C3O towards ten low-mass young stellar objects. Among these we have detected the C3O line at 38486.891 MHz towards the low-mass protostar Elias 18. On the basis of the laboratory results we suggest that in dense molecular clouds gas phase carbon chain oxides are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of CO-rich icy mantles and released to the gas phase after desorption of icy mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensi...

  18. Asteroseismic test of rotational mixing in low-mass white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, A G; Gianninas, A; Grassitelli, L; Marchant, P; Tauris, T M; Langer, N

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the recent discovery of pulsations in mixed-atmosphere (He/H), extremely low-mass white dwarf precursors (ELM proto-WDs) to test the proposition that rotational mixing is a fundamental process in the formation and evolution of low-mass helium core white dwarfs. Rotational mixing has been shown to be a mechanism able to compete efficiently against gravitational settling, thus accounting naturally for the presence of He, as well as traces of metals such as Mg and Ca, typically found in the atmospheres of ELM proto-WDs. Here we investigate whether rotational mixing can maintain a sufficient amount of He in the deeper driving region of the star, such that it can fuel, through HeII-HeIII ionization, the observed pulsations in this type of stars. Using state-of-the-art evolutionary models computed with MESA, we show that rotational mixing can indeed explain qualitatively the very existence and general properties of the known pulsating, mixed-atmosphere ELM proto-WDs. Moreover, such objects are very likel...

  19. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences: I. Adiabatic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of pulsations in some low-mass white dwarfs, including the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs, has opened the unprecedented opportunity of probing the internal structure of these ancient stars. We present a detailed adiabatic pulsational study of these stars based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from $0.1554$ to $0.4352 M_{\\odot}$ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially $1 M_{\\odot}$ ZAMS star and a $1.4 M_{\\odot}$ neutron star. We computed adiabatic radial ($\\ell= 0$) and non-radial ($\\ell= 1, 2$) $p$ and $g$ modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects on stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, as well as the effects of element diffusion. We found that for white dwarf models with masses below $\\sim 0.18 M_{\\odot}$, $g$ modes mainly probe the core regions and $p$ modes the envelope, therefore pulsations offer the opportunity of const...

  20. Supernova enrichment of planetary systems in low-mass star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Rhana B

    2016-01-01

    The presence and abundance of short lived radioisotopes (SLRs) $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe in chondritic meteorites implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive stars that exploded as supernovae (SNe). Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters ($>$1000 M$_{\\odot}$) than lower mass clusters. However, photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs from massive stars and dynamical interactions with passing stars can inhibit planet formation in clusters with radii of $\\sim$1 pc. We investigate whether low-mass (50 - 200 M$_{\\odot}$) star clusters containing one or two massive stars are a more likely avenue for early Solar system enrichment as they are more dynamically quiescent. We analyse $N$-body simulations of the evolution of these low-mass clusters and find that a similar fraction of stars experience supernova enrichment than in high mass clusters, despite their lower densities. This is due to two-body relaxation, which causes a significant expansion before the first supernov...

  1. Low mass enhanced probability of pion in hadronic matter due to its Landau cut contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    In the real-time thermal field theory, the pion self-energy at finite temperature and density is evaluated where the different mesonic and baryonic loops are considered. The interactions of pion with the other mesons and baryons in the medium are governed by the effective hadronic Lagrangian densities whose effective strength of coupling constants have been determined from the experimental decay widths of the mesons and baryons. The detail branch cut structures of these different mesonic and baryonic loops are analyzed. The Landau cut contributions of different baryon and meson loops become only relevant around the pion pole and it is completely appeared in presence of medium. The in-medium spectral function of pion has been plotted for different values of temperature, baryon chemical potential as well as three momentum of the pion. A noticeable low mass probability in pion spectral function promise to contribute in the low mass dilepton enhancement via indirect modification of $\\rho$ self-energy for $\\pi\\pi$...

  2. Abundance ratios of red giants in low mass ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    François, P; Bonifacio, P; Bidin, C Moni; Geisler, D; Sbordone, L

    2015-01-01

    Low mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to 5 different ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Medium resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low mass galaxies, we found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios vs [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to what is found for the population of stars belonging to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [alpha/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than the ...

  3. ALMA and VLA Observations: Evidence for Ongoing Low-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Cotton, W.; Wardle, M.; Royster, M. J.; Kunneriath, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, A.; Schödel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows from the photoionized layer surrounding cool and dense gaseous disks. To confirm this picture, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We present the derived disk masses for four sources as a function of the assumed dust temperature. The mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission ranges between 0.03 - 0.05 M⊙. These estimates are consistent with the disk masses found in star forming sites in the Galaxy. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  4. Lost in secular evolution: the case of a low mass classical bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a classical bulge in disk galaxies holds important clue to the assembly history of galaxies. Finding observational evidence of very low mass classical bulges particularly in barred galaxies including our Milky Way, is a challenging task as the bar driven secular evolution might bring significant dynamical change to these bulges alongside the stellar disk. Using high-resolution N-body simulation, we show that if a cool stellar disk is assembled around a non-rotating low-mass classical bulge, the disk rapidly grows a strong bar within a few rotation time scales. Later, the bar driven secular process transform the initial classical bulge into a flattened rotating stellar system whose central part also have grown a bar-like component rotating in sync with the disk bar. During this time, a boxy/peanut (hereafter, B/P) bulge is formed via the buckling instability of the disk bar and the vertical extent of this B/P bulge being slightly higher than that of the classical bulge, it encompasses the whol...

  5. A Hybrid Scenario for the Formation of Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Shantanu

    2012-01-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally-bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08--0.35 $M_\\odot$, and have ejection velocities $0.8 \\pm 0.35$ km s$^{-1}$, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very-low-mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto--brown-dwarfs, disk formation and ...

  6. Evidence for Cluster to Cluster Variations in Low-Mass Stellar Rotational Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, Carl T; Terndrup, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    A concordance model for angular momentum evolution has been developed by multiple investigators. This approach postulates that star forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence which can be modeled with assumptions about the coupling between protostars and accretion disks, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per dataset from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star-disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star-disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13~Myr) as our natural post-disk case. Further interactions are not required to evolve slow rotators from h Per to older systems, implyi...

  7. A new gamma-ray loud, eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Heinke, Craig O; Udalski, Andrzej; Peacock, Mark; Shishkovsky, Laura; Tremou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary at the center of the 3FGL error ellipse of the unassociated Fermi/Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 3FGL J0427.9-6704. Photometry from OGLE and the SMARTS 1.3-m telescope and spectroscopy from the SOAR telescope have allowed us to classify the system as an eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary (P = 8.8 hr) with a main sequence donor and a neutron star accretor. Broad double-peaked H and He emission lines suggest the ongoing presence of an accretion disk. Remarkably, the system shows shows separate sets of absorption lines associated with the accretion disk and the secondary, and we use their radial velocities to find evidence for a massive (~ 1.8-1.9 M_sun) neutron star primary. In addition to a total X-ray eclipse of duration ~ 2200 s observed with NuSTAR, the X-ray light curve also shows properties similar to those observed among known transitional millisecond pulsars: short-term variability, a hard power-law spectrum (photon index ~ 1.7), and a co...

  8. S-process in low-mass extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Monique A; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor low-mass stars experience an ingestion of protons into the helium-rich layer during the core He-flash, resulting in the production of neutrons through the reactions ^{12}C(p,\\gamma)^{13}N(\\beta)^{13}C(\\alpha,n)^{16}O. This is a potential site for the production of s-process elements in extremely metal-poor stars not occurring in more metal-rich counterparts. Observationally, the signatures of s-process elements in the two most iron deficient stars observed to date, HE1327-2326 & HE0107-5240, still await for an explanation. We investigate the possibility that low-mass EMP stars could be the source of s-process elements observed in extremely iron deficient stars, either as a result of self-enrichment or in a binary scenario as the consequence of a mass transfer episode. We present evolutionary and post-processing s-process calculations of a 1Msun stellar model with metallicities Z=0, 10^{-8} and 10^{-7}. We assess the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis results to uncertainties in the input ...

  9. High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed with Herschel-HIFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    derived from single-temperature fits to the Ju = 2-10 integrated intensities are ~70 K, 48 K and 37 K, respectively, with no significant difference between Class 0 and Class I sources and no trend with Menv or Lbol. Thus, in contrast to the continuum SEDs, the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) do...... probe has not yet been explored due to the lack of high-J CO observations. Aims: The aim is to constrain the physical characteristics (excitation, kinematics, column density) of the warm gas in low-mass protostellar envelopes using spectrally resolved Herschel data of CO and compare those...... with the colder gas traced by lower excitation lines. Methods: Herschel-HIFI observations of high-J lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (up to Ju = 10, Eu up to 300 K) are presented toward 26 deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 and Class I young stellar objects, obtained as part of the Water In Star-forming regions...

  10. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-Mass SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; Haynes, Martha P; Simones, Jacob E; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Elson, Ed C; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the HI ALFALFA survey based on their low HI mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star-formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star-formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star-formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply...

  11. Infrared Observations of Hot Gas and Cold Ice Toward the Low Mass Protostar Elias 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; deGraauw, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained the full 1-200 micrometer spectrum of the low luminosity (36 solar luminosity Class I protostar Elias 29 in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 micrometer" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices.

  12. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, R J

    2014-01-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M<0.5Msun), pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1-beta)^{-N} compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where beta is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N \\simeq 0.45+/-0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by the models of Spruit & Weiss (1986) for main sequence stars with the same beta, where N \\sim 0.2 to 0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally-locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and ZAMS K-dwarfs have radii inflated by \\sim 10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrica...

  13. A Radio Search For Pulsar Companions To SDSS Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Agueros, Marcel A; Silvestri, Nicole M; Kleinman, S J; Anderson, Scott F; Liebert, James W

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a search for pulsar companions to 15 low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M < 0.4 M_Sun) at 820 MHz with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These LMWDs were spectroscopically identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and do not show the photometric excess or spectroscopic signature associated with a companion in their discovery data. However, LMWDs are believed to evolve in binary systems and to have either a more massive WD or a neutron star as a companion. Indeed, evolutionary models of low-mass X-ray binaries, the precursors of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), produce significant numbers of LMWDs (e.g., Benvenuto & De Vito 2005), suggesting that the SDSS LMWDs may have neutron star companions. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our data. This is consistent with the findings of van Leeuwen et al. (2007), who conducted a GBT search for radio pulsations at 340 MHz from unseen companions to eight SDSS WDs (five are still considered LMWDs; the three others are now classified as "...

  14. Sensitive Limits on the Water Abundance in Cold Low Mass Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, E A; Bergin, Edwin A.; Snell, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    We present SWAS observations of water vapor in two cold star-less clouds, B68 and Core D in rho Ophiuchus. Sensitive non-detections of the 1(10)-1(01) transition of o-H2O are reported for each source. Both molecular cores have been previously examined by detailed observations that have characterized the physical structure. Using these rather well defined physical properties and a Monte-Carlo radiation transfer model we have removed one of the largest uncertainties from the abundance calculation and set the lowest water abundance limit to date in cold low-mass molecular cores. These limits are < 3 x 10^{-8} (relative to H2) and < 8 x 10^{-9} in B68 and rho Oph D, respectively. Such low abundances confirm the general lack of ortho-water vapor in cold (T < 20 K) cores. Provided that the ortho/para ratio of water is not near zero, these limits are well below theoretical predictions and appear to support the suggestion that most of the water in dense low-mass cores is frozen onto the surfaces of cold dust...

  15. Steep-Spectrum Radio Emission from the Low-Mass Active Galactic Nucleus GH 10

    CERN Document Server

    Wróbel, J M; Ho, L C; Ulvestad, J S

    2008-01-01

    GH 10 is a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) energized by a black hole of mass 800,000 Solar masses. It was the only object detected by Greene et al. in their Very Large Array (VLA) survey of 19 low-mass AGNs discovered by Greene & Ho. New VLA imaging at 1.4, 4.9, and 8.5 GHz reveals that GH 10's emission has an extent of less than 320 pc, has an optically-thin synchrotron spectrum with a spectral index -0.76+/-0.05, is less than 11 percent linearly polarized, and is steady - although poorly sampled - on timescales of weeks and years. Circumnuclear star formation cannot dominate the radio emission, because the high inferred star formation rate, 18 Solar masses per year, is inconsistent with the rate of less than 2 Solar masses per year derived from narrow Halpha and [OII] 3727 emission. Instead, the radio emission must be mainly energized by the low-mass black hole. GH 10's radio properties match those of the steep-spectrum cores of Palomar Seyfert galaxies, suggesting that, like those Seyferts, t...

  16. MASSIVE: A Bayesian analysis of giant planet populations around low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannier, J.; Delorme, P.; Lagrange, A. M.; Borgniet, S.; Rameau, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Gagné, J.; Bonavita, M. A.; Malo, L.; Chauvin, G.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Direct imaging has led to the discovery of several giant planet and brown dwarf companions. These imaged companions populate a mass, separation and age domain (mass >1 MJup, orbits > 5 AU, age planetary formation models. Methods: We observed 58 young and nearby M-type dwarfs in L'-band with the VLT/NaCo instrument and used angular differential imaging algorithms to optimize the sensitivity to planetary-mass companions and to derive the best detection limits. We estimate the probability of detecting a planet as a function of its mass and physical separation around each target. We conduct a Bayesian analysis to determine the frequency of substellar companions orbiting low-mass stars, using a homogenous sub-sample of 54 stars. Results: We derive a frequency of for companions with masses in the range of 2-80 MJup, and % for planetary mass companions (2-14 MJup), at physical separations of 8 to 400 AU for both cases. Comparing our results with a previous survey targeting more massive stars, we find evidence that substellar companions more massive than 1 MJup with a low mass ratio Q with respect to their host star (Q 2 MJup might be independent from the mass of the host star.

  17. Complete nucleosynthesis calculations for low-mass stars from NuGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Pignatari, Marco; Bennett, Michael; Diehl, Steven; Fryer, Christopher L; Hirschi, Raphael; Hungerford, Aimee; Magkotsios, Georgios; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Timmes, Francis X; Young, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many nucleosynthesis and mixing processes of low-mass stars as they evolve from the Main Sequence to the thermal-pulse Asymptotic Giant Branch phase (TP-AGB) are well understood (although of course important physics components, e.g. rotation, magnetic fields, gravity wave mixing, remain poorly known). Nevertheless, in the last years presolar grain measurements with high resolution have presented new puzzling problems and strong constraints on nucleosynthesis processes in stars. The goal of the NuGrid collaboration is to present uniform yields for a large range of masses and metallicities, including low$-$mass stars and massive stars and their explosions. Here we present the first calculations of stellar evolution and high-resolution, post-processing simulations of an AGB star with an initial mass of 2 M_sun and solar-like metallicity (Z=0.01), based on the post-processing code PPN. In particular, we analyze the formation and evolution of the radiative 13C-pocket between the 17th TP and the 18th TP. The s-proc...

  18. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  19. On the helium flash in low-mass Population III Red Giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schlattl, H; Salaris, M; Weiss, A

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of initially metal-free, low-mass Red Giant stars through the He core flash at the tip of the Red Giant Branch. The low entropy barrier between the helium- and hydrogen-rich layers enables a penetration of the helium flash driven convective zone into the inner tail of the extinguishing H-burning shell. As a consequence, protons are mixed into high-temperature regions triggering a H-burning runaway. The subsequent dredge-up of matter processed by He and H burning enriches the stellar surface with large amounts of helium, carbon and nitrogen. Extending previous results by Hollowell et al. (1990) and Fujimoto et al. (2000), who claimed that the H-burning runaway is an intrinsic property of extremely metal-poor low-mass stars, we found that its occurrence depends on additional parameters like the initial composition and the treatment of various physical processes. We perform some comparisons between predicted surface chemical abundances and observational measurements for extremely met...

  20. Low Mass Blood Peptides Discriminative of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Severity: A Quantitative Proteomic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasinger, Valerie C; Yau, Yunki; Duo, Xizi; Zeng, Ming; Campbell, Beth; Shin, Sean; Luber, Raphael; Redmond, Diane; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Breakdown of the protective gut barrier releases effector molecules and degradation products into the blood stream making serum and plasma ideal as a diagnostic medium. The enriched low mass proteome is unexplored as a source of differentiators for diagnosing and monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity, that is less invasive than colonoscopy. Differences in the enriched low mass plasma proteome (Peptides differentiating controls from IBD originate from secreted phosphoprotein 24 (SPP24, p = 0.000086, 0.009); whereas those in remission and healthy can be differentiated in UC by SPP24 (p = 0.00023, 0.001), α-1-microglobulin (AMBP, p = 0.006) and CD by SPP24 (p = 0.019, 0.05). UC and CD can be differentiated by Guanylin (GUC2A, p = 0.001), and Secretogranin-1 (CHGB p = 0.035). Active and quiescent disease can also be differentiated in UC and CD by CHGB (p ≤ 0.023) SPP24 (p ≤ 0.023) and AMBP (UC p = 0.046). Five peptides discriminating IBD activity and severity had very little-to-no correlation to erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white cell or platelet counts. Three of these peptides were found to be binding partners to SPP24 protein alongside other known matrix proteins. These proteins have the potential to improve diagnosis and evaluate IBD activity, reducing the need for more invasive techniques. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002821.

  1. Multi-fibre optical spectroscopy of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Upper Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Hambly, N C

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained multi-fibre intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy of 94 photometric and proper motion selected low-mass star and brown dwarf candidates in Upper Sco with AAT/AAOmega. We have estimated the spectral types and measured the equivalent widths of youth and gravity diagnostic features to confirm the spectroscopic membership of about 95% of the candidates extracted from 6.5 square degrees in Upper Sco. We also detect lithium in the spectra with the highest signal-to-noise, consolidating our conclusions about their youth. Furthermore, we derive an estimate of our selections using spectroscopic data obtained for a large number of stars falling into the instrument's field-of-view. We have estimated the effective temperatures and masses for each new spectroscopic member using the latest evolutionary models available for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Combining the current optical spectroscopy presented here with near-infrared spectroscopy obtained for the faintest photometric candidates, we con...

  2. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 108 {{M}⊙ }) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived by analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) lower-mass galaxies quench earlier than higher-mass galaxies; (2) inside of Rvirial there is no correlation between a satellite’s current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; and (3) there are hints of systematic differences in the quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with results from the literature, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z = 0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ˜7 dex in stellar mass (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 1011.5 {{M}⊙ }). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases toward the present, with both the lowest and highest-mass systems exhibiting the largest quenched fractions at all redshifts. In contrast, galaxies between {{M}\\star } ˜ 108-1010 {{M}⊙ } have the lowest quenched fractions. We suggest that such intermediate-mass galaxies are the least efficient at quenching. Finally, we compare our quenching times with predictions for infall times for low-mass galaxies associated with the MW. We find that some of the lowest-mass satellites (e.g., CVn II, Leo IV) may have been quenched before infall, while higher-mass satellites (e.g., Leo I, Fornax) typically quench ˜1-4 Gyr after infall. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA constract NAS 5-26555.

  3. SuperCDMS SNOLAB Low-Mass Detectors: Ultra-Sensitive Phonon Calorimeters for a Sub-GeV Dark Matter Search

    CERN Document Server

    Kurinsky, Noah; Partridge, Richard; Cabrera, Blas; Pyle, Matt

    2016-01-01

    We present the technical design for the SuperCDMS high-voltage, low-mass dark matter detectors, designed to be sensitive to dark matter down to 300 MeV/$c^2$ in mass and resolve individual electron-hole pairs from low-energy scattering events in high-purity Ge and Si crystals. In this paper we discuss some of the studies and technological improvements which have allowed us to design such a sensitive detector, including advances in phonon sensor design and detector simulation. With this design we expect to achieve better than 10 eV (5 eV) phonon energy resolution in our Ge (Si) detectors, and recoil energy resolution below 1eV by exploiting Luke-Neganov phonon generation of charges accelerated in high fields.

  4. Physical Properties of the Low-mass Eclipsing Binary NSVS 02502726

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2013-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained BVRI photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by Çakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modeled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of -5.9 × 10-7 day yr-1 or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yr and 0.0011 days, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-time effect due to the presence of an unseen third body, or as the combination of this effect and angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind braking. Individual masses and radii of both components are determined to be M 1 = 0.689 ± 0.016 M ⊙, M 2 = 0.341 ± 0.009 M ⊙, R 1 = 0.707 ± 0.007 R ⊙, and R 2 = 0.657 ± 0.008 R ⊙. The results are very different from those of Çakirli et al. with the primary's radius (0.674 ± 0.006 R ⊙) smaller the secondary's (0.763 ± 0.007 R ⊙). We compared the physical parameters presented in this paper with current low-mass stellar models and found that the measured values of the primary star are best fitted to a 79 Myr isochrone. The primary is in good agreement with the empirical mass-radius relation from low-mass binaries, but the secondary is oversized by about 85%.

  5. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  6. Stellar or Non-Stellar Light? Determining Near-Infrared Contamination in Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Thomas E. Harrison

    2009-01-01

    Low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems are comprised of a low-mass, K or M dwarflike star orbiting a compact object. Stellar black hole masses and their distributions are important inputs for binary evolution and supernova models. Currently, the main limiting factor in determining accurate black hole masses in LMXBs is the uncertainty of the orbital inclination angle due to an unknown amount of contaminating light in the near infrared. If present, this light dilutes the ellipsoidal variations o...

  7. The origin of single low-mass WDs: another problem that consequential angular momentum loss in CVs might solve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorotovic, M.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass helium-core white dwarfs (WDs) with masses below 0.5 M_{⊙} are known to be formed in binary star systems but unexpectedly, a significant fraction of them seems to be single. On the other hand, in cataclysmic variables (CVs), a large number of low-mass WD primary stars is predicted but not observed. We recently showed that the latter problem can be solved if consequential angular momentum loss causes especially CVs with low-mass WDs to merge and form single stars. Here we simulate the population of single WDs resulting from single-star evolution and from binary star mergers taking into account these new merging CVs. We show that according to the revised model of CV evolution, merging CVs might be the dominant channel leading to the formation of low-mass single WDs and that the predicted relative numbers are consistent with observations. This can be interpreted as further evidence for the revised model of CV evolution we recently suggested. This model includes consequential angular momentum loss that increases with decreasing WD mass and might not only explain the absence of low-mass WD primaries in CVs but also the existence of single low-mass WDs.

  8. Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field ϕ =ϕ0cos(mϕt ) , can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the standard model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive limits on the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  9. Innovative low-mass cooling systems for the ALICE ITS Upgrade detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Marzoa, Manuel

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the LHC to full design luminosity, planned for 2019 at CERN, requires the modernisation of the experiments around the accelerator. The Inner Tracking System (ITS), the innermost detector at the ALICE experiment, will be upgraded by replacing the current apparatus by new silicon pixels arranged in 7 cylindrical layers. Each layer is composed by multiple independent modules, named staves, which provide mechanical support and cooling to the chips. This thesis aims to develop and validate experimentally an ultra-lightweight stave cooling system for the ITS Upgrade. The moderate thermal requirements, with a nominal power density of 0.15 W/cm^2 and a maximum chip temperature of 30ºC, are counterweighted by extreme low-mass restrictions, obliging to resort to lightweight, non-metallic materials, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymers and plastics. Novel lightweight stave concepts were developed and experimentally validated, meeting the thermal requirements with minimal material inventory. T...

  10. Experimental study on pressure and temperature distributions for low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JunJie; WU XinZhuang; CHONG DaoTong

    2009-01-01

    A low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water was experimentally investigated. The transition of flow pattern from stable jet to condensation oscillation was observed at relatively high water temperature. The axial total pressures, the axial and radial temperature distributions were measured in the jet region. The results indicated that the pressure and temperature distributions were mainly influenced by the water temperature. The correlations corrected with water temperature were given to predict the dimen-sionless axial pressure peak distance and axial temperature distributions in the jet region, the results showed s good agreement between the predictions and experiments. Moreover, the self-similarity property of the radial temperature was obtained, which agreed well with Gauss distribution. In present work, all the dimensionless properties were mainly dependent on the water temperature but weakly on the nozzle size under a certain steam mass flux.

  11. Catalogue of cataclysmic binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries and related objects (Seventh edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, H

    2003-01-01

    The catalogue lists coordinates, apparent magnitudes, orbital parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristc properties of 472 cataclysmic binaries, 71 low-mass X-ray binaries and 113 related objects with known or suspected orbital periods together with a comprehensive selection of the relevant recent literature. In addition the catalogue contains a list of references to published finding charts for 635 of the 656 objects, and a cross-reference list of alias object designations. Literature published before 1 January 2003 has, as far as possible, been taken into account. All data can be accessed via the dedicated catalogue webpage at http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/RKcat/ (MPA) and http://physics.open.ac.uk/RKcat/ (OU). We will update the information given on the catalogue webpage regularly, initially every six months.

  12. Mass-radius relation of low and very low-mass stars revisited with the VLTI

    CERN Document Server

    Demory, B -O; Forveille, T; Queloz, D; Beuzit, J -L; Delfosse, X; Di Folco, E; Kervella, P; Bouquin, J -B Le; Perrier, C

    2009-01-01

    We measured the radii of 7 low and very low-mass stars using long baseline interferometry with the VLTI interferometer and its VINCI and AMBER near-infrared recombiners. We use these new data, together with literature measurements, to examine the luminosity- radius and mass-radius relations for K and M dwarfs. The precision of the new interferometric radii now competes with what can be obtained for double-lined eclipsing binaries. Interferometry provides access to much less active stars, as well as to stars with much better measured distances and luminosities, and therefore complements the information obtained from eclipsing systems. The radii of magnetically quiet late-K to M dwarfs match the predictions of stellar evolution models very well, providing direct confirmation that magnetic activity explains the discrepancy that was recently found for magnetically active eclipsing systems. The radii of the early K dwarfs are well reproduced for a mixing length parameter that approaches the solar value, as qualita...

  13. A Large Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Low-Mass Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; McCullough, Peter R.; Dragomir, Diana; Morley, Caroline; Kempton, Eliza

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of short-period planets with masses and radii between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. From the Kepler mission, we know that these "super-Earths" or "sub-Neptunes" orbit at least 40% of stars, likely representing the most common outcome of planet formation. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. In this talk, we will shed new light on these worlds by presenting the multiple the main results from our 124-orbit HST transit spectroscopy survey to probe the chemical compositions of low-mass exoplanets. We will report on multiple molecular detections. Our unprecedented HST survey provides the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets by covering seven planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth-mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star.

  14. Angular momentum transport efficiency in post-main sequence low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spada, F; Arlt, R; Deheuvels, S

    2016-01-01

    Context. Using asteroseismic techniques, it has recently become possible to probe the internal rotation profile of low-mass (~1.1-1.5 Msun) subgiant and red giant stars. Under the assumption of local angular momentum conservation, the core contraction and envelope expansion occurring at the end of the main sequence would result in a much larger internal differential rotation than observed. This suggests that angular momentum redistribution must be taking place in the interior of these stars. Aims. We investigate the physical nature of the angular momentum redistribution mechanisms operating in stellar interiors by constraining the efficiency of post-main sequence rotational coupling. Methods. We model the rotational evolution of a 1.25 Msun star using the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code. Our models take into account the magnetic wind braking occurring at the surface of the star and the angular momentum transport in the interior, with an efficiency dependent on the degree of internal differential rotati...

  15. Optical flare activity in the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ 3236

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimucha, Š.; Dubovský, P.; Vaňko, M.; Čokina, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present our observations of the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ 3236. We have analyzed a phased RC light-curve and confirmed previously determined fundamental parameters of the components. We detected evolution of the spot(s) and found that there exists a large spot near a polar region of the primary component and another spot either on the primary or the secondary component. We also observed 7 flare events and determined a flare rate of about 0.1 flares per hour. We observed two high energy, long-term flares with a complex light curve and possibly four weak short-term flaring events. A majority of the flares was detected in the RC filter, which indicate their high energy.

  16. Optical flare activity in the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ~3236

    CERN Document Server

    Parimucha, S; Vanko, M; Cokina, M

    2016-01-01

    We present our observations of the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ~3236. We have analyzed a phased $R_C$ light-curve and confirmed previously determined fundamental parameters of the components. We detected evolution of the spot(s) and found that there exists a large spot near a polar region of the primary component and another spot either on the primary or the secondary component. We also observed 7 flare events and determined a flare rate of about 0.1 flares per hour. We observed two high energy, long-term flares with a complex light curve and possibly four weak short-term flaring events. A majority of the flares was detected in the $R_C$ filter, which indicate their high energy.

  17. Low Mass Ions in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of 1-Methoxy-5-aminotetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Bae, Kwang Tae; Goh, Eun Mee; Bae, Se Won [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The development of novel energetic molecules (EMs) with high power, good safety features, great chemical stability, and environmentally less harmful nature is of great interest in the satellite launcher, missile warhead, ammunition, and pyrotechnic researches. Recently, many researchers have focused on aromatic nitrogen heterocycles such as pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, and pentazole as promising candidates to replace the current EMs used in civilian and military applications. We performed MALDI and LDI experiments with energetic tetrazole derivatives which were of great interest for the application of high performance explosives and fast burning propellants. Particularly, LDI experiments provided low mass ion peaks from decomposition of MAT, which were useful to analyze decomposition mechanism of tetrazoles at TOF MS in high vacuum. The LDI experiments showed various decomposed ion products, which implied several decomposition mechanisms including the detachment of side function groups and the fragmentation of tetrazole ring. The high-level DFT calculations also supported the peaks obtained from LDI experiments.

  18. A Low-Mass Drift Chamber System for the HADES-Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, F.; Bethge, K.; Enghardt, W.; Fateev, O.; Garabatos, C.; Grosse, E.; Muentz, C.; Karig, W.; Koenig, W.; Smykov, L.; Sobiella, M.; Steigerwald, A.; Stelzer, H.; Stroth, J.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zanewsky, Y.; Zentek, A.

    1998-11-01

    A new high resolution (Δ M/M < 1%) and high acceptance (45%) di-electron spectrometer (HADES) has been designed to investigate in-medium properties of hadrons. For tracking of all charged particles (in particular with sufficient resolution for electrons) a system of 24 low-mass drift chambers (Helium based counting gas and Aluminum field and cathode wires), arranged in four tracking planes, is used. Design aspects of the chambers are reported. Results of performance optimization using various prototype detectors are discussed, including results of an ageing test. Stable operation in the high-multiplicity environment of heavy ion collisions, and a spatial resolution of 70 μ m(σ) over 80% of a cell have been demonstrated in two beam experiments.

  19. A NEW TWIST IN THE EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denissenkov, Pavel A., E-mail: pavelden@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    We show that the evolutionary track of a low-mass red giant should make an extended zigzag on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram just after the bump luminosity if fast internal rotation and enhanced extra mixing in the radiative zone bring the temperature gradient close to the adiabatic one. This can explain both the location and peculiar surface chemical composition of Li-rich K giants studied by Kumar et al. We also discuss a striking resemblance between the photometric and composition peculiarities of these stars and giant components of RS CVn binaries. We demonstrate that the observationally constrained values of the temperature gradient in the Li-rich K giants agree with the required rate of extra mixing only if the turbulence that is believed to be responsible for this extra mixing is highly anisotropic, with its associated transport coefficients in the horizontal direction strongly dominating over those in the vertical direction.

  20. Red Optical Planet Survey: A radial velocity search for low mass M dwarf planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.; Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Rojo, P.; Arriagada, P.; Jordán, A.; Minniti, D.; Tuomi, M.; Jeffers, S. V.; Pinfield, D.

    2013-04-01

    We present radial velocity results from our Red Optical Planet Survey (ROPS), aimed at detecting low-mass planets orbiting mid-late M dwarfs. The ˜10 ms-1 precision achieved over 2 consecutive nights with the MIKE spectrograph at Magellan Clay is also found on week long timescales with UVES at VLT. Since we find that UVES is expected to attain photon limited precision of order 2 ms-1 using our novel deconvolution technique, we are limited only by the (≤10 ms-1) stability of atmospheric lines. Rocky planet frequencies of η⊕ = 0.3-0.7 lead us to expect high planet yields, enabling determination of η⊕ for the uncharted mid-late M dwarfs with modest surveys.

  1. Proper Motions and Parallaxes of Very Low-Mass Stars using DCT Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; West, Andrew A.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Muirhead, Philip Steven

    2017-01-01

    Very low-mass stars (VLMs) are the smallest, least luminous stars in our galaxy, but nonetheless form one of the dominant (baryonic) populations. Precise distances and kinematics of VLMs can provide constraints on the smallest extremes of star formation, as well as important boundary constraints on the star formation process in general. However, Gaia will only be ~70% complete at the faint magnitudes of these objects. We present preliminary results from a program to measure parallaxes and proper motions for a nearby sample of 85 VLMs using the Large Monolithic Imager at the 4.3m Discovery Channel Telescope. We present proper motions for the entire sample and preliminary parallaxes for a few sources. These measurements will complement Gaia observations and allow us to construct high quality luminosity and mass functions, which will help to distinguish between VLM formation scenarios.

  2. Challenges in the Identification of Young, Low-Mass Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Mass is the most fundamental stellar property and with composition determines all aspects of a star's life. However, astronomers' knowledge of pre-main sequence masses and mass ratios is sparse: only ~1-2 dozen masses have been measured, some with relatively poor precision, and only ~50 young, low-mass double-lined systems, for which mass ratio measurements are possible, are known to date. In this poster I report on an effort to double the number of precisely measured mass ratios in young candidate spectroscopic binary systems identified in the literature. This is a first step to ultimately obtaining precise masses for both stars in these systems. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy at the Keck II telescope has revealed that the majority of the putative single-lined spectroscopic binaries observed to date appear to be single stars.

  3. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Dwarfs - Clouds and Chemistry at the Bottom of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stars show evidence of complicated atmospheres, including a variety of molecular species and clouds. Infrared observations are one of the best probes of the physics of these objects, but up until recently these observations have been limited in studies from ground-based telescopes by atmospheric absorption and insufficient sensitivity. With the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope with its Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument we now have the capability to undertake a systematic study of the atmospheric structure and chemistry in these cool objects. The IRS Dim Suns team has compiled spectra from objects ranging from M1 dwarfs with effective temperatures 3,800K of down to T8 dwarfs with effective temperatures of 700. This talk will present these results and discuss their implications for our understanding of cool dwarf atmospheric physics and structure.

  4. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, F; Homeier, D; Freytag, B

    2012-06-13

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets.

  5. Toward a Complete Census of the Low Mass IMF in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberto, Massimo; Andersen, Morten; Barman, Travis; Bellini, Andrea; da Rio, Nicola; de Mink, Selma; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Lu, Jessica R.; Luhman, Kevin; Manara, Carlo Felice; Meyer, Michael; Platais, Imants; Pueyo, Laurent; Soderblom, David; Soummer, Remi; Stahler, Steve; Tan, Jonathan Charles

    2015-08-01

    A 52-orbit Hubble Treasury Program is currently under way to investigate two fundamental questions of star formation: a) the low- mass tail of the IMF, down to a few Jupiter masses; b) the dynamical evolution of clusters, as revealed by stellar proper motions. The program targets the Orion Nebula Cluster using WFC3 and ACS in coordinated parallel mode to perform a synoptic survey in the 1.345micron H2O feature and in the F775W Ic broad-band. In this poster we present early results from the IR survey, aimed at discovering and classify all brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects in the field, extending the IMF down to lowest masses formed by gravitational collapse. Using the latest generation of high contrast image processing we are also searching for faint companions, reaching down to sub-arcsecond separations and 10-4 flux ratios.

  6. Low-Mass X-ray Binaries and Globular Clusters in Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, Andres; McLaughlin, Dean E; Blakeslee, John P; Evans, Daniel A; Kraft, Ralph P; Hardcastle, Martin J; Peng, Eric W; Cote, Patrick; Croston, Judith H; Juett, Adrienne M; Minniti, Dante; Raychaudhury, Somak; Sarazin, Craig L; Worrall, Diana M; Harris, William E; Woodley, Kristin A; Birkinshaw, Mark; Brassington, Nicola J; Forman, William R; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S

    2007-01-01

    We present results of Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of globular clusters (GCs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the central regions of Centaurus A. Out of 440 GC candidates we find that 41 host X-ray point sources that are most likely LMXBs. We fit King models to our GC candidates in order to measure their structural parameters. We find that GCs that host LMXBs are denser and more compact, and have higher encounter rates and concentrations than the GC population as a whole. We show that the higher concentrations and masses are a consequence of the dependence of LMXB incidence on central density and size plus the general trend for denser GCs to have higher masses and concentrations. We conclude that neither concentration nor mass are fundamental variables in determining the presence of LMXBs in GCs, and that the more fundamental parameters relate to central density and size.

  7. Enhanced production of barium in low-mass stars: evidence from open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Randich, Sofia; Galli, Daniele; Busso, Maurizio; Sestito, Paola

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a trend of increasing barium abundance with decreasing age for a large sample of Galactic open clusters. The observed pattern of [Ba/Fe] vs. age can be reproduced with a Galactic chemical evolution model only assuming a higher Ba yield from the $s$-process in low-mass stars than the average one suggested by parametrized models of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis. We show that this is possible in a scenario where the efficiency of the extra-mixing processes producing the neutron source $^{13}$C is anti-correlated with the initial mass, with a larger efficiency for lower masses. This is similar to the known trend of extended mixing episodes acting in H-rich layers and might suggest a common physical mechanism.

  8. Observations of Deuterated Species toward Low-Mass Prestellar and Protostellar Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sakai, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Sakai, T.; Hirota, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have conducted observations of the ground-state transition lines (J = 1-0) of the fundamental deuterated species DCO+, DNC, DCN, CCD and N2D+ as well as those of H13CO+, HN13C, H13CN, CCH and N2H+ with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The target sources are the cold starless cores, TMC-1 and Lupus-1A, and the low-mass star forming cores, L1527 and IRAS15398-3359. The excitation temperatures derived from intensities of resolved hyperfine components are systematically different between DNC and HN13C. On the other hand, the excitation temperatures of DCN and H13CN are comparable to each other. Although the origin of these results is puzzling, the present result indicates that accurate evaluation of the excitation temperature is essential for deriving deuterium fractionation ratios accurately.

  9. The complex chemistry of outflow cavity walls exposed: the case of low-mass protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2015-01-01

    Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous companions of young low-mass protostars. Recent observations suggest that their emission stems, not only from the traditional hot corino, but also from offset positions. In this work, 2D physicochemical modelling of an envelope-cavity system is carried out. Wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations are performed and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network is used to simulate the physical and chemical structure. The morphology of the system delineates three distinct regions: the cavity wall layer with time-dependent and species-variant enhancements; a torus rich in complex organic ices, but not reflected in gas-phase abundances; and the remaining outer envelope abundant in simpler solid and gaseous molecules. Strongly irradiated regions, such as the cavity wall layer, are subject to frequent photodissociation in the solid phase. Subsequent recombination of the photoproducts leads to frequent reactive desorption, causing gas-phase enhancements of several or...

  10. 2D dynamics of the radiative core of low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hypolite, Delphine; Rieutord, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic field generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars at different evolutionary stages. Still the rotation close to the center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interaction of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. For instance, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone is very important in the formation of tachoclines. In this work, we study a 2D hydrodynamical model of a radiative core when an imposed, solar or anti-solar, differential rotation is applied at the upper boundary. This model uses the Boussinesq approximation and we find that the shear induces a cylindrical differential rotation associa...

  11. Constraints on the low-mass IMF in young super-star clusters in starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greissl, Julia Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    As evidence for variations in the initial mass function (IMF) in nearby star forming regions remains elusive we are forced to expand our search to more extreme regions of star formation. Starburst galaxies, which contain massive young clusters have in the past been reported to have IMFs different than that characterizing the field star IMF. In this thesis we use high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra to place constraints on the shape of the IMF in extreme regions of extragalactic star formation and also try to understand the star formation history in these regions. Through high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra it is possible to directly detect low-mass PMS stars in unresolved young super-star clusters, using absorption features that trace cool stars. Combining Starburst99 and available PMS tracks it is then possible to constrain the IMF in young super-star clusters using a combination of absorption lines each tracing different ranges of stellar masses and comparing observed spectra to models. Our technique can provide a direct test of the universality of the IMF compared to the Milky Way. We have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of two young super-star clusters in the starburst galaxies NGC 4039/39 and NGC 253 in order to constrain the low-mass IMF and star formation history in the clusters. The cluster in NGC 4038/39 shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines as well as late-type absorption lines indicative of cool stars. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence stars or red supergiants alone. We interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages over the physical region of 90 pc our spectrum represents. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second

  12. Theoretical spectra of nonmagnetized low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Bozena; Czerny, Michal; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical X-ray spectra of low-mass X-ray binaries with negligible magnetic fields are presented. The geometry of the X-ray emitting region, the energetic efficiency of the accretion in the disk and in the boundary layer which leads to a relation between the disk and the boundary layer luminosities, and the irradiation of the disk by the boundary layer are studied. The model of the radiation spectrum emerging from the neutron star and the innermost part of the disk is presented. The relativistic and Doppler effects and their influence on the spectrum as a function of inclination angle are discussed. A simple method for comparing the spectrum model with observations by studying the hardness ratio is given, and the results for three X-ray sources in globular clusters observed by the Einstein satellite are presented. The range of applicability of the spectrum models is also discussed.

  13. Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-15

    This paper reports on the investigation of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The investigation is part of the Strategic Defence Initiative. This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. Composite materials evaluations were performed on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Fabrication experiments were performed to demonstrate weldability. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700C. Testing and analysis for composite tubes are described in the report. The study has verified the feasibility of using layered composites for forming thin-walled, light weight heat pipe tubes for use in hardened space radiators.

  14. A prototype detector for the CRESST-III low-mass dark matter search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R.; Angloher, G.; Bauer, P.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Iachellini, N. Ferreiro; Hampf, R.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Langenkämper, A.; Mondragon, E.; Münster, A.; Oppenheimer, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Reindl, F.; Rothe, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Steiger, H.; Stodolsky, L.; Tanzke, A.; Thi, H. H. Trinh; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2017-02-01

    The CRESST-III experiment which is dedicated to low-mass dark matter search uses scintillating CaWO4 crystals operated as cryogenic particle detectors. Background discrimination is achieved by exploiting the scintillating light signal of CaWO4 and by a novel active detector holder presented in this paper. In a test setup above ground, a nuclear-recoil energy threshold of Eth =(190.6 ± 5.2) eV is reached with a 24 g prototype detector, which corresponds to an estimated threshold of ∼50 eV when being operated in the low-noise CRESST cryostat. This is the lowest threshold reported for direct dark matter searches. For CRESST-III phase 1, ten such detector modules were installed in the cryostat which have the potential to improve significantly the sensitivity to scatterings of dark matter particles with masses down to ∼0.1 GeV/c2.

  15. Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Y V

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field $\\phi = \\phi_0 \\cos(m_\\phi t)$, can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the Standard Model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive new limits on the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to $2-3$ orders of magnitude.

  16. Spectroscopy of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: New Insights into Accretion. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    DilVrtilek, Saeqa; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project is to observe two low mass X-ray binaries, chosen for their X-ray brightness, low column density, and diversity of accretion behavior. The high spectral resolution of the RGS, the broad energy range and tremendous collecting power of EPIC, and simultaneous optical monitoring with the OM are particularly well-suited to these studies. observation of one of the two objects has taken place and the data were received in late November. The second object is yet to be observed. Over the next year we will: investigate the physical conditions of the emitting gas using emission and recombination line diagnostics to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, and ionization structure; study the behavior of emission features as a function of binary orbit; and test and improve models of X-ray line emission developed by us over the past decade. We will gain insight on both the geometry of the accretion flow and on the evolutionary history of LMXBs.

  17. Spectroscopy of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: New Insights into Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project is to observe two low mass X-ray binaries, chosen for their X-ray brightness, low column density, and diversity of accretion behavior. The high spectral resolution of the RGS, the broad energy range and tremendous collecting power of EPIC, and simultaneous optical monitoring with the OM are particularly well-suited to these studies. The second of two objects was not observed until September of 2002. Data analysis for the new observation is underway. over the next year we will: investigate the physical conditions of the emitting gas using emission and recombination line diagnostics to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, and ionization structure; study the behavior of emission features as a function of binary orbit; and test and improve models of X-ray line emission developed by us over the past decade. We will gain insight on both the geometry of the accretion flow and on the evolutionary history of LMXBs.

  18. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Dwarfs - Clouds and Chemistry at the Bottom of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stars show evidence of complicated atmospheres, including a variety of molecular species and clouds. Infrared observations are one of the best probes of the physics of these objects, but up until recently these observations have been limited in studies from ground-based telescopes by atmospheric absorption and insufficient sensitivity. With the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope with its Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument we now have the capability to undertake a systematic study of the atmospheric structure and chemistry in these cool objects. The IRS Dim Suns team has compiled spectra from objects ranging from M1 dwarfs with effective temperatures 3,800K of down to T8 dwarfs with effective temperatures of 700. This talk will present these results and discuss their implications for our understanding of cool dwarf atmospheric physics and structure.

  19. Gas Loss by Ram Pressure Stripping and Internal Feedback From Low Mass Milky Way Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Emerick, Andrew; Grcevich, Jana; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites of the Milky Way is affected by the combination of ram pressure and tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the Milky Way using three-dimensional, high resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that ram pressure stripping is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that, although ram pressure stripping can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play t...

  20. The discovery of a low mass, pre-main-sequence stellar association around $\\gamma$ Velorum

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzo, M; Naylor, T; Totten, E J; Harmer, S; Kenyon, M E

    2000-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a population of low mass, pre-mainsequence stars (PMS) in the direction of the Wolf-Rayet/O-star binary systemgamma^{2} Vel and the Vela OB2 association. We argue that gamma^{2} Vel and thelow mass stars are truly associated, are approximately coeval and that both areat distances between 360-490 pc, disagreeing at the 2 sigma level with therecent Hipparcos parallax of gamma^{2} Vel, but consistent with older distanceestimates. Our results clearly have implications for the physical parameters ofthe gamma^{2} Vel system, but also offer an exciting opportunity to investigatethe influence of high mass stars on the mass function and circumstellar disclifetimes of their lower mass PMS siblings.

  1. Low-mass right-handed gauge bosons from minimal grand unified theories

    CERN Document Server

    Parida, Biswonath Sahoo M K

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of low-mass $W_R$ and $Z_R$ gauge bosons in popular grand unified theories has been the subject of considerable attention over the last three decades. In this work we show that when gravity induced corrections due to dim.5 operator are included the minimal symmetry breaking chain of $SO(10)$ and $E_6$ GUTs can yield $W_R^{\\pm}$ and $Z_R$ bosons with masses in the range $(3-10)$ TeV which are accessible to experimental tests at the Large Hordan Collider. The RH neutrinos turn out to be heavy pseudo-Dirac fermions. The model can fit all fermion masses and manifest in rich structure of lepton flavor violation while proton life time is predicted to be much longer than the accessible limit of Super-Kamiokande or planned Hyper-Kamiokande collaborations.

  2. Subarcsecond resolution observations of warm water towards three deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2012-01-01

    Water is present during all stages of star formation: as ice in the cold outer parts of protostellar envelopes and dense inner regions of circumstellar disks, and as gas in the envelopes close to the protostars, in the upper layers of circumstellar disks and in regions of powerful outflows...... and shocks. In this paper we probe the mechanism regulating the warm gas-phase water abundance in the innermost hundred AU of deeply embedded (Class~0) low-mass protostars, and investigate its chemical relationship to other molecular species during these stages. Millimeter wavelength thermal emission from...... in the IRAS4A binary; in addition CH3OCH3, C2H5CN, and SO2 are detected. Extended water emission is seen towards IRAS2A, possibly associated with the outflow. The detections in all systems suggests that the presence of water on 96 %) is frozen out on dust grains at these scales. The derived abundances of CH3...

  3. Red Optical Planet Survey: A radial velocity search for low mass M dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present radial velocity results from our Red Optical Planet Survey (ROPS, aimed at detecting low-mass planets orbiting mid-late M dwarfs. The ∼10 ms−1 precision achieved over 2 consecutive nights with the MIKE spectrograph at Magellan Clay is also found on week long timescales with UVES at VLT. Since we find that UVES is expected to attain photon limited precision of order 2 ms−1 using our novel deconvolution technique, we are limited only by the (≤10 ms−1 stability of atmospheric lines. Rocky planet frequencies of η⊕ = 0.3−0.7 lead us to expect high planet yields, enabling determination of η⊕ for the uncharted mid-late M dwarfs with modest surveys.

  4. Tracing low-mass galaxy clusters using radio relics: the discovery of Abell 3527-bis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gasperin, F.; Intema, H. T.; Ridl, J.; Salvato, M.; van Weeren, R.; Bonafede, A.; Greiner, J.; Cassano, R.; Brüggen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters undergo mergers that can generate extended radio sources called radio relics. Radio relics are the consequence of merger-induced shocks that propagate in the intra cluster medium (ICM). Aims: In this paper we analyse the radio, optical and X-ray data from a candidate galaxy cluster that has been selected from the radio emission coming from a candidate radio relic detected in NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Our aim is to clarify the nature of this source and prove that under certain conditions radio emission from radio relics can be used to trace relatively low-mass galaxy clusters. Methods: We observed the candidate galaxy cluster with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at three different frequencies. These datasets have been analysed together with archival data from ROSAT in the X-ray and with archival data from the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) telescope in four different optical bands. Results: We confirm the presence of a 1 Mpc long radio relic located in the outskirts of a previously unknown galaxy cluster. We confirm the presence of the galaxy cluster through dedicated optical observations and using archival X-ray data. Due to its proximity and similar redshift to a known Abell cluster, we named it Abell 3527-bis. The galaxy cluster is amongst the least massive clusters known to host a radio relic. Conclusions: We showed that radio relics can be effectively used to trace a subset of relatively low-mass galaxy clusters that might have gone undetected in X-ray or Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys. This technique might be used in future deep, low-frequency surveys such as those carried on by the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), the Upgraded GMRT (uGMRT) and, ultimately, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  5. The High-Energy Radiation Environment of Planets around Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Miles, Brittany; Barman, Travis; Peacock, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass stars are the dominant planet hosts averaging about one planet per star. Many of these planets orbit in the canonical habitable zone (HZ) of the star where, if other conditions allowed, liquid water may exist on the surface.A planet’s habitability, including atmospheric retention, is strongly dependent on the star’s ultraviolet (UV) emission, which chemically modifies, ionizes, and even erodes the atmosphere over time including the photodissociation of important diagnostic molecules, e.g. H2O, CH4, and CO2. The UV spectral slope of a low-mass star can enhance atmospheric lifetimes, and increase the detectability of biologically generated gases. But, a different slope may lead to the formation of abiotic oxygen and ozone producing a false-positive biosignature for oxygenic photosynthesis. Realistic constraints on the incident UV flux over a planet’s lifetime are necessary to explore the cumulative effects on the evolution, composition, and fate of a HZ planetary atmosphere.NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides a unique data set with which to study the broadband UV emission from many hundreds of M dwarfs. The GALEX satellite has imaged nearly 3/4 of the sky simultaneously in two UV bands: near-UV (NUV; 175-275 nm) and far-UV (FUV; 135-175 nm). With these data these, we are able to calculate the mean UV emission and its level of variability at these wavelengths over critical planet formation and evolution time scales to better understand the probable conditions in HZ planetary atmospheres.In the near future, dedicated CubeSats (miniaturized satellites for space research) to monitor M dwarf hosts of transiting exoplanets will provide the best opportunity to measure their UV variability, constrain the probabilities of detecting habitable (and inhabited) planets, and provide the correct context within which to interpret IR transmission and emission spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets.

  6. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  7. Oscillations of red dwarfs in evolved low-mass binaries with neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Marek J.; Lee, Umin; Muslimov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate a novel aspect of a problem related to the properties of low-mass binaries (LMBs) with millisecond pulsars: the pulsations of the red dwarf (donor) companion of the neutron star (NS). The illumination of the donor star by the pulsar's high-energy nonthermal radiation and relativistic wind may substantially affect its structure. We present a quantitative analysis of the oscillation spectrum of a red dwarf which has evolved in an LMB and has undergone the stage of evaporation. We calculate the p- and g-modes for red dwarfs with masses in the interval (0.2-0.6) stellar mass. For comparison, similar calculations are presented for zero age main-sequence (ZAMS) stars of the same masses. For less massive donor stars (approximately 0.2 stellar mass) the oscillation spectrum becomes quantitatively different from that of their ZAMS counterparts. The differnce is due to the fact that a ZAMS star of 0.2 stellar mass is fully convective, while the donor star in an LMB is expected to be far from thermal equilibrium and not fully convective. As a result, in contrast to a low-mass ZAMS star, a red dwarf of the same mass in an LMB allows the existence of g-modes. We also consider tidally forced g-modes, and perform a linear analysis of these oscillations for different degrees of nonsynchronism between the orbital and spin rotation of the red dwarf component. We demonstrate the existence of a series of reasonances for the low-order g-modes which may occur in LMBs at a late stage of their evolution. We discuss the possibility that these oscillations may trigger Roche lobe overflow and sudden mass loss by the donor star. Further implications of this effect for gamma- and X-ray burst phenomena are outlined.

  8. Precise Black Hole Masses from Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BHgsim108 M sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH-σ* relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ* seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH-σ* relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH-σ* relation in this low-mass regime.

  9. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  10. THE STELLAR MASS–HALO MASS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS X-RAY GROUPS AT 0.5< z< 1 IN THE CDFS WITH CSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A., E-mail: patel@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Since z∼1, the stellar mass density locked in low-mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ∼8. Here, we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low-mass X-ray groups at 0.5wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South. These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low-mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ∼3%–4% of the total mass of group halos with masses 10{sup 12.8}

  11. Synthetic observations of first hydrostatic cores in collapsing low-mass dense cores. I. Spectral energy distributions and evolutionary sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commerçon, B.; Launhardt, R.; Dullemond, C.; Henning, Th.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The low-mass star formation evolutionary sequence is relatively well-defined both from observations and theoretical considerations. The first hydrostatic core is the first protostellar equilibrium object that is formed during the star formation process. Aims: Using state-of-the-art radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement calculations, we aim to provide predictions for the dust continuum emission from first hydrostatic cores. Methods: We investigated the collapse and the fragmentation of magnetized 1 M⊙ prestellar dense cores and the formation and evolution of first hydrostatic cores using the RAMSES code. We used three different magnetization levels for the initial conditions, which cover a wide variety of early evolutionary morphology, e.g., the formation of a disk or a pseudo-disk, outflow launching, and fragmentation. We post-processed the dynamical calculations using the 3D radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. We computed spectral energy distributions and usual evolutionary stage indicators such as bolometric luminosity and temperature. Results: We find that the first hydrostatic core lifetimes depend strongly on the initial magnetization level of the parent dense core. We derive, for the first time, spectral energy distribution evolutionary sequences from high-resolution radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations. We show that under certain conditions, first hydrostatic cores can be identified from dust continuum emission at 24 μm and 70 μm. We also show that single spectral energy distributions cannot help in distinguishing between the formation scenarios of the first hydrostatic core, i.e., between the magnetized and non-magnetized models. Conclusions: Spectral energy distributions are a first useful and direct way to target first hydrostatic core candidates but high-resolution interferometry is definitively needed to determine the evolutionary stage of the observed sources.

  12. The identification of physical close galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L

    2007-01-01

    A classification scheme for close pairs of galaxies is proposed. The scheme is motivated by the fact that the majority of apparent close pairs are in fact wide pairs in three-dimensional space. This is demonstrated by means of numerical simulations of random samples of binary galaxies and the scrutiny of the resulting projected and spatial separation distributions. Observational strategies for classifying close pairs according to the scheme are suggested. As a result, physical -- i.e., bound and spatially -- close pairs are identified.

  13. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  14. Single-diffractive Drell-Yan pair production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We present predictions for single-diffractive low-mass Drell-Yan pair production in $pp$ collisions at LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. Predictions are obtained adopting a factorised form for the relevant cross sections and are based on a new set of diffractive parton distributions resulting from the QCD analysis of combined HERA leading proton data. We discuss a number of observables useful to characterise the expected factorisation breaking effects.

  15. ASAS J083241+2332.4: A NEW EXTREME LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Vivekananda Rao, P. [Department of Astronomy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Choi, C. S., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the R- and V-band CCD photometry and Hα line studies of an overcontact binary ASAS J083241+2332.4. The light curves exhibit totality along with a trace of the O’Connell effect. The photometric solution indicates that this system falls into the category of extreme low-mass ratio overcontact binaries with a mass ratio, q ∼ 0.06. Although a trace of the O’ Connell effect is observed, constancy of the Hα line along various phases suggest that a relatively higher magnetic activity is needed for it to show a prominent fill-in effect. The study of O–C variations reveals that the period of the binary shows a secular increase at the rate of dP/dt ∼ 0.0765 s years{sup −1}, which is superimposed by a low, but significant, sinusoidal modulation with a period of ∼8.25 years. Assuming that the sinusoidal variation is due to the presence of a third body, orbital elements have been derived. There exist three other similar systems, SX Crv, V857 Her, and E53, which have extremely low mass ratios and we conclude that ASAS J083241+2332.4 resembles SX Crv in many respects. Theoretical studies indicate that at a critical mass ratio range, q{sub critical} = 0.07–0.09, overcontact binaries should merge and form a fast rotating star, but it has been suggested that q{sub critical} can continue to fall up to 0.05 depending on the primary's mass and structure. Moreover, the obtained fill-out factors (50%–70%) indicate that mass loss is considerable and hydrodynamical simulations advocate that mass loss from L{sub 2} is mandatory for a successful merging process. Comprehensively, the results indicate that ASAS J083241+2332.4 is at a stage of merger. The pivotal role played by the subtle nature of the derived mass ratio in forming a rapidly rotating star has been discussed.

  16. Low mass binary neutron star mergers: Gravitational waves and neutrino emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Francois; Haas, Roland; Duez, Matthew D.; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Roberts, Luke; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Lippuner, Jonas; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.

    2016-02-01

    Neutron star mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for advanced ground-based detectors. These mergers are also expected to power bright electromagnetic signals, in the form of short gamma-ray bursts, infrared/optical transients powered by r-process nucleosynthesis in neutron-rich material ejected by the merger, and radio emission from the interaction of that ejecta with the interstellar medium. Simulations of these mergers with fully general relativistic codes are critical to understand the merger and postmerger gravitational wave signals and their neutrinos and electromagnetic counterparts. In this paper, we employ the Spectral Einstein Code to simulate the merger of low mass neutron star binaries (two 1.2 M⊙ neutron stars) for a set of three nuclear-theory-based, finite temperature equations of state. We show that the frequency peaks of the postmerger gravitational wave signal are in good agreement with predictions obtained from recent simulations using a simpler treatment of gravity. We find, however, that only the fundamental mode of the remnant is excited for long periods of time: emission at the secondary peaks is damped on a millisecond time scale in the simulated binaries. For such low mass systems, the remnant is a massive neutron star which, depending on the equation of state, is either permanently stable or long lived (i.e. rapid uniform rotation is sufficient to prevent its collapse). We observe strong excitations of l =2 , m =2 modes, both in the massive neutron star and in the form of hot, shocked tidal arms in the surrounding accretion torus. We estimate the neutrino emission of the remnant using a neutrino leakage scheme and, in one case, compare these results with a gray two-moment neutrino transport scheme. We confirm the complex geometry of the neutrino emission, also observed in previous simulations with neutrino leakage, and show explicitly the presence of important differences in the neutrino luminosity, disk

  17. Orbital period change of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kazumi; Dotani, Tadayasu; Nagase, Fumiaki; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Shaham, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    The transient low-mass X-ray binary, EXO 0748-676, discovered with EXOSAT, is known to exhibit eclipses of a 492-s duration with a 3.82-hr period, intensity dips at pre-eclipse phases and type-I X-ray bursts. We observed this source with Ginga in 1989 March, 1990 December, 1991 January, and 1991 August and determined nine eclipse center times. Combining these eclipse center times with the previous result of the EXOSAT observations, we find that the orbital period of this source is not decaying monotonically, contrary to the previously reported suggestion. Instead, it shows a more complex behavior. A quadratic fit to the eclipse data yields a positive rate of change in orbital period with an approximate rate of 0.9 x 10 exp 7/yr, although the EXOSAT observations made in 1985 do not fit this trend. A sinusoidal function gives a better fit to the observed orbital period changes with a period of about 12 yr and an amplitude of about 44 lt-s, although the period is much longer than the observation interval of about 6.5 yr. Possible mechanisms for the orbital period change are discussed.

  18. The ISLANDS project I: Andromeda XVI, An Extremely Low Mass Galaxy not Quenched by Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Monelli, Matteo; Bernard, Edouard J; Gallart, Carme; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R; Dolphin, Andrew E; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Cole, Andrew A; Martin, Nicolas F; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Mayer, Lucio; McConnachie, Alan; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Navarro, Julio F

    2016-01-01

    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of HST time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its life-time star formation history, the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ~6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus, is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the star formation history as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the star formation history: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than i...

  19. Testing cold dark matter with the low mass Tully-Fisher relation

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, Michael R; West, Andrew A

    2007-01-01

    The galaxy circular velocity function at small masses is related to the matter power spectrum on small scales. Although this function is well-studied for Local Group dwarfs, theoretical predictions and observational measurements are difficult for satellite galaxies, because of ram pressure and tidal stripping. By contrast, isolated dwarf galaxies are less affected by these processes, and almost always have enough 21cm emission to trace their dynamics robustly. Here, we test cold dark matter cosmology using isolated low mass dwarf galaxies from the SDSS with measured 21cm widths. We find consistency between the predicted and observed number density of isolated galaxies down to circular velocities of 50 km/s. Our technique yields a direct test of small-scale cosmology independent of the Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum, but our sample is currently statistically less powerful: warm dark matter particles heavier than 0.5 keV cannot be ruled out. Our major systematic uncertainty is the surface brightness limit of...

  20. Occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks by landing of low-mass condensations

    CERN Document Server

    Elyasi, Mahjubeh

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass condensations (LMCs) are observed inside the envelope of the collapsing molecular cloud cores. In this research, we investigate the effects of landing LMCs for occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks. We consider some regions of the disk where duration of infalling and landing of the LMCs are shorter than the orbital period. In this way, we can consider the landing LMCs as density bumps and grooves in the azimuthal direction of an initial thin axisymmetric steady state self-gravitating protostellar accretion disk (nearly Keplerian). Using the linear effects of the bump quantities, we obtain a characteristic equation for growth/decay rate of bumps; we numerically solve it to find occurrence of instability. We also evaluate the minimum-growth-time-scale (MGTS) and the enhanced mass accretion rate. The results show that infalling and landing of the LMCs in the inner regions of the protostellar accretion disks can cause faster unstable modes and less enhanced accretion rates re...

  1. Accreting Neutron Stars in Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Frederick K

    2007-01-01

    Using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RossiXTE), astronomers have discovered that disk-accreting neutron stars with weak magnetic fields produce three distinct types of high-frequency X-ray oscillations. These oscillations are powered by release of the binding energy of matter falling into the strong gravitational field of the star or by the sudden nuclear burning of matter that has accumulated in the outermost layers of the star. The frequencies of the oscillations reflect the orbital frequencies of gas deep in the gravitational field of the star and/or the spin frequency of the star. These oscillations can therefore be used to explore fundamental physics, such as strong-field gravity and the properties of matter under extreme conditions, and important astrophysical questions, such as the formation and evolution of millisecond pulsars. Observations using RossiXTE have shown that some two dozen neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems have the spin rates and magnetic fields required to become milliseco...

  2. Survival of a convective core in low-mass solar-like pulsator HD 203608

    CERN Document Server

    Deheuvels, S; Goupil, M J; Marques, J P; Mosser, B; Dupret, M A; Lebreton, Y; Pichon, B; Morel, P

    2010-01-01

    A 5-night asteroseismic observation of the F8V star HD 203608 was conducted in August 2006 with HARPS, followed by an analysis of the data, and a preliminary modeling of the star (Mosser et al. 2008). The stellar parameters were significantly constrained, but the behavior of one of the seismic indexes (the small spacing d01) could not be fitted with the observed one, even with the best considered models. We study the possibility of improving the agreement between models and observations by changing the physical properties of the inner parts of the star (to which d01 is sensitive). We show that, in spite of its low mass, it is possible to produce models of HD 203608 with a convective core. No such model was considered in the preliminary modeling. In practice, we obtain these models here by assuming some extra mixing at the edge of the early convective core. We optimize the model parameters using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The agreement between the new best model with a convective core and the observati...

  3. The efficient low-mass Seyfert MCG-05-23-016

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Malzac, J; Petrucci, P -O; Shrader, C R; Soldi, S

    2008-01-01

    The Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 has been shown to exhibit a complex X-ray spectrum. This source has moderate X-ray luminosity, hosts a comparably low-mass black hole, but accretes at a high Eddington rate, and allows us to study a super massive black hole in an early stage. Three observations of the INTEGRAL satellite simultaneous with pointed Swift/XRT observations performed from December 2006 to June 2007 are used in combination with public data from the INTEGRAL archive to study the variability of the hard X-ray components and to generate a high-quality spectrum from 1 to 150 keV. The AGN shows little variability in the hard X-ray spectrum, with some indication of a variation in the high-energy cut-off energy ranging from 50 keV to >>100 keV, with an electron plasma temperature in the 10 - 90 keV range. The reflection component is not evident and, if present, the reflected fraction can be constrained to R 0.8 (or L(bol)/L(Edd) > 0.1, if we consider a higher mass of the central engine) and, at the sam...

  4. New Results for Two Optically Faint Low Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, S

    1997-01-01

    We present optical photometry of the low mass X-ray binary systems GX 349+2 and Ser X-1. Extensive VRI photometry of the faint optical counterpart (V=18.4) to GX 349+2 reveals a period of 22.5 +/- 0.1 h and half-amplitude 0.2 mag. This result confirms and extends our previously reported 22~h period. No color change is detected over the orbit, although the limits are modest. We also report the discovery of two new variable stars in the field of GX 349+2, including a probable W UMa system. Ser X-1 is one of the most intense persistent X-ray burst sources known. It is also one of only three burst systems for which simultaneous optical and X-ray bursts have been observed. The faint blue optical counterpart MM Ser (B~19.2) has long been known to have a companion 2.1" distant. Our images indicate that MM Ser is itself a further superposition of two stars, separated by only 1". At the very least, the ratio of inferred burst to quiescent optical flux is affected by the discovery of this additional component. In the w...

  5. Very Low-Mass Stars with Extremely Low Metallicity in the Milky Way's Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Suda, Takuma; Honda, Satoshi; Lee, Young Sun

    2016-08-01

    Large surveys and follow-up spectroscopic studies in the past few decades have been providing chemical abundance data for a growing number of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] LTE model atmospheres has obtained self-consistent chemical abundances for these objects, assuming small values of micro-turbulent velocities compared with giants and turn-off stars. The low temperature of the atmospheres of these objects enables us to measure their detailed chemical abundances. Interestingly, two of the four stars have extreme chemical-abundance patterns: one has the largest excesses of heavy neutron-capture elements associated with the r-process abundance pattern known to date (Aoki et al. 2010), and the other exhibits low abundances of the α-elements and odd-Z elements, suggested to be signatures of the yields of very massive stars (> 100 solar masses; Aoki et al. 2014). Although the sample size is still small, these results indicate the potential of very low-mass stars as probes to study the early stages of the Milky Way's halo formation.

  6. Discovery of Three Pulsating, Mixed-atmosphere, Extremely Low-mass White Dwarf Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianninas, A.; Curd, Brandon; Fontaine, G.; Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in three mixed-atmosphere, extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD, M ≤slant 0.3 M ⊙) precursors. Following the recent discoveries of pulsations in both ELM and pre-ELM WDs, we targeted pre-ELM WDs with mixed H/He atmospheres with high-speed photometry. We find significant optical variability in all three observed targets with periods in the range 320-590 s, consistent in timescale with theoretical predictions of p-mode pulsations in mixed-atmosphere ≈0.18 M ⊙ He-core pre-ELM WDs. This represents the first empirical evidence that pulsations in pre-ELM WDs can only occur if a significant amount of He is present in the atmosphere. Future, more extensive, timeseries photometry of the brightest of the three new pulsators offers an excellent opportunity to constrain the thickness of the surface H layer, which regulates the cooling timescales for ELM WDs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  7. Variability in young very low mass stars: two surprises from spectrophotometric monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, I.; Scholz, A.; Eislöffel, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic observations of seven young and highly variable M dwarfs in star-forming regions in Orion, conducted in four observing nights with FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph2 at European Southern Observatory/VLT. All seven targets show significant photometric variability in the I band, with amplitudes between 0.1-0.8 mag, The spectra, however, remain remarkably constant, with spectral type changes less than 0.5 subtypes. Thus, the brightness changes are not caused by veiling that `fills in' absorption features. Three objects in the σ Ori cluster (age ˜3 Myr) exhibit strong Hα emission and Hα variability, in addition to the continuum variations. Their behaviour is mostly consistent with the presence of spots with temperature of ˜300 K above the photosphere and filling factors between 0.2-0.4, in contrast to typical hotspots observed in more massive stars. The remaining targets near ɛ Ori, likely to be older, show eclipse-like light curves, no significant Hα activity and are better represented by variable extinction due to circumstellar material. Interestingly, two of them show no evidence of infrared excess emission. Our study shows that high-amplitude variability in young very low mass stars can be caused by different phenomena than in more massive T Tauri stars and can persist when the disc has disappeared and accretion has ceased.

  8. Detection of a very low mass star in an Eclipsing Binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Anandarao, B G; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a very low mass star (VLMS) companion to the primary star 1SWASPJ234318.41+295556.5A (J2343+29A), using radial velocity (RV) measurements from the PARAS (PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search) high resolution echelle spectrograph. The periodicity of the single-lined eclipsing binary (SB1) system, as determined from 20 sets of RV observations from PARAS and 6 supporting sets of observations from SOPHIE data, is found to be 16.953 d as against the 4.24 d period reported from SuperWasp photometry. It is likely that inadequate phase coverage of the transit with SuperWasp photometry led to the incorrect determination of the period for this system. We derive the spectral properties of the primary star from the observed stellar spectra: Teff = 5125 +/- 67 K, [Fe/H] = 0.1 +/- 0.14 and log g = 4.6 +/- 0.14, indicating a K1V primary. Applying the Torres relation to the derived stellar parameters, we estimate a primary mass 0.864 +/- 0.097 M_sun and a radius of 0.854 +/- 0.050 R_sun. We ...

  9. Tracing low-mass galaxy clusters with radio relics: the discovery of Abell 3527-bis

    CERN Document Server

    de Gasperin, F; Ridl, J; Salvato, M; van Weeren, R; Bonafede, A; Greiner, J; Cassano, R; Bruggen, M

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters undergo mergers that can generate extended radio sources called radio relics. Radio relics are the consequence of merger-induced shocks that propagate in the intra cluster medium (ICM). In this paper we analyse the radio, optical and X-ray data from a candidate galaxy cluster that has been selected from the radio emission coming from a candidate radio relic detected in NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Our aim is to clarify the nature of this source and prove that under certain conditions radio emission from radio relics can be used to trace relatively low-mass galaxy clusters. We have observed the candidate galaxy cluster with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at three different frequencies. These datasets have been analysed together with archival data from ROSAT in the X-ray and with archival data from the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) telescope in four different optical bands. We confirm the presence of a 1 Mpc long radio relic located in the outskirts of a previ...

  10. On the Existence of Low-Mass Dark Matter and its Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, James; Merle, Alexander; Morris, Tim R; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) is an elusive form of matter which has been postulated to explain astronomical observations through its gravitational effects on stars and galaxies, gravitational lensing of light around these, and through its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This indirect evidence implies that DM accounts for as much as 84.5% of all matter in our Universe, yet it has so far evaded all attempts at direct detection, leaving such confirmation and the consequent discovery of its nature as one of the biggest challenges in modern physics. Here we present a novel form of low-mass DM $\\chi$ that would have been missed by all experiments so far. While its large interaction strength might at first seem unlikely, neither constraints from particle physics nor cosmological/astronomical observations are sufficient to rule out this type of DM, and it motivates our proposal for direct detection by optomechanics technology which should soon be within reach, namely, through the precise position measurement of...

  11. The very low-mass population of the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Mundt, R; Mart\\'{\\i}, Bel\\'en L\\'opez; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Mundt, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a deep optical survey in the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions. Our optical photometry is combined with available near- and mid-infrared photometry to identify very low-mass candidate members in these dark clouds. In our Chamaeleon II field, only one object exhibits clear H-alpha emission, but the discrepancy between its optical and near-infrared colours suggests that it might be a foreground star. We also identify two objects without H-alpha emission that could be planetary mass members of Chamaeleon II. In Corona Australis, we find ten stars and three brown dwarf candidates in the Coronet cluster. Five of our new members are identified with ISOCAM sources. Only two of them have a mid-infrared excess, indicating the presence of an accretion disk. On the other hand, one brown dwarf candidate has a faint close companion, seen only in our deepest I-band image. For many of the candidates in both clouds, membership could not be inferred from their H-alpha emission o...

  12. Low-mass protostars and dense cores in different evolutionary stages in IRAS 00213+6530

    CERN Document Server

    Busquet, G; Estalella, R; Girart, J M; Anglada, G; Sepúlveda, I

    2009-01-01

    We aim at studying with high angular resolution a dense core associated with a low-luminosity IRAS source, IRAS 00213+6530, in order to investigate whether low mass star formation is really taking place in isolation. We performed observations at 1.2mm with the IRAM 30m telescope, VLA observations at 6cm, 3.6cm, 1.3cm, 7mm, and H2O maser and NH3 lines, and observations with the NASA 70m antenna in CCS and H2O maser. The cm and mm continuum emission, together with the near infrared data from the 2MASS allowed us to identify 3 YSOs, IRS1, VLA8A, and VLA8B, with different radio and infrared properties, and which seem to be in different evolutionary stages. The NH3 emission consists of three clouds. Two of these, MM1 and MM2, are associated with dust emission, while the southern cloud is only detected in NH3. The YSOs are embedded in MM1, where we found evidence of line broadening and temperature enhancements. On the other hand, the southern cloud and MM2 appear to be quiescent and starless. We modeled the radial ...

  13. Friends of Hot Jupiters III: An Infrared Spectroscopic Search for Low-Mass Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Piskorz, Danielle; Ngo, Henry; Muirhead, Philip S; Batygin, Konstantin; Crepp, Justin R; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500-5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rul...

  14. A new symbiotic low mass X-ray binary system: 4U 1954+319

    CERN Document Server

    Mattana, F; Falanga, M; Senziani, F; De Luca, A; Esposito, P; Caraveo, P A

    2006-01-01

    4U 1954+319 was discovered 25 years ago, but only recently has a clear picture of its nature begun to emerge. We present for the first time a broad-band spectrum of the source and a detailed timing study using more than one year of monitoring data. The timing and spectral analysis was done using publicly available Swift, INTEGRAL, BeppoSAX, and RXTE/ASM data in the 0.7-150 keV energy band. The source spectrum is described well by a highly absorbed (N_H~10^23 cm^-2) power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff around 15 keV. An additional black body component is needed below 3 keV to account for a soft excess. The derived ~5 hr periodicity, with a spin-up timescale of ~25 years, could be identified as the neutron star spin period. The spectral and timing characteristics indicate that we are dealing both with the slowest established wind-accreting X-ray pulsar and with the second confirmed member of the emerging class dubbed "symbiotic low mass X-ray binaries" to host a neutron star.

  15. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes from Low-Mass Pop III Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    The existence of 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$ black holes (BH) in massive galaxies by $z \\sim 7$ is one of the great unsolved mysteries in cosmological structure formation. One leading model argues that they originate from much smaller seeds at high redshift and then accrete at the Eddington limit down to the epoch of reionization, which requires that they have constant access to rich supplies of fuel. Because early numerical simulations suggested that many first stars had masses $\\gtrsim 100$ M$_{\\odot}$, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds in this model were 100 - 300 M$_{\\odot}$ black holes formed by Pop III stars at $z \\sim 20$. However, there is growing numerical and observational evidence that most Pop III stars were tens of solar masses, not hundreds, and consequently that 20 - 140 M$_{\\odot}$ black holes may have been much more plentiful at high redshift. We have examined low-mass Pop III black holes as potential seeds of SMBH and find that the mass range for possible seeds is severely constrained. Progeni...

  16. A Low-Mass Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy UGC 06728

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Seals, James; Garcia, Karen; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; Peters, Wesley; Anderson, Matthew D; Jones, Jeremy; Lester, Kathryn; Machuca, Camilo; Parks, J Robert; Pope, Crystal L; Revalski, Mitchell; Roberts, Caroline A; Saylor, Dicy; Sevrinsky, R Andrew; Turner, Clay

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a recent reverberation mapping campaign for UGC 06728, a nearby low-luminosity Seyfert 1 in a late-type galaxy. Nightly monitoring in the spring of 2015 allowed us to determine an H$\\beta$ time delay of $\\tau = 1.4 \\pm 0.8$ days. Combined with the width of the variable H$\\beta$ line profile, we determine a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm BH} = (7.1 \\pm 4.0) \\times 10^5$ M$_{\\odot}$. We also constrain the bulge stellar velocity dispersion from higher-resolution long slit spectroscopy along the galaxy minor axis and find $\\sigma_{\\star} = 51.6 \\pm 4.9$ km s$^{-1}$. The measurements presented here are in good agreement with both the $R_{\\rm BLR} - L$ relationship and the $M_{\\rm BH}-\\sigma_{\\star}$ relationship for AGNs. Combined with a previously published spin measurement, our mass determination for UGC 06728 makes it the lowest-mass black hole that has been fully characterized, and thus an important object to help anchor the low-mass end of black hole evolutionary models.

  17. Discovery of a Low-Mass Companion to the F7V star HD 984

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkat, T; Mamajek, E E; Quanz, S P; Chauvin, G; Kenworthy, M A; Rameau, J; Meyer, M R; Lagrange, A -M; Lannier, J; Delorme, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby (d = 47 pc) F7V star HD 984. The companion is detected 0.19" away from its host star in the L' band with the Apodizing Phase Plate on NaCo/VLT and was recovered by L'-band non-coronagraphic imaging data taken a few days later. We confirm the companion is co-moving with the star with SINFONI integral field spectrograph H+K data. We present the first published data obtained with SINFONI in pupil-tracking mode. HD 984 has been argued to be a kinematic member of the 30 Myr-old Columba group, and its HR diagram position is not altogether inconsistent with being a ZAMS star of this age. By consolidating different age indicators, including isochronal age, coronal X-ray emission, and stellar rotation, we independently estimate a main sequence age of 115$\\pm$85 Myr (95% CL) which does not rely on this kinematic association. The mass of directly imaged companions are usually inferred from theoretical evolutionary tracks, which are highly dependent on the age...

  18. Gravitational detection of a low-mass dark satellite at cosmological distance

    CERN Document Server

    Vegetti, S; McKean, J P; Auger, M W; Fassnacht, C D; Koopmans, L V E

    2012-01-01

    The mass-function of dwarf satellite galaxies that are observed around Local Group galaxies substantially differs from simulations based on cold dark matter: the simulations predict many more dwarf galaxies than are seen. The Local Group, however, may be anomalous in this regard. A massive dark satellite in an early-type lens galaxy at z = 0.222 was recently found using a new method based on gravitational lensing, suggesting that the mass fraction contained in substructure could be higher than is predicted from simulations. The lack of very low mass detections, however, prohibited any constraint on their mass function. Here we report the presence of a 1.9 +/- 0.1 x 10^8 M_sun dark satellite in the Einstein-ring system JVAS B1938+666 at z = 0.881, where M_sun denotes solar mass. This satellite galaxy has a mass similar to the Sagittarius galaxy, which is a satellite of the Milky Way. We determine the logarithmic slope of the mass function for substructure beyond the local Universe to be alpha = 1.1^+0.6_-0.4, ...

  19. Discovery of a Bright, Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarf in a Close Double Degenerate System

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S; Kawka, A; Nemeth, P; Skinner, J N; Pigulski, A; Steslicki, M; Kolaczkowski, Z; Srodka, P; 10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/L16

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright (V ~ 13.7), extremely low-mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M_solar and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P=0.246137 d, K_1 = 288 km/s) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M_2 ~ 0.9 M_solar. Light curves phased with the orbital ephemeris show evidence of relativistic beaming and weaker ellipsoidal variations. The light curves also reveal secondary eclipses (depth ~ 8 mmag) while the primary eclipses appear partially compensated by the secondary gravitational deflection and are below detection limits. Photospheric abundance measurements show a nearly solar composition of Si, Ca, and Fe (0.1-1 solar), while the normal kinematics suggest a relatively recent formation history. Close binary evolutionary scenarios ...

  20. Population synthesis of classical low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    van Haaften, L M; Voss, R; van der Sluys, M V; Toonen, S

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We model the present-day population of 'classical' low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with neutron star accretors, which have hydrogen-rich donor stars. Their population is compared with that of hydrogen-deficient LMXBs, known as ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs). We model the observable LMXB population and compare it to observations. Methods. We combine the binary population synthesis code SeBa with detailed LMXB evolutionary tracks to model the size and properties of the present-day LMXB population in the Galactic Bulge. Whether sources are persistent or transient, and what their instantaneous X-ray luminosities are, is predicted using the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results. We find a population of ~2.1 x 10^3 LMXBs with neutron star accretors. Of these about 15 - 40 are expected to be persistent (depending on model assumptions), with luminosities higher than 10^35 erg s^-1. About 7 - 20 transient sources are expected to be in outburst at any given time. Within a factor of two these number...

  1. Low-mass right-handed neutrinos in the left-right symmetric theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, M.; Yahalom, R.

    1984-04-09

    It is pointed out that the minimal left-right symmetric theory of the electroweak interactions based on SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L) may accommodate right-handed neutrinos in the low-mass region of order 100 MeV or so, quite a few orders of magnitude below m(Wsub(R)). When an attempt is made to construct such a scheme, consistent with the present upper limits on the left-handed neutrino masses, one faces the problem of the evasion of the cosmological bound of 50 eV on ..nu..sub(..mu..L). We show that this constraint may be avoided in a somewhat simplified scheme based on reasonable gross scales which characterize the Dirac and Majorana parts of the neutrino mass matrix. In a detailed study of the neutrino mass matrix this is shown not to be possible when the neutrino Dirac masses are assumed to be of the order of magnitude of the corresponding charged lepton masses. A phenomenologically consistent scheme with m(..nu..sub(R)) approx.= O(100 MeV) based on Dirac masses of order 1/10 msub(e) is described. 34 references.

  2. Abundant crystalline silicates in the disk of a very low mass star

    CERN Document Server

    Merin, B; Van Dishoeck, E F; Kessler-Silacci, J; Dullemond, C P; Blake, G A; Lahuis, F; Brown, J M; Geers, V C; Pontoppidan, K M; Comeron, F; Frasca, A; Guieu, S; Alcalá, J M; Boogert, A C A; II, N J E; D'Alessio, P; Mundy, L G; Chapman, N

    2007-01-01

    We announce the discovery of SST-Lup3-1, a very low mass star close to the brown dwarf boundary in Lupus III with a circum(sub)stellar disk, discovered by the `Cores to Disks' Spitzer Legacy Program from mid-, near-infrared and optical data, with very conspicuous crystalline silicate features in its spectrum. It is the first of such objects with a full 5 to 35 micron spectrum taken with the IRS and it shows strong 10 and 20 micron silicate features with high feature to continuum ratios and clear crystalline features out to 33 micron. The dust in the disk upper layer has a crystalline silicate grain fraction between 15% and 33%, depending on the assumed dust continuum. The availability of the full Spitzer infrared spectrum allows an analysis of the dust composition as a function of temperature and position in the disk. The hot (~ 300 K) dust responsible for the 10 micron feature consists of a roughly equal mix of small (~ 0.1 micron) and large (~ 1.5 micron) grains, whereas the cold (~ 70 K) dust responsible f...

  3. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Disks in Lupus

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, P R; Myers, P C; Megeath, S T; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Fazio, G G

    2007-01-01

    Using the Infrared Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, we have obtained images of the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 \\micron. We present photometry in these bands for the 41 previously known members that are within our images. In addition, we have identified 19 possible new members of the cloud based on red 3.6-8.0 \\micron colors that are indicative of circumstellar disks. We have performed optical spectroscopy on 6 of these candidates, all of which are confirmed as young low-mass members of Lupus 3. The spectral types of these new members range from M4.75 to M8, corresponding to masses of 0.2-0.03 $M_\\odot$ for ages of $\\sim1$ Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. We also present optical spectroscopy of a candidate disk-bearing object in the vicinity of the Lupus 1 cloud, 2M 1541-3345, which Jayawardhana & Ivanov recently classified as a young brown dwarf ($M\\sim0.03$ $M_\\odot$) with a spectral type of M8. In co...

  4. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phenix stars?*

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, M A; Córsico, A H; Kepler, S O; Althaus, L G; Koester, D; Arias, J P Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity for probing their interiors and to determine their evolution, by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims. We aim to analyze high-speed photometry of SDSSJ145847.02$+$070754.46 and SDSSJ173001.94$+$070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the $T_{\\rm eff} - \\log g$ diagram we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods. To carry out this study, we used the photometric data obtained by us for these stars with the 2.15m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analyzed their light curves and we apply the Discrete Fourier Transform to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the $T_{\\rm eff} - \\log g$ diagram, with known two pre-white dwarfs, seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, $\\delta$ Scuti and SX Phe stars. Results. We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSSJ145847.02$+$070754.46 and SDSSJ173001.9...

  5. Constraints on low-mass WIMPs from the EDELWEISS-III dark matter search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengaud, E.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Bergmann, T.; Billard, J.; Blümer, J.; de Boissière, T.; Bres, G.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Filosofov, D.; Foerster, N.; Fourches, N.; Garde, G.; Gascon, J.; Gerbier, G.; Giuliani, A.; Grollier, M.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Hervé, S.; Heuermann, G.; Humbert, V.; De Jésus, M.; Jin, Y.; Jokisch, S.; Juillard, A.; Kéfélian, C.; Kleifges, M.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le-Sueur, H.; Lin, J.; Mancuso, M.; Marnieros, S.; Menshikov, A.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Piro, M.-C.; Poda, D. V.; Queguiner, E.; Robinson, M.; Rodenas, H.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Scorza, S.; Siebenborn, B.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Vagneron, L.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zhang, X.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a search for elastic scattering from galactic dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the 4-30 GeV/c2 mass range. We make use of a 582 kg-day fiducial exposure from an array of 800 g Germanium bolometers equipped with a set of interleaved electrodes with full surface coverage. We searched specifically for ~ 2.5-20 keV nuclear recoils inside the detector fiducial volume. As an illustration the number of observed events in the search for 5 (resp. 20) GeV/c2 WIMPs are 9 (resp. 4), compared to an expected background of 6.1 (resp. 1.4). A 90% CL limit of 4.3 × 10-40 cm2 (resp. 9.4 × 10-44 cm2) is set on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section for 5 (resp. 20) GeV/c2 WIMPs. This result represents a 41-fold improvement with respect to the previous EDELWEISS-II low-mass WIMP search for 7 GeV/c2 WIMPs. The derived constraint is in tension with hints of WIMP signals from some recent experiments, thus confirming results obtained with different detection techniques.

  6. Colliding Winds in Low-Mass Binary Star Systems: wind interactions and implications for habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, C P; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Bisikalo, D; Güdel, M; Eggl, S

    2015-01-01

    Context. In binary star systems, the winds from the two components impact each other, leading to strong shocks and regions of enhanced density and temperature. Potentially habitable circumbinary planets must continually be exposed to these interactions regions. Aims. We study, for the first time, the interactions between winds from low-mass stars in a binary system, to show the wind conditions seen by potentially habitable circumbinary planets. Methods. We use the advanced 3D numerical hydrodynamic code Nurgush to model the wind interactions of two identical winds from two solar mass stars with circular orbits and a binary separation of 0.5 AU. As input into this model, we use a 1D hydrodynamic simulation of the solar wind, run using the Versatile Advection Code. We derive the locations of stable and habitable orbits in this system to explore what wind conditions potentially habitable planets will be exposed to during their orbits. Results. Our wind interaction simulations result in the formation of two stron...

  7. Leo P: A very low-mass, extremely metal-poor, star-forming galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Leo P Team

    2017-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy just outside the Local Group with properties that make it an ideal probe of galaxy evolution at the faint-end of the luminosity function. Using combined data from 2 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing campaigns, the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space telescope, as well as ground based data, we have constructed a robust evolutionary picture of Leo P. Leo P is one the most metal-poor, gas-rich galaxies ever discovered, has a stellar mass of a 5x105 Msun, comparable gas mass, and a single HII region. The star formation history reconstructed from the resolved stellar populations in Leo P shows it is unquenched, despite its very low mass. Based on the star formation history and metallicity measurements, the galaxy has lost 95% of its oxygen produced via nucleosynthesis, presumably to outflows. The neutral gas in the galaxy shows signs of rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. Thus, Leo P bridges the gap between more massive dwarf irregular and less massive dwarf spheroidals on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Furthermore, the galaxy hosts several, extremely dusty AGB candidates which will be probed with new HST and Spitzer observations. If confirmed as AGB stars, these may be our best local proxies for studying chemically unevolved star formation and subsequent dust production in metallicity environments comparable to the early universe.

  8. Evidence for Blow-out in the Low-mass Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg I

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, J; Brinks, E; Van Dyk, S D; Dirsch, B; Klein, U; Ott, Juergen; Walter, Fabian; Brinks, Elias; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Dirsch, Boris; Klein, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    We present radio and optical observations of Holmberg I (HoI), a member of the M81 group of galaxies (distance 3.6Mpc). HoI is a low-mass, low surface- brightness dwarf galaxy. High-resolution multi-array VLA HI observations reveal a supergiant shell (diameter: 1.7 kpc) which covers about half the optical extent of HoI and which comprises 75% of the total HI content (total HI mass: 1.1 10^8 M_o). We set a tentative upper limit to the dark matter content of < 3.1 10^8 M_o. The HI data are complemented by deep, optical UBV(RI)_c and Halpha observations obtained at the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope. We find M_HI/L_B = 1.1 M_o/L_B_o. The total visible (stars plus gas) mass of HoI adds up to 2.4 10^8 M_o. This leads to a total mass of < 5.5 10^8 M_o. The origin of HoI's peculiar HI morphology is discussed in terms of a supergiant shell created by strong stellar winds and supernova explosions (energy: equiv. 20-260 type II SN; age: 80+-20 Myr). The morphological center of HoI is offset by 0.75 kpc with respect to...

  9. Spectroscopic signatures of youth in low-mass kinematic candidates of young moving groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Clarke, J R A; Pavlenko, Ya V; Folkes, S L; Pinfield, D J; Jones, H R A; Jenkins, J S; Barnes, J R; Burningham, B; Day-Jones, A C; Martín, E L; Pérez, A E García; del Burgo, C; Pokorny, R S

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of age-related spectral signatures observed in 25 young low-mass objects that we have previously determined as possible kinematic members of five young moving groups: the Local Association (Pleiades moving group, age=20 - 150 Myr), the Ursa Major group (Sirius supercluster, age=300 Myr), the Hyades supercluster (age=600 Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (age=35--55 Myr) and the Castor moving group (age=200 Myr). In this paper we characterize the spectral properties of observed high or low resolution spectra of our kinematic members by fitting theoretical spectral distributions. We study signatures of youth, such as lithium {\\sc i} 6708 \\AA, H$\\alpha$ emission and other age-sensitive spectroscopic signatures in order to confirm the kinematic memberships through age constraints. We find that 21 ($84\\%$) targets show spectroscopic signatures of youth in agreement with the age ranges of the moving group to which membership is implied. For two further objects, age-related constraints remain difficult t...

  10. Spectroscopy and kinematics of low-mass members of young moving groups

    CERN Document Server

    Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Pinfield, D J; Jenkins, J S; Folkes, S L; Perez, A E Garcia; Day-Jones, A C; Burningham, B; Jones, H R A; Barnes, J R; Pokorny, R S

    2010-01-01

    We study a target sample of 68 low-mass objects (with spectral types in the range M4.5-L1) previously selected via photometric and astrometric criteria, as possible members of five young moving groups: the Local Association (Pleiades moving group, age=20 - 150 Myr), the Ursa Mayor group (Sirius supercluster, age=300 Myr), the Hyades supercluster (age=600 Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (age=35 - 55 Myr) and the Castor moving group (age=200 Myr). In this paper we assess their membership by using different kinematic and spectroscopic criteria. We use high resolution echelle spectroscopic observations of the sample to measure accurate radial velocities (RVs). Distances are calculated and compared to those of the moving group from the literature, we also calculate the kinematic Galactic components (U,V,W) of the candidate members and apply kinematic criterion of membership to each group. In addition we measure rotational velocities (v sin i) to place further constraints on membership of kinematic members. We find that...

  11. Discovery of Three Pulsating, Mixed Atmosphere, Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarf Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Gianninas, A; Fontaine, G; Browm, Warren R; Kilic, Mukremin

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in three mixed atmosphere, extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD, M $<$ 0.3 M$_{\\odot}$) precursors. Following the recent discoveries of pulsations in both ELM and pre-ELM WDs, we targeted pre-ELM WDs with mixed H/He atmospheres with high-speed photometry. We find significant optical variability in all three observed targets with periods in the range 320--590 s, consistent in time-scale with theoretical predictions of p-mode pulsations in mixed-atmosphere $\\approx$ 0.18 M$_{\\odot}$ He-core pre-ELM WDs. This represents the first empirical evidence that pulsations in pre-ELM WDs can only occur if a significant amount of He is present in the atmosphere. Future, more extensive, time-series photometry of the brightest of the three new pulsators offers an excellent opportunity to constrain the thickness of the surface H layer which regulates the cooling timescales for ELM WDs.

  12. Constraints on low-mass WIMPs from the EDELWEISS-III dark matter search

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Augier, C; Benoît, A; Bergé, L; Bergmann, T; Billard, J; Blümer, J; de Boissière, T; Bres, G; Broniatowski, A; Brudanin, V; Camus, P; Cazes, A; Chapellier, M; Charlieux, F; Dumoulin, L; Eitel, K; Filosofov, D; Foerster, N; Fourches, N; Garde, G; Gascon, J; Gerbier, G; Giuliani, A; Grollier, M; Gros, M; Hehn, L; Hervé, S; Heuermann, G; Humbert, V; De Jésus, M; Jin, Y; Jokisch, S; Juillard, A; Kéfélian, C; Kleifges, M; Kozlov, V; Kraus, H; Kudryavtsev, V A; Le-Sueur, H; Lin, J; Mancuso, M; Marnieros, S; Menshikov, A; Navick, X -F; Nones, C; Olivieri, E; Pari, P; Paul, B; Piro, M -C; Poda, D V; Queguiner, E; Robinson, M; Rodenas, H; Rozov, S; Sanglard, V; Schmidt, B; Scorza, S; Siebenborn, B; Tcherniakhovski, D; Vagneron, L; Weber, M; Yakushev, E; Zhang, X

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for elastic scattering from galactic dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the 4-30 GeV/$c^2$ mass range. We make use of a 582 kg-day fiducial exposure from an array of 800 g Germanium bolometers equipped with a set of interleaved electrodes with full surface coverage. We searched specifically for $\\sim 2.5-20$ keV nuclear recoils inside the detector fiducial volume. As an illustration the number of observed events in the search for 5 (resp. 20) GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs are 9 (resp. 4), compared to an expected background of 6.1 (resp. 1.4). A 90% CL limit of $4.3\\times 10^{-40}$ cm$^2$ (resp. $9.4\\times 10^{-44}$ cm$^2$) is set on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section for 5 (resp. 20) GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs. This result represents a 41-fold improvement with respect to the previous EDELWEISS-II low-mass WIMP search for 7 GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs. The derived constraint is in tension with hints of WIMP signals from some recent experiments, thus...

  13. Physical Properties of the Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary NSVS 02502726

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2012-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained $BVRI$ photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by \\cCakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modelled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of $-5.9\\times10^{-7}$ d yr$^{-1}$ or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yrs and 0.0011 d, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-...

  14. The low-mass classic Algol-type binary UU Leo revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui

    2013-12-01

    New multi-color photometry of the eclipsing binary UU Leo, acquired from 2010 to 2013, was carried out by using the 60-cm and 85-cm telescopes at the Xinglong station, which is administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, the photometric solution was derived from BVR light curves. The results imply that UU Leo is a semi-detached Algol-type binary, with a mass ratio of q = 0.100(±0.002). The change in orbital period was reanalyzed based on all available eclipsing times. The O - C curve could be described by an upward parabola superimposed on a quasi-sinusoidal curve. The period and semi-amplitudes are Pmod = 54.5(±1.1) yr and A = 0.0273d(±0.0015d), which may be attributed to the light-time effect via the presence of an invisible third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +4.64(±0.14) × 10-7d yr-1, which may be interpreted by the conserved mass being transferred from the secondary to the primary. With mass being transferred, the low-mass Algol-type binary UU Leo may evolve into a binary system with a main sequence star and a helium white dwarf.

  15. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIII. DZ Piscium with Intrinsic Light Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, L.-Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7(± 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC2 in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P mod = 11.89(± 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064(± 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43(+/- 0.17)\\times 10^{-7}{\\,days\\, yr^{-1}}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J spin/J orb > 1/3.

  16. On the width and shape of the corotation region for low-mass planets

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, S -J

    2009-01-01

    We study the coorbital flow for embedded, low mass planets. We provide a simple semi-analytic model for the corotation region, which is subsequently compared to high resolution numerical simulations. The model is used to derive an expression for the half-width of the horseshoe region, x_s, which in the limit of zero softening is given by x_s/r_p = 1.68(q/h)^(1/2), where q is the planet to central star mass ratio, h is the disc aspect ratio and r_p the orbital radius. This is in very good agreement with the same quantity measured from simulations. This result is used to show that horseshoe drag is about an order of magnitude larger than the linear corotation torque in the zero softening limit. Thus the horseshoe drag, the sign of which depends on the gradient of specific vorticity, is important for estimates of the total torque acting on the planet. We further show that phenomena, such as the Lindblad wakes, with a radial separation from corotation of ~ a pressure scale height H can affect x_s, even though for...

  17. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Jonker, P G

    2007-01-01

    Chandra or XMM-Newton observations of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries can provide important constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. The mass and radius of the neutron star can potentially be determined from fitting a neutron star atmosphere model to the observed X-ray spectrum. For a radius measurement it is of critical importance that the distance to the source is well constrained since the fractional uncertainty in the radius is at least as large as the fractional uncertainty in the distance. Uncertainties in modelling the neutron star atmosphere remain. At this stage it is not yet clear if the soft thermal component in the spectra of many quiescent X-ray binaries is variable on timescales too short to be accommodated by the cooling neutron star scenario. This can be tested with a long XMM-Newton observation of the neutron star X-ray transient CenX-4 in quiescence. With such an observation one can use the Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum to constrain the interstellar extinction to t...

  18. A Transient Black-Hole Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Candidate in Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Sivakoff, Gregory R; Jordán, Andrés; Juett, Adrienne M; Evans, Daniel A; Forman, William R; Hardcastle, Martin J; Sarazin, Craig L; Birkinshaw, Mark; Brassington, Nicola J; Croston, Judith H; Harris, William E; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S; Raychaudhury, Somak; Woodley, Kristin A; Worrall, Diana M

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright transient X-ray source, CXOU J132518.2-430304, towards Centaurus A (Cen A) using six new Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations in 2007 March--May. Between 2003 and 2007, its flux has increased by a factor of >770. The source is likely a low-mass X-ray binary in Cen A with unabsorbed 0.3-10 keV band luminosities of (2-3) x 10^{39} erg s^-1 and a transition from the steep-power law state to the thermal state during our observations. CXOU J132518.2-430304 is the most luminous X-ray source in an early-type galaxy with extensive timing information that reveals transience and a spectral state transition. Combined with its luminosity, these properties make this source one of the strongest candidates to date for containing a stellar-mass black hole in an early-type galaxy. Unless this outburst lasts many years, the rate of luminous transients in Cen A is anomalously high compared to other early-type galaxies.

  19. Photometric and spectroscopic study of low mass embedded star clusters in reflection nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the candidate embedded stellar systems in the reflection nebulae vdBH-RN 26, vdBH-RN} 38, vdBH-RN} 53a, GGD 20, ESO 95-RN 18 and NGC 6595 is presented. Optical spectroscopic data from CASLEO (Argentina) in conjunction with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue were employed. The analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams together with theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field population affecting the analysis by carrying out a statistical subtraction. The fundamental parameters for the stellar systems were derived. The resulting ages are in the range 1-4 Myr and the objects are dominated by pre-main sequence stars. The observed masses locked in the clusters are less than 25 M⊙. The studied systems have no stars of spectral types earlier than B, indicating that star clusters do not necessarily evolve through an HII region phase. The relatively small locked mass combined with the fact that they are not numerous in catalogues suggests that these low mass clusters are not important donors of stars to the field populations. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  20. Near infrared photometric and optical spectroscopic study of 22 low mass star clusters embedded in nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Among the star clusters in the Galaxy, those embedded in nebulae represent the youngest group, which has only recently been explored. The analysis of a sample of 22 candidate embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII environments is presented. Methods: We employed optical spectroscopic observations of stars in the directions of the clusters carried out at CASLEO (Argentina) together with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS catalogue. Our analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour diagrams and on theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field star contamination by carrying out a statistical subtraction. Results: The studied objects have the characteristics of low mass systems. We derive their fundamental parameters. Most of the cluster ages are younger than 2 Myr. The studied embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII region complexes do not have stars of spectral types earlier than B. The total stellar masses locked in the clusters are in the range 20-220 M⊙. They are found to be gravitationally unstable and are expected to dissolve in a timescale of a few Myr. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  1. Low-mass Drift Chambers of the PHENIX central spectrometers at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Riabov, Y

    2002-01-01

    Beginning of regular operation of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory opened unique possibilities for the study of nuclear matter at unprecedentedly high energies. PHENIX is one of the two large-scale experiments at RHIC, which is intended for detection and study of new state of matter--the so called quark-gluon plasma. The basic element of the PHENIX Central Tracking System is low-mass focusing Drift Chamber (DC). Distinctive features of ion-ion collisions at RHIC impose specific requirements on the DC which could not be satisfied by any structure developed earlier. DC should provide high efficiency of track reconstruction with use of 'hot' gas mixture under conditions of high charged particle densities, high collision rates and large-scale of the detector (6 m sup 3). Detailed description of the DC and its original wire structure characterized by the absence of left-right ambiguity and controlled charge collection geometry are given. Parameters of the DC during the first...

  2. Shockingly low water abundances in Herschel / PACS observations of low-mass protostars in Perseus

    CERN Document Server

    Karska, A; van Dishoeck, E F; Drozdovskaya, M N; Mottram, J C; Herczeg, G J; Bruderer, S; Cabrit, S; Evans, N J; Fedele, D; Gusdorf, A; Jorgensen, J K; Kaufman, M J; Melnick, G J; Neufeld, D A; Nisini, B; Santangelo, G; Tafalla, M; Wampfler, S F

    2014-01-01

    Protostars interact with their surroundings through jets and winds impacting on the envelope and creating shocks, but the nature of these shocks is still poorly understood. Our aim is to survey far-infrared molecular line emission from a uniform and significant sample of deeply-embedded low-mass young stellar objects in order to characterize shocks and the possible role of ultraviolet radiation in the immediate protostellar environment. Herschel/PACS spectral maps of 22 objects in the Perseus molecular cloud were obtained as part of the `William Herschel Line Legacy' survey. Line emission from H$_\\mathrm{2}$O, CO, and OH is tested against shock models from the literature. Observed line ratios are remarkably similar and do not show variations with source physical parameters. Observations show good agreement with the shock models when line ratios of the same species are compared. Ratios of various H$_\\mathrm{2}$O lines provide a particularly good diagnostic of pre-shock gas densities, $n_\\mathrm{H}\\sim10^{5}$ c...

  3. Probing the effects of external irradiation on low-mass protostars through unbiased line surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, Johan E; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) Context: The envelopes of molecular gas around embedded low-mass protostars show different chemistries, which can be used to trace their formation history and physical conditions. The excitation of some molecular species can also be used to trace these physical conditions, making it possible to constrain e.g. sources of heating and excitation. Aims: To study the range of influence of an intermediate-mass Herbig Be protostar, and to find what chemical and physical impact feedback effects from the environment may have on embedded protostars. Methods: We follow up on an earlier line survey of the Class 0/I source R CrA IRS7B in the 0.8 mm window with an unbiased line survey of the same source in the 1.3 mm window using the APEX telescope. We also study the excitation of the key species H2CO, CH3OH, and c-C3H2 in a complete sample of the 18 embedded protostars in the Corona Australis star-forming region. Radiative transfer models are used to establish abundances of the molecular species. Results: We de...

  4. Disks and Outflows in CO Rovibrational Emission from Embedded, Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Herczeg, Gregory J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Pontoppidan, Klaus M

    2011-01-01

    Young circumstellar disks that are still embedded in dense molecular envelopes may differ from their older counterparts, but are historically difficult to study because emission from a disk can be confused with envelope or outflow emission. CO fundamental emission is a potentially powerful probe of the disk/wind structure within a few AU of young protostars. In this paper, we present high spectral (R=90,000) and spatial (0.3") resolution VLT/CRIRES M-band spectra of 18 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) with dense envelopes in nearby star-froming regions to explore the utility of CO fundamental 4.6 micron emission as a probe of very young disks. CO fundamental emission is detected from 14 of the YSOs in our sample. The emission line profiles show a range of strengths and shapes, but can generally be classified into a broad, warm component and a narrow, cool component. The broad CO emission is detected more frequently from YSOs with bolometric luminosities of 15 Lsun, and as with CO emission from CTTSs is a...

  5. A grid of 1D low-mass star formation collapse models

    CERN Document Server

    Vaytet, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The current study was developed to provide a database of relatively simple numerical simulations of protostellar collapse, as a template library for observations of cores and very young protostars, and for researchers who wish to test their chemical modeling under dynamic astrophysical conditions. It was also designed to identify statistical trends that may appear when running many models of the formation of low-mass stars by varying the initial conditions. A large set of 143 calculations of the gravitational collapse of an isolated sphere of gas with uniform temperature and a Bonnor-Ebert like density profile was undertaken using a 1D fully implicit Lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics code. The parameter space covered initial masses from 0.2 to 8 Msun, temperatures of 5-30 K and radii between 3000 and 30,000 AU. A spread in the thermal evolutionary tracks of the runs was found, due to differing initial conditions and optical depths. Within less than an order of magnitude, all first and second Larson cores had...

  6. NSVS06507557; a low-mass double-lined eclipsing binary

    CERN Document Server

    Cakirli, O

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the V=13$^m$.4 low-mass eclipsing binary NSVS 06507557 with an orbital period of 0.515 d. We obtained a series of mid-resolution spectra covering nearly entire orbit of the system. In addition we obtained simultaneous VRI broadband photometry using a small aperture telescope. From these spectroscopic and photometric data we have derived the system's orbital parameters and determined the fundamental stellar parameters of the two components. Our results indicate that NSVS 06507557 consists of a K9 and an M3 pre-main-sequence stars with masses of 0.66$\\pm$0.09 \\Msun and 0.28$\\pm$0.05 \\Msun and radii of 0.60$\\pm$0.03 and 0.44$\\pm$0.02 \\Rsun, located at a distance of 111$\\pm$9 pc. The radius of the less massive secondary component is larger than that of the zero-age main-sequnce star having the same mass. While the radius of the primary component is in agreement with ZAMS the secondary component appers to be larger by abou...

  7. The first low-mass stars: critical metallicity or dust-to-gas ratio?

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Raffaella; Bianchi, Simone; Valiante, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    We explore the minimal conditions which enable the formation of metal-enriched solar and sub-solar mass stars. We find that in the absence of dust grains, gas fragmentation occurs at densities nH ~ [10^4-10^5]cm^{-3} when the metallicity exceeds Z ~ 10^{-4} Zsun. The resulting fragmentation masses are > 10 Msun. The inclusion of Fe and Si cooling does not affect the thermal evolution as this is dominated by molecular cooling even for metallicities as large as Z = 10^{-2} Zsun. The presence of dust is the key driver for the formation of low-mass stars. We focus on three representative core-collapse supernova (SN) progenitors, and consider the effects of reverse shocks of increasing strength: these reduce the depletion factors, fdep = Mdust/(Mdust+Mmet), alter the shape of the grain size distribution function and modify the relative abundances of grain species and of metal species in the gas phase. We find that the lowest metallicity at which fragmentation occurs is Z=10^{-6} Zsun for gas pre-enriched by the ex...

  8. Beta Pictoris and AB Doradus Moving Groups: Likely New Low-Mass Members

    CERN Document Server

    Schlieder, Joshua E; Simon, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We present results from our continuing program to identify new, low-mass, members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) using a proper motion selection algorithm and various observational techniques. We have three goals: 1) To provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, 2) To complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs down to ~0.1 Msun, and thus 3) Provide a well-characterized sample of nearby (median distances at least twice as close as the Taurus and Ophiuchus SFR's), young (8-50 Myr) stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity. Our program proceeds as follows: we apply the selection algorithm to a proper motion catalog where initial selection cuts of candidate members are based on the mean motion of known NYMG members and the proper motions and photometric distances of the candidates. NYMG membership is investigated further using possible signs of youth, including H-alpha emission and X-ray flux, and then verified through radial velocity (R...

  9. A LOFAR detection of the low mass young star T Tau at 149 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlan, Colm P; Eislöffel, Jochen; Hoeft, Matthias; Drabent, Alexander; Scaife, Anna M M; Ray, Tom P; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Corbel, Stéphane; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; van der Horst, Alexander J; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Markoff, Sera; Pietka, Malgorzata; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Zarka, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Radio observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) enable the study of ionised plasma outflows from young protostars via their free-free radiation. Previous studies of the low-mass young system T Tau have used radio observations to model the spectrum and estimate important physical properties of the associated ionised plasma (local electron density, ionised gas content and emission measure). However, without an indication of the low-frequency turnover in the free-free spectrum, these properties remain difficult to constrain. This paper presents the detection of T Tau at 149 MHz with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) - the first time a YSO has been observed at such low frequencies. The recovered total flux indicates that the free-free spectrum may be turning over near 149 MHz. The spectral energy distribution is fitted and yields improved constraints on local electron density ($(7.2 \\pm 2.1)\\times10^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$), ionised gas mass ($(1.0 \\pm 1.8)\\times10^{-6}$ M$_{\\odot}$) and emission measure ($(1.67 \\pm 0.14...

  10. A LOFAR Detection of the Low-mass Young Star T Tau at 149 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Colm P.; Ainsworth, Rachael E.; Eislöffel, Jochen; Hoeft, Matthias; Drabent, Alexander; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Ray, Tom P.; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Corbel, Stéphane; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; van der Horst, Alexander J.; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Markoff, Sera; Pietka, Malgorzata; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Zarka, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Radio observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) enable the study of ionized plasma outflows from young protostars via their free–free radiation. Previous studies of the low-mass young system T Tau have used radio observations to model the spectrum and estimate important physical properties of the associated ionized plasma (local electron density, ionized gas content, and emission measure). However, without an indication of the low-frequency turnover in the free–free spectrum, these properties remain difficult to constrain. This paper presents the detection of T Tau at 149 MHz with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR)—the first time a YSO has been observed at such low frequencies. The recovered total flux indicates that the free–free spectrum may be turning over near 149 MHz. The spectral energy distribution is fitted and yields improved constraints on local electron density ((7.2+/- 2.1)× {10}3 cm‑3), ionized gas mass ((1.0+/- 1.8)× {10}-6 {M}ȯ ), and emission measure ((1.67+/- 0.14)× {10}5 pc cm‑6).

  11. High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed with Herschel-HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Yıldız, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Jose-Garcia, Irene San; Karska, Agata; Harsono, Daniel; Tafalla, Mario; Fuente, Asuncion; Visser, Ruud; Jørgensen, Jes K; Hogerheijde, Michiel R

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) has traditionally been traced through dust continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but the use of CO excitation as an evolutionary probe has not yet been explored due to lack of high-J CO observations. The aim is to constrain the physical characteristics (excitation, kinematics, column density) of the warm gas toward 26 low-mass Class 0 and I YSOs using spectrally-resolved Herschel Space Observatory data of high-J lines of CO. Data are complemented by ground-based observations from APEX and the JCMT to compare those with the colder gas traced by lower-J CO lines. This is the first large spectrally resolved high-J CO survey conducted for these types of sources. The median excitation temperatures for 12CO, 13CO and C18O derived from single-temperature fits to the J_u=2-10 integrated intensities are ~70K, 48K and 37K, respectively, with no significant difference between Class 0 and I sources and no trend with M_env or L_bol. Thus, in contrast ...

  12. Radiation-tolerant, low-mass, high bandwidth, flexible printed circuit cables for particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, N. C.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Seidel, S.

    2016-09-01

    The design of meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low-mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is described. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with 100 Ω nominal impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. Several dielectric materials are compared. To reduce mass, a cross hatched ground plane is applied. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests, attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to temperature induced stress, and dimensional implications on radiation length. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2×1016/cm2 and 800 MeV protons to 2×1016 1-MeV neutron equivalent/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable with cross hatched ground plane, effective bandwidth of 4.976 gigabits per second, 0.0160% of a radiation length, and no detectable radiation-induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  13. Hot Organic Molecules Toward a Young Low-Mass Star: A Look at Inner Disk Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lahuis, F; Boogert, A C A; Dullemond, C P; Hogerheijde, M R; Jørgensen, J K; Kessler-Silacci, J E; Knez, C; Pontoppidan, K M; Van Dishoeck, E F

    2006-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the low mass young stellar object (YSO) IRS 46 (L_bol ~ 0.6 L_sun) in Ophiuchus reveal strong vibration-rotation absorption bands of gaseous C2H2, HCN, and CO2. This is the only source out of a sample of ~100 YSO's that shows these features and the first time they are seen in the spectrum of a solar-mass YSO. Analysis of the Spitzer data combined with Keck L- and M-band spectra gives excitation temperatures of > 350 K and abundances of 10(-6)-10(-5) with respect to H2, orders of magnitude higher than those found in cold clouds. In spite of this high abundance, the HCN J=4-3 line is barely detected with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, indicating a source diameter less than 13 AU. The (sub)millimeter continuum emission and the absence of scattered light in near-infrared images limits the mass and temperature of any remnant collapse envelope to less than 0.01 M_sun and 100 K, respectively. This excludes a hot-core type region as found in high-mass YSO's. The most plausible o...

  14. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  15. Radiation-tolerant, low-mass, high bandwidth, flexible printed circuit cables for particle physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, N.C.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Seidel, S.

    2016-09-11

    The design of meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low-mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is described. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with 100 Ω nominal impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. Several dielectric materials are compared. To reduce mass, a cross hatched ground plane is applied. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests, attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to temperature induced stress, and dimensional implications on radiation length. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2×10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and 800 MeV protons to 2×10{sup 16} 1-MeV neutron equivalent/cm{sup 2}. A 1.0 m Kapton cable with cross hatched ground plane, effective bandwidth of 4.976 gigabits per second, 0.0160% of a radiation length, and no detectable radiation-induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  16. Pleiades low-mass brown dwarfs: the cluster L dwarf sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Bailer-Jones, C A L; Mundt, R; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Torres, A M

    2006-01-01

    We present a search for low-mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades open cluster. The identification of Pleiades members fainter and cooler than those currently known allows us to constrain evolutionary models for L dwarfs and to extend the study of the cluster mass function to lower masses. We conducted a 1.8 deg^2 near-infrared J-band survey at the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope, with completeness J~19.0. The detected sources were correlated with those of previously available optical I-band images (completeness I~22). Using a J versus I-J colour-magnitude diagram, we identified 18 faint red L-type candidates, with magnitudes 17.43.2. If Pleiades members, their masses would span ~0.040-0.020 M_Sol. We performed follow-up HKs-band imaging to further confirm their cluster membership by photometry and proper motion. Out of 11 IJ candidates with proper motion measurements, we find six cluster members, two non-members and three whose membership is uncertain and depends on the intrinsic velocity dispersion of Pleiades brown ...

  17. A low-mass dark matter search using ionization signals in XENON100

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Anthony, M; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Breur, P A; Breskin, A; Brown, A; Bruenner, E Brown S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Buss, A; Bütikofer, L; Cardoso, J M R; Cervantes, M; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; de Perio, P; Di Gangi, P; Di Giovanni, A; Duchovni, E; Ferella, A D; Fieguth, A; Franco, D; Fulgione, W; Galloway, M; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Gross, E; Hasterok, C; Hogenbirk, E; Itay, R; Kaminsky, B; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Levinson, L; Calloch, M Le; Levy, C; Linde, F; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Lyashenko, A; Manfredini, A; Undagoitia, T Marrodán; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Masson, D; Mayani, D; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Rupp, N; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Simgen, H; Stein, A; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Tunnell, C D; von Sivers, M; Wall, R; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wulf, J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    We perform a low-mass dark matter search using an exposure of 30 kg$\\times$yr with the XENON100 detector. By dropping the requirement of a scintillation signal and using only the ionization signal to determine the interaction energy, we lowered the energy threshold for detection to 0.7 keV for nuclear recoils. No dark matter detection can be claimed because a complete background model cannot be constructed without a primary scintillation signal. Instead, we compute an upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section under the assumption that every event passing our selection criteria could be a signal event. Using an energy interval from 0.7 keV to 9.1 keV, we derive a limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section that excludes WIMPs with a mass of 6 GeV/$c^2$ above $1.2 \\times 10^{-41}$ cm$^2$ at 90\\% confidence level.

  18. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC1333

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensen, L E; van Dishoeck, E F; Yıldız, U A; Doty, S D; Herczeg, G J; Liu, F -C; Parise, B; Jørgensen, J K; van Kempen, T A; Brinch, C; Wampfler, S F; Bruderer, S; Benz, A O; Hogerheijde, M R; Deul, E; Bachiller, R; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E A; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G A; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; de Graauw, Th; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; Helmich, F; Herpin, F; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Kaufman, M J; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Liseau, R; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago-Garcia, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; Tafalla, M; Tielens, A G G M; van der Tak, F; Wyrowski, F; Beintema, D; de Jonge, A; Dieleman, P; Ossenkopf, V; Roelfsema, P; Stutzki, J; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    'Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel' (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC1333 in several H2-16O, H2-18O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H16O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km/s), medium-broad (~5-10 km/s), and narrow (20 km/s), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H2-16O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (<1000 AU) and large scales along the out...

  19. The effects of rotation on the surface composition and yields of low mass AGB stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.

    Over the past 20 years, stellar evolutionary models have been strongly improved in order to reproduce with reasonable accuracy both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Notwithstanding, the majority of these models do not take into account macroscopic phenomena, like rotation and/or magnetic fields. Their explicit treatment could modify stellar physical and chemical properties. One of the most interesting problems related to stellar nucleosynthesis is the behavior of the s-process spectroscopic indexes ([hs/ls] and [Pb/hs]) in Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. In this contribution we show that, for a fixed metallicity, rotation can lead to a spread in the [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] in low-mass AGB stars. In particular, we demonstrate that the Eddington-Sweet and the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instabilities may have enough time to smear the 13C-pocket (the major neutron source) and the 14N-pocket (the major neutron poison). In fact, a different overlap between these pockets leads to a different neutrons-to-seeds ratio, with important consequences on the corresponding s-process distributions. Possible consequences on the chemical evolution of Galactic globular clusters are discussed.

  20. EVOLUTION OF TRANSIENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES TO REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-11-20

    Redback millisecond pulsars (MSPs; hereafter redbacks) are a subpopulation of eclipsing MSPs in close binaries. The formation processes of these systems are not clear. The three pulsars showing transitions between rotation- and accretion-powered states belong to both redbacks and transient low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), suggesting a possible evolutionary link between them. Through binary evolution calculations, we show that the accretion disks in almost all LMXBs are subject to the thermal-viscous instability during certain evolutionary stages, and the parameter space for the disk instability covers the distribution of known redbacks in the orbital period—companion mass plane. We accordingly suggest that the abrupt reduction of the mass accretion rate during quiescence of transient LMXBs provides a plausible way to switch on the pulsar activity, leading to the formation of redbacks, if the neutron star has been spun up to be an energetic MSP. We investigate the evolution of redbacks, taking into account the evaporation feedback, and discuss its possible influence on the formation of black widow MSPs.

  1. On the horseshoe drag of a low-mass planet. I - Migration in isothermal disks

    CERN Document Server

    Casoli, J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formal- ism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horse- shoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feed-back on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width...

  2. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Collapsing Low-mass Prestellar Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincelin, U.; Commerçon, B.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Herbst, E.

    2016-05-01

    The first hydrostatic core, also called the first Larson core, is one of the first steps in low-mass star formation as predicted by theory. With recent and future high-performance telescopes, the details of these first phases are becoming accessible, and observations may confirm theory and even present new challenges for theoreticians. In this context, from a theoretical point of view, we study the chemical and physical evolution of the collapse of prestellar cores until the formation of the first Larson core, in order to better characterize this early phase in the star formation process. We couple a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical model with full gas-grain chemistry, using different assumptions for the magnetic field strength and orientation. We extract the different components of each collapsing core (i.e., the central core, the outflow, the disk, the pseudodisk, and the envelope) to highlight their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Each component often presents a specific physical history, as well as a specific chemical evolution. From some species, the components can clearly be differentiated. The different core models can also be chemically differentiated. Our simulation suggests that some chemical species act as tracers of the different components of a collapsing prestellar dense core, and as tracers of the magnetic field characteristics of the core. From this result, we pinpoint promising key chemical species to be observed.

  3. Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries, Millisecond Radio Pulsars, and the Cosmic Star Formation Rate

    CERN Document Server

    White, N E; White, Nicholas E.; Ghosh, Pranab

    1998-01-01

    We report on the implications of the peak in the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) at redshift z ~ 1.5 for the resulting population of low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXB) and for that of their descendants, the millisecond radio pulsars (MRP). Since the evolutionary timescales of LMXBs, their progenitors, and their descendants are thought be significant fractions of the time-interval between the SFR peak and the present epoch, there is a lag in the turn-on of the LMXB population, with the peak activity occurring at z ~ 0.5 - 1.0. The peak in the MRP population is delayed further, occurring at z < 0.5. We show that the discrepancy between the birthrate of LMXBs and MRPs, found under the assumption of a stead-state SFR, can be resolved for the population as a whole when the effects of a time-variable SFR are included. A discrepancy may persist for LMXBs with short orbital periods, although a detailed population synthesis will be required to confirm this. Further, since the integrated X-ray luminosity distribution of...

  4. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  5. Micromachined low-mass RF front-end for beam steering radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidpour, M.; Moallem, M.; East, J.; Sarabandi, K.

    2012-06-01

    Sensors for autonomous small robotic platforms must be low mass, compact size and low power due to the limited space. For such applications, as the dimensions of the structures shrink, standard machining methods are not suitable because of low fabrication tolerances and high cost in assembly. Commonly, the structures show a high degree of fabrication complexity due to error in alignment, air gaps between conductive parts, poor metal contact, inaccuracy in patterning because of non-contact lithography, complex assemblies of various parts, and high number of steps needed for construction. However, micromachining offers high fabrication precision, provides easy fabrication and integration with active devices and hence is suitable for manufacturing high MMW and submillimeter-wave frequency structures. A radar design compatible with micromachining process is developed to fabricate a Y-band high resolution radar structure with a slot-fed patch array antenna. A multi-step silicon DRIE process is developed for the fabrication of the waveguide structure while the slots are suspended on a thin oxide/nitride/oxide membrane to form the top cover of the waveguide trenches and the patch elements are suspended on a thin Parylene membrane. Gold thermocompression bonding and Parylene bonding are used to assemble different parts of the antenna. These processes result in a compact (4.5 cm × 3.5 cm × 1.5 mm) and light-weight (5 g) radar.

  6. The Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars in Chamaleon-I

    CERN Document Server

    Olofsson, J; Henning, Th; Linz, H; Pascucci, I; Joergens, V

    2013-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are expected to be the birthplaces of planets. The potential for forming one or more planets of various masses is essentially driven by the initial mass of the disks. We present and analyze Herschel/PACS observations of disk-bearing M-type stars that belong to the young ~2 Myr old Chamaleon-I star forming region. We used the radiative transfer code RADMC to successfully model the SED of 17 M-type stars detected at PACS wavelengths. We first discuss the relatively low detection rates of M5 and later spectral type stars with respect to the PACS sensitivity, and argue their disks masses, or flaring indices, are likely to be low. For M0 to M3 stars, we find a relatively broad range of disk masses, scale heights, and flaring indices. Via a parametrization of dust stratification, we can reproduce the peak fluxes of the 10 $\\mu$m emission feature observed with Spitzer/IRS, and find that disks around M-type stars may display signs of dust sedimentation. The Herschel/PACS observations of low-mass s...

  7. Deep observations of O2 toward a low-mass protostar with Herschel-HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Yıldız, Umut A; Goldsmith, Paul F; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Melnick, Gary; Snell, Ronald; Liseau, Rene; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Pagani, Laurent; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Herbst, Eric; Kristensen, Lars E; Visser, Ruud; Lis, Dariusz C; Gerin, Maryvonne

    2013-01-01

    According to traditional gas-phase chemical models, O2 should be abundant in molecular clouds, but until recently, attempts to detect interstellar O2 line emission with ground- and space-based observatories have failed. Following the multi-line detections of O2 with low abundances in the Orion and rho Oph A molecular clouds with Herschel, it is important to investigate other environments, and we here quantify the O2 abundance near a solar-mass protostar. Observations of O2, at 487 GHz toward a deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 protostar, NGC 1333-IRAS 4A, are presented, using the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Complementary data of the chemically related NO and CO molecules are obtained as well. The high spectral resolution data are analysed using radiative transfer models to infer column densities and abundances, and are tested directly against full gas-grain chemical models. The deep HIFI spectrum fails to show O2 at the velocity of the dense protostellar envelope, implying one of the low...

  8. A suppressed contribution of low mass galaxies to reionization due to supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wyithe, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations of the star formation rate density function out to z~7, we describe a simple model for the star formation rate density function at high redshift based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism. This model postulates a starburst following each major merger, lasting for a time t_SF and converting at most f_star of galactic gas into stars. We include a simple physical prescription for supernovae feedback that suppresses star formation in low mass galaxies. Constraining t_SF and f_star to describe the observed star formation rate density at high redshifts, we find that individual starbursts were terminated after a time t_SF~10^7 years. This is comparable to the main-sequence lifetimes of supernova progenitors, indicating that high redshift starbursts are quenched once supernovae feedback had time to develop. High redshift galaxies convert ~10% of their mass into stars for galaxies with star formation rates above ~1 solar mass per year, but a smaller fraction for lower luminosity g...

  9. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIV. A Statistical Analysis of 46 Sample Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2015-09-01

    A sample of 46 deep, low mass ratio (DLMR) overcontact binaries (i.e., q≤slant 0.25 and f≥slant 50%) is statistically analyzed in this paper. It is found that five relations possibly exist among some physical parameters. The primary components are little-evolved main sequence stars that lie between the zero-age main sequence line and the terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) line. Meanwhile, the secondary components may be evolved stars above the TAMS line. The super-luminosities and large radii may result from energy transfer, which causes their volumes to expand. The equations of M-L and M-R for the components are also determined. The relation of P-Mtotal implies that mass may escape from the central system when the orbital period decreases. The minimum mass ratio may preliminarily be {q}{min}=0.044(+/- 0.007) from the relations of q-f and q-Jspin/Jorb. With mass and angular momentum loss, the orbital period decreases, which finally causes this kind of DLMR overcontact binary to merge into a rapid-rotating single star.

  10. Galactic globular clusters as a test for very-low-mass stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassisi, S.; Castellani, V.; Ciarcelluti, P.; Piotto, G.; Zoccali, M.

    2000-07-01

    We make use of the `Next Generation' model atmospheres of Allard et al. and Hauschildt, Allard & Baron to compute theoretical models for low- and very-low-mass stars for selected metallicities in the range Z=0.0002 to 0.002. On this basis, we present theoretical predictions covering the sequence of H-burning stars as observed in Galactic globulars from the faint end of the main sequence up to, and beyond, the cluster turn-off. The role played by the new model atmospheres is discussed, showing that present models appear in excellent agreement with models by Baraffe et al. as computed on a quite similar physical basis. One finds that the theoretical mass-luminosity relations based on this updated set of models are in good agreement with the empirical data provided by Henry & McCarthy. Comparison with HST observation discloses that the location on the colour-magnitude diagram of the lower main sequence in Galactic globular clusters appears again in good agreement with the predicted sensitive dependence of these sequences on the cluster metallicity.

  11. An Effective Selection Method for Low-Mass Active Black Holes and First Spectroscopic Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yasuda, Naoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Taniguchi, Yuki; Kato, Takahiro; Jiang, Ji-an; Nagao, Tohru; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Blinnikov, Sergei; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Doi, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to effectively select objects which may be low-mass active black holes (BHs) at galaxy centers using high-cadence optical imaging data, and our first spectroscopic identification of an active 2.7x10^6 Msun BH at z=0.164. This active BH was originally selected due to its rapid optical variability, from a few hours to a day, based on Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam~(HSC) g-band imaging data taken with 1-hour cadence. Broad and narrow H-alpha and many other emission lines are detected in our optical spectra taken with Subaru FOCAS, and the BH mass is measured via the broad H-alpha emission line width (1,880 km s^{-1}) and luminosity (4.2x10^{40} erg s^{-1}) after careful correction for the atmospheric absorption around 7,580-7,720A. We measure the Eddington ratio to be as low as 0.05, considerably smaller than those in a previous SDSS sample with similar BH mass and redshift, which indicates one of the strong potentials of our Subaru survey. The g-r color and morphology of the extended component...

  12. A Low-mass Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy UGC 06728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Batiste, Merida; Seals, James; Garcia, Karen; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peters, Wesley; Anderson, Matthew D.; Jones, Jeremy; Lester, Kathryn; Machuca, Camilo; Parks, J. Robert; Pope, Crystal L.; Revalski, Mitchell; Roberts, Caroline A.; Saylor, Dicy; Sevrinsky, R. Andrew; Turner, Clay

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a recent reverberation mapping campaign for UGC 06728, a nearby low-luminosity Seyfert 1 in a late-type galaxy. Nightly monitoring in the spring of 2015 allowed us to determine an Hβ time delay of τ =1.4+/- 0.8 days. Combined with the width of the variable Hβ line profile, we determine a black hole mass of {M}{BH}=(7.1+/- 4.0)× {10}5 {M}⊙ . We also constrain the bulge stellar velocity dispersion from higher-resolution long-slit spectroscopy along the galaxy minor axis and find {σ }\\star =51.6+/- 4.9 km s-1. The measurements presented here are in good agreement with both the {R}{BLR}{--}L relationship and the {M}{BH}{--}{σ }\\star relationship for active galactic nuclei. Combined with a previously published spin measurement, our mass determination for UGC 06728 makes it the lowest-mass black hole that has been fully characterized, and thus an important object to help anchor the low-mass end of black hole evolutionary models.

  13. Low mass binary neutron star mergers : gravitational waves and neutrino emission

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D; Roberts, Luke; Kidder, Lawrence E; Lippuner, Jonas; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Neutron star mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for advanced ground-based detectors. These mergers are also expected to power bright electromagnetic signals, in the form of short gamma-ray bursts, infrared/optical transients, and radio emission. Simulations of these mergers with fully general relativistic codes are critical to understand the merger and post-merger gravitational wave signals and their neutrinos and electromagnetic counterparts. In this paper, we employ the SpEC code to simulate the merger of low-mass neutron star binaries (two $1.2M_\\odot$ neutron stars) for a set of three nuclear-theory based, finite temperature equations of state. We show that the frequency peaks of the post-merger gravitational wave signal are in good agreement with predictions obtained from simulations using a simpler treatment of gravity. We find, however, that only the fundamental mode of the remnant is excited for long periods of time: emission at the secondary peaks is damped on a milli...

  14. Chemical and physical characterization of collapsing low-mass prestellar dense cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hincelin, U; Wakelam, V; Hersant, F; Guilloteau, S; Herbst, E

    2016-01-01

    The first hydrostatic core, also called the first Larson core, is one of the first steps in low-mass star formation, as predicted by theory. With recent and future high performance telescopes, details of these first phases become accessible, and observations may confirm theory and even bring new challenges for theoreticians. In this context, we study from a theoretical point of view the chemical and physical evolution of the collapse of prestellar cores until the formation of the first Larson core, in order to better characterize this early phase in the star formation process. We couple a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical model with full gas-grain chemistry, using different assumptions on the magnetic field strength and orientation. We extract the different components of each collapsing core (i.e., the central core, the outflow, the disk, the pseudodisk, and the envelope) to highlight their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Each component often presents a specific physical history, as well as a sp...

  15. THE KINEMATICS OF THE NEBULAR SHELLS AROUND LOW MASS PROGENITORS OF PNe WITH LOW METALLICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, Margarita; López, José Alberto; Richer, Michael G., E-mail: mally@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 106, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, BC, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-15

    We analyze the internal kinematics of 26 planetary nebulae (PNe) with low metallicity that appear to derive from progenitor stars of the lowest masses, including the halo PN population. Based upon spatially resolved, long-slit, echelle spectroscopy drawn from the San Pedro Mártir Kinematic Catalog of PNe, we characterize the kinematics of these PNe measuring their global expansion velocities based upon the largest sample used to date for this purpose. We find kinematics that follow the trends observed and predicted in other studies, but also find that most of the PNe studied here tend to have expansion velocities less than 20 km s{sup −1} in all of the emission lines considered. The low expansion velocities that we observe in this sample of low metallicity PNe with low mass progenitors are most likely a consequence of a weak central star (CS) wind driving the kinematics of the nebular shell. This study complements previous results that link the expansion velocities of the PN shells with the characteristics of the CS.

  16. No evidence for multiple stellar populations in the low-mass Galactic globular cluster E 3

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M~1.4 x 10^4 M_sun) globular cluster E 3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue CN absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multi stellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E 3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found.

  17. Intermittent dipping in a low-mass X-ray Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Duncan K; Upjohn, James; Stuart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Periodic dips observed in approx. 20% of low-mass X-ray binaries are thought to arise from obscuration of the neutron star by the outer edge of the accretion disk. We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of two dipping episodes in Aql X-1, not previously a known dipper. The X-ray spectrum during the dips exhibited an elevated neutral column density, by a factor between 1 and almost two orders of magnitude. Dips were not observed in every cycle of the 18.95-hr orbit, so that the estimated frequency for these events is 0.10 (+0.07,-0.05)/cycle. This is the first confirmed example of intermittent dipping in such a system. Assuming that the dips in Aql X-1 occur because the system inclination is intermediate between the non-dipping and dipping sources, implies a range of 72-79 deg. for the source. This result lends support for the presence of a massive (> 2 M_sun) neutron star in Aql X-1, and further implies that approx. 30 additional LMXBs may have inclinations within this range, raising the...

  18. A census of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the sigma Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Rebolo, R; Martín, E L; Hambly, N C

    2009-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We have analysed the near-infrared photometric data from the Fourth Data Release (DR4) of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Suvey (UKIDSS) Galactic Clusters Survey (GCS) to derive the cluster luminosity and mass functions, evaluate the extent of the cluster, and study the distribution and variability of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs down to the deuterium-burning limit. We have recovered most of the previously published members and found a total of 287 candidate members within the central 30 arcmin in the 0.5-0.009 Msun mass range, including new objects not previously reported in the literature. This new catalogue represents a homogeneous dataset of brown dwarf member candidates over the central 30 arcmin of the cluster. The expected photometric contamination by field objects with similar magnitudes and colours to sigma Orionis members is ~15%. We present evidence of variability at the 99.5% confidence level over ~yearly timescales in 10 member candidates that exhibit signs of youth and the presence of ...

  19. Fast and accurate mock catalogue generation for low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Jun; Blake, Chris; Beutler, Florian; Kazin, Eyal; Marin, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate and fast framework for generating mock catalogues including low-mass haloes, based on an implementation of the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) technique. Multiple realisations of mock catalogues are crucial for analyses of large-scale structure, but conventional N-body simulations are too computationally expensive for the production of thousands of realizations. We show that COLA simulations can produce accurate mock catalogues with a moderate computation resource for low- to intermediate-mass galaxies in 1012 M⊙ haloes, both in real and redshift space. COLA simulations have accurate peculiar velocities, without systematic errors in the velocity power spectra for k ≤ 0.15 h Mpc-1, and with only 3-per cent error for k ≤ 0.2 h Mpc-1. We use COLA with 10 time steps and a Halo Occupation Distribution to produce 600 mock galaxy catalogues of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. Our parallelized code for efficient generation of accurate halo catalogues is publicly available at github.com/junkoda/cola_halo.

  20. Statistics of Low-Mass Companions to Stars: Implications for Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Black, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more significant results from observational astronomy over the past few years has been the detection, primarily via radial velocity studies, of low-mass companions (LMCs) to solar-like stars. The commonly held interpretation of these is that the majority are "extrasolar planets" whereas the rest are brown dwarfs, the distinction made on the basis of apparent discontinuity in the distribution of M sin i for LMCs as revealed by a histogram. We report here results from statistical analysis of M sin i, as well as of the orbital elements data for available LMCs, to rest the assertion that the LMCs population is heterogeneous. The outcome is mixed. Solely on the basis of the distribution of M sin i a heterogeneous model is preferable. Overall, we find that a definitive statement asserting that LMCs population is heterogeneous is, at present, unjustified. In addition we compare statistics of LMCs with a comparable sample of stellar binaries. We find a remarkable statistical similarity between these two populations. This similarity coupled with marked populational dissimilarity between LMCs and acknowledged planets motivates us to suggest a common origin hypothesis for LMCs and stellar binaries as an alternative to the prevailing interpretation. We discuss merits of such a hypothesis and indicate a possible scenario for the formation of LMCs.

  1. On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, James; McHardy, Ian; Merle, Alexander; Morris, Tim R; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-01-27

    Dark Matter (DM) is an elusive form of matter which has been postulated to explain astronomical observations through its gravitational effects on stars and galaxies, gravitational lensing of light around these, and through its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This indirect evidence implies that DM accounts for as much as 84.5% of all matter in our Universe, yet it has so far evaded all attempts at direct detection, leaving such confirmation and the consequent discovery of its nature as one of the biggest challenges in modern physics. Here we present a novel form of low-mass DM χ that would have been missed by all experiments so far. While its large interaction strength might at first seem unlikely, neither constraints from particle physics nor cosmological/astronomical observations are sufficient to rule out this type of DM, and it motivates our proposal for direct detection by optomechanics technology which should soon be within reach, namely, through the precise position measurement of a levitated mesoscopic particle which will be perturbed by elastic collisions with χ particles. We show that a recently proposed nanoparticle matter-wave interferometer, originally conceived for tests of the quantum superposition principle, is sensitive to these collisions, too.

  2. Classical bulges, supermassive blackholes and AGN feedback: Extension to low-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhankui

    2014-01-01

    The empirical model of Lu et al. 2014a for the relation between star formation rate and halo mass growth is adopted to predict the classical bulge mass ($M_{\\rm cb}$) - total stellar mass ($M_\\star$) relation for central galaxies. The assumption that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass ($M_{\\rm BH}$) is directly proportional to the classical bulge mass, with the proportionality given by that for massive galaxies, predicts a $M_{\\rm BH}$ - $M_\\star$ relation that matches well the observed relation for different types of galaxies. In particular, the model reproduces the strong transition at $M_\\star=10^{10.5}$ - $10^{11}M_{\\odot}$, below which $M_{\\rm BH}$ drops rapidly with decreasing $M_\\star$. Our model predicts a new sequence at $M_\\star 10^{11}M_{\\odot}$. If all SMBH grow through similar quasar modes with a feedback efficiency of a few percent, the energy produced in low-mass galaxies at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$ can heat the circum-galactic medium up to a specific entropy level that is required to prevent...

  3. Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of low mass AGB stars at different metallicities (II): the FRUITY database

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, Sergio; Straniero, Oscar; Gallino, Roberto; Dominguez, Inma; Abia, Carlos; DiRico, Gianluca; Quintini, Massimo; Bisterzo, Sara

    2011-01-01

    By using updated stellar low mass stars models, we can systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in AGB stars, when these objects experience recurrent thermal pulses and third dredge-up episodes. In this paper we present the database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: the FRUITY (FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields) database. An interactive web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 < M/Msun < 3.0 and metallicities 1e-3 < Z < 2e-2, is discussed here. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parametrization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynt...

  4. Constraints of the physics of low-mass AGB stars from CH and CEMP stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, S; Goswami, A; Piersanti, L; Gobrecht, D

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a set of published elemental abundances from a sample of CH stars which are based on high resolution spectral analysis of ELODIE and SUBARU/HDS spectra. All the elemental abundances were derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis usingmodel atmospheres, and thus, they represent the largest homogeneous abundance data available for CH stars up to date. For this reason, we can use the set to constrain the physics and the nucleosynthesis occurring in low mass AGB stars. CH stars have been polluted in the past from an already extinct AGB companion and thus show s-process enriched surfaces. We discuss the effects induced on the surface AGB s-process distributions by different prescriptions for convection and rotation. Our reference theoretical FRUITY set fits only part of the observations. Moreover, the s-process observational spread for a fixed metallicity cannot be reproduced. At Fe/H]>-1, a good fit is found when rotation and a different treatment of the inner border of the convective envel...

  5. High spatial resolution mid-infrared observations of the low-mass young star TW Hya

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzka, T; Henning, T; Bouwman, J; Dullemond, C P; Jaffe, W

    2007-01-01

    We want to improve knowledge of the structure of the inner few AU of the circumstellar disk around the nearby T Tauri star TW Hya. Earlier studies have suggested the existence of a large inner hole, possibly caused by interactions with a growing protoplanet. We used interferometric observations in the N-band obtained with the MIDI instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, together with 10 micron spectra recorded by the infrared satellite Spitzer. The fact that we were able to determine N-band correlated fluxes and visibilities for this comparatively faint source shows that MIR interferometry can be applied to a large number of low-mass young stellar objects. The MIR spectra obtained with Spitzer reveal emission lines from HI (6-5), HI (7-6), and [Ne II] and show that over 90% of the dust we see in this wavelength regime is amorphous. According to the correlated flux measured with MIDI, most of the crystalline material is in the inner, unresolved part of the disk, about 1 AU in radius. The visibil...

  6. observations of hot molecular gas emission from embedded low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, R.; Kristensen, L. E.; Bruderer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Young stars interact vigorously with their surroundings, as evident from the highly rotationally excited CO (up to Eu/k = 4000 K) and H2O emission (up to 600 K) detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in embedded low-mass protostars. Our aim is to construct a model that reproduces...... the observations quantitatively, to investigate the origin of the emission, and to use the lines as probes of the various heating mechanisms. Methods. The model consists of a spherical envelope with a power-law density structure and a bipolar outflow cavity. Three heating mechanisms are considered: passive heating...... such as luminosity and envelope mass. Results. The bulk of the gas in the envelope, heated by the protostellar luminosity, accounts for 3–10% of the CO luminosity summed over all rotational lines up to J = 40–39; it is best probed by low-J CO isotopologue lines such as C18O 2–1 and 3–2. The UV-heated gas and the C...

  7. Tidal Timelines: Evolution of Terrestrial Exoplanet Habitability Around Low Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, K.; Barnes, R.

    2009-12-01

    The range of orbits for planetary habitability have traditionally been based on the stellar flux that allows liquid water to persist on a planetary surface. However, when considering terrestrial (rocky) planets close to a low mass star (≤0.35M⊙), tidal effects must be considered because of the additional energy input from tidal heating. Of further interest is the time over which habitable conditions are generated by tidal interaction. Tides cause orbital evolution, during which the heat flux varies, which may cause the planet to migrate in and out of habitable zones and possibly result in sterilization. So, the heating history of a planet should be a consideration when searching for life-supporting planets. We apply heat flux limitations on habitability (based on observations within our solar system) and tidally evolve planets across a range of initial conditions of orbits and masses. Our results provide a visualization of the time a planet has spent with a favorable amount of tidal heat for habitability and/or the amount of time until the heating is no longer conducive to habitability. As a greater number of close in terrestrial planets are found, these results can provide a method for identifying those planets with the highest potential for life.

  8. The kinematics of the nebular shells around low mass progenitors of PNe with low metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Margarita; Richer, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the internal kinematics of 26 Planetary Nebulae (PNe) with low metallicity that appear to derive from progenitor stars of the lowest masses, including the halo PN population. Based upon spatially-resolved, long-slit, echelle spectroscopy drawn from the San Pedro M\\'artir Kinematic Catalogue of PNe (L\\'opez et al. 2012), we characterize the kinematics of these PNe measuring their global expansion velocities based upon the largest sample used to date for this purpose. We find kinematics that follow the trends observed and predicted in other studies, but also find that most of the PNe studied here tend to have expansion velocities less than 20 km/s in all of the emission lines considered. The low expansion velocities that we observe in this sample of low metallicity planetary nebulae with low mass progenitors are most likely a consequence of a weak central star wind driving the kinematics of the nebular shell. This study complements previous results (Pereyra et al. 2013, and references therein) that l...

  9. Low-mass stellar and substellar companions to sdB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Bruenner, P; Nagel, K; Schaffenroth, V; Heuser, C; Heber, U; Drechsel, H; Edelmann, H; Koen, C; O'Toole, S J; Morales-Rueda, L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that besides stellar companions, substellar objects in close orbits may be able to trigger mass loss in a common envelope phase and form hot subdwarfs. In an ongoing project we search for close substellar companions combining time resolved high resolution spectroscopy with photometry. We determine the fraction of as yet undetected radial velocity variable systems from a sample of 27 apparently single sdB stars to be 16%. We discovered low-mass stellar companions to the He-sdB CPD-20 1123 and the pulsator KPD 0629-0016. The brown dwarf reported to orbit the eclipsing binary SDSS J0820+0008 could be confirmed by an analysis of high resolution spectra taken with UVES. Reflection effects have been detected in the light curves of the known sdB binaries CPD-64 481 and BPS CS 22169-0001. The inclinations of these systems must be much higher than expected and the most likely companion masses are in the substellar regime. Finally, we determined the orbit of the sdB binary PHL 457, which has a ver...

  10. Chandra Observations of the Faintest Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C A; Kouveliotou, C; Jonker, P G; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Belloni, T; Méndez, M; Wilson, Colleen. A.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Jonker, Peter G.; Klis, Michiel van der; Lewin, Walter H.G; Belloni, Tomaso; Mendez, Mariano

    2003-01-01

    There exists a group of persistently faint galactic X-ray sources that, based on their location in the galaxy, high L_x/L_opt, association with X-ray bursts, and absence of low frequency X-ray pulsations, are thought to be low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). We present results from Chandra observations for eight of these systems: 4U 1708-408, 2S 1711-339, KS 1739-304, SLX 1735-269, GRS 1736-297, SLX 1746-331, 1E 1746.7-3224, and 4U 1812-12. Locations for all sources, excluding GRS 1736-297, SLX 1746-331, and KS 1739-304 (which were not detected) were improved to 0.6" error circles (90% confidence). Our observations support earlier findings of transient behavior of GRS 1736-297, KS 1739-304, SLX 1746-331, and 2S 1711-339 (which we detect in one of two observations). Energy spectra for 4U 1708-408, 2S 1711-339, SLX 1735-269, 1E 1746.7-3224, and 4U 1812-12 are hard, with power law indices typically 1.4-2.1, which are consistent with typical faint LMXB spectra.

  11. NSVS07394765: A new low-mass eclipsing binary below 0.6 M_sun

    CERN Document Server

    Çakirli, Ö

    2013-01-01

    The multi-color photometric and spectroscopic (based on observations obtained with the T{\\"U}B{\\.I}TAK National Observatory 1.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the T{\\"U}B{\\.I}TAK) observations of the newly discovered eclipsing binary NSVS 07394765 were obtained. The resultant light and radial velocities were analysed and the global parameters of the system: T$_{1}$=3 300 K; T$_{2}$=3 106 K; M$_1$=0.36 M$_{\\odot}$; M$_2$=0.18 M$_{\\odot}$; R$_1$=0.46 R$_{\\odot}$; R$_2$=0.50 R$_{\\odot}$; L$_{1}$=0.030 L$_{\\odot}$; L$_2$=0.026 L$_{\\odot}$; $i=89.2{^\\circ}$; $a=5.97$ R$_{\\odot}$; $d=28$ pc. The chromospheric activity of its components is revealed by strong emission in the H$\\alpha$ line and observed flares. Empirical relations for mass-radius and mass-temperature are derived on the basis of the parameters of known binaries with low-mass dM components.

  12. Under Pressure: Quenching Star Formation in Low-Mass Satellite Galaxies via Stripping

    CERN Document Server

    Fillingham, Sean P; Pace, Andrew B; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Wheeler, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of galaxies in the local Universe, including those in the Local Group, find that the efficiency of environmental (or satellite) quenching increases dramatically at satellite stellar masses below ~ $10^8\\ {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$. This suggests a physical scale where quenching transitions from a slow "starvation" mode to a rapid "stripping" mode at low masses. We investigate the plausibility of this scenario using observed HI surface density profiles for a sample of 66 nearby galaxies as inputs to analytic calculations of ram-pressure and viscous stripping. Across a broad range of host properties, we find that stripping becomes increasingly effective at $M_{*} < 10^{8-9}\\ {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$, reproducing the critical mass scale observed. However, for canonical values of the circumgalactic medium density ($n_{\\rm halo} < 10^{-3.5}$ ${\\rm cm}^{-3}$), we find that stripping is not fully effective; infalling satellites are, on average, stripped of < 40 - 70% of their cold gas reservoir, which is insuf...

  13. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Hector O; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The lowest neutron star masses currently measured are in the range $1.0-1.1~M_\\odot$, but these measurement have either large uncertainties or refer to isolated neutron stars. The recent claim of a precisely measured mass $M/M_{\\odot} = 1.174 \\pm 0.004$ by Martinez et al [Astrophys.J. 812, 143 (2015)] in a double neutron star system suggests that low-mass neutron stars may be an interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors. Furthermore, Sotani et al [PTEP 2014, 051E01 (2014)] recently found empirical formulas relating the mass and surface redshift of nonrotating neutron stars to the star's central density and to the parameter $\\eta\\equiv (K_0 L^2)^{1/3}$, where $K_0$ is the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and $L$ is the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. Motivated by these considerations, we extend the work by Sotani et al to slowly rotating and tidally deformed neutron stars. We compute the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, quadrupole ellipticity, tidal and rotationa...

  14. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hector O.; Sotani, Hajime; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    The lowest neutron star masses currently measured are in the range 1.0-1.1 M⊙, but these measurement have either large uncertainties or refer to isolated neutron stars. The recent claim of a precisely measured mass M/M⊙ = 1.174 ± 0.004 (Martinez et al. 2015) in a double neutron star system suggests that low-mass neutron stars may be an interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors. Furthermore, Sotani et al. recently found empirical formulas relating the mass and surface redshift of non-rotating neutron stars to the star's central density and to the parameter η ≡ (K0L2)1/3, where K0 is the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and L is the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. Motivated by these considerations, we extend the work by Sotani et al. to slowly rotating and tidally deformed neutron stars. We compute the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, quadrupole ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love number and apsidal constant of slowly rotating neutron stars by integrating the Hartle-Thorne equations at second order in rotation, and we fit all of these quantities as functions of η and of the central density. These fits may be used to constrain η, either via observations of binary pulsars in the electromagnetic spectrum, or via near-future observations of inspiralling compact binaries in the gravitational-wave spectrum.

  15. Aeronomical constraints to the minimum mass and maximum radius of hot low-mass planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Erkaev, N. V.; Lammer, H.; Cubillos, P. E.; Odert, P.; Juvan, I.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Lendl, M.; Kubyshkina, D.; Bauer, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    Stimulated by the discovery of a number of close-in low-density planets, we generalise the Jeans escape parameter taking hydrodynamic and Roche lobe effects into account. We furthermore define Λ as the value of the Jeans escape parameter calculated at the observed planetary radius and mass for the planet's equilibrium temperature and considering atomic hydrogen, independently of the atmospheric temperature profile. We consider 5 and 10 M⊕ planets with an equilibrium temperature of 500 and 1000 K, orbiting early G-, K-, and M-type stars. Assuming a clear atmosphere and by comparing escape rates obtained from the energy-limited formula, which only accounts for the heating induced by the absorption of the high-energy stellar radiation, and from a hydrodynamic atmosphere code, which also accounts for the bolometric heating, we find that planets whose Λ is smaller than 15-35 lie in the "boil-off" regime, where the escape is driven by the atmospheric thermal energy and low planetary gravity. We find that the atmosphere of hot (i.e. Teq ⪆ 1000 K) low-mass (Mpl ⪅ 5 M⊕) planets with Λmass (Mpl ⪅ 10 M⊕) planets with Λmass and maximum radius and can be used to predict the presence of aerosols and/or constrain planetary masses, for example.

  16. Self-consistent evolution of accreting low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I; Vorobyov, E I; Chabrier, G

    2016-01-01

    We present self-consistent calculations coupling numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing pre-stellar cores and stellar evolution models of accreting objects. We analyse the main impact of consistent accretion history on the evolution and lithium depletion of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. These consistent models confirm the generation of a luminosity spread in Herzsprung-Russell diagrams at ages $\\sim$ 1-10 Myr. They also confirm that early accretion can produce objects with abnormal Li depletion, as found in a previous study that was based on arbitrary accretion rates. The results strengthen that objects with anomalously high level of Li depletion in young clusters should be extremely rare. We also find that early phases of burst accretion can produce coeval models of similar mass with a range of different Li surface abundances, and in particular with Li-excess compared to the predictions of non-accreting counterparts. This result is due to a subtle competition between the effect of burst a...

  17. Powered Tate Pairing Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo Gyeong; Park, Je Hong

    In this letter, we provide a simple proof of bilinearity for the eta pairing. Based on it, we show an efficient method to compute the powered Tate pairing as well. Although efficiency of our method is equivalent to that of the Tate pairing on the eta pairing approach, but ours is more general in principle.

  18. Pairings on hyperelliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Jennifer; Chisholm, Sarah; Eisentraeger, Kirsten; Stange, Katherine; Teske, Edlyn

    2009-01-01

    We assemble and reorganize the recent work in the area of hyperelliptic pairings: We survey the research on constructing hyperelliptic curves suitable for pairing-based cryptography. We also showcase the hyperelliptic pairings proposed to date, and develop a unifying framework. We discuss the techniques used to optimize the pairing computation on hyperelliptic curves, and present many directions for further research.

  19. The Interior Structure Constants as an Age Diagnostic for Low-Mass, Pre-Main Sequence Detached Eclipsing Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method for determining the ages of low-mass, pre-main sequence stellar systems using the apsidal motion of low-mass detached eclipsing binaries. The apsidal motion of a binary system with an eccentric orbit provides information regarding the interior structure constants of the individual stars. These constants are related to the normalized stellar interior density distribution and can be extracted from the predictions of stellar evolution models. We demonstrate that low-mass, pre-main sequence stars undergoing radiative core contraction display rapidly changing interior structure constants (greater than 5% per 10 Myr) that, when combined with observational determinations of the interior structure constants (with 5 -- 10% precision), allow for a robust age estimate. This age estimate, unlike those based on surface quantities, is largely insensitive to the surface layer where effects of magnetic activity are likely to be most pronounced. On the main sequence, where age sensitivity is minimal,...

  20. BANYAN. V. A SYSTEMATIC ALL-SKY SURVEY FOR NEW VERY LATE-TYPE LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-01-10

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ∼13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the Two Micron All Sky Survey and AllWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98,970 potential ≥M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr{sup –1}. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYAN II to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segregation in the AB Doradus moving group and the Tucana-Horologium and Columba associations. The BASS sample has already been successful in identifying several new young brown dwarfs in earlier publications, and will be of great interest in studying the initial mass function of YMGs and for the search of exoplanets by direct imaging; the input sample of potential close-by ≥M5 dwarfs will be useful to study the kinematics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and search for new proper motion pairs.

  1. A search of new samples of active galactic nuclei with low-mass black holes from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yuan, W.; Zhou, H.; Dong, X.-B.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the progress of our on-going work to search for low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei. The masses of black holes are estimated using the broad line width and luminosity obtained from one-epoch optical spectra. As the first step, we fitted the spectra of 1263 objects in the quasar catalog of the SDSS DR10 and obtained accurate measurement of the emission lines. Two AGNs are found to have M BH ~ 106 M⊙. The next step is to analyze the spectra of the DR10 galaxy sample, from which a much larger sample of low-mass AGNs is expected to be obtained.

  2. Main parameters of neutron stars from quasi-periodic oscillations in low mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Muccino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations of low-mass X-ray binaries within the Hartle-Thorne spacetime. On the basis the relativistic precession model we extract the total mass $M$, angular momentum $J$, and quadrupole moment $Q$ of a compact object in a low-mass X-ray binary by analyzing the data of the Z -source GX 5-1. In view of the recent neutron star model we compute the radius, angular velocity and other parameters of this source by imposing the observational and theoretical constraints on the mass-radius relation.

  3. Lense-Thirring precession in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with low frequencies (0.01-70 Hz) have been observed in the X-ray light curves of most neutron-star and black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. Despite having been discovered more than 25 years ago, their origin is still not well understood. Similarities between the low-frequency QPOs in the two types of systems suggest that they have a common origin in the accretion flows around black holes and neutron stars. Some of the proposed models that attempt to explain low- frequency QPOs invoke a General Relativistic effect known as Lense-Thirring precession (or "frame dragging"). However, for Lense-Thirring precession to produce substantial modulations of the X-ray flux through relativistic beaming and gravitational lensing, the rotation axis of the inner part of the accretion disk needs to have a substantial tilt (10-20 degrees) with respect to the spin axis of the compact object. We argue that observational evidence for such titled inner accretion disks can be found in the variability of neutron- star low-mass X-ray binaries that are viewed at inclination angles of 60-80 degrees. In these systems low-frequency QPOs at ~0.1-15 Hz are observed that modulate the emission from the neutron star by quasi-periodic obscuration, presumably by a titled inner disc. The goal of our proposed program is to test whether the frequency evolution and spectral state dependence of these QPOs is similar to what is observed for the low-frequency QPOs that are observed in lower-inclination neutron-star X-ray binaries. To make such a comparison, we need to better characterize the properties and behavior of these QPOs. Our study will make use of almost 1300 RXTE observations of 11 sources, totaling 5.7 Ms of data. Signatures of strong gravity have long been sought after in accreting compact objects. While strong evidence from spectral features has emerged in the last decade (e.g. gravitationally broadened iron emission lines), there have only been hints of such

  4. THE ISLANDS PROJECT. I. ANDROMEDA XVI, AN EXTREMELY LOW MASS GALAXY NOT QUENCHED BY REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monelli, Matteo; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart 7005, TAS (Australia); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Mayer, Lucio [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); McConnachie, Alan [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: monelli@iac.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2016-03-10

    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its lifetime star formation history (SFH), the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ∼6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low-mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus it is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the SFH as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the SFH: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than in the external regions, although the quenching age appears to be the same, within 1 Gyr. We also report the discovery of nine RR Lyrae (RRL) stars, eight of which belong to And XVI. The RRL stars allow a new estimate of the distance, (m − M){sub 0} = 23.72 ± 0.09 mag, which is marginally larger than previous estimates based on the tip of the red giant branch.

  5. TRACING COLD H I GAS IN NEARBY, LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Petersen, Eric A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); West, Andrew A., E-mail: warren@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: walter@mpia.de, E-mail: eapeter2@illinois.edu, E-mail: Baerbel.Koribalski@csiro.au, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (H I) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array-ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T {approx}< 1400 K) H I from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc beam{sup -1}. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total H I mass and nine magnitudes in M{sub B} . We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low-dispersion (<6 km s{sup -1}) component of the spectrum. Most H I spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km s{sup -1}. Cold H I is found in 23 of 27 ({approx}85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality-control cuts. The cold H I contributes {approx}20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm H I. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold H I emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions of <6 km s{sup -1}), are found primarily beyond the optical radius of the host galaxy. The cold H I is typically found in localized regions and is generally not coincident with the very highest surface density peaks of the global H I distribution (which are usually areas of recent star formation). We find a lower limit for the mass fraction of cold-to-total H I gas of only a few percent in each galaxy.

  6. Hystereses in dwarf nova outbursts and low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameury, J.-M.; Lasota, J.-P.; Knigge, C.; Körding, E. G.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The disc instability model (DIM) successfully explains why many accreting compact binary systems exhibit outbursts during which their luminosity increases by orders of magnitude. The DIM correctly predicts which systems should be transient and works regardless of whether the accretor is a black hole, a neutron star, or a white dwarf. However, it has been known for some time that the outbursts of X-ray binaries, which contain neutron-star or black-hole accretors, exhibit hysteresis in the X-ray hardness-intensity diagram (HID). More recently, it has been shown that the outbursts of accreting white dwarfs also show hysteresis, but in a diagram combining optical, EUV, and X-ray fluxes. Aims: We examine the nature of the hysteresis observed in cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries. Methods: We used our disc evolution code for modelling dwarf nova outbursts, and constructed the hardness intensity diagram as predicted by the disc instability model. Results: We show explicitly that the standard DIM, modified only to account for disc truncation, can explain the hysteresis observed in accreting white dwarfs, but cannot explain that observed in X-ray binaries. Conclusions: The spectral evidence for the existence of different accretion regimes or components (disc, corona, jets, etc.) should only be based on wavebands that are specific to the innermost parts of the discs, i.e. EUV and X-rays; this task is difficult because of interstellar absorption. The existing data, however, indicate that a hysteresis is in the EUV - X-ray domain is present in SS Cyg.

  7. Constraints of the Physics of Low-mass AGB Stars from CH and CEMP Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallo, S.; Karinkuzhi, D.; Goswami, A.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze a set of published elemental abundances from a sample of CH stars which are based on high resolution spectral analysis of ELODIE and SUBARU/HDS spectra. All the elemental abundances were derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres, and thus they represent the largest homogeneous abundance data available for CH stars to date. For this reason, we can use the set to constrain the physics and the nucleosynthesis occurring in low mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) s.tars. CH stars have been polluted in the past from an already extinct AGB companion and thus show s-process enriched surfaces. We discuss the effects induced on the surface AGB s-process distributions by different prescriptions for convection and rotation. Our reference theoretical FRUITY set fits only part of the observations. Moreover, the s-process observational spread for a fixed metallicity cannot be reproduced. At [Fe/H] > -1, a good fit is found when rotation and a different treatment of the inner border of the convective envelope are simultaneously taken into account. In order to increase the statistics at low metallicities, we include in our analysis a selected number of CEMP stars and, therefore, we compute additional AGB models down to [Fe/H] = -2.85. Our theoretical models are unable to attain the large [hs/ls] ratios characterizing the surfaces of those objects. We speculate on the reasons for such a discrepancy, discussing the possibility that the observed distribution is a result of a proton mixing episode leading to a very high neutron density (the so-called i-process).

  8. THE ORIGIN OF BLACK HOLE SPIN IN GALACTIC LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragos, T. [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); McClintock, J. E., E-mail: anastasios.fragkos@unige.ch [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Galactic field black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are believed to form in situ via the evolution of isolated binaries. In the standard formation channel, these systems survived a common envelope phase, after which the remaining helium core of the primary star and the subsequently formed BH are not expected to be highly spinning. However, the measured spins of BHs in LMXBs cover the whole range of spin parameters. We propose here that the BH spin in LMXBs is acquired through accretion onto the BH after its formation. In order to test this hypothesis, we calculated extensive grids of detailed binary mass-transfer sequences. For each sequence, we examined whether, at any point in time, the calculated binary properties are in agreement with their observationally inferred counterparts of 16 Galactic LMXBs. The ''successful'' sequences give estimates of the mass that the BH has accreted since the onset of Roche-Lobe overflow. We find that in all Galactic LMXBs with measured BH spin, the origin of the spin can be accounted for by the accreted matter, and we make predictions about the maximum BH spin in LMXBs where no measurement is yet available. Furthermore, we derive limits on the maximum spin that any BH can have depending on current properties of the binary it resides in. Finally we discuss the implication that our findings have on the BH birth-mass distribution, which is shifted by ∼1.5 M {sub ☉} toward lower masses, compared to the currently observed one.

  9. β Pictoris and AB Doradus Moving Groups: Likely New Low-mass Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Lépine, Sébastien; Simon, Michal

    2010-07-01

    We present results from our continuing program to identify new, low-mass, members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) using a proper motion selection algorithm and various observational techniques. We have three goals: (1) to provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, (2) to complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs down to ~0.1 M sun, and thus (3) provide a well-characterized sample of nearby (median distances at least twice as close as the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions), young (8-50 Myr) stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity. Our program proceeds as follows: we apply the selection algorithm to a proper motion catalog where initial selection cuts of candidate members are based on the mean motion of known NYMG members and the proper motions and photometric distances of the candidates. NYMG membership is investigated further using possible signs of youth, including Hα emission and X-ray flux, and then verified through radial velocity measurements. We identify TYC 1766-1431-1 (M3), TYC 1208-468-1 and 2 (K3), TYC 7558-655-1 (K5), and PM I04439+3723W and E (M3) as likely members of the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) and TYC 1741-2117-1N and S (K7), TYC 1752-63-1 (K7), TYC 523-573-1 (K7), and TYC 4943-192-1 (M0) as likely members of the AB Doradus moving group (ABDMG). We also rule out the membership of several BPMG and ABDMG candidates. To date our program has identified 16 new NYMG members of spectral type K3 or later.

  10. Pruning The ELM Survey: Characterizing Candidate Low-mass White Dwarfs through Photometric Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Gianninas, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Kilic, Mukremin; Montgomery, M. H.; Castanheira, B. G.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, K. I.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the photometric variability of nine stars with spectroscopic Teff and log g values from the ELM Survey that locates them near the empirical extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf instability strip. We discover three new pulsating stars: SDSS J135512.34+195645.4, SDSS J173521.69+213440.6, and SDSS J213907.42+222708.9. However, these are among the few ELM Survey objects that do not show radial velocity (RV) variations that confirm the binary nature expected of helium-core white dwarfs. The dominant 4.31 hr pulsation in SDSS J135512.34+195645.4 far exceeds the theoretical cut-off for surface reflection in a white dwarf, and this target is likely a high-amplitude δ Scuti pulsator with an overestimated surface gravity. We estimate the probability to be less than 0.0008 that the lack of measured RV variations in four of eight other pulsating candidate ELM white dwarfs could be due to low orbital inclination. Two other targets exhibit variability as photometric binaries. Partial coverage of the 19.342 hr orbit of WD J030818.19+514011.5 reveals deep eclipses that imply a primary radius >0.4 R⊙—too large to be consistent with an ELM white dwarf. The only object for which our time series photometry adds support to ELM white dwarf classification is SDSS J105435.78‑212155.9, which has consistent signatures of Doppler beaming and ellipsoidal variations. We conclude that the ELM Survey contains multiple false positives from another stellar population at Teff ≲ 9000 K, possibly related to the sdA stars recently reported from SDSS spectra.

  11. The origin of Black-Hole Spin in Galactic Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragos, Tassos; McClintock, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Galactic field low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), like the ones for which black hole (BH) spin measurements are available, are believed to form in situ via the evolution of isolated binaries. In the standard formation channel, these systems survived a common envelope phase, after which the remaining helium core of the primary star and the subsequently formed BH are not expected to be highly spinning. However, the measured spins of BHs in LMXBs cover the whole range of spin parameters from a*~0 to a*1. In this talk I propose that the BH spin in LMXBs is acquired through accretion onto the BH during its long stable accretion phase. In order to test this hypothesis, I calculated extensive grids of binary evolutionary sequences in which a BH accretes matter from a close companion. For each evolutionary sequence, I examined whether, at any point in time, the calculated binary properties are in agreement with their observationally inferred counterparts of observed Galactic LMXBs with BH spin measurements. Mass-transfer sequences that simultaneously satisfy all observational constraints represent possible progenitors of the considered LMXBs and thus give estimates of the amount of matter that the BH has accreted since the onset of Roche-Lobe overflow. I find that in all Galactic LMXBs with measured BH spin, the origin of the spin can be accounted by the accreted matter. Furthermore, based on this hypothesis, I derive limits on the maximum spin that a BH can have depending on the orbital period of the binary it resides in, and give predictions on the maximum possible BH spin of Galactic LMXBs where a BH spin measurement is not yet available. Finally I will discuss the implication that our findings have on the birth black hole mass distribution.

  12. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II

    2017-06-01

    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O i] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O i] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O i] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. Dip Spectroscopy of the Low Mass X-Ray Binary XB 1254-690

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.; Church, M. J.; BalucinskaChurch, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We observed the low mass X-ray binary XB 1254-690 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in 2001 May and December. During the first observation strong dipping on the 3.9-hr orbital period and a high degree of variability were observed, along with "shoulders" approx. 15% deep during extended intervals on each side of the main dips. The first observation also included pronounced flaring activity. The non-dip spectrum obtained using the PCA instrument was well-described by a two-component model consisting of a blackbody with kT = 1.30 +/- 0.10 keV plus a cut-off power law representation of Comptonized emission with power law photon index 1.10 +/- 0.46 and a cut-off energy of 5.9(sup +3.0, sub -1.4) keV. The intensity decrease in the shoulders of dipping is energy-independent, consistent with electron scattering in the outer ionized regions of the absorber. In deep dipping the depth of dipping reached 100%, in the energy band below 5 keV, indicating that all emitting regions were covered by absorber. Intensity-selected dip spectra were well-fit by a model in which the point-like blackbody is rapidly covered, while the extended Comptonized emission is progressively overlapped by the absorber, with the, covering fraction rising to 95% in the deepest portion of the dip. The intensity of this component in the dip spectra could be modeled by a combination of electron scattering and photoelectric absorption. Dipping did not occur during the 2001 December observation, but remarkably, both bursting and flaring were observed contemporaneously.

  14. A FRAMEWORK FOR CHARACTERIZING THE ATMOSPHERES OF LOW-MASS LOW-DENSITY TRANSITING PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mordasini, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA (United States); Greene, Thomas P.; Zahnle, Kevin, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We perform modeling investigations to aid in understanding the atmospheres and composition of small planets of ∼2-4 Earth radii, which are now known to be common in our Galaxy. GJ 1214b is a well-studied example whose atmospheric transmission spectrum has been observed by many investigators. Here we take a step back from GJ 1214b to investigate the role that planetary mass, composition, and temperature play in impacting the transmission spectra of these low-mass low-density (LMLD) planets. Under the assumption that these planets accrete modest hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and planetesimals, we use population synthesis models to show that predicted metal enrichments of the H/He envelope are high, with metal mass fraction Z{sub env} values commonly 0.6-0.9, or ∼100-400+ times solar. The high mean molecular weight of such atmospheres (μ ≈ 5-12) would naturally help to flatten the transmission spectrum of most LMLD planets. The high metal abundance would also provide significant condensible material for cloud formation. It is known that the H/He abundance in Uranus and Neptune decreases with depth, and we show that atmospheric evaporation of LMLD planets could expose atmospheric layers with gradually higher Z{sub env}. However, values of Z{sub env} close to solar composition can also arise, so diversity should be expected. Photochemically produced hazes, potentially due to methane photolysis, are another possibility for obscuring transmission spectra. Such hazes may not form above T{sub eq} of ∼800-1100 K, which is testable if such warm, otherwise low mean molecular weight atmospheres are stable against atmospheric evaporation. We find that available transmission data are consistent with relatively high mean molecular weight atmospheres for GJ 1214b and 'warm Neptune' GJ 436b. We examine future prospects for characterizing GJ 1214b with Hubble and the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. Control of Precision Grip Force in Lifting and Holding of Low-Mass Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hiramatsu

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the control of grip force when manipulating an object with an extremely small mass using a precision grip, although some related information has been provided by studies conducted in an unusual microgravity environment. Grip-load force coordination was examined while healthy adults (N = 17 held a moveable instrumented apparatus with its mass changed between 6 g and 200 g in 14 steps, with its grip surface set as either sandpaper or rayon. Additional measurements of grip-force-dependent finger-surface contact area and finger skin indentation, as well as a test of weight discrimination, were also performed. For each surface condition, the static grip force was modulated in parallel with load force while holding the object of a mass above 30 g. For objects with mass smaller than 30 g, on the other hand, the parallel relationship was changed, resulting in a progressive increase in grip-to-load force (GF/LF ratio. The rayon had a higher GF/LF force ratio across all mass levels. The proportion of safety margin in the static grip force and normalized moment-to-moment variability of the static grip force were also elevated towards the lower end of the object mass for both surfaces. These findings indicate that the strategy of grip force control for holding objects with an extremely small mass differs from that with a mass above 30 g. The data for the contact area, skin indentation, and weight discrimination suggest that a decreased level of cutaneous feedback signals from the finger pads could have played some role in a cost function in efficient grip force control with low-mass objects. The elevated grip force variability associated with signal-dependent and internal noises, and anticipated inertial force on the held object due to acceleration of the arm and hand, could also have contributed to the cost function.

  16. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrey, Anne; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-30

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  17. Low mass dielectrons radiated off cold nuclear matter measured with HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, M.; Agakishiev, G.; Behnke, C.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dritsa, C.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gill, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Hennino, T.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krebs, E.; Krizek, F.; Kuc, H.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2014-03-01

    The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer HADES [1] is installed at the Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It investigates dielectron emission and strangeness production in the 1-3 AGeV regime. A recent experiment series focusses on medium-modifications of light vector mesons in cold nuclear matter. In two runs, p+p and p+Nb reactions were investigated at 3.5 GeV beam energy; about 9·109 events have been registered. In contrast to other experiments the high acceptance of the HADES allows for a detailed analysis of electron pairs with low momenta relative to nuclear matter, where modifications of the spectral functions of vector mesons are predicted to be most prominent. Comparing these low momentum electron pairs to the reference measurement in the elementary p+p reaction, we find in fact a strong modification of the spectral distribution in the whole vector meson region.

  18. SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE PULSATIONS IN LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS TRIGGERED BY H-SHELL BURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-09-20

    The detection of pulsations in white dwarfs with low mass offers the possibility of probing their internal structures through asteroseismology and placing constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. In this Letter, we assess the impact of stable H burning on the pulsational stability properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf models resulting from binary star evolutionary calculations. We found that besides a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and p modes driven by the κ mechanism due to the partial ionization of H in the stellar envelope, some unstable g modes with short pulsation periods are also powered by H burning via the ε mechanism of mode driving. This is the first time that ε destabilized modes are found in models representative of cool white dwarf stars. The short periods recently detected in the pulsating low-mass white dwarf SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 could constitute the first evidence of the existence of stable H burning in these stars, in particular in the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs.

  19. The origin of single low-mass WDs: another problem that consequential angular momentum loss in CVs might solve

    CERN Document Server

    Zorotovic, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass helium-core white-dwarfs (WDs) with masses below 0.5 Msun are known to be formed in binary star systems but unexpectedly a significant fraction of them seem to be single. On the other hand, in Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) a large number of low-mass WD primary stars is predicted but not observed. We recently showed that the latter problem can be solved if consequential angular momentum loss causes especially CVs with low-mass WDs to merge and form single stars. Here we simulate the population of single WDs resulting from single star evolution and from binary star mergers taking into account these new merging CVs. We show that according to the revised model of CV evolution, merging CVs might be the dominant channel leading to the formation of low-mass single WDs and that the predicted relative numbers are consistent with observations. This can be interpreted as further evidence for the revised model of CV evolution we recently suggested. This model includes consequential angular momentum loss that incre...

  20. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of embed

  1. The properties of brown dwarfs and low-mass hydrogen-burning stars formed by disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that a high proportion of brown dwarfs are formed by gravitational fragmentation of massive extended discs around Sun-like stars. Such discs should arise frequently, but should be observed infrequently, precisely because they fragment rapidly. By performing an ensemble of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we show that such discs fragment within a few thousand years, and produce mainlybrown dwarf (BDs) stars, but also planetary mass (PM) stars and very low-mass hydrogen-burning (HB) stars. Most of the the PM stars and BDs are ejected by mutual interactions. We analyse the statistical properties of these stars, and compare them with observations. After a few hundred thousand years the Sun-like primary is typically left with a close low-mass HB companion, and two much wider companions: a low-mass HB star and a BD star, or a BD-BD binary. There is a BD desert extending out to at least ~100 AU; this is because BDs tend to be formed further out than low-mass HB stars, and then they tend to be scattered...

  2. XMM-Newton observations of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigo, M. Diaz; Boirin, L.; Costantini, E.; Mendez, M.; Parmar, A.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 started a transition from outburst to quiescence in August 2008, after more than 24 years of continuous accretion. The return of the source to quiescence has been monitored extensively by several X-ray observatories. Here, we report on four XMM-New

  3. The X-ray luminosity-temperature relation of a complete sample of low-mass galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S.; Maughan, B. J.; Giles, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra observations of 23 galaxy groups and low-mass galaxy clusters at 0.03

  4. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, Jr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  5. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Defru, N.; Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Rameau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres, and thus increase the observed flux in the Ca ii H and K doublet. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, these two spectral lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period (Prot) and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca ii emission is traditionally quantified through the -index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M dwarfs - the most numerous stars of the Galaxy - were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H and K emission to an exists to date. Aims: We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low- and very-low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the -index that extends to the realm of M dwarfs, and by evaluating the relationship between and the rotation period. Methods: We calibrated the bolometric and photospheric factors for M dwarfs to properly transform the S-index (which compares the flux in the Ca ii H and K lines to a close spectral continuum) into the . We monitored magnetic activity through the Ca ii H and K emission lines in the HARPS M dwarf sample. Results: The index, like the fractional X-ray luminosity LX/Lbol, shows a saturated correlation with rotation, with saturation setting in around a ten days rotation period. Above that period, slower rotators show weaker Ca ii activity, as expected. Under that period, the index saturates to approximately 10-4. Stellar mass modulates the Ca ii activity, with showing a constant basal activity above 0.6 M⊙ and then decreasing with mass between 0.6 M⊙ and the fully-convective limit of 0.35 M⊙. Short-term variability of the

  6. Casimir light: photon pairs.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Expressions are developed for weak single pair emission probability and strong emission average number of pairs. The water transparency cutoff is closely realized, showing that the fundamental time scale is even shorter.

  7. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and β Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial

  8. Population synthesis of classical low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, L. M.; Nelemans, G.; Voss, R.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Toonen, S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We model the present-day population of classical low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with neutron star accretors, which have hydrogen-rich donor stars. Their population is compared with that of hydrogen-deficient LMXBs, known as ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs). We model the observable LMXB population and compare it to observations. We model the Galactic Bulge because it contains a well-observed population and it is the target of the Galactic Bulge Survey. Methods: We combine the binary population synthesis code SeBa with detailed LMXB evolutionary tracks to model the size and properties of the present-day LMXB population in the Galactic Bulge. Whether sources are persistent or transient, and what their instantaneous X-ray luminosities are, is predicted using the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results: We find a population of ~2.1 × 103 LMXBs with neutron star accretors. Of these about 15-40 are expected to be persistent (depending on model assumptions), with luminosities higher than 1035 erg s-1. About 7-20 transient sources are expected to be in outburst at any given time. Within a factor of two these numbers are consistent with the observed population of bright LMXBs in the Bulge. This gives credence to our prediction of the existence of a population of ~1.6 × 103 LMXBs with low donor masses that have gone through the period minimum, and have present-day mass transfer rates below 10-11 M⊙ yr-1. Conclusions: Even though the observed population of hydrogen-rich LMXBs in the Bulge is larger than the observed population of (hydrogen-deficient) UCXBs, the latter have a higher formation rate. While UCXBs may dominate the total LMXB population at the present time, the majority would be very faint or may have become detached and produced millisecond radio pulsars. In that case UCXBs would contribute significantly more to the formation of millisecond radio pulsars than hydrogen-rich LMXBs.

  9. Low-Mass Dark Matter Search Results and Radiogenic Backgrounds for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, Mark David [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    to low-mass WIMPs. This is the CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite), which has pushed the frontier at lower WIMP masses. This dissertation describes the second run of CDMSlite at Soudan: its hardware, operations, analysis, and results. The results include new WIMP mass-cross section upper limits on the spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interactions. Thanks to the lower background and threshold in this run compared to the first CDMSlite run, these limits are the most sensitive in the world below WIMP masses of ~4 GeV/c2. This demonstrates also the great promise and utility of the high-voltage operating mode in the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: sigma Ori low-mass stars (Kenyon+, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.

    2005-04-01

    We observed the field around sigma Ori with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope using Harris R and Sloan i filters on the nights of 1999 September 2730. Spectra were obtained with the Wide Field Fiber Optic Spectrograph (WYFFOS) mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the 4.2-m William Hersch