WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-level video features

  1. Low-Level Color and Texture Feature Extraction of Coral Reef Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sheila Angeli Marcos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-based classifier that automates coral reef assessmentfrom digitized underwater video. We extract low-level color and texture features from coral images toserve as input to a high-level classifier. Low-level features for color were labeled blue, green, yellow/brown/orange, and gray/white, which are described by the normalized chromaticity histograms of thesemajor colors. The color matching capability of these features was determined through a technique called“Histogram Backprojection”. The low-level texture feature marks a region as coarse or fine dependingon the gray-level variance of the region.

  2. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  3. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  4. A comparative study of image low level feature extraction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-gayar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and matching is at the base of many computer vision problems, such as object recognition or structure from motion. Current methods for assessing the performance of popular image matching algorithms are presented and rely on costly descriptors for detection and matching. Specifically, the method assesses the type of images under which each of the algorithms reviewed herein perform to its maximum or highest efficiency. The efficiency is measured in terms of the number of matches founds by the algorithm and the number of type I and type II errors encountered when the algorithm is tested against a specific pair of images. Current comparative studies asses the performance of the algorithms based on the results obtained in different criteria such as speed, sensitivity, occlusion, and others. This study addresses the limitations of the existing comparative tools and delivers a generalized criterion to determine beforehand the level of efficiency expected from a matching algorithm given the type of images evaluated. The algorithms and the respective images used within this work are divided into two groups: feature-based and texture-based. And from this broad classification only three of the most widely used algorithms are assessed: color histogram, FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, PCA-SIFT (Principal Component Analysis-SIFT, F-SIFT (fast-SIFT and SURF (speeded up robust features. The performance of the Fast-SIFT (F-SIFT feature detection methods are compared for scale changes, rotation, blur, illumination changes and affine transformations. All the experiments use repeatability measurement and the number of correct matches for the evaluation measurements. SIFT presents its stability in most situations although its slow. F-SIFT is the fastest one with good performance as the same as SURF, SIFT, PCA-SIFT show its advantages in rotation and illumination changes.

  5. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  6. A Closer Look at Deep Learning Neural Networks with Low-level Spectral Periodicity Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Kereliuk, Corey; Pikrakis, Aggelos

    2014-01-01

    Systems built using deep learning neural networks trained on low-level spectral periodicity features (DeSPerF) reproduced the most “ground truth” of the systems submitted to the MIREX 2013 task, “Audio Latin Genre Classification.” To answer why this was the case, we take a closer look...

  7. Neural tuning to low-level features of speech throughout the perisylvian cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezutskaya, Y.; Freudenburg, Z.V.; Güçlü, U.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Ramsey, N.F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus towards anterior superior

  8. Neural tuning to low-level features of speech throughout the perisylvian cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezutskaya, Julia; Freudenburg, Zachary V.; Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel A.J.; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus toward anterior superior

  9. Neural Tuning to Low-Level Features of Speech throughout the Perisylvian Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezutskaya, Julia; Freudenburg, Zachary V; Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel A J; Ramsey, Nick F

    2017-08-16

    Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus toward anterior superior temporal gyrus in the human brain (Hullett et al., 2016). In this study, we investigate what happens to these neural representations past the superior temporal gyrus and how they engage higher-level language processing areas such as inferior frontal gyrus. We used low-level sound features to model neural responses to speech outside of the primary auditory cortex. Two complementary imaging techniques were used with human participants (both males and females): electrocorticography (ECoG) and fMRI. Both imaging techniques showed tuning of the perisylvian cortex to low-level speech features. With ECoG, we found evidence of propagation of the temporal features of speech sounds along the ventral pathway of language processing in the brain toward inferior frontal gyrus. Increasingly coarse temporal features of speech spreading from posterior superior temporal cortex toward inferior frontal gyrus were associated with linguistic features such as voice onset time, duration of the formant transitions, and phoneme, syllable, and word boundaries. The present findings provide the groundwork for a comprehensive bottom-up account of speech comprehension in the human brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We know that, during natural speech comprehension, a broad network of perisylvian cortical regions is involved in sound and language processing. Here, we investigated the tuning to low-level sound features within these regions using neural responses to a short feature film. We also looked at whether the tuning organization along these brain regions showed any parallel to the hierarchy of language structures in continuous speech. Our results show that low-level speech features propagate throughout the

  10. Multimodal Feature Learning for Video Captioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video captioning refers to the task of generating a natural language sentence that explains the content of the input video clips. This study proposes a deep neural network model for effective video captioning. Apart from visual features, the proposed model learns additionally semantic features that describe the video content effectively. In our model, visual features of the input video are extracted using convolutional neural networks such as C3D and ResNet, while semantic features are obtained using recurrent neural networks such as LSTM. In addition, our model includes an attention-based caption generation network to generate the correct natural language captions based on the multimodal video feature sequences. Various experiments, conducted with the two large benchmark datasets, Microsoft Video Description (MSVD and Microsoft Research Video-to-Text (MSR-VTT, demonstrate the performance of the proposed model.

  11. The perception of naturalness correlates with low-level visual features of environmental scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G Berman

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that interacting with natural environments vs. more urban or built environments can have salubrious psychological effects, such as improvements in attention and memory. Even viewing pictures of nature vs. pictures of built environments can produce similar effects. A major question is: What is it about natural environments that produces these benefits? Problematically, there are many differing qualities between natural and urban environments, making it difficult to narrow down the dimensions of nature that may lead to these benefits. In this study, we set out to uncover visual features that related to individuals' perceptions of naturalness in images. We quantified naturalness in two ways: first, implicitly using a multidimensional scaling analysis and second, explicitly with direct naturalness ratings. Features that seemed most related to perceptions of naturalness were related to the density of contrast changes in the scene, the density of straight lines in the scene, the average color saturation in the scene and the average hue diversity in the scene. We then trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict whether a scene was perceived as being natural or not based on these low-level visual features and we could do so with 81% accuracy. As such we were able to reliably predict subjective perceptions of naturalness with objective low-level visual features. Our results can be used in future studies to determine if these features, which are related to naturalness, may also lead to the benefits attained from interacting with nature.

  12. Proto-object categorisation and local gist vision using low-level spatial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaime A; Rodrigues, J M F; du Buf, J M H

    2015-09-01

    Object categorisation is a research area with significant challenges, especially in conditions with bad lighting, occlusions, different poses and similar objects. This makes systems that rely on precise information unable to perform efficiently, like a robotic arm that needs to know which objects it can reach. We propose a biologically inspired object detection and categorisation framework that relies on robust low-level object shape. Using only edge conspicuity and disparity features for scene figure-ground segregation and object categorisation, a trained neural network classifier can quickly categorise broad object families and consequently bootstrap a low-level scene gist system. We argue that similar processing is possibly located in the parietal pathway leading to the LIP cortex and, via areas V5/MT and MST, providing useful information to the superior colliculus for eye and head control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gradual cut detection using low-level vision for digital video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Yeun-Sung; Jang, Ok-bae

    1996-09-01

    Digital video computing and organization is one of the important issues in multimedia system, signal compression, or database. Video should be segmented into shots to be used for identification and indexing. This approach requires a suitable method to automatically locate cut points in order to separate shot in a video. Automatic cut detection to isolate shots in a video has received considerable attention due to many practical applications; our video database, browsing, authoring system, retrieval and movie. Previous studies are based on a set of difference mechanisms and they measured the content changes between video frames. But they could not detect more special effects which include dissolve, wipe, fade-in, fade-out, and structured flashing. In this paper, a new cut detection method for gradual transition based on computer vision techniques is proposed. And then, experimental results applied to commercial video are presented and evaluated.

  14. Feature Quantization and Pooling for Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    less vertical motion. The exceptions are videos from the classes of biking (mainly due to the camera tracking fast bikers), jumping on a trampoline ...tracking the bikers; the jumping videos, featuring people on trampolines , the swing videos, which are usually recorded in profile view, and the walking

  15. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  16. Features for detecting smoke in laparoscopic videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Nour Aldeen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Video-based smoke detection in laparoscopic surgery has different potential applications, such as the automatic addressing of surgical events associated with the electrocauterization task and the development of automatic smoke removal. In the literature, video-based smoke detection has been studied widely for fire surveillance systems. Nevertheless, the proposed methods are insufficient for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos because they often depend on assumptions which rarely hold in laparoscopic surgery such as static camera. In this paper, ten visual features based on motion, texture and colour of smoke are proposed and evaluated for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos. These features are RGB channels, energy-based feature, texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, HSV colour space feature, features based on the detection of moving regions using optical flow and the smoke colour in HSV colour space. These features were tested on four laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. Experimental observations show that each feature can provide valuable information in performing the smoke detection task. However, each feature has weaknesses to detect the presence of smoke in some cases. By combining all proposed features smoke with high and even low density can be identified robustly and the classification accuracy increases significantly.

  17. Integration of low level and ontology derived features for automatic weapon recognition and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakov, Nikolay M.; Suh, Sang; Attardo, Salvatore

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a further step of a research toward the development of a quick and accurate weapons identification methodology and system. A basic stage of this methodology is the automatic acquisition and updating of weapons ontology as a source of deriving high level weapons information. The present paper outlines the main ideas used to approach the goal. In the next stage, a clustering approach is suggested on the base of hierarchy of concepts. An inherent slot of every node of the proposed ontology is a low level features vector (LLFV), which facilitates the search through the ontology. Part of the LLFV is the information about the object's parts. To partition an object a new approach is presented capable of defining the objects concavities used to mark the end points of weapon parts, considered as convexities. Further an existing matching approach is optimized to determine whether an ontological object matches the objects from an input image. Objects from derived ontological clusters will be considered for the matching process. Image resizing is studied and applied to decrease the runtime of the matching approach and investigate its rotational and scaling invariance. Set of experiments are preformed to validate the theoretical concepts.

  18. Design features of a reverse osmosis demonstration plant for treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, P.; Sudesh Nath; Gandhi, P.M.; Mishra, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Reverse osmosis, a novel process in the field of nuclear waste management, is under evaluation globally. Its application is basically considered for the treatment of low level waste; yet references are found for its possible use to treat specific intermediate level waste streams, if segregated at source. The process of reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed for use in conjunction with other conventional processes like chemical treatment, ion exchange and evaporation. Flow sheets have been developed wherein RO can come as a replacement of one of these processes or is used as a pre or post treatment stage. The emphasis is on reducing the secondary wastes so as to realize an optimum levelised cost of treatment. This paper outlines the design basis for an RO plant for treating low level radioactive wastes based on the studies carried out on laboratory as well as bench scale. (author)

  19. Design features of a reverse osmosis demonstration plant for treatment of low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, P; Nath, Sudesh; Gandhi, P M; Mishra, S D [Waste Management Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Reverse osmosis, a novel process in the field of nuclear waste management, is under evaluation globally. Its application is basically considered for the treatment of low level waste; yet references are found for its possible use to treat specific intermediate level waste streams, if segregated at source. The process of reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed for use in conjunction with other conventional processes like chemical treatment, ion exchange and evaporation. Flow sheets have been developed wherein RO can come as a replacement of one of these processes or is used as a pre or post treatment stage. The emphasis is on reducing the secondary wastes so as to realize an optimum levelised cost of treatment. This paper outlines the design basis for an RO plant for treating low level radioactive wastes based on the studies carried out on laboratory as well as bench scale. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Use of sEMG in identification of low level muscle activities: features based on ICA and fractal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    This paper has experimentally verified and compared features of sEMG (Surface Electromyogram) such as ICA (Independent Component Analysis) and Fractal Dimension (FD) for identification of low level forearm muscle activities. The fractal dimension was used as a feature as reported in the literature. The normalized feature values were used as training and testing vectors for an Artificial neural network (ANN), in order to reduce inter-experimental variations. The identification accuracy using FD of four channels sEMG was 58%, and increased to 96% when the signals are separated to their independent components using ICA.

  1. Radio-adaptation: cellular and molecular features of a response to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that sublethal doses of DNA damaging agents induce protective mechanisms against a subsequent high dose treatment ; for instance, the phenomenon of radio-adaptation in the case of ionizing radiations. Since the early observation described in 1984, numerous studies have confirmed the radio-adaptive response in terms of reduction of chromosomal breaks for varied biological models in vitro and in vivo. Evidence for an adaptive response against the induction of gene mutations and the lethal effect is clearly demonstrated. This paper reviews the experimental results describing various aspects of these adaptive responses expressed on these different biological end-points. The molecular mechanism underlying radio-adaptation still remains nuclear. The development of this phenomenon requires de novo synthesis of transcripts and proteins during the time interval between the two doses. Some data are consistent with the hypotheses that these gene products would be involved in the activation of DNA repair pathways and antioxidant systems. However, a major question still remains unanswered; indeed, it is not clear whether or not the radio-adaptation could affect the estimation of cancer risk related with low level exposure to ionizing radiation, a major concern in radioprotection. Until such data are available, it is yet unwise to evoke the beneficial effects of radio-adaptation. (authors)

  2. Coding visual features extracted from video sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroffio, Luca; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Visual features are successfully exploited in several applications (e.g., visual search, object recognition and tracking, etc.) due to their ability to efficiently represent image content. Several visual analysis tasks require features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques to reduce the required bit budget, while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper, we propose, for the first time, a coding architecture designed for local features (e.g., SIFT, SURF) extracted from video sequences. To achieve high coding efficiency, we exploit both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intraframe and interframe coding modes. In addition, we propose a coding mode decision based on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed coding scheme can be conveniently adopted to implement the analyze-then-compress (ATC) paradigm in the context of visual sensor networks. That is, sets of visual features are extracted from video frames, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs visual analysis. This is in contrast to the traditional compress-then-analyze (CTA) paradigm, in which video sequences acquired at a node are compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing. In this paper, we compare these coding paradigms using metrics that are routinely adopted to evaluate the suitability of visual features in the context of content-based retrieval, object recognition, and tracking. Experimental results demonstrate that, thanks to the significant coding gains achieved by the proposed coding scheme, ATC outperforms CTA with respect to all evaluation metrics.

  3. Visual perception as retrospective Bayesian decoding from high- to low-level features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Stephanie; Cueva, Christopher J; Tsodyks, Misha; Qian, Ning

    2017-10-24

    When a stimulus is presented, its encoding is known to progress from low- to high-level features. How these features are decoded to produce perception is less clear, and most models assume that decoding follows the same low- to high-level hierarchy of encoding. There are also theories arguing for global precedence, reversed hierarchy, or bidirectional processing, but they are descriptive without quantitative comparison with human perception. Moreover, observers often inspect different parts of a scene sequentially to form overall perception, suggesting that perceptual decoding requires working memory, yet few models consider how working-memory properties may affect decoding hierarchy. We probed decoding hierarchy by comparing absolute judgments of single orientations and relative/ordinal judgments between two sequentially presented orientations. We found that lower-level, absolute judgments failed to account for higher-level, relative/ordinal judgments. However, when ordinal judgment was used to retrospectively decode memory representations of absolute orientations, striking aspects of absolute judgments, including the correlation and forward/backward aftereffects between two reported orientations in a trial, were explained. We propose that the brain prioritizes decoding of higher-level features because they are more behaviorally relevant, and more invariant and categorical, and thus easier to specify and maintain in noisy working memory, and that more reliable higher-level decoding constrains less reliable lower-level decoding. Published under the PNAS license.

  4. Low levels of serum testosterone in middle-aged men impact pathological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llukani, Elton; Katz, Benjamin F; Agalliu, Ilir; Lightfoot, Andrew; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Kathrins, Martin; Lee, Ziho; Su, Yu-Kai; Monahan Agnew, Kelly; McGill, Alice; Eun, Daniel D; Lee, David I

    2017-03-01

    Serum testosterone deficiency increases with aging. Age is also a major risk factor for prostate cancer (PrCa) and PCa tumors are more frequently diagnosed among men >65 years old. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative serum testosterone and clinical/ pathological features of PrCa in middle-aged and elderly patients. A total of 605 PrCa patients who underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy between September 2010 and January 2013 at the University of Pennsylvania, and who had serum testosterone levels measured using Elecsys Testosterone II Immunoassay were included in this IRB-approved protocol. Androgen deficiency was determined as serum free testosterone (FT) men with low vs. normal TT or FT were compared using t-test or chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of clinical and pathological variables with FT or TT levels. Among middle-aged men (45-64 years; n = 367), those with low FT and low TT had, on average, a higher BMI (29.7 vs. 27.4, P men with normal FT and normal TT values. Patients with low FT had also higher number of positive cores on biopsy (3.9 vs. 3.1 P = 0.019) and greater tumor volume (7.9 ml vs. 6.1 ml, P = 0.045) compared to those with normal FT. Among men ≥65 years ( n = 135) there was no difference in prostatectomy specimens of PrCa between patients with low or normal FT or TT. Among men aged 45-64 years low serum pretreatment FT and TT predicted more aggressive features of PrCa in prostatectomy specimens. In middle-aged patients low testosterone levels measured pre-operatively may indicate more aggressive disease parameters.

  5. Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporal Features by Video Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Nallabolu, Adithya Reddy

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present an unsupervised representation learning approach for learning rich spatiotemporal features from videos without the supervision from semantic labels. We propose to learn the spatiotemporal features by training a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) using video completion as a surrogate task. Using a large collection of unlabeled videos, we train the CNN to predict the missing pixels of a spatiotemporal hole given the remaining parts of the video through minimizing per...

  6. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  8. Human features detection in video surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Patrícia Margarida Silva de Castro Neves

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Eletrónica Industrial e Computadores Human activity recognition algorithms have been studied actively from decades using a sequence of 2D and 3D images from a video surveillance. This new surveillance solutions and the areas of image processing and analysis have been receiving special attention and interest from the scientific community. Thus, it became possible to witness the appearance of new video compression techniques, the tr...

  9. An Aerial Video Stabilization Method Based on SURF Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The video captured by Micro Aerial Vehicle is often degraded due to unexpected random trembling and jitter caused by wind and the shake of the aerial platform. An approach for stabilizing the aerial video based on SURF feature and Kalman filter is proposed. SURF feature points are extracted in each frame, and the feature points between adjacent frames are matched using Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors search method. Then Random Sampling Consensus matching algorithm and Least Squares Method are used to remove mismatching points pairs, and estimate the transformation between the adjacent images. Finally, Kalman filter is applied to smooth the motion parameters and separate Intentional Motion from Unwanted Motion to stabilize the aerial video. Experiments results show that the approach can stabilize aerial video efficiently with high accuracy, and it is robust to the translation, rotation and zooming motion of camera.

  10. Mining Videos for Features that Drive Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    that can be added or removed from the final saliency computation. Examples of these features include intensity contrast, motion energy , color opponent...corresponding to the image. Each pixel in the feature map indicates the energy that the feature in question contributes at that location. In the standard...eye and head animation using a neurobio - logical model of visual attention. In: Bosacchi B, Fogel DB, Bezdek JC (eds) Proceedings of SPIE 48th annual

  11. Fractal feature of sEMG from Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle correlated with levels of contraction during low-level finger flexions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Naik, Ganesh R

    2010-01-01

    This research paper reports an experimental study on identification of the changes in fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) with the changes in the force levels during low-level finger flexions. In the previous study, the authors have identified a novel fractal feature, Maximum fractal length (MFL) as a measure of strength of low-level contractions and has used this feature to identify various wrist and finger movements. This study has tested the relationship between the MFL and force of contraction. The results suggest that changes in MFL is correlated with the changes in contraction levels (20%, 50% and 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) during low-level muscle activation such as finger flexions. From the statistical analysis and by visualisation using box-plot, it is observed that MFL (p ≈ 0.001) is a more correlated to force of contraction compared to RMS (p≈0.05), even when the muscle contraction is less than 50% MVC during low-level finger flexions. This work has established that this fractal feature will be useful in providing information about changes in levels of force during low-level finger movements for prosthetic control or human computer interface.

  12. Identifying sports videos using replay, text, and camera motion features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobla, Vikrant; DeMenthon, Daniel; Doermann, David S.

    1999-12-01

    Automated classification of digital video is emerging as an important piece of the puzzle in the design of content management systems for digital libraries. The ability to classify videos into various classes such as sports, news, movies, or documentaries, increases the efficiency of indexing, browsing, and retrieval of video in large databases. In this paper, we discuss the extraction of features that enable identification of sports videos directly from the compressed domain of MPEG video. These features include detecting the presence of action replays, determining the amount of scene text in vide, and calculating various statistics on camera and/or object motion. The features are derived from the macroblock, motion,and bit-rate information that is readily accessible from MPEG video with very minimal decoding, leading to substantial gains in processing speeds. Full-decoding of selective frames is required only for text analysis. A decision tree classifier built using these features is able to identify sports clips with an accuracy of about 93 percent.

  13. Digital video steganalysis using motion vector recovery-based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Linna

    2012-07-10

    As a novel digital video steganography, the motion vector (MV)-based steganographic algorithm leverages the MVs as the information carriers to hide the secret messages. The existing steganalyzers based on the statistical characteristics of the spatial/frequency coefficients of the video frames cannot attack the MV-based steganography. In order to detect the presence of information hidden in the MVs of video streams, we design a novel MV recovery algorithm and propose the calibration distance histogram-based statistical features for steganalysis. The support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the proposed features and used as the steganalyzer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganalyzer can effectively detect the presence of hidden messages and outperform others by the significant improvements in detection accuracy even with low embedding rates.

  14. A thought in the park: The influence of naturalness and low-level visual features on expressed thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn E. Schertz; Sonya Sachdeva; Omid Kardan; Hiroki P. Kotabe; Kathleen L. Wolf; Marc G. Berman

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the physical characteristics of one's environment have wide ranging effects on affect and cognition. Other research has demonstrated that one's thoughts have impacts on mood and behavior, and in this three-part research program we investigated how physical features of the environment can alter thought content. In one study, we...

  15. Depth estimation of features in video frames with improved feature matching technique using Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kajal; Moon, Inkyu; Kim, Sung Gaun

    2012-10-01

    Estimating depth has long been a major issue in the field of computer vision and robotics. The Kinect sensor's active sensing strategy provides high-frame-rate depth maps and can recognize user gestures and human pose. This paper presents a technique to estimate the depth of features extracted from video frames, along with an improved feature-matching method. In this paper, we used the Kinect camera developed by Microsoft, which captured color and depth images for further processing. Feature detection and selection is an important task for robot navigation. Many feature-matching techniques have been proposed earlier, and this paper proposes an improved feature matching between successive video frames with the use of neural network methodology in order to reduce the computation time of feature matching. The features extracted are invariant to image scale and rotation, and different experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of feature matching between successive video frames. The extracted features are assigned distance based on the Kinect technology that can be used by the robot in order to determine the path of navigation, along with obstacle detection applications.

  16. Psychogenic Tremor: A Video Guide to Its Distinguishing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jankovic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic tremor is the most common psychogenic movement disorder. It has characteristic clinical features that can help distinguish it from other tremor disorders. There is no diagnostic gold standard and the diagnosis is based primarily on clinical history and examination. Despite proposed diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor can be challenging. While there are numerous studies evaluating psychogenic tremor in the literature, there are no publications that provide a video/visual guide that demonstrate the clinical characteristics of psychogenic tremor. Educating clinicians about psychogenic tremor will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We selected videos from the database at the Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine that illustrate classic findings supporting the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor.Results: We include 10 clinical vignettes with accompanying videos that highlight characteristic clinical signs of psychogenic tremor including distractibility, variability, entrainability, suggestibility, and coherence.Discussion: Psychogenic tremor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tremor, particularly if it is of abrupt onset, intermittent, variable and not congruous with organic tremor. The diagnosis of psychogenic tremor, however, should not be simply based on exclusion of organic tremor, such as essential, parkinsonian, or cerebellar tremor, but on positive criteria demonstrating characteristic features. Early recognition and management are critical for good long-term outcome.

  17. Cell Phone Video Recording Feature as a Language Learning Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromik, Nicolas A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted at a Japanese national university. Nine participants used the video recording feature on their cell phones to produce weekly video productions. The task required that participants produce one 30-second video on a teacher-selected topic. Observations revealed the process of video creation with a cell…

  18. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  19. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eyben

    Full Text Available Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  20. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  1. Teen videos on YouTube: Features and digital vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Vozmediano, Manuel; García-Jiménez, Antonio; Menor-Sendra, Juan

    2018-01-01

    As a mechanism for social participation and integration and for the purpose of building their identity, teens make and share videos on platforms such as YouTube of which they are also content consumers. The vulnerability conditions that occur and the risks to which adolescents are exposed, both as creators and consumers of videos, are the focus of this study. The methodology used is content analysis, applied to 400 videos. This research has worked with manifest variables (such as the scene) a...

  2. Obscene Video Recognition Using Fuzzy SVM and New Sets of Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Behrad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach for identifying normal and obscene videos is proposed. In order to classify different episodes of a video independently and discard the need to process all frames, first, key frames are extracted and skin regions are detected for groups of video frames starting with key frames. In the second step, three different features including 1- structural features based on single frame information, 2- features based on spatiotemporal volume and 3-motion-based features, are extracted for each episode of video. The PCA-LDA method is then applied to reduce the size of structural features and select more distinctive features. For the final step, we use fuzzy or a Weighted Support Vector Machine (WSVM classifier to identify video episodes. We also employ a multilayer Kohonen network as an initial clustering algorithm to increase the ability to discriminate between the extracted features into two classes of videos. Features based on motion and periodicity characteristics increase the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in videos with bad illumination and skin colour variation. The proposed method is evaluated using 1100 videos in different environmental and illumination conditions. The experimental results show a correct recognition rate of 94.2% for the proposed algorithm.

  3. Teen Videos on YouTube: Features and Digital Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Vozmediano, Manuel; García-Jiménez, Antonio; Menor-Sendra, Juan

    2018-01-01

    As a mechanism for social participation and integration and for the purpose of building their identity, teens make and share videos on platforms such as YouTube of which they are also content consumers. The vulnerability conditions that occur and the risks to which adolescents are exposed, both as creators and consumers of videos, are the focus of…

  4. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  5. Comparison of Image Transform-Based Features for Visual Speech Recognition in Clean and Corrupted Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Rowan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present results of a study into the performance of a variety of different image transform-based feature types for speaker-independent visual speech recognition of isolated digits. This includes the first reported use of features extracted using a discrete curvelet transform. The study will show a comparison of some methods for selecting features of each feature type and show the relative benefits of both static and dynamic visual features. The performance of the features will be tested on both clean video data and also video data corrupted in a variety of ways to assess each feature type's robustness to potential real-world conditions. One of the test conditions involves a novel form of video corruption we call jitter which simulates camera and/or head movement during recording.

  6. Comparison of Image Transform-Based Features for Visual Speech Recognition in Clean and Corrupted Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ming

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a study into the performance of a variety of different image transform-based feature types for speaker-independent visual speech recognition of isolated digits. This includes the first reported use of features extracted using a discrete curvelet transform. The study will show a comparison of some methods for selecting features of each feature type and show the relative benefits of both static and dynamic visual features. The performance of the features will be tested on both clean video data and also video data corrupted in a variety of ways to assess each feature type's robustness to potential real-world conditions. One of the test conditions involves a novel form of video corruption we call jitter which simulates camera and/or head movement during recording.

  7. Fast and efficient search for MPEG-4 video using adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization histogram feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Feifei; Kotani, Koji; Chen, Qiu; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a fast search algorithm for MPEG-4 video clips from video database is proposed. An adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) histogram is utilized as the feature vector of VOP (video object plane), which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. Instead of fully decompressed video sequence, partially decoded data, namely DC sequence of the video object are extracted from the video sequence. Combined with active search, a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been evaluated by total 15 hours of video contained of TV programs such as drama, talk, news, etc. to search for given 200 MPEG-4 video clips which each length is 15 seconds. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 80ms, and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 2 % in drama and news categories are achieved, which are more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.

  8. Deception Detection in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhe; Singh, Bharat; Davis, Larry S.; Subrahmanian, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for covert automated deception detection in real-life courtroom trial videos. We study the importance of different modalities like vision, audio and text for this task. On the vision side, our system uses classifiers trained on low level video features which predict human micro-expressions. We show that predictions of high-level micro-expressions can be used as features for deception prediction. Surprisingly, IDT (Improved Dense Trajectory) features which have been widely ...

  9. A modular CUDA-based framework for scale-space feature detection in video streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsner, M; Capson, D; Spence, A

    2010-01-01

    Multi-scale image processing techniques enable extraction of features where the size of a feature is either unknown or changing, but the requirement to process image data at multiple scale levels imposes a substantial computational load. This paper describes the architecture and emerging results from the implementation of a GPGPU-accelerated scale-space feature detection framework for video processing. A discrete scale-space representation is generated for image frames within a video stream, and multi-scale feature detection metrics are applied to detect ridges and Gaussian blobs at video frame rates. A modular structure is adopted, in which common feature extraction tasks such as non-maximum suppression and local extrema search may be reused across a variety of feature detectors. Extraction of ridge and blob features is achieved at faster than 15 frames per second on video sequences from a machine vision system, utilizing an NVIDIA GTX 480 graphics card. By design, the framework is easily extended to additional feature classes through the inclusion of feature metrics to be applied to the scale-space representation, and using common post-processing modules to reduce the required CPU workload. The framework is scalable across multiple and more capable GPUs, and enables previously intractable image processing at video frame rates using commodity computational hardware.

  10. News video story segmentation method using fusion of audio-visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun; Wu, Ling-da; Zeng, Pu; Luan, Xi-dao; Xie, Yu-xiang

    2007-11-01

    News story segmentation is an important aspect for news video analysis. This paper presents a method for news video story segmentation. Different form prior works, which base on visual features transform, the proposed technique uses audio features as baseline and fuses visual features with it to refine the results. At first, it selects silence clips as audio features candidate points, and selects shot boundaries and anchor shots as two kinds of visual features candidate points. Then this paper selects audio feature candidates as cues and develops different fusion method, which effectively using diverse type visual candidates to refine audio candidates, to get story boundaries. Experiment results show that this method has high efficiency and adaptability to different kinds of news video.

  11. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  12. Metal Sounds Stiffer than Drums for Ears, but Not Always for Hands: Low-Level Auditory Features Affect Multisensory Stiffness Perception More than High-Level Categorical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Ando, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world events stimulate multiple sensory modalities simultaneously. Usually, the stiffness of an object is perceived haptically. However, auditory signals also contain stiffness-related information, and people can form impressions of stiffness from the different impact sounds of metal, wood, or glass. To understand whether there is any interaction between auditory and haptic stiffness perception, and if so, whether the inferred material category is the most relevant auditory information, we conducted experiments using a force-feedback device and the modal synthesis method to present haptic stimuli and impact sound in accordance with participants’ actions, and to modulate low-level acoustic parameters, i.e., frequency and damping, without changing the inferred material categories of sound sources. We found that metal sounds consistently induced an impression of stiffer surfaces than did drum sounds in the audio-only condition, but participants haptically perceived surfaces with modulated metal sounds as significantly softer than the same surfaces with modulated drum sounds, which directly opposes the impression induced by these sounds alone. This result indicates that, although the inferred material category is strongly associated with audio-only stiffness perception, low-level acoustic parameters, especially damping, are more tightly integrated with haptic signals than the material category is. Frequency played an important role in both audio-only and audio-haptic conditions. Our study provides evidence that auditory information influences stiffness perception differently in unisensory and multisensory tasks. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that sounds with higher frequency and/or shorter decay time tended to be judged as stiffer, and contact sounds of stiff objects had no effect on the haptic perception of soft surfaces. We argue that the intrinsic physical relationship between object stiffness and acoustic parameters may be applied as prior

  13. Real-time UAV trajectory generation using feature points matching between video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Younggi; Song, Jeongheon; Han, Dongyeob

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance mission. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the generation of UAV trajectory using a video image matching system based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and Preemptive RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus). Video image matching to find matching points is one of the most important steps for the accurate generation of UAV trajectory (sequence of poses in 3D space). We used the SURF algorithm to find the matching points between video image sequences, and removed mismatching by using the Preemptive RANSAC which divides all matching points to outliers and inliers. The inliers are only used to determine the epipolar geometry for estimating the relative pose (rotation and translation) between image sequences. Experimental results from simulated video image sequences showed that our approach has a good potential to be applied to the automatic geo-localization of the UAVs system

  14. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  15. Extracting foreground ensemble features to detect abnormal crowd behavior in intelligent video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Public safety is a matter of national security and people's livelihoods. In recent years, intelligent video-surveillance systems have become important active-protection systems. A surveillance system that provides early detection and threat assessment could protect people from crowd-related disasters and ensure public safety. Image processing is commonly used to extract features, e.g., people, from a surveillance video. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between foreground detection and feature extraction. Most current video-surveillance research has been developed for restricted environments, in which the extracted features are limited by having information from a single foreground; they do not effectively represent the diversity of crowd behavior. This paper presents a general framework based on extracting ensemble features from the foreground of a surveillance video to analyze a crowd. The proposed method can flexibly integrate different foreground-detection technologies to adapt to various monitored environments. Furthermore, the extractable representative features depend on the heterogeneous foreground data. Finally, a classification algorithm is applied to these features to automatically model crowd behavior and distinguish an abnormal event from normal patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method's performance is both comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods and satisfies the requirements of real-time applications.

  16. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  17. Infrared video based gas leak detection method using modified FAST features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    In order to detect the invisible leaking gas that is usually dangerous and easily leads to fire or explosion in time, many new technologies have arisen in the recent years, among which the infrared video based gas leak detection is widely recognized as a viable tool. However, all the moving regions of a video frame can be detected as leaking gas regions by the existing infrared video based gas leak detection methods, without discriminating the property of each detected region, e.g., a walking person in a video frame may be also detected as gas by the current gas leak detection methods.To solve this problem, we propose a novel infrared video based gas leak detection method in this paper, which is able to effectively suppress strong motion disturbances.Firstly, the Gaussian mixture model(GMM) is used to establish the background model.Then due to the observation that the shapes of gas regions are different from most rigid moving objects, we modify the Features From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) algorithm and use the modified FAST (mFAST) features to describe each connected component. In view of the fact that the statistical property of the mFAST features extracted from gas regions is different from that of other motion regions, we propose the Pixel-Per-Points (PPP) condition to further select candidate connected components.Experimental results show that the algorithm is able to effectively suppress most strong motion disturbances and achieve real-time leaking gas detection.

  18. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus

  19. Identifying Key Features of Student Performance in Educational Video Games and Simulations through Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment cycle of "evidence-centered design" (ECD) provides a framework for treating an educational video game or simulation as an assessment. One of the main steps in the assessment cycle of ECD is the identification of the key features of student performance. While this process is relatively simple for multiple choice tests, when…

  20. The distinguishing motor features of cataplexy: a study from video-recorded attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Fabio; Antelmi, Elena; Vandi, Stefano; Meletti, Stefano; Erro, Roberto; Baumann, Christian R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Dauvilliers, Yves; Edwards, Mark J; Iranzo, Alex; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Tinazzi, Michele; Liguori, Rocco; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    To describe the motor pattern of cataplexy and to determine its phenomenological differences from pseudocataplexy in the differential diagnosis of episodic falls. We selected 30 video-recorded cataplexy and 21 pseudocataplexy attacks in 17 and 10 patients evaluated for suspected narcolepsy and with final diagnosis of narcolepsy type 1 and conversion disorder, respectively, together with self-reported attacks features, and asked expert neurologists to blindly evaluate the motor features of the attacks. Video documented and self-reported attack features of cataplexy and pseudocataplexy were contrasted. Video-recorded cataplexy can be positively differentiated from pseudocataplexy by the occurrence of facial hypotonia (ptosis, mouth opening, tongue protrusion) intermingled by jerks and grimaces abruptly interrupting laughter behavior (i.e. smile, facial expression) and postural control (head drops, trunk fall) under clear emotional trigger. Facial involvement is present in both partial and generalized cataplexy. Conversely, generalized pseudocataplexy is associated with persistence of deep tendon reflexes during the attack. Self-reported features confirmed the important role of positive emotions (laughter, telling a joke) in triggering the attacks, as well as the more frequent occurrence of partial body involvement in cataplexy compared with pseudocataplexy. Cataplexy is characterized by abrupt facial involvement during laughter behavior. Video recording of suspected cataplexy attacks allows the identification of positive clinical signs useful for diagnosis and, possibly in the future, for severity assessment.

  1. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  2. Feature Extraction in Sequential Multimedia Images: with Applications in Satellite Images and On-line Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Li

    Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory

  3. EEG-based recognition of video-induced emotions: selecting subject-independent feature set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, Jukka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are fundamental for everyday life affecting our communication, learning, perception, and decision making. Including emotions into the human-computer interaction (HCI) could be seen as a significant step forward offering a great potential for developing advanced future technologies. While the electrical activity of the brain is affected by emotions, offers electroencephalogram (EEG) an interesting channel to improve the HCI. In this paper, the selection of subject-independent feature set for EEG-based emotion recognition is studied. We investigate the effect of different feature sets in classifying person's arousal and valence while watching videos with emotional content. The classification performance is optimized by applying a sequential forward floating search algorithm for feature selection. The best classification rate (65.1% for arousal and 63.0% for valence) is obtained with a feature set containing power spectral features from the frequency band of 1-32 Hz. The proposed approach substantially improves the classification rate reported in the literature. In future, further analysis of the video-induced EEG changes including the topographical differences in the spectral features is needed.

  4. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  5. Deep Spatial-Temporal Joint Feature Representation for Video Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of deep neural networks, many object detection frameworks have shown great success in the fields of smart surveillance, self-driving cars, and facial recognition. However, the data sources are usually videos, and the object detection frameworks are mostly established on still images and only use the spatial information, which means that the feature consistency cannot be ensured because the training procedure loses temporal information. To address these problems, we propose a single, fully-convolutional neural network-based object detection framework that involves temporal information by using Siamese networks. In the training procedure, first, the prediction network combines the multiscale feature map to handle objects of various sizes. Second, we introduce a correlation loss by using the Siamese network, which provides neighboring frame features. This correlation loss represents object co-occurrences across time to aid the consistent feature generation. Since the correlation loss should use the information of the track ID and detection label, our video object detection network has been evaluated on the large-scale ImageNet VID dataset where it achieves a 69.5% mean average precision (mAP.

  6. Deep Spatial-Temporal Joint Feature Representation for Video Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baojun; Zhao, Boya; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Wang, Wenzheng

    2018-03-04

    With the development of deep neural networks, many object detection frameworks have shown great success in the fields of smart surveillance, self-driving cars, and facial recognition. However, the data sources are usually videos, and the object detection frameworks are mostly established on still images and only use the spatial information, which means that the feature consistency cannot be ensured because the training procedure loses temporal information. To address these problems, we propose a single, fully-convolutional neural network-based object detection framework that involves temporal information by using Siamese networks. In the training procedure, first, the prediction network combines the multiscale feature map to handle objects of various sizes. Second, we introduce a correlation loss by using the Siamese network, which provides neighboring frame features. This correlation loss represents object co-occurrences across time to aid the consistent feature generation. Since the correlation loss should use the information of the track ID and detection label, our video object detection network has been evaluated on the large-scale ImageNet VID dataset where it achieves a 69.5% mean average precision (mAP).

  7. Unsupervised Video Shot Detection Using Clustering Ensemble with a Color Global Scale-Invariant Feature Transform Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchou Chang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT transforms a grayscale image into scale-invariant coordinates of local features that are invariant to image scale, rotation, and changing viewpoints. Because of its scale-invariant properties, SIFT has been successfully used for object recognition and content-based image retrieval. The biggest drawback of SIFT is that it uses only grayscale information and misses important visual information regarding color. In this paper, we present the development of a novel color feature extraction algorithm that addresses this problem, and we also propose a new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles for video shot detection. Based on Fibonacci lattice-quantization, we develop a novel color global scale-invariant feature transform (CGSIFT for better description of color contents in video frames for video shot detection. CGSIFT first quantizes a color image, representing it with a small number of color indices, and then uses SIFT to extract features from the quantized color index image. We also develop a new space description method using small image regions to represent global color features as the second step of CGSIFT. Clustering ensembles focusing on knowledge reuse are then applied to obtain better clustering results than using single clustering methods for video shot detection. Evaluation of the proposed feature extraction algorithm and the new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles reveals very promising results for video shot detection.

  8. Unsupervised Video Shot Detection Using Clustering Ensemble with a Color Global Scale-Invariant Feature Transform Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT transforms a grayscale image into scale-invariant coordinates of local features that are invariant to image scale, rotation, and changing viewpoints. Because of its scale-invariant properties, SIFT has been successfully used for object recognition and content-based image retrieval. The biggest drawback of SIFT is that it uses only grayscale information and misses important visual information regarding color. In this paper, we present the development of a novel color feature extraction algorithm that addresses this problem, and we also propose a new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles for video shot detection. Based on Fibonacci lattice-quantization, we develop a novel color global scale-invariant feature transform (CGSIFT for better description of color contents in video frames for video shot detection. CGSIFT first quantizes a color image, representing it with a small number of color indices, and then uses SIFT to extract features from the quantized color index image. We also develop a new space description method using small image regions to represent global color features as the second step of CGSIFT. Clustering ensembles focusing on knowledge reuse are then applied to obtain better clustering results than using single clustering methods for video shot detection. Evaluation of the proposed feature extraction algorithm and the new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles reveals very promising results for video shot detection.

  9. Automatic assessment of mitral regurgitation severity based on extensive textural features on 2D echocardiography videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hanie; Nourian, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    Heart disease is the major cause of death as well as a leading cause of disability in the developed countries. Mitral Regurgitation (MR) is a common heart disease which does not cause symptoms until its end stage. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of crucial importance in the treatment process. Echocardiography is a common method of diagnosis in the severity of MR. Hence, a method which is based on echocardiography videos, image processing techniques and artificial intelligence could be helpful for clinicians, especially in borderline cases. In this paper, we introduce novel features to detect micro-patterns of echocardiography images in order to determine the severity of MR. Extensive Local Binary Pattern (ELBP) and Extensive Volume Local Binary Pattern (EVLBP) are presented as image descriptors which include details from different viewpoints of the heart in feature vectors. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Template Matching techniques are used as classifiers to determine the severity of MR based on textural descriptors. The SVM classifier with Extensive Uniform Local Binary Pattern (ELBPU) and Extensive Volume Local Binary Pattern (EVLBP) have the best accuracy with 99.52%, 99.38%, 99.31% and 99.59%, respectively, for the detection of Normal, Mild MR, Moderate MR and Severe MR subjects among echocardiography videos. The proposed method achieves 99.38% sensitivity and 99.63% specificity for the detection of the severity of MR and normal subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reidentification of Persons Using Clothing Features in Real-Life Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Person reidentification, which aims to track people across nonoverlapping cameras, is a fundamental task in automated video processing. Moving people often appear differently when viewed from different nonoverlapping cameras because of differences in illumination, pose, and camera properties. The color histogram is a global feature of an object that can be used for identification. This histogram describes the distribution of all colors on the object. However, the use of color histograms has two disadvantages. First, colors change differently under different lighting and at different angles. Second, traditional color histograms lack spatial information. We used a perception-based color space to solve the illumination problem of traditional histograms. We also used the spatial pyramid matching (SPM model to improve the image spatial information in color histograms. Finally, we used the Gaussian mixture model (GMM to show features for person reidentification, because the main color feature of GMM is more adaptable for scene changes, and improve the stability of the retrieved results for different color spaces in various scenes. Through a series of experiments, we found the relationships of different features that impact person reidentification.

  11. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  12. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  13. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  14. Real-time skin feature identification in a time-sequential video stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Iztok

    2005-04-01

    Skin color can be an important feature when tracking skin-colored objects. Particularly this is the case for computer-vision-based human-computer interfaces (HCI). Humans have a highly developed feeling of space and, therefore, it is reasonable to support this within intelligent HCI, where the importance of augmented reality can be foreseen. Joining human-like interaction techniques within multimodal HCI could, or will, gain a feature for modern mobile telecommunication devices. On the other hand, real-time processing plays an important role in achieving more natural and physically intuitive ways of human-machine interaction. The main scope of this work is the development of a stereoscopic computer-vision hardware-accelerated framework for real-time skin feature identification in the sense of a single-pass image segmentation process. The hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage is presented with the purpose of color and spatial filtering, where the skin color model within the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is given with a polyhedron of threshold values representing the basis of the filter model. An adaptive filter management unit is suggested to achieve better segmentation results. This enables the adoption of filter parameters to the current scene conditions in an adaptive way. Implementation of the suggested hardware structure is given at the level of filed programmable system level integrated circuit (FPSLIC) devices using an embedded microcontroller as their main feature. A stereoscopic clue is achieved using a time-sequential video stream, but this shows no difference for real-time processing requirements in terms of hardware complexity. The experimental results for the hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage are given by efficiency estimation of the presented hardware structure using a simple motion-detection algorithm based on a binary function.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  16. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  17. Automated Music Video Generation Using Multi-level Feature-based Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong-Chul; Lee, In-Kwon; Byun, Siwoo

    The expansion of the home video market has created a requirement for video editing tools to allow ordinary people to assemble videos from short clips. However, professional skills are still necessary to create a music video, which requires a stream to be synchronized with pre-composed music. Because the music and the video are pre-generated in separate environments, even a professional producer usually requires a number of trials to obtain a satisfactory synchronization, which is something that most amateurs are unable to achieve.

  18. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  19. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  20. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  1. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  2. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  3. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  4. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  5. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  6. High-quality and small-capacity e-learning video featuring lecturer-superimposing PC screen images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Michinobu; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    2006-10-01

    Information processing and communication technology are progressing quickly, and are prevailing throughout various technological fields. Therefore, the development of such technology should respond to the needs for improvement of quality in the e-learning education system. The authors propose a new video-image compression processing system that ingeniously employs the features of the lecturing scene. While dynamic lecturing scene is shot by a digital video camera, screen images are electronically stored by a PC screen image capturing software in relatively long period at a practical class. Then, a lecturer and a lecture stick are extracted from the digital video images by pattern recognition techniques, and the extracted images are superimposed on the appropriate PC screen images by off-line processing. Thus, we have succeeded to create a high-quality and small-capacity (HQ/SC) video-on-demand educational content featuring the advantages: the high quality of image sharpness, the small electronic file capacity, and the realistic lecturer motion.

  7. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  8. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar.

  9. How Is Marijuana Vaping Portrayed on YouTube? Content, Features, Popularity and Retransmission of Vaping Marijuana YouTube Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Sangalang, Angeline; Rooney, Molly; Maloney, Erin; Emery, Sherry; Cappella, Joseph N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how vaping marijuana, a novel but emerging risky health behavior, is portrayed on YouTube, and how the content and features of these YouTube videos influence their popularity and retransmission. A content analysis of vaping marijuana YouTube videos published between July 2014 to June 2015 (n = 214) was conducted. Video genre, valence, promotional and warning arguments, emotional appeals, message sensation value, presence of misinformation and misleading information, and user-generated statistics, including number of views, comments, shares, likes and dislikes, were coded. The results showed that these videos were predominantly pro-marijuana-vaping, with the most frequent videos being user-sharing. The genre and message features influenced the popularity, evaluations, and retransmission of vaping marijuana YouTube videos. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. The Effect of Typographical Features of Subtitles on Nonnative English Viewers’ Retention and Recall of Lyrics in English Music Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Tayari Ashtiani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effect of typographical features of subtitles including size, color and position on nonnative English viewers’ retention and recall of lyrics in music videos. To do so, the researcher played a simple subtitled music video for the participants at the beginning of their classes, and administered a 31-blank cloze test from the lyrics at the end of the classes. In the second test, the control group went through the same procedure but experimental group watched the customized subtitled version of the music video. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the two groups in the first test but in the second, the scores remarkably increased in the experimental group and proved better retention and recall. This study has implications for English language teachers and material developers to benefit customized bimodal subtitles as a mnemonic tool for better comprehension, retention and recall of aural contents in videos via Computer Assisted Language Teaching approach.

  11. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  12. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  13. Detection of Double-Compressed H.264/AVC Video Incorporating the Features of the String of Data Bits and Skip Macroblocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s H.264/AVC coded videos have a high quality, high data-compression ratio. They also have a strong fault tolerance, better network adaptability, and have been widely applied on the Internet. With the popularity of powerful and easy-to-use video editing software, digital videos can be tampered with in various ways. Therefore, the double compression in the H.264/AVC video can be used as a first step in the study of video-tampering forensics. This paper proposes a simple, but effective, double-compression detection method that analyzes the periodic features of the string of data bits (SODBs and the skip macroblocks (S-MBs for all I-frames and P-frames in a double-compressed H.264/AVC video. For a given suspicious video, the SODBs and S-MBs are extracted for each frame. Both features are then incorporated to generate one enhanced feature to represent the periodic artifact of the double-compressed video. Finally, a time-domain analysis is conducted to detect the periodicity of the features. The primary Group of Pictures (GOP size is estimated based on an exhaustive strategy. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  14. Repurposing Video Documentaries as Features of a Flipped-Classroom Approach to Community-Centered Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Douglas; Eades, Daniel; Plein, L. Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Online and off-site educational programming is increasingly incorporated by Extension educators to reach their clientele. Models such as the flipped classroom combine online content and in-person learning, allowing clients to both gain information and build peer learning communities. We demonstrate how video documentaries used in traditional…

  15. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component 'fingerprints' stemming from both phonemes and speaker. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...... 'voiceprints' are found at time scales around 1000 msec. The analysis is based on homomorphic filtering features and energy based sparsification....

  16. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  17. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  18. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  19. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  20. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  1. Coding Local and Global Binary Visual Features Extracted From Video Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroffio, Luca; Canclini, Antonio; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Binary local features represent an effective alternative to real-valued descriptors, leading to comparable results for many visual analysis tasks, while being characterized by significantly lower computational complexity and memory requirements. When dealing with large collections, a more compact representation based on global features is often preferred, which can be obtained from local features by means of, e.g., the Bag-of-Visual-Word (BoVW) model. Several applications, including for example visual sensor networks and mobile augmented reality, require visual features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques that aim at reducing the required bit budget, while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper we investigate a coding scheme tailored to both local and global binary features, which aims at exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intra- and inter-frame coding. In this respect, the proposed coding scheme can be conveniently adopted to support the Analyze-Then-Compress (ATC) paradigm. That is, visual features are extracted from the acquired content, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs visual analysis. This is in contrast with the traditional approach, in which visual content is acquired at a node, compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing, according to the Compress-Then-Analyze (CTA) paradigm. In this paper we experimentally compare ATC and CTA by means of rate-efficiency curves in the context of two different visual analysis tasks: homography estimation and content-based retrieval. Our results show that the novel ATC paradigm based on the proposed coding primitives can be competitive with CTA, especially in bandwidth limited scenarios.

  2. Coding Local and Global Binary Visual Features Extracted From Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroffio, Luca; Canclini, Antonio; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Binary local features represent an effective alternative to real-valued descriptors, leading to comparable results for many visual analysis tasks while being characterized by significantly lower computational complexity and memory requirements. When dealing with large collections, a more compact representation based on global features is often preferred, which can be obtained from local features by means of, e.g., the bag-of-visual word model. Several applications, including, for example, visual sensor networks and mobile augmented reality, require visual features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques that aim at reducing the required bit budget while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper, we investigate a coding scheme tailored to both local and global binary features, which aims at exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intra- and inter-frame coding. In this respect, the proposed coding scheme can conveniently be adopted to support the analyze-then-compress (ATC) paradigm. That is, visual features are extracted from the acquired content, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs the visual analysis. This is in contrast with the traditional approach, in which visual content is acquired at a node, compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing, according to the compress-then-analyze (CTA) paradigm. In this paper, we experimentally compare the ATC and the CTA by means of rate-efficiency curves in the context of two different visual analysis tasks: 1) homography estimation and 2) content-based retrieval. Our results show that the novel ATC paradigm based on the proposed coding primitives can be competitive with the CTA, especially in bandwidth limited scenarios.

  3. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component ‘fingerprints’ stemming from both phonemes and speakers. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...... ‘voiceprints’ are found at time scales around 1000 msec. The analysis is based on homomorphic filtering features and energy based sparsification....

  4. TRADEMARK IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING LOW LEVEL FEATURE EXTRACTION IN CBIR

    OpenAIRE

    Latika Pinjarkar*, Manisha Sharma, Smita Selot

    2016-01-01

    Trademarks work as significant responsibility in industry and commerce. Trademarks are important component of its industrial property, and violation can have severe penalty. Therefore designing an efficient trademark retrieval system and its assessment for uniqueness is thus becoming very important task now a days. Trademark image retrieval system where a new candidate trademark is compared with already registered trademarks to check that there is no possibility of resembl...

  5. Video Book Trailers: Coming to a Library Near You! Spotlight Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopke-Wilson, MariRae

    2009-01-01

    This article features two library media specialists who discovered a way to motivate high school students to read. When most people go to the movies, the "coming attractions" or movie trailers are as anticipated as the popcorn! This Americana movie tradition hooks people again and again on what they will come back to see next. So, it's no surprise…

  6. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  7. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC

  8. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  9. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  10. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  12. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  13. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  14. Low-level-waste-treatment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, S.D.; Goeller, H.E.; Holladay, D.W.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initial draft of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. A revised draft is scheduled to be delivered to DOE Headquarters in December 1982. The Handbook is designed to be useful to all individuals and groups concerned with low-level wastes. It is one of several volumes that will ultimately comprise a Low-Level Waste Technology Handbook. The objective of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook is to present an overview of current practices related to the segregation, classification, volume reduction, solidification, handling, packaging, and transportation of LLW for disposal in a shallow land burial facility. The Handbook is intended to serve as a guide to individuals interested in the treatment and handling of low-level radioactive waste. The Handbook will not explicitly tell the user how to design and operate LLW treatment facilities, but rather will identify (1) kinds of information required to evaluate the options, (2) methods that may be used to evaluate these options, and (3) limitations associated with the selection of the treatment options. The focus of the Handbook is providing guidance on how to do waste treatment for disposal by shallow land burial

  15. Contactless measurement of muscles fatigue by tracking facial feature points in a video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    their exercises when the level of the fatigue might be dangerous for the patients. The current technology for measuring tiredness, like Electromyography (EMG), requires installing some sensors on the body. In some applications, like remote patient monitoring, this however might not be possible. To deal...... with such cases, in this paper we present a contactless method based on computer vision techniques to measure tiredness by detecting, tracking, and analyzing some facial feature points during the exercise. Experimental results on several test subjects and comparing them against ground truth data show...... that the proposed system can properly find the temporal point of tiredness of the muscles when the test subjects are doing physical exercises....

  16. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  17. New method for identifying features of an image on a digital video display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael D.

    1991-04-01

    The MetaMap process extends the concept of direct manipulation human-computer interfaces to new limits. Its specific capabilities include the correlation of discrete image elements to relevant text information and the correlation of these image features to other images as well as to program control mechanisms. The correlation is accomplished through reprogramming of both the color map and the image so that discrete image elements comprise unique sets of color indices. This process allows the correlation to be accomplished with very efficient data storage and program execution times. Image databases adapted to this process become object-oriented as a result. Very sophisticated interrelationships can be set up between images text and program control mechanisms using this process. An application of this interfacing process to the design of an interactive atlas of medical histology as well as other possible applications are described. The MetaMap process is protected by U. S. patent #4

  18. Detecting PHG frames in wireless capsule endoscopy video by integrating rough global dominate-color with fine local texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqi; Wang, Chengliang; Bai, Jianying; Liao, Guobin

    2018-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is common in gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, and a severe stage of PHG (S-PHG) is a source of gastrointestinal active bleeding. Generally, the diagnosis of PHG is made visually during endoscopic examination; compared with traditional endoscopy, (wireless capsule endoscopy) WCE with noninvasive and painless is chosen as a prevalent tool for visual observation of PHG. However, accurate measurement of WCE images with PHG is a difficult task due to faint contrast and confusing variations in background gastric mucosal tissue for physicians. Therefore, this paper proposes a comprehensive methodology to automatically detect S-PHG images in WCE video to help physicians accurately diagnose S-PHG. Firstly, a rough dominatecolor-tone extraction approach is proposed for better describing global color distribution information of gastric mucosa. Secondly, a hybrid two-layer texture acquisition model is designed by integrating co-occurrence matrix into local binary pattern to depict complex and unique gastric mucosal microstructure local variation. Finally, features of mucosal color and microstructure texture are merged into linear support vector machine to accomplish this automatic classification task. Experiments were implemented on an annotated data set including 1,050 SPHG and 1,370 normal images collected from 36 real patients of different nationalities, ages and genders. By comparison with three traditional texture extraction methods, our method, combined with experimental results, performs best in detection of S-PHG images in WCE video: the maximum of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity reach 0.90, 0.92 and 0.92 respectively.

  19. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  20. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  1. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  2. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  3. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  4. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...... network is conducted. Comparisons (t-test) between CSR tweets and general tweets and between specialized CSR Twitter accounts and general accounts reveal that the low levels of interactivity are due to a reactive interaction approach and a lack of specialization....

  5. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  6. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  7. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  8. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  9. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  10. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  12. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  13. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 25-30 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak areas * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Slovak_en.pdf

  14. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 28-28 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  15. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  16. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  17. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  19. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  20. Multiple Feature Fusion Based on Co-Training Approach and Time Regularization for Place Classification in Wearable Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislavs Dovgalecs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of video acquired with a wearable camera is a challenge that multimedia community is facing with the proliferation of such sensors in various applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic visual place recognition in a weakly constrained environment, targeting the indexing of video streams by topological place recognition. We propose to combine several machine learning approaches in a time regularized framework for image-based place recognition indoors. The framework combines the power of multiple visual cues and integrates the temporal continuity information of video. We extend it with computationally efficient semisupervised method leveraging unlabeled video sequences for an improved indexing performance. The proposed approach was applied on challenging video corpora. Experiments on a public and a real-world video sequence databases show the gain brought by the different stages of the method.

  1. Learning Computational Models of Video Memorability from fMRI Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Chen, Changyuan; Shao, Ling; Hu, Xintao; Han, Jungong; Liu, Tianming

    2015-08-01

    Generally, various visual media are unequally memorable by the human brain. This paper looks into a new direction of modeling the memorability of video clips and automatically predicting how memorable they are by learning from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose a novel computational framework by integrating the power of low-level audiovisual features and brain activity decoding via fMRI. Initially, a user study experiment is performed to create a ground truth database for measuring video memorability and a set of effective low-level audiovisual features is examined in this database. Then, human subjects' brain fMRI data are obtained when they are watching the video clips. The fMRI-derived features that convey the brain activity of memorizing videos are extracted using a universal brain reference system. Finally, due to the fact that fMRI scanning is expensive and time-consuming, a computational model is learned on our benchmark dataset with the objective of maximizing the correlation between the low-level audiovisual features and the fMRI-derived features using joint subspace learning. The learned model can then automatically predict the memorability of videos without fMRI scans. Evaluations on publically available image and video databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  2. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  3. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  4. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  5. A Depth Video-based Human Detection and Activity Recognition using Multi-features and Embedded Hidden Markov Models for Health Care Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jalal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase in number of elderly people who are living independently needs especial care in the form of healthcare monitoring systems. Recent advancements in depth video technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR realizable for elderly healthcare applications. In this paper, a depth video-based novel method for HAR is presented using robust multi-features and embedded Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to recognize daily life activities of elderly people living alone in indoor environment such as smart homes. In the proposed HAR framework, initially, depth maps are analyzed by temporal motion identification method to segment human silhouettes from noisy background and compute depth silhouette area for each activity to track human movements in a scene. Several representative features, including invariant, multi-view differentiation and spatiotemporal body joints features were fused together to explore gradient orientation change, intensity differentiation, temporal variation and local motion of specific body parts. Then, these features are processed by the dynamics of their respective class and learned, modeled, trained and recognized with specific embedded HMM having active feature values. Furthermore, we construct a new online human activity dataset by a depth sensor to evaluate the proposed features. Our experiments on three depth datasets demonstrated that the proposed multi-features are efficient and robust over the state of the art features for human action and activity recognition.

  6. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  7. Low-level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  8. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  9. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  10. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  11. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  12. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Ki Wan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Koo, Ja Hyung; Kim, Min Cheol; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speed-up robust feature (SURF), local binary patterns (LBP), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN) method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images. PMID:28335510

  13. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Ki Wan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Koo, Ja Hyung; Kim, Min Cheol; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-03-20

    Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speed-up robust feature (SURF), local binary patterns (LBP), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN) method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images.

  14. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT, speed-up robust feature (SURF, local binary patterns (LBP, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG, and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images.

  15. Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Model with Multiple Feature Fusion for Binary Facial Attribute Classification in Real-World Face Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces [1] of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively.

  16. Low-level memory processes in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, S

    2000-06-01

    Psychophysical studies of the short-term memory for attributes or dimensions of the visual stimulus that are known to be important in early visual processing (spatial frequency, orientation, contrast, motion and color) identify a low-level perceptual memory mechanism. This proposed mechanism is located early in the visual processing stream, prior to the structural description system responsible for shape priming but beyond primary visual cortex (V1); it is composed of a series of parallel, special-purpose perceptual mechanisms with independent but limited processing resources. Each mechanism is devoted to the analysis of a single dimension and is coupled to a memory store.

  17. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  18. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  19. Network Communication for Low Level RF Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Yin Chengke; Zhang Tongxuan; Fu Zechuan; Liu Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Low Level RF (LLRF) control system for storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has been built by digital technology. The settings of parameters and the feedback loop status are carried out through the network communication interface, and the local oscillation and clock, which is the important component of the digital LLRF control system, are also configured through network communication. NIOS II processor was employed as a core to build the embedded system with a real-time operating system MicroC/OS-II, finally Lightweight TCP/IP (LwIP) was used to achieve the communication interface. The communication network is stable after a long-term operation. (authors)

  20. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  1. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  2. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  3. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  4. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  5. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  6. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  7. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  8. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  9. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  10. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  11. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  12. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  13. Demonstration tests for low level radioactive waste packaging safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, I.; Shimura, S.; Miki, T.; Tamamura, T.; Kunitomi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The transport packaging for low level radioactive waste (so-called the LLW packaging) has been developed to be utilized for transportation of LLW in 200 liter-drums from Japanese nuclear power stations to the LLW Disposal Center at Rokkashomura in Aomori Prefecture. Transportation is expected to start from December in 1992. We will explain the brief history of the development, technical features and specifications as well as two kinds of safety demonstration tests, namely one is '1.2 meter free drop test' and the other is 'ISO container standard test'. (J.P.N.)

  14. Combining high-speed SVM learning with CNN feature encoding for real-time target recognition in high-definition video for ISR missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Christine; von der Werth, Monika; Leuck, Holger; Stahl, Christoph; Schertler, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    For Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) missions of manned and unmanned air systems typical electrooptical payloads provide high-definition video data which has to be exploited with respect to relevant ground targets in real-time by automatic/assisted target recognition software. Airbus Defence and Space is developing required technologies for real-time sensor exploitation since years and has combined the latest advances of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with a proprietary high-speed Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning method into a powerful object recognition system with impressive results on relevant high-definition video scenes compared to conventional target recognition approaches. This paper describes the principal requirements for real-time target recognition in high-definition video for ISR missions and the Airbus approach of combining an invariant feature extraction using pre-trained CNNs and the high-speed training and classification ability of a novel frequency-domain SVM training method. The frequency-domain approach allows for a highly optimized implementation for General Purpose Computation on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) and also an efficient training of large training samples. The selected CNN which is pre-trained only once on domain-extrinsic data reveals a highly invariant feature extraction. This allows for a significantly reduced adaptation and training of the target recognition method for new target classes and mission scenarios. A comprehensive training and test dataset was defined and prepared using relevant high-definition airborne video sequences. The assessment concept is explained and performance results are given using the established precision-recall diagrams, average precision and runtime figures on representative test data. A comparison to legacy target recognition approaches shows the impressive performance increase by the proposed CNN+SVM machine-learning approach and the capability of real-time high

  15. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  16. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  17. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  18. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  19. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  20. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  1. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  2. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  3. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  4. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  5. Video Comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display

  6. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  7. The Effect of Theme Preference on Academic Word List Use: A Case for Smartphone Video Recording Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromik, Nicolas A.

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-seven Japanese English as a Second Language undergraduate learners completed one smartphone video production per week for 12 weeks, based on a teacher-selected theme. Designed as a case study for this specific context, data from students' oral performances was analyzed on a weekly basis for their use of the Academic Word List (AWL). A…

  8. Physics and Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Rhett

    2016-05-01

    We currently live in a world filled with videos. There are videos on YouTube, feature movies and even videos recorded with our own cameras and smartphones. These videos present an excellent opportunity to not only explore physical concepts, but also inspire others to investigate physics ideas. With video analysis, we can explore the fantasy world in science-fiction films. We can also look at online videos to determine if they are genuine or fake. Video analysis can be used in the introductory physics lab and it can even be used to explore the make-believe physics embedded in video games. This book covers the basic ideas behind video analysis along with the fundamental physics principles used in video analysis. The book also includes several examples of the unique situations in which video analysis can be used.

  9. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  10. Low level radwaste packaging: why not cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years many words have been expended in a quest to define a variety of competing radioactive waste immobilization technologies. With the more recent recognition of the technical pitfalls of urea-formaldehyde (UF) a liquid chemical binder considered as optimum less than two years ago, utilities, architect-engineers and systems vendors find themselves in a technology void, awaiting the inevitable breakthrough which will identify the perfect immobilization agent. The culmination of these pressures has brought about the introduction of new immobilization technologies including: one which offers both volume reduction and immobilization in yet another new binder agent; the costly development of highly sophisticated volume reduction systems, the highly-concentrated products from which may pose as-yet unknown immobilization problems; and, the marketing of several new more expensive liquid chemical binders which are reputed to have eliminated the kinds of problems associated with urea-formaldehyde. This paper addresses these issues by coming full circle and arriving back at the initial approach employed for low level radwaste immobilization, the use of cement. Based on an evaluation of the three principal competing immobilization approaches, liquid chemical, bitumen and cement, the merits and drawbacks of each is examined. As will be described, an objective assessment of these competing technologies has resulted in a somewhat surprising conclusion that, while none of the approaches is without disadvantages, cement can be shown to offer the most reliable, versatile long-term solution to today's needs

  11. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  12. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  13. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  14. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  15. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  16. Toward automating Hammersmith pulled-to-sit examination of infants using feature point based video object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Debi P; Majumdar, Arun K; Sural, Shamik; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Singh, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) is a set of tests used for grading neurological development of infants on a scale of 0 to 3. These tests help in assessing neurophysiological development of babies, especially preterm infants who are born before (the fetus reaches) the gestational age of 36 weeks. Such tests are often conducted in the follow-up clinics of hospitals for grading infants with suspected disabilities. Assessment based on HINE depends on the expertise of the physicians involved in conducting the examinations. It has been noted that some of these tests, especially pulled-to-sit and lateral tilting, are difficult to assess solely based on visual observation. For example, during the pulled-to-sit examination, the examiner needs to observe the relative movement of the head with respect to torso while pulling the infant by holding wrists. The examiner may find it difficult to follow the head movement from the coronal view. Video object tracking based automatic or semi-automatic analysis can be helpful in this case. In this paper, we present a video based method to automate the analysis of pulled-to-sit examination. In this context, a dynamic programming and node pruning based efficient video object tracking algorithm has been proposed. Pulled-to-sit event detection is handled by the proposed tracking algorithm that uses a 2-D geometric model of the scene. The algorithm has been tested with normal as well as marker based videos of the examination recorded at the neuro-development clinic of the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India. It is found that the proposed algorithm is capable of estimating the pulled-to-sit score with sensitivity (80%-92%) and specificity (89%-96%).

  17. Real-Time FPGA-Based Object Tracker with Automatic Pan-Tilt Features for Smart Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of smart video surveillance systems is an active research field among the computer vision community because of their ability to perform automatic scene analysis by selecting and tracking the objects of interest. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an FPGA-based standalone working prototype system for real-time tracking of an object of interest in live video streams for such systems. In addition to real-time tracking of the object of interest, the implemented system is also capable of providing purposive automatic camera movement (pan-tilt in the direction determined by movement of the tracked object. The complete system, including camera interface, DDR2 external memory interface controller, designed object tracking VLSI architecture, camera movement controller and display interface, has been implemented on the Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA Board. Our proposed, designed and implemented system robustly tracks the target object present in the scene in real time for standard PAL (720 × 576 resolution color video and automatically controls camera movement in the direction determined by the movement of the tracked object.

  18. Towards Smart Homes Using Low Level Sensory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Koo Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Life Care (u-Life care is receiving attention because it provides high quality and low cost care services. To provide spontaneous and robust healthcare services, knowledge of a patient’s real-time daily life activities is required. Context information with real-time daily life activities can help to provide better services and to improve healthcare delivery. The performance and accuracy of existing life care systems is not reliable, even with a limited number of services. This paper presents a Human Activity Recognition Engine (HARE that monitors human health as well as activities using heterogeneous sensor technology and processes these activities intelligently on a Cloud platform for providing improved care at low cost. We focus on activity recognition using video-based, wearable sensor-based, and location-based activity recognition engines and then use intelligent processing to analyze the context of the activities performed. The experimental results of all the components showed good accuracy against existing techniques. The system is deployed on Cloud for Alzheimer’s disease patients (as a case study with four activity recognition engines to identify low level activity from the raw data captured by sensors. These are then manipulated using ontology to infer higher level activities and make decisions about a patient’s activity using patient profile information and customized rules.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  20. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  1. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  2. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  3. Knowledge-based approach to video content classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wong, Edward K.

    2001-01-01

    A framework for video content classification using a knowledge-based approach is herein proposed. This approach is motivated by the fact that videos are rich in semantic contents, which can best be interpreted and analyzed by human experts. We demonstrate the concept by implementing a prototype video classification system using the rule-based programming language CLIPS 6.05. Knowledge for video classification is encoded as a set of rules in the rule base. The left-hand-sides of rules contain high level and low level features, while the right-hand-sides of rules contain intermediate results or conclusions. Our current implementation includes features computed from motion, color, and text extracted from video frames. Our current rule set allows us to classify input video into one of five classes: news, weather, reporting, commercial, basketball and football. We use MYCIN's inexact reasoning method for combining evidences, and to handle the uncertainties in the features and in the classification results. We obtained good results in a preliminary experiment, and it demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.

  4. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  5. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data

  6. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  7. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  8. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  9. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  10. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  11. Risk assessment and reliability for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.O.; Jones, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of critical design features at low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is a major concern in the licensing of these structures. To date, no systematic methodology has been adopted to evaluate the geotechnical reliability of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal facilities currently being designed and/or constructed. This paper discusses and critiques the deterministic methods currently used to evaluate UMTRA reliability. Because deterministic methods may not be applicable in some cases because of the unusually long design life of UMTRA facilities, it is proposed that a probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology be used as a secondary method to aid in the evaluating of geotechnical reliability of critical items. Similar methodologies have proven successful in evaluating the reliability of a variety of conventional earth structures. In this paper, an ''acceptable'' level of risk for UMTRA facilities is developed, an evaluation method is presented, and two example applications of the proposed methodology are provided for a generic UMTRA disposal facility. The proposed technique is shown to be a simple method which might be used to aid in reliability evaluations on a selective basis. Finally, other possible applications and the limitations of the proposed methodology are discussed

  12. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  13. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  14. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Manh Toan; Nguyen Trieu Tu

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  15. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  16. Guidelines for interim storage of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.; Castagnacci, A.; Clymer, G.; Kelly, J.; Naughton, M.; Saunders, P.; Stoner, P.; Walker, N.; Cazzolli, R.; Dettenmeier, R.; Loucks, L.; Rigsby, M.; Spall, M.; Strum, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents an overview of on-site storage of Low Level Waste while providing guidelines for using the complete Interim On-Site Storage of Low Level Waste report series. Overall, this report provides a methodology for planning and implementing on-site storage

  17. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR ...

  18. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  19. The Role of Low-Level Laser in Periodontal Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Heydari, Mohaddase; Barati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Treatment protocols with low-level Laser (also called ‘soft laser therapy) have been used in health care systems for more than three decades. Bearing in mind the suitable sub-cellular absorption and the cellular-vascular impacts, low-level laser may be a treatment of choice for soft tissues. Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. In this present review article, searches have been made in Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, focusing on the studies which included low-level lasers, flap-periodontal surgeries, gingivectomy, and periodontal graft. The present study has sought to review the cellular impacts of low-level lasers and its role on reducing pain and inflammation following soft tissue surgical treatments. PMID:25987968

  20. Augmented video viewing: transforming video consumption into an active experience

    OpenAIRE

    WIJNANTS, Maarten; Leën, Jeroen; QUAX, Peter; LAMOTTE, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Traditional video productions fail to cater to the interactivity standards that the current generation of digitally native customers have become accustomed to. This paper therefore advertises the \\activation" of the video consumption process. In particular, it proposes to enhance HTML5 video playback with interactive features in order to transform video viewing into a dynamic pastime. The objective is to enable the authoring of more captivating and rewarding video experiences for end-users. T...

  1. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  2. An unsupervised meta-graph clustering based prototype-specific feature quantification for human re-identification in video surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human re-identification is an emerging research area in the field of visual surveillance. It refers to the task of associating the images of the persons captured by one camera (probe set with the images captured by another camera (gallery set at different locations in different time instances. The performance of these systems are often challenged by some factors—variation in articulated human pose and clothing, frequent occlusion with various objects, change in light illumination, and the cluttered background are to name a few. Besides, the ambiguity in recognition increases between individuals with similar appearance. In this paper, we present a novel framework for human re-identification that finds the correspondence image pair across non-overlapping camera views in the presence of the above challenging scenarios. The proposed framework handles the visual ambiguity having similar appearance by first segmenting the gallery instances into disjoint prototypes (groups, where each prototype represents the images with high commonality. Then, a weighing scheme is formulated that quantifies the selective and distinct information about the features concerning the level of contribution against each prototype. Finally, the prototype specific weights are utilized in the similarity measure and fused with the existing generic weighing to facilitates improvement in the re-identification. Exhaustive simulation on three benchmark datasets alongside the CMC (Cumulative Matching Characteristics plot enumerate the efficacy of our proposed framework over the counterparts.

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  4. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  5. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  7. Video Quality Prediction over Wireless 4G

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-04-14

    In this paper, we study the problem of video quality prediction over the wireless 4G network. Video transmission data is collected from a real 4G SCM testbed for investigating factors that affect video quality. After feature transformation and selection on video and network parameters, video quality is predicted by solving as regression problem. Experimental results show that the dominated factor on video quality is the channel attenuation and video quality can be well estimated by our models with small errors.

  8. Video Quality Prediction over Wireless 4G

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Zhang, Xiangliang; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of video quality prediction over the wireless 4G network. Video transmission data is collected from a real 4G SCM testbed for investigating factors that affect video quality. After feature transformation and selection on video and network parameters, video quality is predicted by solving as regression problem. Experimental results show that the dominated factor on video quality is the channel attenuation and video quality can be well estimated by our models with small errors.

  9. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  10. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  11. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  12. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  13. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  14. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  15. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  16. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  17. Conflict resolution in low-level waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Siting a low-level waste facility is only one part of the low-level waste management process. But it is a crucial part, a prism that focuses many of the other issues in low-level waste management. And, as the 1990 and 1992 milestones approach, siting has a urgency that makes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques especially appropriate, to avoid protracted and expensive litigation and to reach creative and durable solutions. Drawing upon literature in the ADR field, this paper discusses ADR techniques as they apply to low-level waste management and the groundwork that must be laid before they can be applied. It also discusses questions that can arise concerning the terms under which negotiations are carried out. The paper then give suggestions for achieving win/win negotiations. Potential objections to negotiated agreements and potential answers to those objections are reviewed, and some requisites for negotiation are given

  18. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  19. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  20. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  1. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  2. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  3. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  4. Low level waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, A.D.; Truitt, D.J.; Logan, J.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. is the lead contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program, established in 1979. In this role, the company uses its waste management expertise to provide management and technical direction to support the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) in a manner that protects the environment and the public health and safety while improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Program activities are divided into two areas: defense-related and commercial nuclear reactor programs. The defense program was established to develop technology improvements, provide technology transfer, and to ensure a more efficient and uniform system for low level waste disposal. To achieve the program's goals, it is necessary to improve, document, and, where necessary, develop new methods for waste generation reduction, waste treatment, shallow-land burial, greater confinement disposal, and measures to correct existing site deficiencies. The commercial low level waste management program provides support to assist the states in developing an effective national low level waste management system and provides technical assistance for siting of regional commercial LLW disposal sites. The program provides technical and informational support to state officials, low level waste generators, managers, and facility operators to resolve low level waste problems and to improve the systems' overall effectiveness. Procedures are developed and documented and made available to commercial users through this program. Additional work is being conducted to demonstrate the stabilization and closure of low level radioactive waste disposal sites and develop the criteria and procedures for acceptance of such sites by the Department of Energy after closure has been completed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  6. Common Graphics Library (CGL). Volume 2: Low-level user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Hammond, Dana P.; Theophilos, Pauline M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent is to instruct the users of the Low-Level routines of the Common Graphics Library (CGL). The Low-Level routines form an application-independent graphics package enabling the user community to construct and design scientific charts conforming to the publication and/or viewgraph process. The Low-Level routines allow the user to design unique or unusual report-quality charts from a set of graphics utilities. The features of these routines can be used stand-alone or in conjunction with other packages to enhance or augment their capabilities. This library is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77, and currently uses a CORE-based underlying graphics package, and is therefore machine-independent, providing support for centralized and/or distributed computer systems.

  7. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  8. Videos - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front 2:17 Always Ready, Always There National Guard Bureau Diversity and Inclusion Play Button 1:04 National Guard Bureau Diversity and Inclusion The ChalleNGe Ep.5 [Graduation] Play Button 3:51 The

  9. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  10. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of low-level radioactive-waste site management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Olsen, C.R.; Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic site characterization is a critical phase in development of shallow land-burial sites for low-level radioactive-waste disposal, especially in humid environments. Structural features such as folds, faults, and bedding and textural features such as formation permeability, porosity, and mineralogy all affect the water balance and water movement and, in turn, radionuclide migration. Where these features vary over short distance scales, detailed mapping is required in order to enable accurate model predictions of site performance and to provide the basis for proper design and planning of site-disposal operations

  11. Low-level radioactive waste management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Although reviews of disposal practices and site performance indicated that there were no releases to the environment that would affect public health and safety, it became clear that: (a) several burial grounds were not performing as expected; (b) long-term maintenance of closed trenches could be a costly problem, and (c) more cost-effective methods could be developed for the treatment, packing, and disposal of low-level waste. As a result of these reviews, the Department of Energy developed the Low-level Waste Management Program to seek improvements in existing practices, correct obvious deficiencies, and develop site closure techniques that would avoid expensive long-term maintenance and monitoring. Such technology developments provide a better understanding of the physical and technical mechanisms governing low-level waste treatment and disposal and lead to improvement in the performance of disposal sites. The primary means of disposal of low-level waste has been the accepted and regulated practice of shallow land disposal, i.e., placement of low-level waste in trenches 5 to 10 meters deep with several meters of special soil cover. Department of Energy waste is primarily disposed at six major shallow land disposal sites. Commercial waste is currently disposed of at three major sites in the nation - Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada. In the late 1970's public concern arose regarding the management practices of sites operated by the civilian sector and by the Department of Energy

  12. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  13. The French centralized low level radwaste treatment centre named CENTRACO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Sixou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Socodei, a subsidiary company of EdF and Cogema is commissioned to design, finance, build and operate two low level radwaste treatment facilities: a contaminated scrap metal melting unit, and a solid and liquid waste incinerator. These units frame a low level radwaste treatment centre named Centraco, located near Marcoule in the south of France, and will receive in 1998 waste coming from dismantling, maintenance and operating works of French and foreign nuclear sites. The decision to create this centre is due to the low density and large variety of low level radwaste which take a volume out of proportion with their activity, specially in the surface storage centre. Up to now, all low level radwaste were sent and stored with no treatment optimization in surface storage centres. Socodei proposes in one single site, to optimize low level radwaste management and reduce the volume of ultimate waste to be stored: in a ratio of one to ten by casting ingots coming from melting contaminated scrap metals; in a ratio of one to twenty by encapsulating earth ashes and ashes resulting from incineration of solid and liquid waste. This is a centralized treatment centre and that's why Centraco is a new waste management system. Getting together all means in one place reduces costs, avoids mismanagement and risk increase, and allows consistency in safety, environmental impact, transport and personnel radioprotection. (author)

  14. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  15. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  17. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  19. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, T.R.; Kirner, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  20. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  1. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  2. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  3. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  4. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Varga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  7. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  8. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  9. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  10. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  11. Concept development for saltstone and low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal

  12. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop

  13. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  14. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.

    1993-06-01

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered

  15. Low-level rf system for the AGS Light Ion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, V.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.S.; Frankel, R.; Otis, A.; Pope, D.; Pritsker, M.; Raka, E.; Warkentien, R.

    1987-01-01

    The new low level rf system for the light ion acceleration program features direct digital control of a phase continuous rf synthesizer clocked by finite changes in the B field. The system, its operation and testing are described. The system covers the complete rf frequency range and switches over from single cavity acceleration to multiple cavity acceleration with no beam loss. It also switches from the programmed drive to the normal bootstrap system

  16. Visual Attention Modeling for Stereoscopic Video: A Benchmark and Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Chi; Li, Jing; Lei, Jianjun; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the visual attention modeling for stereoscopic video from the following two aspects. First, we build one large-scale eye tracking database as the benchmark of visual attention modeling for stereoscopic video. The database includes 47 video sequences and their corresponding eye fixation data. Second, we propose a novel computational model of visual attention for stereoscopic video based on Gestalt theory. In the proposed model, we extract the low-level features, including luminance, color, texture, and depth, from discrete cosine transform coefficients, which are used to calculate feature contrast for the spatial saliency computation. The temporal saliency is calculated by the motion contrast from the planar and depth motion features in the stereoscopic video sequences. The final saliency is estimated by fusing the spatial and temporal saliency with uncertainty weighting, which is estimated by the laws of proximity, continuity, and common fate in Gestalt theory. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art stereoscopic video saliency detection models on our built large-scale eye tracking database and one other database (DML-ITRACK-3D).

  17. Development of a low-level radioactive waste shipper model. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    During 1982, Inter/Face Associates, Inc., conducted a low-level radioactive waste management survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in Massachusetts for the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program. In the process of conducting the survey, a model was developed, based on existing NRC license classification systems, that would identify licensees who ship low-level waste for disposal. This report presents the model and documents the procedures used in developing and testing it. After the model was tested, several modifications were developed with the goal of determining the model's ability to identify waste shippers under different parameters. The report includes a discussion of the modifications

  18. Talk about disposal for very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the current VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of four VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide, as well as disposal of VLLW in China are also briefly discussed and suggested. (authors)

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body

  20. A Climatology of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A climatology of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) is presented for the topographically flat measurement site at Cabauw, the Netherlands. LLJ characteristics are derived from a 7-yr half-hourly database of wind speed profiles, obtained from the 200-m mast and a wind profiler. Many LLJs at Cabauw

  1. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  2. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  5. Commission administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report is one in a series of commission option documents prepared for the US Department of Energy, designed to assist regional low-level waste compact commissions in their organization, administration and efforts to effectively manage waste within their regions. In particular, this report addresses topics related to commission administrative procedures, personnel, procurement and finance

  6. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  7. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction; a brief description of low-level radioactive wastes and their management; system-side issues; waste reduction and packaging; transportation; disposal; issues for further study; and summary of recommendations. Nine appendices are included

  8. Low-level waste packaging--a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Hebbard, L.B. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper emphasizes managerial responsibility for assuring that facility waste is properly packaged. Specifically, existing packaging regulations are summarized, several actual violations are reviewed and, lastly, some recommendations are made to assist managerial personnel in fulfilling their responsibility to ensure that low-level waste is packaged safely and properly before shipment to the disposal site

  9. Effects of low levels of radiation on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed

  10. Facility for low-level solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    A facility for low-level solid waste compaction, encapsulation and storage is described. Solid wastes are compacted in 200 l drums and stored over concrete platforms covered with canvas, for decay or for interim storage before transport to the final disposal site. (Author) [pt

  11. Low level radioactive liquid waste treatment at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lasher, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant has been constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek

  12. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  13. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  14. Management of low level waste generated from ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushina, Tomoyuki

    1987-01-01

    Low level wastes are generated during nuclear power plant operation. In the case of ISER, low level wastes from the reactor are basically the same as of existing light water reactors. Various low level wastes, including solid, liquid and gaseous, are listed and discussed. In normal operation, high-activity wastes are not subjected to any treatment. For contaminated equipment or reactor parts, it may be desirable to transfer most of the activity to liquid phase through an appropriate decontamination procedure. Highly active solid wastes are usually fixed in a solid form through incorporation into either concrete or asphalt as containment material. Decantation and filtration treatments are usually sufficient before dilution and release of liquid wastes into the environment. Except for ordinary gas filtration, there in normally no other treatment. Under certain circumstances, however, it may be important to apply the decay storage before release to the atmosphere. In accidental circumstances, specific filtration is recommended or even sometimes needed. There are some alternatives for storage and-or disposal of low level wastes. In many cases, shallow land burial is chosen as a realistic method for storage and-or disposal of solid waste. In chosing a disposal method, the radiation dose rate from solid wastes or the specific activity should be taken into account. Boric acid is a retarder for cement setting. This effect of boric acid is inhibited by adding a complexing agent before mixing the waste with cement. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  16. Low-level radioactive wastes: Their treatment, handling, disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P [Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Radiological Health Research Activities, Cincinnati, OH(United States)

    1964-07-01

    The release of low level wastes may result in some radiation exposure to man and his surroundings. This book describes techniques of handling, treatment, and disposal of low-level wastes aimed at keeping radiation exposure to a practicable minimum. In this context, wastes are considered low level if they are released into the environment without subsequent control. This book is concerned with practices relating only to continuous operations and not to accidental releases of radioactive materials. It is written by use for those interested in low level waste disposal problems and particularly for the health physicist concerned with these problems in the field. It should be helpful also to water and sewage works personnel concerned with the efficiency of water and sewage treatment processes for the removal of radioactive materials; the personnel engaged in design, construction, licensing, and operation of treatment facilities; and to student of nuclear technology. After an introduction the following areas are discussed: sources, quantities and composition of radioactive wastes; collection, sampling and measurement; direct discharge to the water, soil and air environment; air cleaning; removal of radioactivity by water-treatment processes and biological processes; treatment on site by chemical precipitation , ion exchange and absorption, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and other methods; treatment on site including evaporation and storage; handling and treatment of solid wastes; public health implications. Appendices include a glossary; standards for protection against radiation; federal radiation council radiation protection guidance for federal agencies; site selection criteria for nuclear energy facilities.

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  18. Low-level waste management at the Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.; Vallarino, V.; Calisto, W.

    1986-01-01

    A general overview of low-level radioactive waste management at the Nuclear Investigation Centre (CIN) of Uruguay is presented. The CIN is a pilot centre of research and development of techniques for implementing measurements for radioactive waste storage and control. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Low-level and mixed waste incinerator survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Low-Level and Mixed Waste Survey Task was initiated to investigate and document current and planned incinerator facilities in the Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) system. A survey was mailed to the DOE field offices requesting information regarding existing or planned incinerator facilities located under their jurisdiction. The information requested included type, capacities, uses, costs, and mechanical description of the incinerators. The results of this survey are documented in this report. Nine sites responded to the survey, with eight sites listing nine incineration units in several stages of operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory listed two operational facilities. There are four incinerators that are planned for start-up in 1991. Of the existing incinerators, three are used mostly for low-level wastes, while the planned units will be used for low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. This report documents the current state of the incineration facilities in the DOE-DP system and provides a preliminary strategy for management of low-level wastes and a basis for implementing this strategy. 5 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management: French and foreign regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes radioactive waste management regulations applied in USA, CANADA, SCANDINAVIA and FRANCE. For low level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to adapt waste management regulations which were firt definite for high level radioactive wastes. So the exemption concept is a simplification method of regulations applied to low radiation sources

  3. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  4. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrier, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m 3 low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m 3 ), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author)

  5. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, G P [ANDRA, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1992-10-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m[sup 3] low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m[sup 3]), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author).

  6. Low level liquid scintillation analysis for environmental and biomedical quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past five years low level liquid scintillation counting has become increasing popular because of the large number of applications which can be performed using this technique. These applications include environmental monitoring ( 3 H, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, etc.), radiocarbon dating (for age determination to 50,000 years), food adulteration studies (alcohol and beverage industries), radon monitoring (air/water), nuclear power plant monitoring (low level 3 H) and metabolism studies (pharmaceutical research). These applications can be performed with either a dedicated low level LSC or using a standard liquid scintillation counter in conjunction with the new technique of time-resolved LSC (TR-LSC). This technique when used on a standard LSC reduces the instrument background without substantially effecting the background, thus increasing the performance (E 2 /B) of the LSC. Data will be presented for each of the applications mentioned above, comparing the standard LSC and the new TR-LSC techniques. The optimization of the samples for each of these applications will be explored in detail with experimental results. In conclusion, by using the TR-LSC technique in conjunction with a standard LSC the performance of the standard LSC can be increased substantially without dedicating the LSC to doing only low level samples

  7. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  8. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  9. Dashboard Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…

  10. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva

    2011-12-01

    represent a common type of locality for a repository, given that siting criteria are fulfilled. There is also a site that was selected without any association to existing nuclear sites or mines. This is the case for the French L'Aube repository. National repositories for disposal of all waste arising in that country are common, e.g. El Cabril in Spain and Low Level Repository close to Drigg in United Kingdom. The depth of the repositories varies from being on the surface to down to 650 metres below ground. The geological conditions of the different repositories are described as well as engineered barriers, geographical location and, if available, information on safety analysis. It can be noted that in the safety analysis of repositories located close to the coast (such as in Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom), the effect of post-glacial land rise or coastal erosion is taken into special consideration. In general, the size of the repository reflects the size of the nuclear programmes in the respective country. The activity content of the facility, both the total and normalised figures against the volume capacities, are compared for groups of radionuclides

  11. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    represent a common type of locality for a repository, given that siting criteria are fulfilled. There is also a site that was selected without any association to existing nuclear sites or mines. This is the case for the French L'Aube repository. National repositories for disposal of all waste arising in that country are common, e.g. El Cabril in Spain and Low Level Repository close to Drigg in United Kingdom. The depth of the repositories varies from being on the surface to down to 650 metres below ground. The geological conditions of the different repositories are described as well as engineered barriers, geographical location and, if available, information on safety analysis. It can be noted that in the safety analysis of repositories located close to the coast (such as in Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom), the effect of post-glacial land rise or coastal erosion is taken into special consideration. In general, the size of the repository reflects the size of the nuclear programmes in the respective country. The activity content of the facility, both the total and normalised figures against the volume capacities, are compared for groups of radionuclides

  12. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  14. Improved gamma spectrometry of very low level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineira, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today, many laboratories face the need to perform measurements of very low level activities using gamma spectroscopy. The techniques in use are identical to those applicable for higher levels of activities, but there is a need to use better adapted materials and modify the measurement conditions to minimize the background noise around the area. This paper presents the design of a very low level activity laboratory which has addressed the laboratory itself, the measuring chamber and the detector. The lab is constructed underground using specially selected materials of construction. The lab atmosphere is filtered and recycled with frequent changeovers. The rate of make-up fresh air is reduced and is sampled high above ground and filtered

  15. A model for a national low level waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenhorn, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  16. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  17. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  18. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  19. Low-level radioactive waste vitrification: effect of Cs partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.S.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) immobilization options are cementation or bituminization. Either of these options could be followed by shallow-land burial (SLB) or above-ground disposal. These rather simple LLW procedures appeared to be readily available, to meet regulatory requirements, and to satisfy cost constraints. The authorization of State Compacts, the forced closure of half of the six SLB disposal facilities of the nation, and the escalation of transportation/disposal fees diminish the viability of these options. The synergetic combination of these factors led to a reassessment of traditional methods and to an investigation of other techniques. This paper analyzes the traditional LLW immobilization options, reviews the impact of the LLW stream composition on Low-Level Waste Vitrification (LLWV), then proposes and briefly discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV)

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  1. Management of very low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapalain, E.; Damoy, J.; Joly, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This document comprises 3 articles. The first article presents the concern of very low-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear installations, the second article describes the management of the wastes issued from the dismantling operations of the ALS (linear accelerator of Saclay) and of the Saturn synchrotron both located in Saclay Cea's center. The last article presents the storage facility which is specifically dedicated to very low-level radioactive wastes. This storage facility, which is located at Morvilliers, near the 'Centre de l Aube' (used to store the low-, and medium-level, short-lived radioactive wastes), will receive the first packages next summer. Like the other storage facilities, it will be managed by ANDRA (national radioactive waste management agency)

  2. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  4. Development of a low-level waste risk methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.; Falconer, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment method is presented for performance evaluation of low-level waste disposal facilities. The associated program package calculates the risk associated with postulated radionuclide release and transport scenarios. Risk is computed as the mathematical product of two statistical variables: the dose consequence of a given release scenario, and its occurrence probability. A sample risk calculation is included which demonstrates the method. This PRA method will facilitate evaluation of facility performance, including identification of high risk scenarios and their mitigation via optimization of site parameters. The method is intended to be used in facility licensing as a demonstration of compliance with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR Part 61, or in corresponding state regulations. The Low-Level Waste Risk Methodology is being developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  5. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  6. Stochastic Model for Population Exposed to Low Level Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the stochastic model for population size, i.e. calculation of the number of deaths due to lethal stochastic health effects caused by the exposure to low level ionising radiation is presented. The model is defined for subpopulation with parameter (a, b) being fixed. Using the corresponding density function, it is possible to find all the quantities of interest by averaging over whole possible values for (a, l). All processes ar at first defined for one radionuclide, exposure pathway and the health effect under consideration. The results obtained in this paper are the basic quantities in the risk assessment, loss of life expectancy etc. The results presented in this paper are also applicable to the other sources of low level risk, not only the radiation risk

  7. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  8. On the genetic effects of low-level tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aka; Nakai, Sayaka

    1976-01-01

    Genetic risk assessment for potential hazard from environmental tritium to man becomes important with increasing nuclear-power industry. The purpose of this short review is to discuss the possible genetic effects of tritium from a view of genetic risk estimation. The discussion is based mainly on our experimental results on the chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by tritium at the very low-level. The types of chromosome aberrations induced by radiation from tritium incorporated into the cells are mostly chromatid types. The most interesting finding is that the dose-response relationship observed in both tritiated-water and tritiated-thymidine is composed of two phases. The examination on the nature of two-phase dose-response relationship is very important not only for the mechanisms of chromosome aberrations, but also for the evaluation of genetic risk from low-level radiation. (auth.)

  9. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  10. Environment impact of a very low level waste specific landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun-Yaba, C.; Peres, J.M.; Besnus, F.

    1996-01-01

    Operating enrichment plants, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities will give rise to large volumes of waste material (concrete, steel and others metals, technological wastes heat insulators...) and most of them, in term of quantities, will be categorized as very low level wastes. This paper deals with the environmental impact of a specific landfill as a final destination for the very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) with the aim of providing technical elements for safer workers practices during the operational and the monitoring phases and for a public occupation after closure of the site. This study has been made on the basis of inventories in terms of estimated quantities and spectra of the French VLLW for a set of scenarios which are representative of practices in a landfill. (author)

  11. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  12. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; McGarvey, R.S.; Lemmon, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  13. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A.; Loria, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg -1 . The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author) [es

  14. Heat sink management during CANDU low level operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liansheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the practice of low-level operation with opening on the main heat transport system during an outage for a Candu-6 nuclear power plant, analyses the risks of losing heat sink during this condition, and points out the safety measures and management requirement for controlling such risks. This paper can be used as a reference for improving and optimizing the heat sink management for the coming outages. (author)

  15. Long-range low-level waste management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In all waste management considerations, it is necessary to establish the waste source; characterize the waste components; determine treatability; evaluate specific details that comprise a systems approach to overall waste management; and implement practical collection, packaging, storage disposal and monitoring technology. This paper evaluates management considerations by defining the source and magnitude of low-level wastes (LLW), relating LLW disposal, defining principles of LLW burial, and listing LLW burial considerations. 17 refs

  16. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  17. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  18. Low-level radioactive waste involved in transportation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information about radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred in the United States from 1971 through 1989. Using data from RMIR, this paper will provide detailed information on transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred with low-level radioactive wastes. Additionally, overview data on the number of transport accidents and incidents that have occurred and by what transport mode will also be provided. 4 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  20. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  1. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  2. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  3. Effects of RF low levels electromagnetic fields on Paramecium primaurelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofani, S.; Testa, B.; Agnesod, G.; Tartagbino, L.; Bonazzola, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years many studies have been performed to examine biological effects of prolonged exposure at electric field low levels. This great interest is linked to a specific interaction possibility, also related to the exposure length, between electromagnetic fields and biological systems without remarkable enhancement of organism's temperature. Hence the need to investigate in vitro the possible cellular regulation mechanisms involved in these interactions, varying physical exposure parameters

  4. Multipurpose container for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Pearson, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, comprising the steps of (a) introducing the waste into a multipurpose container, the multipurpose container comprising a polymeric inner container disposed within a concrete outer shell, the shape of the inner container conforming substantially to the shape of the outer shell's inner surface, (b) transporting the waste in the same multipurpose container to a storage location, and (c) storing the container at the storage location

  5. Metallograph for the examination of low-level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Shaffer, D.S.; Petty, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    A new remote-controlled metallograph was built for use in a low-level radiation background. The metallograph is low cost compared to a conventional remote-controlled metallograph. The motors that drive the stage motions and focus are commercially available and attach to the metallograph without modification. The metallograph was installed on a drawer in a blister behind a shielding door. This allows the metallograph to be reached quickly and easily for maintenance and repair

  6. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  7. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  8. Low-Level Exploitation Mitigation by Diverse Microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Otterstad , Christian; Yarygina , Tetiana

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Microservices and Containers; International audience; This paper discusses a combination of isolatable microservices and software diversity as a mitigation technique against low-level exploitation; the effectiveness and benefits of such an architecture are substantiated. We argue that the core security benefit of microservices with diversity is increased control flow isolation. Additionally, a new microservices mitigation technique leveraging a security monitor service is introduced t...

  9. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites

  10. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  11. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-06-01

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  12. Recent Developments in Low-Level Software Security

    OpenAIRE

    Agten , Pieter; Nikiforakis , Nick; Strackx , Raoul; Groef , Willem ,; Piessens , Frank

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Keynotes; International audience; An important objective for low-level software security research is to develop techniques that make it harder to launch attacks that exploit implementation details of the system under attack. Baltopoulos and Gordon have summarized this as the principle of source-based reasoning for security: security properties of a software system should follow from review of the source code and its source-level semantics, and should not depend on details of the compi...

  13. Electrochemical processing of low-level waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Ebra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of treating low-level Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste solutions by an electrolytic process has been demonstrated. Although the economics of the process are marginal at the current densities investigated at the laboratory scale, there are a number of positive environmental benefits. These benefits include: (1) reduction in the levels of nitrate and nitrite in the waste, (2) further decontamination of 99 Tc and 106 Ru, and (3) reduction in the volume of waste

  14. Treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelDebbio, J.A.; Donovan, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot plant studies on the use of electrodialysis (ED) for the removal of radioactive and chemical contaminants from acidic low-level radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations. Decontamination efficiencies are reported for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-129, ruthenium-106 and mercury. Data for contaminant adsorption on ED membranes and liquid waste volumes generated are also presented

  15. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  16. Video enhancement : content classification and model selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of video enhancement is to improve the subjective picture quality. The field of video enhancement includes a broad category of research topics, such as removing noise in the video, highlighting some specified features and improving the appearance or visibility of the video content. The

  17. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  18. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  19. Current DOE direction in low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.; Dolenc, M.R.; Shupe, M.W.; Waldo, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing revised DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapter III of the revised order provides prescriptive requirements for managing low-level waste and is the subject of this paper. The revised order requires that all DOE low-level radioactive and mixed waste be systematically managed, using an approach that considers the combination of waste management practices used in waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. The Order defines performance objectives for protecting groundwater, for protecting against intrusion, and for maintaining adequate operational practices. A performance assessment will be required to ensure that waste management operations comply with these performance objectives. DOE implementation of the revised Order includes work in the areas of leach testing, waste stabilization, waste certification, facility monitoring, and management of unique waste streams. This paper summarizes the status of this work and the current direction DOE is taking in managing low-level waste under DOE 5820.2A

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  1. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Rope, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  2. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  3. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  4. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  5. A digital retina-like low-level vision processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertoguno, S; Bourbakis, N G

    2003-01-01

    This correspondence presents the basic design and the simulation of a low level multilayer vision processor that emulates to some degree the functional behavior of a human retina. This retina-like multilayer processor is the lower part of an autonomous self-organized vision system, called Kydon, that could be used on visually impaired people with a damaged visual cerebral cortex. The Kydon vision system, however, is not presented in this paper. The retina-like processor consists of four major layers, where each of them is an array processor based on hexagonal, autonomous processing elements that perform a certain set of low level vision tasks, such as smoothing and light adaptation, edge detection, segmentation, line recognition and region-graph generation. At each layer, the array processor is a 2D array of k/spl times/m hexagonal identical autonomous cells that simultaneously execute certain low level vision tasks. Thus, the hardware design and the simulation at the transistor level of the processing elements (PEs) of the retina-like processor and its simulated functionality with illustrative examples are provided in this paper.

  6. Low levels of extraneous agents in vaccine starting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouby, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    There are different ways to define the concept of 'low levels' of extraneous agents in vaccines and vaccine starting materials, based on the amount of extraneous agents as such, the sensitivity of the detection method and the probability approach linked to the sampling method. None of these approaches, however, is entirely satisfactory--a general definition of a 'low level' cannot be provided. Since the main point is the safety of medicinal products, the risk analysis approach to 'low level' contaminations can be considered as a way to overcome the above mentioned deadlock. But as too many variables impact the risk analysis, it cannot be properly performed either. In practice, seeds are tested to show freedom from extraneous agents, the other raw materials are inactivated through a validated method. However, there are technical and regulatory limits in both cases, and neither testing nor inactivation entirely guarantees freedom from extraneous agents. Despite this unsatisfactory situation, it should be acknowledged that no truly significant disease outbreak linked to an extraneous agent has been identified until today. Regulatory actions are mainly undertaken when a sanitary problem occurs. In the end, companies remain responsible for their products. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent progress in low-level gamma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, C.; Girones, Ph.; Lamadie, F.; Le Goaller, C.

    2007-01-01

    The CEA's Aladin gamma imaging system has been operated successfully for several years in nuclear plants and during decommissioning projects with additional tools such as gamma spectrometry detectors and dose rate probes. The radiological information supplied by these devices is becoming increasingly useful for establishing robust and optimized decommissioning scenarios. Recent technical improvements allow this gamma imaging system to be operated in low-level applications and with shorter acquisition times suitable for decommissioning projects. The compact portable system can be used in places inaccessible to operators. It is quick and easy to implement, notably for onsite component characterization. Feasibility trials and in situ measurements were recently carried out under low-level conditions, mainly on waste packages and glove boxes for decommissioning projects. This paper describes recent low-level in situ applications. These characterization campaigns mainly concerned gamma emitters with γ energy < 700 keV. In many cases, the localization of hot spots by gamma camera was confirmed by additional measurements such as dose rate mapping and gamma spectrometry measurements. These complementary techniques associated with advanced calculation codes (MCNP, Mercure 6.2, Visiplan and Siren) offer a mobile and compact tool for specific assessment of waste packages and glove boxes. (authors)

  8. Recovery of uranium (VI) from low level aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, Mukul

    1996-01-01

    Investigation was undertaken to evaluate the uranium (VI) removal and recovery potential of a naturally occurring, nonviable macrofungus, Ganoderma Lucidum from the simulated low level aqueous nuclear waste. These low level waste waters discharged from nuclear mine tailings and nuclear power reactors have a typical U(VI) concentration of 10-100 mg/L. It is possible to recover this uranium economically with the advent of biosorption as a viable technology. Extensive laboratory studies have revealed Ganoderma Lucidum to be a potential biosorbent with a specific uptake of 2.75 mg/g at an equilibrium U(VI) concentration of 10 mg/L at pH 4.5. To recover the sorbed U(VI), the studies indicated 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 to be an effective elutant. The kinetics of U(VI) desorption from loaded Ganoderma Lucidum with 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 as elutant, was found to be rapid with more than 75% recovery occurring in the first five minutes, the specific metal release rate being 0.102 mg/g/min. The equilibrium data fitted to a linearised Freundlich plot and exhibited a near 100% recovery of sorbed U(VI), clearly revealing a cost-effective method of recovery of precious uranium from low level wastewater. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Wen-Dien; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Jiang, Joe-Air; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chang, Yang-Chyuan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG) changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz) to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  10. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  11. Reduced harm or another gateway to smoking? source, message, and information characteristics of E-cigarette videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sookyong; Hove, Thomas; Huh, Jung Yoon

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely promoted on the Internet, but little is known about what kinds of information about them are available online. This study examines message, source, and health information characteristics of e-cigarette videos on the popular online video-sharing platform YouTube. A content analysis of 365 e-cigarette videos indicates that 85% of the videos were sponsored by marketers. These videos highlight e-cigarettes' economic and social benefits, featuring a low level of fear appeal and negative message valence and a high level of marketing information about e-cigarette products. They also convey certain health claims that have been proscribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the prevalence of which warrants ongoing monitoring and regulatory guidelines for online e-cigarette marketing.

  12. Low-level wastewater treatment facility process control operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of a new TK 102 level controller and total outflow integrator added to the NHCON software that controls the Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility (LLWTF). The test was performed with WHC-SD-CP-OTP 154, PFP Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility Process Control Operational Test. A complete test copy is included in appendix A. The new TK 102 level controller provides a signal, hereafter referred to its cascade mode, to the treatment train flow controller which enables the water treatment process to run for long periods without continuous operator monitoring. The test successfully demonstrated the functionality of the new controller under standard and abnormal conditions expected from the LLWTF operation. In addition, a flow totalizer is now displayed on the LLWTF outlet MICON screen which tallies the process output in gallons. This feature substantially improves the ability to retrieve daily process volumes for maintaining accurate material balances

  13. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series: Low-level radioactive waste management in medical and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Development of this handbook began in 1982 at the request of the Radhealth Branch of the California Department of Health Services. California Assembly Bill 1513 directed the DHS to ''evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of (1) reducing the volume, reactivity, and chemical and radioactive hazard of (low-level radioactive) waste and (2) substituting nonradioactive or short-lived radioactive materials for those radionuclides which require long-term isolation from the environment. A contract awarded to the University of California at Irvine-UCI (California Std. Agreement 79902), to develop a document focusing on methods for decreasing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generation in institutions was a result of that directive. In early 1985, the US Department of Energy, through EG and G Idaho, Inc., contracted with UCI to expand, update, and revise the California text for national release

  14. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  15. The Department of Energy's National Disposition Strategy for the Treatment and Disposal of Low Level and Mixed Low Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.R.; Tonkay, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program is committed to the environmental remediation of DOE sites. This cleanup mission will continue to produce large amounts of Low Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). This paper reports on the development of the DOE LLW/MLLW National Disposition Strategy that maps the Department's long-range strategy to manage LLW and MLLW. Existing corporate LLW and MLLW data proved insufficient to develop this strategy. Therefore, new data requirements were developed in conjunction with waste managers. The paper will report on the results of this data collection effort, which will result in development of DOE LLW/MLLW disposition maps. (authors)

  16. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action.Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  17. Video Vectorization via Tetrahedral Remeshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhu, Jie; Guo, Yanwen; Wang, Wenping

    2017-02-09

    We present a video vectorization method that generates a video in vector representation from an input video in raster representation. A vector-based video representation offers the benefits of vector graphics, such as compactness and scalability. The vector video we generate is represented by a simplified tetrahedral control mesh over the spatial-temporal video volume, with color attributes defined at the mesh vertices. We present novel techniques for simplification and subdivision of a tetrahedral mesh to achieve high simplification ratio while preserving features and ensuring color fidelity. From an input raster video, our method is capable of generating a compact video in vector representation that allows a faithful reconstruction with low reconstruction errors.

  18. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  19. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Video pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko

    2016-01-01

    The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...

  1. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  2. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on Gambusia affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1944, White Oak Lake (WOL), located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, has served as a final settling basin for low-level radioactive effluents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Organisms inhabiting the lake have been exposed for many generations to chronic low-level radiation significantly higher than background. During the past decade, studies on Gambusia affinis from WOL have been carried out to relate estimated radiation doses to effects on the fitness of the Gambusia population. Results of studies on fecundity, temperature tolerance, and embryonic mortality have led to the conclusion that the Gambusia population in White Oak Lake has an increased frequency of deleterious and recessive lethal genes which may be attributed to the radiation exposure history. The frequency of nonviable embryos from WOL Gambusia did not change significantly from 1966 to 1978; however, it was still significantly greater than that of a control population. In July 1977, Gambusia from a control population were stocked into a 0.45-ha pond which had served as a low-level waste settling basin. The beta and gamma dose rate in this pond averaged from 37 rad/yr at the water surface, 394 rad/yr at mid-depth, and 1150 rad/yr at the surface of the sediments. Preliminary results from samples taken in August 1978 showed that although the frequency of nonviable embryos increased, the frequency was not significantly greater than that of the control parent population. Additional sampling of future generations of Gambusia in this pond will determine whether the frequency of nonviable embryos increases as succeeding generations are exposed to dose rates that are higher than the dose rates in WOL

  3. Transitional millisecond pulsars in the low-level accretion state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodard, Amruta D.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Archibald, Anne; Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam; Hernandez Santisteban, Juan; Patruno, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Caroline; Bassa, Cees; Amruta Jaodand

    2018-01-01

    In the canonical pulsar recycling scenario, a slowly spinning neutron star can be rejuvenated to rapid spin rates by the transfer of angular momentum and mass from a binary companion star. Over the last decade, the discovery of three transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) has allowed us to study recycling in detail. These systems transition between accretion-powered (X-ray) and rotation-powered (radio) pulsar states within just a few days, raising questions such as: what triggers the state transition, when does the recycling process truly end, and what will the radio pulsar’s final spin rate be? Systematic multi-wavelength campaigns over the last decade have provided critical insights: multi-year-long, low-level accretion states showing coherent X-ray pulsations; extremely stable, bi-modal X-ray light curves; outflows probed by radio continuum emission; a surprising gamma-ray brightening during accretion, etc. In my thesis I am trying to bring these clues together to understand the low-level accretion process that recycles a pulsar. For example, recently we timed PSR J1023+0038 in the accretion state and found it to be spinning down ~26% faster compared to the non-accreting radio pulsar state. We are currently conducting simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns (XMM, HST, Kepler and VLA) to understand the global variability of the accretion flow, as well as high-energy Fermi-LAT observations to probe the gamma-ray emission mechanism. I will highlight these recent developments, while also presenting a broad overview of tMSPs as exciting new laboratories to test low-level accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  4. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  5. Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.

  6. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Caseria, E.S.; Salom, D.S.; Alamares, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137 Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  7. Flow proportional sampling of low level liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, D.; Jenkins, R.

    1989-01-01

    A flow proportional sampler for use on low level radioactive liquid effluent has been developed for installation on all CEGB nuclear power stations. The sampler, operates by drawing effluent continuously from the main effluent pipeline, through a sampler loop and returning it to the pipeline. The effluent in this loop is sampled by taking small, frequent aliquots using a linear acting shuttle valve. The frequency of operation of this valve is controlled by a flowmeter installed in the effluent line; sampling rate being directly proportional to effluent flowrate. (author)

  8. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  9. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  10. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E M; Marcelo, E A; Junio, J B; Caseria, E S; Salom, D S; Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Manila (Philippines). Radiation Protection Services

    1997-02-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing {sup 137}Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Overview of treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.

    1986-01-01

    The consideration of alternative technologies in low-level waste management is assumed to be partly a response to current demands for lower risk in waste disposal. One of the determinants of risk in waste disposal is the set of characteristics of the materials placed into disposal cells, i.e., the products of treatment and conditioning operations. The treatment and conditioning operations that have been applied to waste streams are briefly examined. Three operations are the most important determinants of the stability that will contribute to reducing risk at the disposal cell: compaction, high-integrity containers, and solidification. The status of these three operations is reviewed

  12. Review of very low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Guo Minli; Tian Hao; Teng Yanguo

    2005-01-01

    Very low level waste (VLLW) is a new type of radioactive wastes proposed recently. No widely acceptable definition and disposal rules have been established for it. This paper reviews the definition of VLLW in some countries where VLLW was researched early, as well as the disposal policies and methods of VLLW that the IAEA and these countries followed. In addition, the safety assessment programs for VLLW disposal are introduced. It is proved the research of VLLW is urgent and essential in china through the comparison of VLLW disposal between china and these counties. At last, this paper points out the future development of VLLW disposal research in China. (authors)

  13. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Mathematical modeling in low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.S.; Yeh, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of moisture transport through near-surface infiltration reduction seals above low-level waste trenches may be used to aid in the evaluation of engineering design alternatives. The infiltration of rainwater must be reduced for successful radionuclide containment within a typical shallow trench. Clay admixtures offer not only long-term integrity, but the necessary durability. The use of models is exemplified in the calculation of spatial moisture content and velocity distributions in the vicinity of a near-surface seal

  15. Low-level radioactive gas monitor for natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1969-11-01

    A portable radioactivity detection system for monitoring the tritium content of natural gas under field conditions has been developed. The sensing device employed is a complex proportional counting assembly operated without the use of massive shielding previously employed with such low-level radiation detectors. The practical limit of detection for the system is a tritium content of 10 -9 microcurie per cc of natural gas. All components of the system are packaged in three waterproof cases weighing slightly less than 30 kg each. Power requirement is 500 watts of 120 volt, 60 Hz current. Operation is fully automatic with a printed record produced at predetermined time intervals

  16. Low-level radioactive waste management. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radioisotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Although the difficulties involved in radioactive waste management are considerable, responsible solutions are possible. This paper will discuss low-level radioactive waste, including its production, the amounts in storage, the rate of waste accumulation and possible strategies for its management. (author). 2 figs

  17. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  18. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  19. The NRC perspective on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.L. Jr.; Knapp, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) actions in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (the Act) and NRC's assistance to States and Compacts working to discharge their responsibilities under the Act. Three of NRC's accomplishments which respond explicitly to direction in the Act are highlighted. These are: development of the capability of expedited handling of petitions addressing wastes below regulatory concern (BRC); development of capability to review and process an application within fifteen months; and development of guidance on alternatives to shallow land burial. Certain NRC efforts concerning special topics related to the Act as well as NRC efforts to assist States and Compacts are summarized

  20. The Savannah River Plant low-level waste segregation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    To extend the life of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Radioactive Waste Burial Ground, a sitewide program has been implemented to segregate waste that is essentially free of contamination from routine radioactive waste. Much of the low-level waste disposed of as radioactive has no detectable contamination and can be buried in a sanitary landfill. A Landfill Monitoring Facility (LMF) will be constructed at SRP to house the state-of-the-art technology required to provide a final survey on the candidate waste streams that had previously been classified as radioactive. 3 figs

  1. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  2. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  3. Low-level waste management program: technical program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The mission of the technical program is to develop the technology component of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program and to manage research and development, demonstration, and documentation of the technical aspects of the program. Some of the major technology objectives are: develop and demonstrate techniques for waste generation reduction; develop and demonstrate waste treatment, handling and packaging techniques; develop and demonstrate the technology for greater confinement; and develop the technology for remedial action at existing sites. In addition there is the technology transfer objective which is to compile and issue a handbook documenting the technology for each of the above technology objectives

  4. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Masayasu; Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination of α and β rays with liquid scintillation counting was investigated for the purpose of low level α activity measurements. Various liquid scintillators for pulse shape discrimination were examined by means of pulse rise time analysis. A new scintillator of low cost and of superior characteristics was found. The figure of merits better than 3.5 in risetime spectrum and the energy resolution better than 9% were obtained for carefully prepared samples. The background counting rate for a sample of 10 ml was reduced to 0.013 cpm/MeV in the range of α ray energy 5 to 7 MeV. (author)

  5. Computerized low-level waste assay system operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.F.; Cowder, L.R.; Martin, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An operation and maintenance manual for the computerized low-level waste box counter is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as theory of operation treated in sufficient depth so that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays. In addition, complete system schematics are included, along with a complete circuit description to facilitate not only maintenance and troubleshooting, but also reproduction of the instrument if desired. Complete software system descriptions are included so far as calculational algorithms are concerned, although detailed instruction listings would have to be obtained from Group R-1 at LASL in order to make machine-language code changes

  6. Genetic damage from low-level and natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1988-01-01

    Relevant predictions that have been made of possible low level biological effects on man are reviewed, and the estimate of genetic damage is discussed. It is concluded that in spite of a number of attempts, no clear-cut case of effects in human populations of radiation at natural levels has been demonstrated. The stability of genetic material is dynamic, with damage, repair and selection running as continuous processes. Genetic materials are well protected and are conservative in the extreme, not least because evolution by genetic adaptation is an expensive process: Substitution of one allele A 1 by another A 2 means the death of the whole A 1 population

  7. Assumed genetic effects of low level irradiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of human genetic pathology is stated and a study is made of the assumed effect of low level ionizing radiations. The theoretical notions thus derived are compared to experimental data which are poor. A quick survey of the literature shows that is has not yet been possible to establish a direct relationship between an increase of exposure and any genetic effect on man. However, this must not lead to conclude on the innoxiousness of radiation but rather shows how such analyses are difficult in as much as the effect investigated is necessarily low [fr

  8. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  10. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  11. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

  12. A Flexible Object-of-Interest Annotation Framework for Online Video Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sorschag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the use of object recognition techniques to annotate what is shown where in online video collections. These annotations are suitable to retrieve specific video scenes for object related text queries which is not possible with the manually generated metadata that is used by current portals. We are not the first to present object annotations that are generated with content-based analysis methods. However, the proposed framework possesses some outstanding features that offer good prospects for its application in real video portals. Firstly, it can be easily used as background module in any video environment. Secondly, it is not based on a fixed analysis chain but on an extensive recognition infrastructure that can be used with all kinds of visual features, matching and machine learning techniques. New recognition approaches can be integrated into this infrastructure with low development costs and a configuration of the used recognition approaches can be performed even on a running system. Thus, this framework might also benefit from future advances in computer vision. Thirdly, we present an automatic selection approach to support the use of different recognition strategies for different objects. Last but not least, visual analysis can be performed efficiently on distributed, multi-processor environments and a database schema is presented to store the resulting video annotations as well as the off-line generated low-level features in a compact form. We achieve promising results in an annotation case study and the instance search task of the TRECVID 2011 challenge.

  13. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.M. LaRue

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements

  14. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

  15. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  16. Technical responsibilities in low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.; Walker, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    North Carolina will be the host state for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility serving the Southeast Compact for 20 yr beginning in 1993. Primary responsibility for the project rests with the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, a citizen board. The North Carolina project embodies a unique combination of factors that places the authority in a position to exercise technical leadership in the LLRW disposal field. First, the Southeast Compact is the largest in the United States in terms of area, population, and waste generation. second, it is in a humid rather than an arid region. Third, the citizens of the state are intensely interested in preserving life style, environment, and attractiveness of the region to tourists and are especially sensitive to the presence of waste facilities of any kind. Finally, disposal rules set by the Radiation Protection Commission and enforced by the Radiation Protection Section are stricter than the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR61. These four factors support the authority's belief that development of the facility cannot be based solely on engineering and economics, but that social factors, including perceptions of human risk, concerns for the environment, and opinions about the desirability of hosting a facility, should be integral to the project. This philosophy guides the project's many technical aspects, including site selection, site characterization, technology selection and facility design, performance assessment modeling, and waste reduction policies. Each aspect presents its own unique problems

  17. Hyper-heuristics with low level parameter adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhilei; Jiang, He; Xuan, Jifeng; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the great success of hyper-heuristics applying to numerous real-world applications. Hyper-heuristics raise the generality of search methodologies by manipulating a set of low level heuristics (LLHs) to solve problems, and aim to automate the algorithm design process. However, those LLHs are usually parameterized, which may contradict the domain independent motivation of hyper-heuristics. In this paper, we show how to automatically maintain low level parameters (LLPs) using a hyper-heuristic with LLP adaptation (AD-HH), and exemplify the feasibility of AD-HH by adaptively maintaining the LLPs for two hyper-heuristic models. Furthermore, aiming at tackling the search space expansion due to the LLP adaptation, we apply a heuristic space reduction (SAR) mechanism to improve the AD-HH framework. The integration of the LLP adaptation and the SAR mechanism is able to explore the heuristic space more effectively and efficiently. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms, we choose the p-median problem as a case study. The empirical results show that with the adaptation of the LLPs and the SAR mechanism, the proposed algorithms are able to achieve competitive results over the three heterogeneous classes of benchmark instances.

  18. Effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana do Socorro da Silva Dias Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To gather and clarify the actual effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing and its most effective ways of application in human and veterinary medicine.METHODS: We searched original articles published in journals between the years 2000 and 2011, in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese languages, belonging to the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Bireme; Tey should contain the methodological description of the experimental design and parameters used.RESULTS: doses ranging from 3 to 6 J/cm2 appear to be more effective and doses 10 above J/cm2 are associated with deleterious effects. The wavelengths ranging from 632.8 to 1000 nm remain as those that provide more satisfactory results in the wound healing process.CONCLUSION: Low-level laser can be safely applied to accelerate the resolution of cutaneous wounds, although this fact is closely related to the election of parameters such as dose, time of exposure and wavelength.

  19. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  20. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  1. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Harada, Takashi; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-12-27

    Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm(2) per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (pknee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee.

  2. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Coe, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63 Ni and 59 Ni to 60 Co for PWRs and to 58 Co for BWRs, 90 Sr to 137 Cs for BWRs and 241 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm to 144 Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  3. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  4. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Wong, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 x 100 x 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10 -7 cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10 -8 , 10 -12 and 10 -12 cm 2 /sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr +6 to Cr +3 and Tc +7 to Tc +4 and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site

  5. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  6. Low-level radioactive waste: the Pennsylvania situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krett, R.E.; Dornsife, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1985, the Pennsylvania legislature adopted and Governor Thornburgh signed into law the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. The Appalachian Compact provides for the establishment and operation of facilities for regional disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) to eligible states. Pennsylvania is designated as the initial host state to develop a regional LLRW disposal facility. The Compact legislation did not grant Pennsylvania the authority to license, permit, regulate, inspect or otherwise initiate the processes necessary to establish a LLRW disposal facility. The burden for implementing the Compact is placed on the state of Pennsylvania. The implementing legislation needed to proceed is currently in Pennsylvania's legislative process. Area Screening and Technology Performance/Design Criteria are currently being developed by D.E.R. staff in conjunction with a sixteen member public advisory committee. Upon enactment of the implementing legislation, Pennsylvania will proceed with all processes necessary to develop a regional LLRW disposal facility for the Appalachian Compact. 1 figure, 1 table

  7. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  8. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO 3 and is contaminated by low levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable

  9. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohankumar, M N; Jeevanram, R K [Safety Research and Health Physics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1996-12-31

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author). 98 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  11. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  12. Somatic and genetic effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Although the biological effects of ionizing radiation are probably better known than those of any other physical or chemical agent in the environment, our information about such effects has come from observations at doses and dose rates which are orders of magnitude higher than natural background environmental radiation levels. Whether, therefore biological effects occur in response to such low levels can be estimated only by extrapolation, based on assumptions about the dose-effect relationship and the mechanisms of the effects in question. Present knowledge suggests the possibility that several types of biological effects may result from low-level irradiation. The induction of heritable genetic changes in germ cells and carcinogenic changes in somatic cells are considered to be the most important from the standpoint of their potential threat to health. On the basis of existing data, it is possible to make only tentative upper limit estimates of the risks of these effects at low doses. The estimates imply that the frequency of such effects attributable to exposure at natural background radiation levels would constitute only a small fraction of their natural incidence. 148 references

  13. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  14. Intercomparison of low-level tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipka, V.; Zupancic, M.; Hadzisehovic, M.; Bacic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA organized the fourth intercomparison for low-level tritium counting in waters. Four water samples with different 3 H concentration were sent to 85 laboratories willing to participate. The results from the different laboratories were presented in the unified questionnaires and coded. The participation in the intercomparisons for every laboratory doing low-level 3 H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. This is a best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standards used. Since our laboratories are doing the natural 3 H concentration measurement in the waters for the environmental control and hydrology reasons it was necessary to take part in this intercomparison. Our standard procedure was applied. The 3 H activity in the samples was measured by liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment. The results of our measurements of the four water samples, received from the organizers, are presented on the figures and tables presenting summary of the intercomparison. It is clear that our measurement (procedure and standards) have given satisfactory results (author)

  15. Lamar Low-Level Jet Program Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.; Shirazi, M.; Jager, D.; Wilde, S.; Adams, J.; Buhl, M.; Sullivan, P.; Patton, E.

    2004-01-01

    This interim report presents the results to date from the Lamar Low-Level Jet Program (LLLJP) that has been established as joint effort among the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and General Electric Wind Energy (GE Wind). The purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the influence of nocturnal low-level jet streams on the inflow turbulence environment and the documenting of any potential operating impacts on current large wind turbines and the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) designs of the future. A year's record of detailed nocturnal turbulence measurements has been collected from NREL instrumentation installed on the GE Wind 120-m tower in southeastern Colorado and supplemented with mean wind profile data collected using an acoustic wind profiler or SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging). The analyses of measurements taken as part of a previous program conducted at the NWTC have been used to aid in the interpretation of the results of representative case studies of data collected from the GE Wind tower.

  16. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Low level radiation: how low can you get?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1990-01-01

    Information stored on the world's largest data bank concerning the health of nuclear industry workers is to be handed over to researchers at Birmingham University by the US Department of Energy. The data bank contains detailed information on 300,000 nuclear employees, going back to the 1940s. Such a large sample size will allow the results of a previous study conducted on workers in the US nuclear industry to be verified. That study was concluded in 1978 and showed that the risk estimates set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were between 10 and 30 times too low. The current ICRP estimate allows workers up to 50mSv of exposure to low level radiation per year. Risk estimates have been derived from data relating to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However in those cases the radiation doses were relatively high but over a short period. In the nuclear industry the doses are lower but are long term and this may account for the apparent anomalies such as the incidence of leukaemia amongst children whose fathers have worked in the nuclear industry compared with that for the children whose fathers received radiation doses from the atomic bombings. It is expected the study will show that low-level radiation is more damaging than has previously been thought. (author)

  18. Rokkasho low-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited commenced the operation of the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste from reactor operation, in 1992 at Rokkasho site in Aomori Prefecture. JNFL is private company whose main activities within the responsibility of JNFL are: 1) Disposal of low-level radioactive waste, 2) Uranium enrichment, 3) Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, 4) Temporary storage of returned wastes from COGEMA and BNFL by reprocessing contracts, prior to disposal. JNFL selected the site for the disposal of LLW at Rokkasho in Aomori Prefecture, then bought land of 3.4 million m 2 . Among waste spectrum, LLWs from nuclear power plants, from uranium enrichment and from reprocessing are to be managed by JNFL, including dismantling of these facilities, and JNFL has plan to dispose about 600 thousand m 3 of wastes ultimately. On the middle of November 1990 JNFL got the permission of the application for 40 thousand m 3 (equivalent to 200,000 drums each with a 200-liter capacity) of reactor operating wastes which is solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics as a first stage. And after the construction work for about 2 years, the operations started at Dec. 8th, 1992. The Disposal center has already accepted about 24,000 LLW drums as of the end of February, 1994. (author)

  19. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  20. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  1. Low-level radiation effects: a fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Adelstein, S.J.; Saenger, E.L.; Webster, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low Level Raidation Effects: A Fact Book, prepared by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Subcommittee on the Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, attempts to examine the health effects of small doses of radiation. For immediate questions, this work provides a well-organized brief summary of recent radiologic data from refereed scientific literature and from the publications of advisory groups such as the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Since it consists almost entirely of tables and graphs from the above-mentioned sources along with summary paragraphs, the Fact Book is very useful in the preparation of lectures. The book is divided into seven sections. Chapter One, Glossary, Units and Conversion Factors, is useful because nearly all data given in the rest of the book is in conventional units and should be converted to SI units for future technical audiences. Chapter 2, Radiobiology, covers the fundamental principles of the field. Chapter 3, Radiation Doses, can be used to help an audience appreciate the relative magnitudes of radiation exposures they may read about or encounter. Chapter 4, Late Somatic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, gives data concerning cancer induction and embryonic effects, and Chapter 5 provides data on genetic effects Chapter 6, Risks, Statistical Facts and Public Perception can be used to compare the risks of radiation exposure with more commonly encountered risks

  2. Digital video transcoding for transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin

    2004-01-01

    Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol

  3. Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Cathlena

    2008-01-01

    Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...

  4. Considerations for closure of low-level radioactive waste engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Proper stabilization and closure of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities require detailed planning during the early stages of facility development. This report provides considerations for host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States on stabilization and closure of engineered low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste disposal facilities. A time line for planning closure activities, which identifies closure considerations to be addressed during various stages of a facility's development, is presented. Current Federal regulatory requirements and guidance for closure and post-closure are outlined. Significant differences between host State and Federal closure requirements are identified. Design features used as stabilization measures that support closure, such as waste forms and containers, backfill materials, engineered barrier systems, and site drainage systems, are described. These design features are identified and evaluated in terms of how they promote long-term site stability by minimizing water infiltration, controlling subsidence and surface erosion, and deterring intrusion. Design and construction features critical to successful closure are presented for covers and site drainage. General considerations for stabilization and closure operations are introduced. The role of performance and environmental monitoring during closure is described

  5. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on orofacial pain: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Zokaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic approach to treat orofacial pain using a 600–1000 nm laser with a <500 mW power. The efficacy of LLLT is due to the chemical reactions causing an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect on the affected regions. The aim of this study is to review the effects of low-level laser application on orofacial pain in the English articles released since 2017. Our search keywords were 'low-level laser therapy, temporomandibular disease (TMD, mucositis and orofacial pain'. The most relevant papers were clinical trial, review and meta-analysis articles. 26 out of 243 searched articles were selected from PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct and reviewed. Most of the studies reported the positive role of LLLT on orofacial pain relief regardless of their variable procedures; however, the exact mechanism of action still remains unclear. Some studies indicated that LLLT has significantly reduced pain, reduceamount of clicking and both masseter and temporal muscles activityin TMD. As an overall result, it is concluded that LLLT can be served as a therapeutic method for myofascial pain, mucositis and temporomandibular joint disorders and this is due to its analgesic features.

  6. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  7. Knowledge-based low-level image analysis for computer vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Baxi, Himanshu; Ranganath, M. V.

    1988-01-01

    Two algorithms for entry-level image analysis and preliminary segmentation are proposed which are flexible enough to incorporate local properties of the image. The first algorithm involves pyramid-based multiresolution processing and a strategy to define and use interlevel and intralevel link strengths. The second algorithm, which is designed for selected window processing, extracts regions adaptively using local histograms. The preliminary segmentation and a set of features are employed as the input to an efficient rule-based low-level analysis system, resulting in suboptimal meaningful segmentation.

  8. Low level image processing techniques using the pipeline image processing engine in the flight telerobotic servicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashman, Marilyn; Chaconas, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    The sensory processing system for the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM) for telerobotic control is described. This control system architecture was adopted by NASA of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer. The control system is hierarchically designed and consists of three parallel systems: task decomposition, world modeling, and sensory processing. The Sensory Processing System is examined, and in particular the image processing hardware and software used to extract features at low levels of sensory processing for tasks representative of those envisioned for the Space Station such as assembly and maintenance are described.

  9. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  10. The 3D Human Motion Control Through Refined Video Gesture Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yohan; Suk, Myunghoon; Prabhakaran, B.

    In the beginning of computer and video game industry, simple game controllers consisting of buttons and joysticks were employed, but recently game consoles are replacing joystick buttons with novel interfaces such as the remote controllers with motion sensing technology on the Nintendo Wii [1] Especially video-based human computer interaction (HCI) technique has been applied to games, and the representative game is 'Eyetoy' on the Sony PlayStation 2. Video-based HCI technique has great benefit to release players from the intractable game controller. Moreover, in order to communicate between humans and computers, video-based HCI is very crucial since it is intuitive, easy to get, and inexpensive. On the one hand, extracting semantic low-level features from video human motion data is still a major challenge. The level of accuracy is really dependent on each subject's characteristic and environmental noises. Of late, people have been using 3D motion-capture data for visualizing real human motions in 3D space (e.g, 'Tiger Woods' in EA Sports, 'Angelina Jolie' in Bear-Wolf movie) and analyzing motions for specific performance (e.g, 'golf swing' and 'walking'). 3D motion-capture system ('VICON') generates a matrix for each motion clip. Here, a column is corresponding to a human's sub-body part and row represents time frames of data capture. Thus, we can extract sub-body part's motion only by selecting specific columns. Different from low-level feature values of video human motion, 3D human motion-capture data matrix are not pixel values, but is closer to human level of semantics.

  11. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  12. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  13. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  14. A performance assessment methodology for low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Mattingly, P.A.

    1990-07-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This report provides a summary of background reports on the development of the methodology and an overview of the models and codes selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology and a sequential procedure for applying the methodology. Discussions are provided of models and associated assumptions that are appropriate for each phase of the methodology, the goals of each phase, data required to implement the models, significant sources of uncertainty associated with each phase, and the computer codes used to implement the appropriate models. In addition, a sample demonstration of the methodology is presented for a simple conceptual model. 64 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Creating interstate compacts for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of the 1980 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) depends on the creation of interstate compacts. Compact formation is a public goods problem. Formation may be impeded by opposition from elements in the federal government, the inability of state governments to resolve problems of conflicting political interests, and the possiblity of extensive and unfruitful negotiations. These obstacles my be overcome if fortuitous circumstances exist and entrepreneurial behavior is applied. Guidelines that entrepreneurs may use to facilitate compact formation are relying on the exclusive character of incentives, forming compacts with a small number of members, taking advantage of inequality of interests among prospective members, using solidary incentives to promote cooperation, relying on existing regional organizations to build support, employing a game metaphor to understand the stakes of the participants, and making each party subject to an agreement feel as if it were a winner. (author)

  16. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  17. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  18. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  19. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  20. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  1. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  2. Oestrogen, ocular function and low-level vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Walker, James A; Davidson, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, a literature has emerged concerning the sex steroid hormone oestrogen and its role in human vision. Herein, we review evidence that oestrogen (oestradiol) levels may significantly affect ocular function and low-level vision, particularly in older females. In doing so, we have examined a number of vision-related disorders including dry eye, cataract, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In each case, we have found oestrogen, or lack thereof, to have a role. We have also included discussion of how oestrogen-related pharmacological treatments for menopause and breast cancer can impact the pathology of the eye and a number of psychophysical aspects of vision. Finally, we have reviewed oestrogen's pharmacology and suggest potential mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects, with particular emphasis on anti-apoptotic and vascular effects. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Susceptibility of materials processing experiments to low-level accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The types of material processing experiments being considered for shuttle can be grouped into four categories: (1) contained solidification experiment; (2) quasicontainerless experiments; (3) containerless experiments; and (4) fluids experiments. Low level steady acceleration, compensated and uncompensated transient accelerations, and rotation induced flow factors that must be considered in the acceleration environment of a space vehicle whose importance depends on the type of experiment being performed. Some control of these factors may be exercised by the location and orientation of the experiment relative to shuttle and by the orbit vehicle attitude chosen for mission. The effects of the various residual accelerations can have serious consequence to the control of the experiment and must be factored into the design and operation of the apparatus.

  4. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbrook, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight

  5. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  6. Low level chronic irradiation of salmon. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, W.K.; Donaldson, L.R.; Bonham, K.; Brannon, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    A question of primary importance in the use of nuclear energy is what effect the effluent from a reactor will have on the aquatic life in the water used for cooling. Of particular concern in the Pacific Northwest are the effects of chronic irradiation on salmon that use the rivers for spawning and nursery area. The present program was designed in the early days of the atomic era to address this concern, and to provide some insight into the long-term consequences of exposure of fish to chronic, low levels of irradiation. The experimental techniques are described and data are summarized on irradiation effects on the entire life cycle of the chinook salmon. Also, long-term effects transmitted to future generations were assessed in F 1 offspring of irradiated parents

  7. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system

  8. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakonson, T. E.; Gladney, E. S.

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burialsites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. The need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatment is demonstrated. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and sil overburden depth.

  9. Defining mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several months, staffs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been developing a working definition of Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). Such wastes are currently being regulated by NRC under authority of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, and by EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended. Development of the definition is one component of a comprehensive program to resolve differences between the regulatory programs of the two agencies pertaining to the regulation of the management and disposal of Mixed LLW. Although the definition is still undergoing legal and policy reviews in both agencies, this paper presents the current working definition, discusses a methodology that may be used by NRC licensees to identify Mixed LLW, and provides responses to anticipated questions from licensees about the definition. 3 references, 1 figure

  10. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air

  11. Interpretation of low-level environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Levels of radioactivity in the environment from worldwide fallout have decreased by about a factor of 10 since the early 1970's and many environmental concentrations are now less than the routine estimated lower limit of detection. To accurately represent these data and to assist in evaluating very low levels of radioactivity, each instrumental value with its statistical counting error should be reported. In some instances the background count of the instrument exceeds the sample count resulting in a value that is less than zero (a negative concentration). Evaluation of these negative numbers along with zero and positive concentrations over a suitable sample population can yield important information about concentrations that are less than routine minimum levels of detection. Actual instrumental values (negative, zero and positive) with associated statistical counting errors have been reported by the Environmental Monitoring Group at the Savannah River Plant since 1977. Methods for evaluating these data are discussed and empirical data presented to illustrate important points

  12. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin

  13. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing

  14. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  15. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  16. Modularized system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; DiSibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    A modularized system for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste is presented that attempts to overcome the past problems with shallow land burial and gain public acceptance. All waste received at the disposal site is packaged into reinforced concrete modules which are filled with grout, covered and sealed. The hexagonal shape modules are placed in a closely packed array in a disposal unit. The structural stability provided by the modules allow a protective cover constructed of natural materials to be installed, and the disposal units are decommissioned as they are filled. The modules are designed to be recoverable in the event remedial action is necessary. The cost of disposal with a facility of this type is comparable to current prices of shallow land burial facilities. The system is intended to address the needs of generators, regulators, communities, elected officials, licensees and future generations

  17. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensrud, D.J. [NOAA/ERL/National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, OK (United States); Pfeifer, S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  19. Reliability review of the LHC collimators low level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, A.; Donze, M.; Losito, R.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC collimators' low level control system is responsible for the positioning, with an accuracy of a few um, of more than 500 motor axes located around the entire LHC tunnel and synchronized at us level,The collimators' axes position is verified in Real Time, monitoring at 100 Hz more than 700 LVDT positioning sensors. Apart from the challenging requirements of timing and positioning accuracy, the system is characterized by a high level of reliability since the collimators have the crucial function of machine protection. In this paper we focus on the architectural and technical choices adopted to guarantee the level of reliability required by the application. We also present the tools and solutions developed to manage this huge control system making the support easier and faster for its operation. (authors)

  20. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas

  1. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  2. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  3. Very Low Level Radioactive Solid Waste Management in CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting Jun [No. 117 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    This paper introduces the policy and regulations on very low level waste (VLLW) management in China. Given the important decommissioning and site restoration program of the old facility, it is considered necessary to create a new disposal facility dedicated to VLLW. Many general design principles are in common with to the disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (LILW), namely the isolation of the waste by means of a multibarrier system, but using bentonite and/or high density polyethylene membranes instead of the generalized use of concrete barriers. The design of the facility is consistent with the design of disposal facilities for hazardous waste. The engineering design of two VLLW disposal facilities is introduced.

  4. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  5. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Armstrong, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  6. Operational experience with Seibersdorf low-level incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information about an excess air incinerator which burned low level β and γ wastes (also α up to determined limits). The incinerator was started up in 1980 and it is clear that in a technical plant of such magnitude, some changes and alterations will be needed to be overcome according to the experiences of operation. This paper - after a short description of the incinerator plant itself - gives a summary of some of the operation and the changes which are made in the plant according to these facts. A partial redesign of the incinerator plant in the first half of 1985 resulted in a very satisfying new design, which proved its superiority during the runs in 1985 and 1986

  7. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1983-09-01

    Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump.

  8. Oak Ridge Low Level Waste Management Task Force summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    New facilities are required in the next five years to manage low level radioactive wastes (LLW) produced on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) was planned to provide the needed additional facilities beginning in late 1985. The CWDF was planned as a shallow land burial facility to dispose of non-stabilized LLW. However, comments on the CWDF Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) received from the State of Tennessee, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission identified major issues related to the treatment of alternatives as required by the National Environmental Policy Act, and the potential for unacceptable groundwater contamination resulting from shallow land burial of non-stabilized waste. A series of initial and detailed evaluations are being conducted to develop the basic environmental performance and cost information needed to compare several LLW management approaches and arrive at a proposed system for development. The evaluations are targeted for completion by October

  9. Chemical hazards from decontamination solutions in low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Miller, A.; Turney, J.; Naughton, M.; IMPELL Corp., Walnut Creek, CA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Recent regulations are focussing more attention on the non-radioactive matrix materials associated with radioactive wastes. Decontamination of operating facilities is becoming a more significant source of low-level waste. This study reviewed the chemical and biological hazards of over 50 decontamination processes. Seventeen of the most prominent hard and soft decontamination processes were examined in detail. The chemical and biological hazards of these seventeen are presented in this paper. These hazards influence the choice of radwaste processing and packaging operations and methods. Federal, state and local regulations further impact on operations and waste disposal. Hazards to personnel, in plant and off-site, resulting from the decontamination cycle are evaluated. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. The development of gate monitor for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Watanabe, Michito; Kato, Tatsuo

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants in Japan, have been deposited in the yard of each power plant. At present, it is stored in about 500,000 drum cans (200l each). These drum cans are carried to Mutsu-ogawara Port by special transport ships and then transferred to Rokkasho LLW transport trucks (special vehicles) for storage. The gate monitor is used to automatically measure the dose rate on the vehicles loaded with transport vessels from a remote location, to ensure the safe transportation from Mutsu-ogawara Port the Burying Center. It is a new system which has been developed for effective measurement of dose rate on a number of transport vessels in a short time. This system is the first in the world for measuring dose rate on vehicles. Such a system cannot be found in any country of the world. (author)

  11. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  12. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  13. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  14. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  15. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  16. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  17. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  18. Low level light therapy and tattoos: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) frequently provide neuromusculoskeletal treatment for patients who incidentally may have one or more tattoos. Low level light therapy (LLLT) is one of the modalities commonly used by physical therapists to decrease pain and facilitate healing. This case report describes a 22 year old man who was given LLLT to address his complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Blistering of the skin was documented over the LLLT application site, a black tattoo. The blisters, which formed after the LLLT treatment were most likely caused by the inadvertent and unexpected heating of the iron oxides and/or the metal salts in the tattoo's black pigment. PTs should exercise caution when applying LLLT in the presence of dark tattoos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  20. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirovich Moskvin, Sergey; Ivanovich Apolikhin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. The leading factors that cause male infertility are urogenital infections, disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology, as well as endocrine disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a very effective physical therapy method, used in many areas of medicine, including obstetrics and gynaecology, andrology and urology; and it is recommended as an integral part of the complex treatment of infertility. The literature review showed that LLLT is beneficial in treating male infertility. Laser can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of spermatozoa. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes, improve reproductive and copulatory functions. Local illumination of red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra should be combined with intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) of red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (365 nm) spectra. PMID:29806585