WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-beta ion linacs

  1. Advanced low-beta cavity development for proton and ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, Z.A., E-mail: zconway@anl.gov; Kelly, M.P.; Ostroumov, P.N.

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in designing and processing low-beta superconducting cavities at Argonne National Laboratory are very encouraging for future applications requiring compact proton and ion accelerators. One of the major benefits of these accelerating structures is achieving real-estate accelerating gradients greater than 3 MV/m very efficiently either continuously or for long-duty cycle operation (>1%). The technology has been implemented in low-beta accelerator cryomodules for the Argonne ATLAS heavy-ion linac where the cryomodules are required to have real-estate gradients of more than 3 MV/m. In offline testing low-beta cavities with even higher gradients have already been achieved. This paper will review this work where we have achieved surface fields greater than 166 mT magnetic and 117 MV/m electric in a 72 MHz quarter-wave resonator optimized for β = 0.077 ions.

  2. Advanced low-beta cavity development for proton and ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, Z. A.; Kelly, M. P.; Ostroumov, P. N.

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in designing and processing low-beta superconducting cavities at Argonne National Laboratory are very encouraging for future applications requiring compact proton and ion accelerators. One of the major benefits of these accelerating structures is achieving real-estate accelerating gradients greater than 3 MV/m very efficiently either continuously or for long-duty cycle operation (>1%). The technology has been implemented in low-beta accelerator cryomodules for the Argonne ATLAS heavy-ion linac where the cryomodules are required to have real-estate gradients of more than 3 MV/m. In offline testing low-beta cavities with even higher gradients have already been achieved. This paper will review this work where we have achieved surface fields greater than 166 mT magnetic and 117 MV/m electric in a 72 MHz quarter-wave resonator optimized for beta = 0.077 ions.

  3. Advanced low-beta cavity development for proton and ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Z.A.; Kelly, M.P.; Ostroumov, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in designing and processing low-beta superconducting cavities at Argonne National Laboratory are very encouraging for future applications requiring compact proton and ion accelerators. One of the major benefits of these accelerating structures is achieving real-estate accelerating gradients greater than 3 MV/m very efficiently either continuously or for long-duty cycle operation (>1%). The technology has been implemented in low-beta accelerator cryomodules for the Argonne ATLAS heavy-ion linac where the cryomodules are required to have real-estate gradients of more than 3 MV/m. In offline testing low-beta cavities with even higher gradients have already been achieved. This paper will review this work where we have achieved surface fields greater than 166 mT magnetic and 117 MV/m electric in a 72 MHz quarter-wave resonator optimized for β = 0.077 ions

  4. Superconducting heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of plans developed by four different groups for the construction of small superconducting linacs to boost the energy of heavy ions from existing tandem electrostatic accelerators. The projects considered are the linac under construction at Argonne and the design efforts at Karlsruhe, at Stanford, and by a Cal Tech-Stony Brook collaboration. The intended uses of the accelerator systems are stated. Beam dynamics of linacs formed of short independently-phased resonators are reviewed, and the implications for performance are discussed. The main parameters of the four linacs are compared, and a brief analysis of accelerating structures is given

  5. Review of superconducting ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for the acceleration of ions with velocity β=1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions

  6. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  7. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.

  8. Heavy-ion-linac post-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the tandem-linac system for heavy-ion acceleration are reviewed and illustrated in terms of the technology and performance of the superconducting heavy-ion energy booster at Argonne. This technology is compared briefly with the corresponding technologies of the superconducting linac at Stony Brook and the room-temperature linac at Heidelberg. The performance possibilities for the near-term future are illustrated in terms of the proposed extension of the Argonne booster to form ATLAS

  9. Linac4 H− ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C.

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H − source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H − source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described

  10. Superconducting heavy-ion linac at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.G.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The design, status, and performance of the first operating superconducting heavy-ion accelerator, a linac used to boost the energies of beams from a 9-MV tandem, is summarized. When completed in 1981, the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased split-ring niobium resonators operating at 97 MHz. This linac is designed to provide 29 MV of acceleration. Because of the modular character of the system, the linac has been operable and useful since mid-1978, when a beam was accelerated through 2 units and the first nuclear-physics experiments were preformed. Now, 16 resonators are in use, and a beam has been accelerated for approx. 6000 h. Resonator performance has been remarkably stable, in spite of vacuum accidents, and the linac as a whole operates reliably without operators in attendance during nights and weekends. The ease and speed with which the beam energy can be changed is proving to be unexpectedly valuable to users

  11. Heavy ion induction linacs for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Ho, D.D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976 Denis Keefe proposed the heavy ion induction linac as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants. Subsequent research has established that heavy ion fusion (HIF) is potentially an attractive energy source and has identified the issues that must be resolved to make HIF a reality. The principal accelerator issues are achieving adequately low transverse and longitudinal emittance and acceptable cost. Results from the single and multiple beam experiments at LBL on transverse emittance are encouraging. A predicted high current longitudinal instability that can affect longitudinal emittance is currently being studied. This paper presents an overview of economics and ICF target requirements and their relationship to accelerator design. It also presents a summary of the status of heavy ion induction linac research. It concludes with a discussion of research plans, including plans for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE)

  12. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2 0 K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (ΔE/E approximately equal to 2 x 10 -4 ) or very good time resolution

  13. Preinjector for Linac 1, ion source

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Inside the drum-shaped container shown in 7403081X, is the ion source with its associated electronics. It sits at the HV end of the accelerating column seen also in 7403081.

  14. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  15. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed

  16. H- ion sources for CERN's Linac4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Coutron, Y.; Chaudet, E.; Dallocchio, A.; Gil Flores, J.; Hansen, J.; Mahner, E.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pasquino, C.; Pereira, H.; Arias, J. Sanchez; Schmitzer, C.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.

    2013-02-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitable for 20-30 mA H- and 80 mA proton pulses at 45 keV by mid-2012. This first prototype will be dedicated to the commissioning of the low energy components of the Linac4. Design and production of a second prototype suitable for 40-50 mA H- based on an external RF solenoid plasma heating and cesiated-surface production mechanism in 2013 and a third prototype based on BNL's Magnetron aiming at reliable 2 Hz and 80 mA H- operations in 2014. In order to ease the future maintenance and allow operation with Ion sources based on three different production principles, an ion source "front end" providing alignment features, pulsed gas injection, pumping units, beam tuning capabilities and pulsed bipolar high voltage acceleration was designed and is being produced. This paper describes the progress of the Linac4 ion source program, the design of the Front end and first ion source prototype. Preliminary results of the summer 2012 commissioning are presented. The outlook on

  17. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brady, V.; Bisognano, J.; Celata, C.; Chupp, W.W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.

    1984-01-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams. (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to proportional70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units. (orig.)

  18. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  19. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (..delta..E/E approximately equal to 2 x 10/sup -4/) or very good time resolution (..delta.. t approximately equal to 30 psec).

  20. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  1. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystronlike interaction with the accelerating cavities, leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, we describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  2. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystron-like interaction with the accelerating cavities leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, the author describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  3. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Light ion linacs for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.; Knapp, E.A.; Nagle, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in linear accelerator technology point to the feasibility of designing and developing practical medical linacs for producing protons, neutrons, or π mesons for the radiation therapy of cancer. Additional uses of such linacs could include radioisotope production and charged particle radiography. For widespread utilization medical linacs must exhibit reasonable cost, compactness, reliability, and simplicity of operation. Possible extensions of current accelerator technology which might provide these characteristics are discussed in connection with linac design, fabrication techniques, materials, power sources, injectors, and particle collection and delivery systems. Parameters for a medical proton linac for producing pions are listed. (U.S.)

  5. Dynamic shear stabilization of hydromagnetic instabilities in low-beta plasma column by a frequency near the ion cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo; Sato, Kazunori.

    1978-09-01

    The dynamic shear stabilization of the hydromagnetic instability in low-beta plasmas by an axial RF current whose frequency is not much smaller than the ion cyclotron frequency ωsub(ci) is analyzed in some detail. We adopt the simple model of a uniform plasma column with infinite conductivity. Attention is limited to the case of the m = 1 kink mode with long wave lengths. The Mathieu equation, in which the effect of the ion cyclotron motion is taken into account, is derived. It is shown that the dynamic shear stabilization is still effective, even if the frequency of the applied RF current is of the order of ωsub(ci), which is considerably higher than the frequencies believed to be available in the previous analyses. (author)

  6. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented

  7. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma-types and the porous plug and hot alumino--silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino--silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented

  8. A heavy ion linac complex for RI beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeaki

    1995-01-01

    A heavy ion linac complex for RI-beams has been under construction since fiscal year 1992 at INS. The linac complex comprises following accelerating structures: a 25.5-MHz split coaxial RFQ (SCRFQ), a 51-MHz interdigital-H (IH) linac, and a 25.5-MHz rebuncher cavity. The SCRFQ with modulated vanes accelerates ions with a charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) greater than 1/30 from 2 to 170 keV/u. The IH linac comprises four cavities and three magnetic quadrupole triplets placed between cavities, accelerates ions with q/A≥1/10, and varies the output energy continuously in the range 0.17 ∼1.05 MeV/u. The rebuncher cavity with six accelerating gaps is a double coaxial λ/4 resonator, and the total accelerating voltage is 200 kV. (author)

  9. Initial operation of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Initial operation and recent development of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac are discussed. The linac has been developed in order to demonstrate a cost-effective means of extending the performance of electrostatic tandem accelerators. The results of beam acceleration tests which began in June 1978 are described. At present 7 of a planned array of 22 resonators are operating on-line, and the linac system provides an effective accelerating potential of 7.5 MV. Although some technical problems remain, the level of performance and reliability is sufficient that appreciable beam time is becoming available to users.

  10. An induction Linac driven heavy-ion fusion systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, D.S.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Waganer, L.M.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized systems model of a heavy-ion fusion (HIF) reactor power plant is presented. The model can be used to analyze the behavior and projected costs of a commercial power plant using an induction linear accelerator (Linac) as a driver. Each major component of the model (targets, reactor cavity, Linac, beam transport, power flow, balance of plant, and costing) is discussed. Various target, reactor cavity, Linac, and beam transport schemes are examined and compared. The preferred operating regime for such a power plant is also examined. The results show that HIF power plants can compete with other advanced energy concepts at the 1000-MW (electric) power level [cost of electricity (COE) -- 50 mill/kW . h] provided that the cost savings predicted for Linacs using higher charge-state ions (+3) can be realized

  11. Lead/tin resonator development at the Stony Brook heavy-ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brennan, J.M.; Cole, M.; Noe, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Stony Brook Nuclear Structure Laboratory (NSL) has operated a superconducting heavy-ion booster linac since April 1983. The 40 copper split-loop resonators were developed and fabricated at Cal-Tech and plated with lead at Stony Brook. These original lead surfaces have given stable performance for the last 4 years, at an average accelerating gradient of about 2.5 MV/m in the high-β section. The low-β resonators however have never run reliably on-line much better than 2.0 MV/m, due to excessive vibration of their rather soft loop arms in the working accelerator environment. For the last 2-3 years the efforts of the Stony Brook accelerator development group have been focused on (1) a retrofit of the low-beta section of the linac with new QWRs and (2) the further development of plated superconducting surfaces. In particular a Sn/Pb alloy has been shown to give resonator performance at least comparable to that obtained with pure Pb but with a greatly simplified plating technique, as discussed below. Recently a possible heavy-ion injector based on superconducting RF quadrupole (RFQ) structures has also been studied. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  12. Electron acceleration during the decay of nonlinear Whistler waves in low-beta electron-ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Takayuki; Saito, Shinji; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic electron acceleration through dissipation of a nonlinear, short-wavelength, and monochromatic electromagnetic whistler wave in low-beta plasma is investigated by utilizing a one-dimensional fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The nonlinear (large-amplitude) parent whistler wave decays through the parametric instability which enhances electrostatic ion acoustic waves and electromagnetic whistler waves. These waves satisfy the condition of three-wave coupling. Through the decay instability, the energy of electron bulk velocity supporting the parent wave is converted to the thermal energy perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Increase of the perpendicular temperature triggers the electron temperature anisotropy instability which generates broadband whistler waves and heats electrons in the parallel direction. The broadband whistler waves are inverse-cascaded during the relaxation of the electron temperature anisotropy. In lower-beta conditions, electrons with a pitch angle of about 90° are successively accelerated by inverse-cascaded whistler waves, and selected electrons are accelerated to over a Lorentz factor of 10. The result implies that the nonlinear dissipation of a finite-amplitude and short-wavelength whistler wave plays an important role in producing relativistic nonthermal electrons over a few MeV especially at lower beta plasmas.

  13. Design study on an intense heavy-ion linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Oguri, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Hattori, T.; Takeda, O.; Satoh, K.; Tanabe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A four-vane RFQ cavity is designed for an intense heavy-ion linac system. RFQ-vanes with small tip curvatures are applied in order to improve the RF power efficiency. Beam optical and RF parameters are investigated by beams of numerical methods. Using a scale model, the cavity structure is experimentally optimized. (Author) 7 refs., 4 figs

  14. Contraband detection technological complex with ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, Yu.N.; Svistunov, Yu.A.; Sidorov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The contraband detection technological complex (CDTC) to detect explosives, fission materials, and vegetable drugs is proposed. Our approach employs the pulsed neutron source. The CDTC employs the rf linac to provide a beam of deuterons of 1 or 3.5 MeV, which impinge upon a target giving birth pulsed neutron flow. Explosives are identified by the matrix detection system with gamma registration under interaction of neutron on N, O, C nuclei. Experimental verification of main principles of matrix detection system is presented

  15. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a 19 F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an 16 O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  18. Longitudinal instability in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    A induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls

  19. Low frequency RFQ linacs for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, A.; Watson, J.M.; Martin, R.L.; Lari, R.J.; Stockley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Low frequency, radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structures are under study at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as the low-velocity portion of an rf linac driver for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion. Besides offering a direct comparison with the present ANL front end, it would provide a second low-velocity Xe +1 linac for funneling experiments at 22.9 MeV. Heavy ion RFQ accelerators are characterized by their low rf operating frequency of about 10 MHz. The large size of a manifold-fed four-vane, 10 MHz RFQ resonator structure (about 6 m in diameter) makes it unacceptable for heavy ions; therefore, alternate structures are under study at Argonne. The structures under study are: (1) a Wideroe-type structure with external stub lines, (2) a Wideroe-type structure with the stub lines internal to the structure, (3) a split coaxial line resonator with modulated vanes, and (4) a interdigital line resonator with modulated cylindrical rods. The split coaxial line resonator seems best at this low frequency. It is compact and very efficient. About 15.5 m of linac structure excited with 560 kW of rf power is sufficient to accelerate 30 mA of Xe +1 with 97% transmission efficiency from 250 keV to 3 MeV

  20. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Hatayama, A; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O’Neil, M; Ohta, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Yamamoto, T

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and chopper of Linac4.

  1. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental progress to date has strengthened our belief in the soundness and attractiveness of the heavy ion method for fusion. What surprises that have shown up in the laboratory (e.g., in SBTE) have all been of the pleasant kind so far. The systems assessment has supported the view that the heavy ion approach can lead to economically attractive electric power and that a wide variety of options exists in all parameters. The systems work has also been of great help in pointing the way for the research and development activities

  2. rf linac approach to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessary properties of funneling particle beams from multiple accelerators into combined beams having higher current are outlined, and methods are proposed which maximize the efficiency of this process. A heavy ion fusion driver system example is presented which shows the large advantages in system efficiency to be gained by proper funneling

  3. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  4. MBE-4: an induction linac experiment for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brodzik, D.A.

    1986-06-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion fusion driver features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of transverse beam manipulation from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. This driver approach exploits developments in electron induction linac technology that have occurred within the last 15 years at LBL, LLNL and NBS. MBE-4 is a four beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a considerably longer induction accelerator. Four parallel Cs + beams are electrostatically focussed and will be accelerated from 200 keV to approximately one MeV when the experiment is complete in the spring of 1987. The current in each of the four beams will increase from 10 to 40 mA due to both increase in beam speed and shortening of the bunch length. Results of experiments with the injector and first eight accelerating gaps are presented

  5. An inexpensive PC-based ion linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, M.E.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A turn-key PC-based control system has been developed for the AccSys line of compact ion linear accelerators and rf power amplifiers. The control interface is based on the DZERO Rack Monitor Module, developed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, communicating with a Ballard Technology MIL-STD-1553B controller board in a 286 or 386 personal computer. This cost effective and easy to operate control system features real-time control and monitoring of the linac/rf amplifier and can be customized for automatic start-up and unattended operation

  6. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE

  7. Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Karpenko, V.; Sangster, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

  8. Ions in the linacs of future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Chen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Ions have been identified as a potential limitation in high current storage rings. In this paper we consider the effects of ions in the linacs of future linear colliders. Future linear collider designs call for long trains of closely spaced bunches and/or very dense bunches. Significant ion densities can be generated through the collisional ionization process and trapping in a long train of bunches or through tunneling ionization with very dense bunches. These ions provide skew fields which cause transverse betatron coupling and increase the vertical emittance of the flat beams, and they increase the rate of filamentation, making correction of the emittance dilutions more difficult. While transverse coupling can be alleviated by separating the horizontal and vertical phase advances, the increased filamentation will reduce the effectiveness of non-local correction techniques, leading to tighter alignment tolerances. To reduce the effect of the ions in the designs considered to the level of the intrinsic energy spread one would need to achieve vacuum pressures less than 10 -9 Torr. 5 figs., 5 refs

  9. Autopilot regulation for the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, G.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; Lefort, B.; Costa, V. J. Correia

    2017-08-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator part of the upgrade of the LHC injector chain. Its cesiated surface H- source is designed to provide a beam intensity of 40-50mA. It is operated with periodical Cs-injection at typically 30 days intervals [1] and this implies that the beam parameters will slowly evolve during operation. Autopilot is a control software package extending CERN developed Inspector framework. The aim of Autopilot is to automatize the mandatory optimization and cesiation processes and to derive performance indicators, thus keeping human intervention minimal. Autopilot has been developed by capitalizing on the experience from manually operating the source. It comprises various algorithms running in real-time, which have been devised to: • Optimize the ion source performance by regulation of H2 injection, RF power and frequency. • Describe the performance of the source with performance indicators, which can be easily understood by operators. • Identify failures, try to recover the nominal operation and send warning in case of deviation from nominal operation. • Make the performance indicators remotely available through Web pages.Autopilot is at the same level of hierarchy as an operator, in the CERN infrastructure. This allows the combination of all ion source devices, providing the required flexibility. Autopilot is executed in a dedicated server, ensuring unique and centralized control, yet allowing multiple operators to interact at runtime, always coordinating between them. Autopilot aims at flexibility, adaptability, portability and scalability, and can be extended to other components of CERN's accelerators. In this paper, a detailed description of the Autopilot algorithms is presented, along with first results of operating the Linac4 H- Ion Source with Autopilot.

  10. A compact rf driven H- ion source for linac injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rymer, J.P.; Engeman, G.A.; Hamm, R.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A compact rf driven H - ion source has been developed for use as an injector for the AccSys radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs. A multicusp magnetic bucket geometry developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory confines the plasma created by an antenna driven by 35 kW (peak) of pulsed rf power at 1.8 MHz. A three electrode system is used to extract and accelerate the H - beam, which is then focused into the RFQ by an einzel lens. Permanent magnets in the extraction region sweep electrons onto the second electrode at energies up to half of the full acceleration voltage. A fast pulsed valve allows the hydrogen gas supply to be pulsed, thus minimizing the average gas flow rate into the system. The design features and performance data from the prototype are discussed

  11. RF Plasma modeling of the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Kawamura, Y; Yasumoto, M; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of the ICP RF-plasma in the Linac4 H− ion source currently being constructed at CERN. A self-consistent model of the plasma dynamics with the RF electromagnetic field has been developed by a PIC-MCC method. In this paper, the model is applied to the analysis of a low density plasma discharge initiation, with particular interest on the effect of the external magnetic field on the plasma properties, such as wall loss, electron density and electron energy. The use of a multi-cusp magnetic field effectively limits the wall losses, particularly in the radial direction. Preliminary results however indicate that a reduced heating efficiency results in such a configuration. The effect is possibly due to trapping of electrons in the multi-cusp magnetic field, preventing their continuous acceleration in the azimuthal direction.

  12. Linac4 H{sup −} ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C. [CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2016-02-15

    CERN’s 160 MeV H{sup −} linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H{sup −} source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H{sup −} source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described.

  13. Discussion of superconducting and room-temperature high-intensity ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The point of view taken in this discussion is that the basic technology base exists in all essential respects for both superconducting or room-temperature rf linac accelerators and associated power and control systems, and thus a project can make a choice between these technologies on overall system considerations. These include performance, cost, availability, flexibility, and upgradability. Large high-intensity neutron source proposals involving light-ion rf linacs in three categories are reviewed in this context. The categories arc cw linacs to high (∼1 GeV) and low (∼40 MeV) output energy, and pulsed linacs to energy ∼1 GeV

  14. Properties of heavy ion linacs with alternating phase focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitinghoff, H.; Junior, P.; Klein, H.

    1976-01-01

    General aspects for the application of alternating phase focusing are discussed. The results demand necessary linac parameters. The possibility of their accomplishment by already existing or feasible linac structures with acceleration rates of 2 - 3 MV/m will be considered

  15. Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities for Low-Beta Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    High-power proton and ion linac projects based on superconducting accelerating cavities are driving a worldwide effort to develop and build superconducting cavities for beta < 1. Laboratories and institutions building quarter-wave, halfwave and single- or multi-spoke cavities continue to advance the state of the art for this class of cavities, and the common notion that low-beta SRF cavities fill a need in niche applications and have low performance is clearly no longer valid. This article reviews recent developments and results for SC cavity performance for cavities with beta up to approximately 0.5. The considerable ongoing effort on reduced beta elliptical cell cavities is not discussed. An overview of associated subsystems required to operate low-beta cavities, including rf power couplers and fast and slow tuners, is presented.

  16. Emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1985 the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been studying current amplification and emittance variations in MBE-4, a four-cesium-beam induction linac. This experiment models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a fusion driver. Four space-charge dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at currents of 5-10 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from approximately 200 keV up to one MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Final currents of 20-40 mA per beam are typical. Recent experiments with extremely low emittance beams (var-epsilon n =0.03 mm-mRad) have investigated variations of transverse and longitudinal normalized emittance for drifting and accelerating beams. These very strongly tune-depressed beams (σ 0 =72 degree, σ∼6 degree) are difficult to match to the accelerator so as to avoid emittance growth during acceleration. During transport strong emittance fluctuations are observed in good qualitative agreement with simulations. Warmer beams with less tune depression exhibit little to no emittance growth, show smaller emittance fluctuations, and are much easier to match. A summary of findings from the MBE-4 studies is presented

  17. Emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1985 the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been studying current amplification and emittance variations in MBE-4, a four-cesium-beam induction linac. This experiment models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a fusion driver. Four space-charge dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at currents of 5--10 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from approximately 200 keV up to one MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Final currents of 20--40 mA per beam are typical. Recent experiments with extremely low emittance beams (ε n = 0.03 mm-mRad) have investigated variations of transverse and longitudinal normalized emittance for drifting and accelerating beams. These very strongly tune-depressed beams (σ o = 72 degrees, σ∼6 degree) are difficult to match the accelerator so as to avoid emittance growth during acceleration. During transport strong emittance fluctuations are observed in good qualitative agreement with simulations. Warmer beams with less tune depression exhibit little to no emittance growth, show smaller emittance fluctuations, and are much easier to match. A summary of findings from the MBE-4 studies is presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  18. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  19. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  20. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  1. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype C 6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4

  2. Reduction of losses in linacs for protons or heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is necessary to minimize the beam losses in linacs for high average currents in order to avoid serious problems due to radiation damage, dissipation and radio activation of the accelerator structure. A large part of the losses in existing linacs is due to incomplete bunching of the injected beam. Proposed improvements generally appear to be deficient in one or more respects if applied to linacs with conventional frequencies, injection energies and current densities. By preceding the linac proper with an accelerating structure and an energy analyzer, it becomes possible to separate the particles that remained outside the buckets from those that are inside so that they can be dumped in a controlled manner

  3. Design and Beam Dynamics Studies of a Multi-Ion Linac Injector for the JLEIC Ion Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Plastun, A. S.; Mustapha, B.; Conway, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron-ion collider (JLEIC) being proposed at JLab requires a new ion accelerator complex which includes a linac capable of delivering any ion beam from hydrogen to lead to the booster. We are currently developing a linac which consists of several ion sources, a normal conducting (NC) front end, up to 5 MeV/u, and a SC section for energies > 5 MeV/u. This design work is focused on the beam dynamics and electrodynamics studies performed to design efficient and cost-effective accelerating structures for both the NC and SC sections of the linac. Currently, we are considering two separate RFQs for the heavy-ion and light-ion beams including polarized beams, and different types of NC accelerating structures downstream of the RFQ. Quarter-wave and half-wave resonators can be effectively used in the SC section.

  4. Status of the Argonne superconducting-linac heavy-ion energy booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Henning, W.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting linac is being constructed to provide an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem. By late 1980 the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased superconducting resonators, and will provide an effective accelerating potential of more than 25 MV. While the linac is under construction, completed sections are being used to provide useful beam for nuclear physics experiments. In the most recent run with beam (June 1979), an eight resonator array provided an effective accelerating potential of 9.3 MV. Operation of a 12 resonator array is scheduled to begin in October 1979.

  5. Status of the Argonne superconducting-linac heavy-ion energy booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Henning, W.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting linac is being constructed to provide an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem. By late 1980 the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased superconducting resonators, and will provide an effective accelerating potential of more than 25 MV. While the linac is under construction, completed sections are being used to provide useful beam for nuclear physics experiments. In the most recent run with beam (June 1979), an eight resonator array provided an effective accelerating potential of 9.3 MV. Operation of a 12 resonator array is scheduled to begin in October 1979

  6. Long term performance of the superconducting cavities of the Saclay heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Desmons, M.; Girard, J.; Letonturier, P.

    1993-12-01

    The Saclay heavy ion superconducting linac has been in operation at full energy since mid 1989. The 50 independent superconducting helix resonators have now accelerated beams for more than 20000 hours. The long term performances of the linac, and more specifically of the superconducting R.F. technology, are discussed: vibrations of the resonators, cryostat design and operation, beam time, vacuum accidents, multipactor during operation due to small leaks, stability of the electric fields, cryogenics operation. 4 figs., 6 refs

  7. Preliminary results from MBE-4: A four beam induction linac for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.I.; Warwick, P.b.A.I.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a scaled experimental multiple beam induction linac. This experiment is part of a program of accelerator research for heavy ion fusion. It is shown that multiple beams can be accelerated without significant mutual interaction. Measurements of the longitudinal dynamics of a current-amplifying induction linac are presented and compared to calculations. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal dynamics is discussed

  8. Preliminary results from MBE-4: a four beam induction linac for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.I.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a scaled experimental multiple beam induction linac. This experiment is part of a program of accelerator research for heavy ion fusion. It is shown that multiple beams can be accelerated without significant mutual interaction. Measurements of the longitudinal dynamics of a current-amplifying induction linac are presented and compared to calculations. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal dynamics is discussed

  9. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  10. Design considerations for high-current superconducting ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting linacs may be a viable option for high-current applications such as fusion materials irradiation testing, spallation neutron source, transmutation of radioactive waste, tritium production, and energy production. These linacs must run reliably for many years and allow easy routine maintenance. Superconducting cavities operate efficiently with high cw gradients, properties which help to reduce operating and capital costs, respectively. However, cost-effectiveness is not the sole consideration in these applications. For example, beam impingement must be essentially eliminated to prevent unsafe radioactivation of the accelerating structures, and thus large apertures are needed through which to pass the beam. Because of their high efficiency, superconducting cavities can be designed with very large bore apertures, thereby reducing the effect of beam impingement. Key aspects of high-current cw superconducting linac designs are explored in this context

  11. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    obtain 403 MeV/u the driver LINAC has to have two strippers. Three different sections ... The RFQ and multi-harmonic buncher are specially designed in order to provide very low ..... The colors represent three different types of cavities. Table 6.

  12. BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES FOR A COMPACT CARBON ION LINAC FOR THERAPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastun, A.; Mustapha, B.; Nassiri, A.; Ostroumov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Feasibility of an Advanced Compact Carbon Ion Linac (ACCIL) for hadron therapy is being studied at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with RadiaBeam Technologies. The 45-meter long linac is designed to deliver 109 carbon ions per second with variable energy from 45 MeV/u to 450 MeV/u. S-band structure provides the acceleration in this range. The carbon beam energy can be adjusted from pulse to pulse, making 3D tumor scanning straightforward and fast. Front end accelerating structures such as RFQ, DTL and coupled DTL are designed to operate at lower frequencies. The design of the linac was accompanied with extensive end-to-end beam dynamics studies which are presented in this paper.

  13. Coupled superconducting resonant cavities for a heavy ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A [Nuclear Science Center, New Delhi (India)

    1992-11-01

    A design for a superconducting niobium slow-wave accelerating structure has been explored that may have performance and cost advantages over existing technology. The option considered is an array of pairs of quarter-wave coaxial-line resonant cavities, the two elements of each pair strongly coupled through a short superconducting transmission line. In the linac formed by such an array, each paired structure is independently phased. A disadvantage of two-gap slow wave structures is that each cavity is relatively short, so that a large number of independently-phased elements is required for a linac. Increasing the number of drift tubes per cavity reduces the number of independently-phased elements but at the cost of reducing the range of useful velocity acceptance for each element. Coupling two cavities splits the accelerating rf eigenmode into two resonant modes each of which covers a portion of the full velocity acceptance range of the original, single cavity mode. Using both of these resonant modes makes feasible the use of coupled cavity pairs for a linac with little loss in velocity acceptance. (Author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  14. Coupled superconducting resonant cavities for a heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Roy, A.

    1992-01-01

    A design for a superconducting niobium slow-wave accelerating structure has been explored that may have performance and cost advantages over existing technology. The option considered is an array of pairs of quarter-wave coaxial-line resonant cavities, the two elements of each pair strongly coupled through a short superconducting transmission line. In the linac formed by such an array, each paired structure is independently phased. A disadvantage of two-gap slow wave structures is that each cavity is relatively short, so that a large number of independently-phased elements is required for a linac. Increasing the number of drift tubes per cavity reduces the number of independently-phased elements but at the cost of reducing the range of useful velocity acceptance for each element. Coupling two cavities splits the accelerating rf eigenmode into two resonant modes each of which covers a portion of the full velocity acceptance range of the original, single cavity mode. Using both of these resonant modes makes feasible the use of coupled cavity pairs for a linac with little loss in velocity acceptance. (Author) 2 figs., 8 refs

  15. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  16. Induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed

  17. Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Stokes, R.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of 100-keV energy and focuses, bunches, and accelerates the beam to an energy to 640 keV. This ia done in a length of 1.1 m, with a transmission efficiency of 87% and with a radial emittance growth of less than 60%. The proven capability of the RFQ linac, when extended to heavy ion acceleration, should provide an ideal technique for use in the low-velocity portion of a heavy-ion linac for inertial-confinement fusion. A specific concept for such an RFQ-based system is described

  18. Large aperture contact ionized Cs+1 ion source for an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, S.; Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.; Hoyer, E.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Rosenblum, S.; Shiloh, J.

    1979-03-01

    A 500 KeV one-ampere Cs +1 ion beam has been generated by contact ionization with a 30 cm dia. iridium hot plate. Reproducibility of space charge limited ion current wave forms at repetition rates up to 1 Hz has been verified. The beam is characterized to be very bright and suitable as an ion source for the induction linac based heavy ion fusion scheme. The hot anode plate was found to be reliable and self-cleaning during the operation

  19. Study of a spoke cavity for low-beta applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olry, G.; Biarrotte, J.L.; Saugnac, H.; Lesrel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Since a few years, intensive studies have been developed on SC cavities (for instance, spoke-type or reentrant cavities) for their use as accelerating structures in the low energy part of high power proton or ions accelerators (typically from 5 to 100 MeV). Within the framework of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line) and XADS (eXperimental Accelerator Driven System) European accelerators projects, IPN Orsay decided to plan a R and D program on low-beta spoke-type cavities. In the major part of this paper, we report on the optimization of the geometry of a β=0.35, 2 gap spoke cavity, aiming at achieving good electromagnetic parameters (i.e. lowest E pk /E acc and B pk /E acc ). A mechanical study is also presented, as well as a preliminary design of a proton spoke Linac (12-85 MeV) composed of β=0.18 and β=0.35, 2 gap cavities. (author)

  20. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  1. Overview of superconducting ion linacs and related technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facco, A.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerators, fundamental tools in physics, are presently becoming part of everyday life, being extensively used in industry, medicine and, in the future, also for energy production and nuclear waste transmutation. Accelerator technology is very important not only for the progress of science but also because it often finds unforeseen application a long time after its development. Different particle types, different energy range and different applications require different kinds of accelerators. Electrostatic accelerators provide DC beams but are limited in energy to about 20 MeV per charge unit; for higher energies, RF accelerators are required. In circular accelerators, like synchrotrons, the beam is passing many times through the same RF accelerating structures in order to acquire the requested energy; the limits come from synchrotron radiation and magnetic field intensity that force the construction of very large rings. Cyclotrons are cheap machines suitable for intermediate energy cw beams (up to hundreds of MeV); they are limited in current and in energy by extraction problems and by dipole magnet size. Linear accelerators, where the beam goes only once through RF accelerating structures, can provide cw beams from very low to very high energy (they are not limited by synchrotron radiation), and they can allow for the highest beam current, up to hundreds of mA (figure 1). The next frontier in energy, after the construction of the LHC synchrotron at CERN, will be probably reached by a superconducting linac

  2. Beam dynamics and longitudinal instabilities in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    An induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls. (Author) tab., 10 refs

  3. Beam dynamics and longitudinal instabilities in heavy ion fusion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1992-08-01

    An induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls

  4. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Fast Beam-ion Instabilities in CLIC Main Linac Vacuum Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Specifications for the vacuum pressure in the CLIC electron Main Linac are determined by the onset of the fast beam-ion instability (FBII). When the electron beam is accelerated in the Main Linac, it ionizes the residual gas in the chamber through scattering ionization. If the density of ions around the beam exceeds a certain threshold, a resonant motion between the electron beam and the ions can be excited. A two-stream instability appears and as a result the beam acquires a coherent motion, which can quickly lead to beam quality degradation or even complete loss. Thus, the vacuum pressure must be kept below this threshold to prevent the excitation of FBII. The CLIC Main Linac poses an additional challenge with respect to previous FBII situations, because the gas ionization does not solely occur via scattering. The submicrometric beam sizes lead to extremely high electric fields around the beam and therefore result in field ionization beyond a certain threshold. The residual gas in the corresponding volume a...

  6. Beam loss studies in high-intensity heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P.N.; Aseev, V.N.; Lessner, E.S.; Mustapha, B.

    2004-01-01

    A low beam-loss budget is an essential requirement for high-intensity machines and represents one of their major design challenges. In a high-intensity heavy-ion machine, losses are required to be below 1 W/m for hands-on-maintenance. The driver linac of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) is designed to accelerate beams of any ion to energies from 400 MeV per nucleon for uranium up to 950 MeV for protons with a beam power of up to 400 kW. The high intensity of the heaviest ions is achieved by acceleration of multiple-charge-state beams, which requires a careful beam dynamics optimization to minimize effective emittance growth and beam halo formation. For beam loss simulation purposes, large number of particles must be tracked through the linac. Therefore the computer code TRACK has been parallelized and calculations are being performed on the JAZZ cluster recently inaugurated at ANL. This paper discusses how this powerful tool is being used for simulations for the RIA project to help decide on the high-performance and cost-effective design of the driver linac

  7. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Applications of induction linac technology to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1977-07-01

    Evaluation of the application of heavy ion accelerators to ignite d-t pellets in a thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Accelerator design requirements considered include transport-limited current, beam injection conditions, and pulse bunching and focusing characteristics. The desirability of resonant and non-resonant accelerating structures is comparatively examined. The required power system switch tubes are discussed. It is concluded that heavy ion accelerators could offer a promising solution to the pellet-igniter problem. The advantages pointed out for this approach include electric efficiency greater than 10 percent, the possibility of high repetition rates (1 to 10 Hz), and a mature technological base

  9. An overview of BARC-TIFR pelletron linac facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has recently completed twenty five years of successful operation. The accelerator is primarily used for basic research in the fields of nuclear, atomic, condensed matter and material science. The superconducting Linac booster provides additional acceleration to the ions from Pelletron injector up to A∼60 region with E∼5 MeV/A. Further, an alternate injector system to the Superconducting LINAC booster is planned as an augmentation programme, comprising of a superconducting ECR ion source, room temperature RFQ and superconducting low-beta cavity resonators. This talk will provide an overview of the recent developmental activities carried out at the Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting in enhanced overall performance and uptime of the accelerator. The application oriented programs initiated at Pelletron Accelerator and the current status of the alternate injector system at the Pelletron-Linac facility will also be discussed. (author)

  10. An overview of BARC-TIFR Pelletron-Linac Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has recently completed twenty five years of successful operation. The accelerator is primarily used for basic research in the fields of nuclear, atomic, condensed matter and material science. The superconducting Linac booster provides additional acceleration to the ions from Pelletron injector up to A~60 region with E~5 MeV/A. Further, an alternate injector system to the Superconducting LINAC booster is planned as an augmentation programme, comprising of a superconducting ECR ion source, room temperature RFQ and superconducting low-beta cavity resonators. This talk will provide an overview of the recent developmental activities carried out at the Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting in enhanced overall performance and uptime of the accelerator. The application oriented programs initiated at Pelletron Accelerator and the current status of the alternate injector system at the Pelletron-Linac facility will also be discussed. (author)

  11. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-07-20

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U{sup 28+}. To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  12. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U 28+ . To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  13. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Midttun, Ø. [University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, 0316 Oslo (Norway); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A. [Departamento de Investigación en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  14. Preliminary design study and problem definition for intense CW superconducting deuteron ion linac for fusion material study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Y.; Kakutani, N.; Ota, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, O.; Wachi, Y.; Yamazaki, C.; Morii, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting (SC) cavity have been verified for many electron accelerators and the application of SC cavity to high intensity CW ion linacs is currently being considered. These linacs have been required for neutron irradiation tests of materials, transmutation of nuclear waste and so on. An SC linac consisting of SC cavities, SC quadrupole magnets and cryostats, was preliminarily designed to investigate the feasibility of applying to deuteron machine. Beam dynamics analysis was also carried out by using a modified PARMILA code in order to confirm no beam loss. Since radiation damage of superconductors is especially severe for such a machine, data relating to the damage were surveyed and discussed. Moreover, other major facilities such as cryogenic system, radio frequency amplifier and RF control system were considered. Many problems to be solved were defined but no critical issues were found. In consequence, it became clear that SC linac is very attractive and competitive with a room-temperature linac. (orig.)

  15. Smooth transverse and longitudinal focusing in high-intensity ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, J.H.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    We examine ion linac designs that start with a high energy radio- frequency quadrupole (RFQ) followed by either a drift-tube linac (DTL) or a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL). For high energies a conventional CCL follows the CCDTL. High RFQ output energy allows tailoring the transverse and longitudinal focusing strengths to match into the following structure. When the RFQ beam enters a higher frequency structure, the DTL or CCDTL starts with a low accelerating gradient and large negative synchronous phase. The gradient and phase both ramp up gradually to higher values. Other changes later in the machine are also gradual. Beam dynamics simulations show that these linacs require no separate matching sections. Applications include a cw 100 mA H + beam from a 350-MHz, 6.7 MeV RFQ injecting a 700 MHz CCDTL and CCL; a 7% duty 28 mA H - beam from a 402.5 MHz RFQ and DTL injecting 805 MHz structures; a cw 135 mA D + beam produced by a 175 MHz, 8 MeV RFQ and DTL; and a 2.4% duty, 80 mA H + beam using a 433 MHz 10 MeV RFQ and a 1300 MHz CCDTL. The machines take advantage of the considerable flexibility of the CCDTL. Designs can use a variety of different transverse focusing lattices. Use of two coupling cavity orientations permits a constant period even when the number of drift tubes per cavity changes along the linac

  16. Measurements of Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source beam with a magnetized Einzel lens electron dump

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a part of the upgrade of CERN’s accelerator complex for increased luminosity in the LHC. A new system to extract the ion beam from the plasma generator has been designed and tested, in order to improve the reliability and beam optics of the pulsed H- ion source. This paper presents the successfully implemented extraction system and three different beam measurements. The simulations compare well to the measurements and show that the plasma density was too low for the extraction system design during the measurements.

  17. The optimized advanced demonstrator for the SC CW heavy ion linac at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Malte; Basten, Markus; Busch, Marco; Dziuba, Florian; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Tiede, Rudolf [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gettmann, Viktor; Heilmann, Manuel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Barth, Winfried; Mickat, Sascha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); HIM, Helmholtzinstitut, Mainz (Germany); Miski-Oglu, Maksym [HIM, Helmholtzinstitut, Mainz (Germany); Aulenbacher, Kurt [KPH, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For future experiments with heavy ions at the coulomb barrier within the SHE research project a multi-stage R and D program of GSI, HIM and IAP is currently under progress. It aims at developing a superconducting (sc) continuous wave (cw) LINAC with multiple CH-cavities as key components. As intermediate step towards the whole LINAC, the Optimized Advanced Demonstrator is proposed. Consisting of short CH-cavities and cryostats, it could provide several advantages regarding velocity acceptance, higher tolerance with respect to frequency and field deviation, easier mounting, handling and maintenance as well as a more robust longitudinal beam dynamic. The beam dynamics concept is based on EQUUS (Equidistant Multigap Structure) constant-beta cavities. The corresponding simulations for the proposed next extension stage - the Optimized Advanced Demonstrator - will be presented.

  18. Experimental benchmark of the NINJA code for application to the Linac4 H- ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Mattei, S.; Rauner, D.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Fantz, U.

    2017-10-01

    For a dedicated performance optimization of negative hydrogen ion sources applied at particle accelerators, a detailed assessment of the plasma processes is required. Due to the compact design of these sources, diagnostic access is typically limited to optical emission spectroscopy yielding only line-of-sight integrated results. In order to allow for a spatially resolved investigation, the electromagnetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code NINJA has been developed for the Linac4 ion source at CERN. This code considers the RF field generated by the ICP coil as well as the external static magnetic fields and calculates self-consistently the resulting discharge properties. NINJA is benchmarked at the diagnostically well accessible lab experiment CHARLIE (Concept studies for Helicon Assisted RF Low pressure Ion sourcEs) at varying RF power and gas pressure. A good general agreement is observed between experiment and simulation although the simulated electron density trends for varying pressure and power as well as the absolute electron temperature values deviate slightly from the measured ones. This can be explained by the assumption of strong inductive coupling in NINJA, whereas the CHARLIE discharges show the characteristics of loosely coupled plasmas. For the Linac4 plasma, this assumption is valid. Accordingly, both the absolute values of the accessible plasma parameters and their trends for varying RF power agree well in measurement and simulation. At varying RF power, the H- current extracted from the Linac4 source peaks at 40 kW. For volume operation, this is perfectly reflected by assessing the processes in front of the extraction aperture based on the simulation results where the highest H- density is obtained for the same power level. In surface operation, the production of negative hydrogen ions at the converter surface can only be considered by specialized beam formation codes, which require plasma parameters as input. It has been demonstrated that

  19. Improved beam extraction for a negative hydrogen ion source for the LHC injector chain upgrade, Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    In the scope of an upgrade of the injector chain of CERN’s accelerator complex, a new linear accelerator, Linac4, is under construction. This accelerator will replace the existing 50 MeV proton linac, Linac2. By increasing the beam energy to 160 MeV, Linac4 makes it possible to double the brightness in the PSB, and ultimately increase the luminosity in the LHC. Linac4 will accelerate beams of negative hydrogen (H-) to be injected into the PSB by multi-turn, charge exchange injection. The ion source was initially based on the non-caesiated RF-volume source from DESY. However, the beam extraction from this source could not handle the 45 keV beam energy required by the RFQ. A new beam extraction system has therefore been designed, via IBSimu simulations [1], to extract and transport the H- ion beam respecting the Linac4 requirements. Key features of the extraction system is a tuneable puller voltage to adapt the extraction field to the ion and electron beam currents, and a magnetized Einzel lens to dump the co...

  20. A Single Pulse Beam Emittance Measurement for the CERN Heavy Ion Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M

    1995-01-01

    A new device for transverse emittance measurement has been installed in the 4.2 MeV/u filter region of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (Linac 3). It allows to obtain pulse-to-pulse (every 1.2 sec) visualisation of the Linac 3 beam parameters in order to tune the machine and to match the beam for injection into the first circular accelerator, the PS Booster. The system is based on the "multi-slit" technique similar to the well-known "pepper pot" method. A plate with a series of horizontal or vertical slits is placed in the beam, defining positions in the phase plane. Particles pass through the slits and drift to a scintillator screen where they produce light. The screen is looked at by an externally triggered high resolution CCD camera. For each slit position the light intensity distribution, in the limit of infinitesimal slit aperture, is proportional to the angle distribution of the particles and therefore, provides the angular distribution in the phase plane. The video signal from the camera is digitised and the r...

  1. Development of niobium spoke cavities for a superconducting light-ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kedzie, M.; Delayen, J.R.; Piller, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz niobium superconducting cavities for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Such cavities could be used to form a linac of exceptional flexibility, capable of efficiently accelerating beams of either protons, deuterons, or any of a wide range of ions, at intensities sufficient for a production beam for a radioactive facility. Results of numerical modeling for several resonator geometries are presented. The design and construction status of prototype niobium cavities is discussed

  2. Development of niobium spoke cavities for a superconducting light-ion Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz niobium superconducting cavities for the velocity range 0.2< v/c <0.6. Such cavities could be used to form a linac of exceptional flexibility, capable of efficiently accelerating beams of either protons, deuterons, or any of a wide range of light ions, at intensities sufficient for a production beam for a radioactive beam facility. Results of numerical modeling for several resonator geometries are presented. The design and construction status of prototype niobium cavities is discussed

  3. Thermal Analysis of the Linac3 GTS-LHC ECR Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Fichera, Claudio; Toivanen, Ville Aleksi; Kuchler, Detlef; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The Linac3 ion source produces lead beams by the vaporization of solid samples inside internal ovens. The geometry, materials and surface state of the oven elements are critical parameters influencing the temperature distribution in the environment, and thus the performance of the source. A finite element approach is proposed to evaluate the thermal response of the system at increasing heating powers. Comparisons between the simulations results and experimental measurements are given in order to validate the numerical model. Based on the obtained results, improvements to the existing setup are suggested.

  4. Asymptotic analysis of the longitudinal instability of a heavy ion induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Smith, L.

    1990-09-01

    An Induction Linac accelerating high ion currents at sub-relativistic energies is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations at low frequencies. The instability is driven by the interaction between the beam and complex impedance of the induction modules. In general, the detailed form of the growing disturbance depends on the initial perturbation and ratio of pulse length to accelerator length, as well as the specific form of the impedance. An asymptotic analysis of the several regimes of interest is presented. 1 ref

  5. Development of niobium spoke cavities for a superconducting light-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K W; Kedzie, M; Delayen, J R; Piller, C

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz niobium superconducting cavities for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Such cavities could be used to form a linac of exceptional flexibility, capable of efficiently accelerating beams of either protons, deuterons, or any of a wide range of ions, at intensities sufficient for a production beam for a radioactive facility. Results of numerical modeling for several resonator geometries are presented. The design and construction status of prototype niobium cavities is discussed.

  6. Development of niobium spoke cavities for a superconducting light-ion Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-11-18

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz niobium superconducting cavities for the velocity range 0.2< v/c <0.6. Such cavities could be used to form a linac of exceptional flexibility, capable of efficiently accelerating beams of either protons, deuterons, or any of a wide range of light ions, at intensities sufficient for a production beam for a radioactive beam facility. Results of numerical modeling for several resonator geometries are presented. The design and construction status of prototype niobium cavities is discussed.

  7. Status of the RF-driven H− ion source for J-PARC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Ueno, A.; Shibata, T.

    2016-01-01

    For the upgrade of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex linac beam current, a cesiated RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source was installed during the 2014 summer shutdown period, with subsequent operations commencing on September 29, 2014. The ion source has been successfully operating with a beam current and duty factor of 33 mA and 1.25% (500 μs and 25 Hz), respectively. The result of recent beam operation has demonstrated that the ion source is capable of continuous operation for approximately 1100 h. The spark rate at the beam extractor was observed to be at a frequency of less than once a day, which is an acceptable level for user operation. Although an antenna failure occurred during operation on October 26, 2014, no subsequent serious issues have occurred since then

  8. Conceptual design of compact heavy-ion inertial fusion driver with an r.f. LINAC with high acceleration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, T.; Sasa, K.; Okamura, M.; Ito, T.; Tomizawa, H.; Katayose, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Yoshida, T.; Isokawa, K.; Aoki, M.; Fujita, N.; Okada, M.

    1996-01-01

    The interdigital-H-type (IH) linear accelerator (LINAC) is well known for its high shunt impedance at low and medium particle velocities. Therefore, it can be used to operate efficiently with a high acceleration gradient. The IH LINAC cavity is able to generate 10 MV m -1 (average acceleration gradient) with focusing of the particles by a superconducting solenoid and quadrupole. The LINAC can accelerate particles with a charge to mass ratio (q/A) greater than 1/250 from 0.3 MeV a.m.u. -1 . In a compact heavy-ion inertial fusion driver design, the total effective length of the IH LINAC cavities is about 1250 m. (orig.)

  9. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  10. A feasibility study of space-charge neutralized ion induction linacs: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Primm, P.; Renk, T.; Johnson, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    Applications for high current (> 1 kA) ion beams are increasing. They include hardening of material surfaces, transmutation of radioactive waste, cancer treatment, and possibly driving fusion reactions to create energy. The space-charge of ions limits the current that can be accelerated in a conventional ion linear accelerator (linac). Furthermore, the accelerating electric field must be kept low enough to avoid the generation and acceleration of counter-streaming electrons. These limitations have resulted in ion accelerator designs that employ long beam lines and would be expensive to build. Space-charge neutralization and magnetic insulation of the acceleration gaps could substantially reduce these two limitations, but at the expense of increasing the complexity of the beam physics. We present theory and experiments to determine the degree of charge-neutralization that can be achieved in various environments found in ion accelerators. Our results suggest that, for high current applications, space-charge neutralization could be used to improve on the conventional ion accelerator technology. There are two basic magnetic field geometries that can be used to insulate the accelerating gaps, a radial field or a cusp field. We will present studies related to both of these geometries. We shall also present numerical simulations of open-quotes multicuspclose quotes accelerator that would deliver potassium ions at 400 MeV with a total beam power of approximately 40 TW. Such an accelerator could be used to drive fusion

  11. Development of a split coaxial RFQ for the JHP heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeaki.

    1990-05-01

    A split coaxial RFQ (SCRFQ) is being developed as the front-end structure of the heavy-ion linac chain planned in the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). The features of the INS SCRFQ is that four modulated vanes are installed and that the whole cavity comprises short module cavities. The fundamental problems concerning to the rf and mechanical characteristics were clarified and solved through studies with a cold model. This model was then converted to an accelerating model working at 50 MHz. Acceleration tests using a proton beam showed that the linac had the designed performance. A 25.5-MHz prototype for a JHP machine is now under development. The cavity, 2.1 m in length and 0.9 m in diameter, has been built, and will accelerate ions with a charge-to-mass ratio greater than 1/30 from 1 keV/u to 45 keV/u. From low-power tests so far conducted, we have found that the cavity has good rf characteristics. (author)

  12. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-01-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  13. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  14. First tests of a traveling-wave chopper for the ATLAS positive ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    A ten segment traveling-wave chopper has been constructed and successfully tested at 5% of the design 12 MHz repetition rate. The chopper must remove unbunched tails from a partially bunched heavy-ion beam in order to avoid undue emittance growth in the linac and the production of undesirable satellite beam bunches. When poorly bunched beams traverse the traditional sine-wave chopper, it produces unacceptable transverse emittance growth and unnecessary beam loss. These effects are expected to be much reduced in the traveling wave chopper. First tests have confirmed the validity of these claims, clearly showing much reduced transverse emittance growth as compared to the original sine wave chopper and excellent selectivity for the desired beam. Details of these tests will be presented and compared to calculations. Operation of the new chopper at the full 12 MHz rate is the next goal. Development of a driver power supply capable of full CW operation will also be described

  15. A low emittance and uniform density Cs+ source for heavy ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.

    1990-01-01

    A heavy-ion induction linac experiment (MBE-4) in progress at LBL is studying the transport and acceleration of space-charge-dominated beams in a long alternate gradient focusing channel. Recent studies of the transverse beam dynamics suggested that characteristics of the injector geometry were contributing to the normalized transverse emittance growth. Phase space and current density distribution measurements of the beam extracted from the injector revealed aberrations and a hollow density profile. Based on EGUN calculations the authors redesigned the 10 mA injector for MBE-4 by modifying the cathode: Pierce electrode and using a curved emitting surface. The simulation predicts an extracted beam with less aberrations and a flat density profile. A test stand was used to check the new design. The density profile has measured and found to be in agreement with the numerical simulation

  16. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H− ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefi, S.; Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Fantz, U.

    2016-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T e ≈ 1.2 eV, n e ≈ 1 × 10 19 m −3 , and n H /n H 2 ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients

  17. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-{beta} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-{beta} plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with {omega}<<{omega}{sub c}i where {omega}{sub c}i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding.

  18. LINAC for charge-symmetrical four-isotopic heavy-ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, L.A. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kapchinsky, M.I. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korenev, I.L. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshkarev, D.G. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) for single charged (positive and negative) ions of the four various Pt isotopes has been proposed. Eight beams of different charges and masses of ions are accelerated in parallel RFQ channels to an energy of 100 MeV. The beams are then brought together by a system of alternating gradient magnets for a 180 bending and matching of the beams. The main channel that accelerates all the beams together consists of three stages. The first stage (until 600 MeV) is a Wideroe structure, followed by two consecutive Alvarex channels (2.5 GeV and 10 GeV) that have different radio frequencies. The characteristics of the output beam for each kind of ions are as follows: average pulse current, 130 mA; horizontal emittance, 0.6{pi} cm mrad; vertical emittance, 0.4{pi} cm mrad; momentum spread, {+-}0.07%; bunch length, 3.6 cm; spacing between bunches of each kind, 15.3 m. (orig.)

  19. LINAC for charge-symmetrical four-isotopic heavy-ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, L.A.; Kapchinsky, M.I.; Korenev, I.L. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshkarev, D.G. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    A linear accelerator (linac) for single charged (positive and negative) ions of the four various Pt isotopes has been proposed. Eight beams of different charges and masses of ions are accelerated in parallel RFQ channels to an energy of 100 MeV. The beams are then brought together by a system of alternating gradient magnets for a 180{degrees} bending and matching of the beams. The main channel that accelerates all the beams together consists of three stages. The first stage (until 600 MeV) is a Wideroe structure, followed by two consecutive Alvarex channels (2.5 GeV and 10 GeV) that have different radio frequencies. The characteristics of the output beam for each kind of ions are as follows: average pulse current, 130 mA; horizontal emittance, 0.6{pi} cm mrad; vertical emittance, 0.4{pi} cm mrad; momentum spread, {+-}0.07%; bunch length, 3.6 cm; spacing between bunches of each kind, 15.3 m.

  20. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  1. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Carneiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of H^{-} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H^{-} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  2. Heavy-ion research at the tandem and superconducting linac accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The heavy-ion research program at the Argonne Physics Division is principally aimed at the study of nuclear structure and its manifestation in heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions. In order to extract information on nuclear structure, measurements with high precision often need to be performed. Such measurements are now carried out at the tandem-linac accelerator over a wide energy range. The investigation of high-spin states near the yrast line has provided much new information on the behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum. Argonne work has concentrated on nuclei where high-spin isomers, the so-called yrast traps, are prevalent. The resonance effects observed previously in the 24 Mg( 16 O, 12 C) 28 Si reactions have been further explored through both additional measurements and a new quantitative method of analysis. The measurements were extended in energy and angular range and to various exit channels as well as similar systems. Several measurements were performed to investigate the reaction mechanisms in heavy-ion induced reactions and to map out the distribution of reaction strength as a function of energy and target-projectile masses energy regions previously not accessible. The behavior of the quasi- and deep-inelastic reaction cross sections was studied as a function of energy for medium-heavy systems, the production of inclusive alpha-particle yields for 16 O beams at energies E/A greater than or equal to 5 MeV/nucleon, and excitation functions, mass and kinetic energy distributions for heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reactions

  3. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 (micro)s pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV

  4. Berkeley research program on ion-induction linacs for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1982-03-01

    The following areas of research are described: (1) driver studies, (2) induction linac technology, (3) core materials, (4) insulators, (5) modulator-switches and pulse forming network, (6) induction linac accelerators and prototype modules, and (7) a high-temperature experiment

  5. Ion optical layout and focusing elements for the high energy part of the SNQ-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, H.U.; Hardt, A.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The ionoptical layout and the design of the focusing elements for the high energy part (HELA) of the SNQ-LINAC is discussed. A simple FOOD-structure for the single cell LINAC part has been optimized. Tolerances are discussed. Optical, electrical and magnetic data of a fast Kicker system is given. (orig.)

  6. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, S., E-mail: stefan.briefi@physik.uni-augsburg.de [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [Linac4 Ion Source Team, CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T{sub e} ≈ 1.2 eV, n{sub e} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, and n{sub H}/n{sub H{sub 2}} ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.

  7. K+ ion source for the heavy ion Induction Linac System Experiment ILSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Chupp, W.W.; Yu, S.

    1993-05-01

    Low emittance singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the ILSE injector. The ILSE, now under study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumina-silicate layers (zeolite) coated uniformly on a porous tungsten cup. The Injector diode design requires a large diameter (4in. to 7in.) source able to deliver high current (∼800 mA) low emittance (E n < .5 π mm-mr) beam. The SBTE (Single Beam Test Experiment) 120 keV gun was redesigned and modified with the aid of diode optics calculations using the EGUN code to enable the extraction of high currents of about 90 mA out of a one-inch diameter source. We report on the 1in. source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, emittance and phase space profile measurements using the double slit scanning technique, and life time measurements. Furthermore, we shall report on the extension of the fabricating technique to large diameter sources (up to 7in.), measured ion emission performance, measured surface temperature uniform heating power considerations for large sources

  8. K+ ion source for the heavy ion induction linac system experiment ILSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Chupp, W.W.; Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    Low emittance singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the ILSE injector. The ILSE, now under study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated uniformly on a porous tungsten cup. The Injector diode design requires a large diameter (4 inches to 7 inches) source able to deliver high current (∼ 800 mA) low emittance (E n < .5 π mm-mr) beam. The SBTE (Single Beam Test Experiment) 120 keV gun was redesigned and modified with the aid of diode optics calculations using the EGUN code to enable the extraction of high currents of about 90 mA out of a one-inch diameter source. The authors report on the 1 inch source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, emittance and phase space profile measurements using the double slit scanning technique, and life time measurements. Furthermore, they shall report on the extension of the fabricating technique to large diameter sources (up to 7 inches), measured ion emission performance, measured surface temperature uniformity and heating power considerations for large sources

  9. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  10. Review of superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for acceleration of ions with velocity β ∼ 1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions. (Author) 5 tabs., 6 figs., 29 refs

  11. H$^{-}$ ion source for CERN's Linac4 accelerator: simulation, experimental validation and optimization of the hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, Stefano; Lettry, Jacques

    2017-07-25

    Linac4 is the new negative hydrogen ion (H$^-$) linear accelerator of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Its ion source operates on the principle of Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma (RF-ICP) and it is required to provide 50~mA of H$^-$ beam in pulses of 600~$\\mu$s with a repetition rate up to 2 Hz and within an RMS emittance of 0.25~$\\pi$~mm~mrad in order to fullfil the requirements of the accelerator. This thesis is dedicated to the characterization of the hydrogen plasma in the Linac4 H$^-$ ion source. We have developed a Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) code to simulate the RF-ICP heating mechanism and performed measurements to benchmark the fraction of the simulation outputs that can be experimentally accessed. The code solves self-consistently the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by the RF coil and the resulting plasma response, including a kinetic description of charged and neutral species. A fully-implicit implementation allowed to si...

  12. Review of induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1981-10-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  13. Review of induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of several kiloamps of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  14. Dosimetric comparison of water phantoms, ion chambers, and data acquisition modes for LINAC characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Wilbert; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study a dosimetric comparison utilizing continuous data acquisition and discrete data acquisition is examined using IBA Blue Phantom (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and PTW (PTW, Freiberg, Germany) MP3-M water tanks. The tanks were compared according to several factors including set up time, ease of use, and data acquisition times. A tertiary objective is to study the response of several ionization chambers in the two tanks examined. Methods: Measurements made using a Varian 23EX LINAC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) include PDDs and beam profiles for various field sizes with IBA CC13, PTW Semiflex 31010, PTW Pinpoint N31016, and PTW 31013 ion chambers for photons (6, 18 MV) and electrons (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV). Radial and transverse profile scans were done at depths of maximum dose, 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm using the same set of tanks and detectors for the photon beams. Radial and transverse profile scans were done at depth of maximum dose for the electron beams on the same tanks and chambers. Data processing and analysis was performed using PTW's MEPHYSTO Navigator software and IBA's OmniPro Accept version 6.6 for the respective water tank systems. Results: PDD values agree to within 1% and dmax to within 1 mm for the PTW MP3-M tank using PTW 31010 and Blue Phantom using IBA CC13 chamber, respectively and larger discrepancy with the PTW PinPoint N31016 chamber at 6 MV. With respect to setup time the PTW MP3-M and IBA Blue phantom tank took about 20 and 40 min, respectively. Scan times were longer by 5–15 min per field size in the PTW MP3-M tank for the square field sizes from 1 cm to 40 cm as compared to the IBA Blue phantom. However, data processing times were higher by 7 min per field size with the IBA system. Conclusions: Tank measurements showed little deviation with the higher energy photons as compared to the lower energy photons with regards to the PDD measurements. Chamber construction as well as tank

  15. A high gradient superconducting quadrupole for a low charge state ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting quadrupole magnet has been designed for use as the focusing element in a low charge state linac proposed at Argonne. The expected field gradient is 350 T/m at an operating current of 53 A, and the bore diameter is 3 cm. The use of rare earth material holmium for pole tips provides about 10% more gradient then iron pole tips. The design and the status of construction of a prototype singlet magnet is described

  16. Piezoelectric actuator based phase locking system to improve the dynamics of the control scheme for a heavy ion superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, B.K., E-mail: bhuban@iuac.res.in [Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi – 110 067 (India); Ahuja, R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Suman, S.K.; Mathuria, D.S.; Rai, A.; Patra, P.; Pandey, A.; Karmakar, J.; Chowdhury, G.K.; Dutt, R.N. [Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi – 110 067 (India); Joshi, G. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai – 400 085 (India); Ghosh, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi – 110 067 (India)

    2015-03-21

    The superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator at Inter-University Accelerator Centre Delhi has been in operation since 2007. Initially, the superconducting niobium Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs) in the linac were phase locked using a combination of electronic and mechanical controls which operated in fast (~10 μsec) and slow (~sec) time scales respectively. In this scheme, fast control was achieved through dynamic phase control whereas slow control of the frequency was done through the niobium tuner bellows installed at the drift tube end of the resonator and flexed using helium gas to change the resonance frequency. In order to improve the dynamics of this control system, an alternate scheme using piezoelectric actuator, instead of helium gas, to flex the same niobium bellows, has been implemented in the QWRs of the second and third accelerating modules of the linac. The piezoelectric actuator is used in closed loop along with the fast dynamic phase control scheme. The feedback loop of the piezoelectric control includes a dual control scheme - an integral control loop to arrest the slow drift, and the positive position feedback (PPF) based control loop to damp the microphonics. This control scheme has been found to arrest slow drifts in the resonator frequency more tightly along with damping of low frequency microphonics (~few tens of Hz) picked up by the resonator from its surrounding environment. This has substantially eased the load from the fast electronic control, resulting in the reduction of the radio frequency (RF) power requirement during operation. In addition, it has improved the stability of phase and amplitude of the QWRs. The details of the new scheme along with results obtained during the online run of the linac for beam acceleration are presented.

  17. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is ...

  18. Numerical modeling of the Linac4 negative ion source extraction region by 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX

    CERN Document Server

    Mochalskyy, S; Minea, T; Lifschitz, AF; Schmitzer, C; Midttun, O; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator Linac4. The source is planned to produce 80 mA of H- with an emittance of 0.25 mm mradN-RMS which is technically and scientifically very challenging. The optimization of the NI source requires a deep understanding of the underling physics concerning the production and extraction of the negative ions. The extraction mechanism from the negative ion source is complex involving a magnetic filter in order to cool down electrons’ temperature. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code is used to address this problem. The ONIX is a selfconsistent 3D electrostatic code using Particles-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) approach. It was written to handle the complex boundary conditions between plasma, source walls, and beam formation at the extraction hole. Both, the positive extraction potential (25kV) and the magnetic field map are taken from the experimental set-up, in construction at CERN. This contrib...

  19. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  20. Fabrication and tests and RF control of the superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Coret, M.; Fouan, J.P.; Girard, J.; Girma, J.L.; Leconte, P.; Lussignol, Y.; Moreau, R.; Passerieux, J.P.; Ramstein, G.; Wartski, L.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators used in the Saclay linac are discussed. The outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for the two designs, but internal structures are different: full wave helix with three gaps behavior; or half wave with two gaps behavior. All cavities (34 full wave, 16 half) were tested for field and mounted in the machine cryostats. Cavity fabrication and performance are summarized. Vibration tests and Rf control are described. It is argued that helix resonators can overcome problems due to vibration. The very low lock out time percentage measured in an acceleration test with 21 cavities supports this confidence

  1. Fabrication, tests, and RF control of the 50 superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Coret, M.; Fouan, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators are currently in use in the linac Outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for both designs but internal structures are different full wave helix (λ) with three gaps behavior or half-wave (λ/2) with two gaps behavior. The λ structure is based on a Karlsruhe design. All cavities (34 λ and 16 λ/2) are now fabricated, tested for field, and mounted in the eight machine cryostats. Resonator characteristics are listed. Frequencies are multiples of the low energy bunching frequency (13.5 MHz). The high magnetic fields arise at the welds joining helix to can (λ/2) or half-helices together (λ)

  2. Duration of multipacting processes and discharges in the linac of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobzov, L.D.; Shulika, N.G.; Shulika, O.N.; Belan, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    It is experimentally shown that multipactor processes may be as harmful as other of parasitic discharges and cause significant disturbance in resonator electrodynamic characteristics of an accelerating structure. The disturbance may be evaluated by pulse-shape distortions of a reference rf voltage impulse. Control over duration of multipactor processes within diode gaps of a linac is effected by varying parameters of a self-sustained oscillation system formed by two independent positive feedback circuits (PFC). If two synchronous rf voltage pulses of given amplitude superpose in the accelerating structure, there occurs an impediment to multipactor processes. As this takes place, multipactor processes display minimal duration and do not affect acceleration stability.

  3. Design/cost of an induction linac for heavy ions for pellet-fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.; Keefe, D.; Laslett, L.J.

    1979-03-01

    The physics of the pellet implosion sets stringent conditions on the accelerator driver. The beam energy should be > 1 MJ, the beam power > 100 TW (implying a pulse length approx. = 10 ns), and the specific energy deposition in the pellet > 20 MJ/g. Thus, considerable current amplification is required, e.g. from some 10 amps at the source to perhaps 10 kiloamps at the pellet. Most of this amplification can be accomplished continuously along the accelerator and the remainder achieved at the end by bunching in the final transport lines to the target chamber. A conceptual schematic of an Induction Linac Fusion Driver is shown, which includes an injector, an accelerator-buncher, and a final transport system. Here only the accelerator portion of the driver is discussed

  4. Superconducting linac booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Betigeri, M.G.; Pandey, M.K.; Pillay, R.G.; Kurup, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The report on superconducting LINAC booster, which is a joint project of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), brings out the work accomplished so far towards the development of the technology of superconducting LINAC to boost the energy of ions from the 14UD Pelletron. The LINAC is modular in construction with each module comprising of a helium cryostat housing four lead-plated quarter wave resonators. The resonators are superconducting for temperatures below 7.19K. An energy boost of 2 MeV/q per module is expected to be achieved. The first module and the post-tandem superbuncher have been fabricated and tested on the LINAC beam line. This report gives a summary of the technological achievements and also brings out the difficulties encountered during the R and D phase. (author)

  5. An Induction Linac Driver For A 0.44 MJ Heavy-Ion Direct Drive Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Lee, E.P.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual design of a heavy ion fusion driver system is described, including all major components. Particular issues emerging from this exercise are identified and discussed. The most important conclusion of our study is that due to stringent requirements on ion pulse phase space, we are unable to find a credible accelerator design that meets the requirements of the example target. Either the target design must be modified to accept larger ion ranges and larger focal spot sizes, or we must consider other target options.

  6. Electron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  7. Electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  8. Electron cloud effects in intense, ion beam linacs theory and experimental planning for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.; Cohen, R.H.; Lund, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lee, E.P.; Prost, L.R.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators for HIF will operate at high aperture-fill factors with high beam current and long pulses. This will lead to beam ions impacting walls: liberating gas molecules and secondary electrons. Without special preparation a large fractional electron population ((ge)1%) is predicted in the High-Current Experiment (HCX), but wall conditioning and other mitigation techniques should result in substantial reduction. Theory and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons, from ionization of residual and desorbed gas and secondary electrons from vacuum walls, will be radially trapped in the ∼4 kV ion beam potential. Trapped electrons can modify the beam space charge, vacuum pressure, ion transport dynamics, and halo generation, and can potentially cause ion-electron instabilities. Within quadrupole (and dipole) magnets, the longitudinal electron flow is limited to drift velocities (E x B and (del)B) and the electron density can vary azimuthally, radially, and longitudinally. These variations can cause centroid misalignment, emittance growth and halo growth. Diagnostics are being developed to measure the energy and flux of electrons and gas evolved from walls, and the net charge and gas density within magnetic quadrupoles, as well as the their effect on the ion beam

  9. Commissioning and experience in stripping, filtering and measuring the 4.2 MeV/u lead ion beam at CERN Linac 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheras, N. Catalan; Crescenti, M.; Vretenar, M.

    1996-01-01

    The new CERN Heavy Ion Linac (Linac3) accelerates a Pb 27+ beam to 4.2 MeV/u. The beam is then stripped to Pb 53+ by a carbon foil, and, after stripping, a 12 m filter line prepares the beam for the injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). The filter line eliminates the unwanted charge states, checks the beam quality (energy, energy spread, transverse emittance and intensity), and finally transports the beam in the lines leading to the PSB. The paper summarises the transverse beam dynamics of the line, and reports on its commissioning, especially focusing on the experiments that led to the stripper choice, and on the measurements performed with a specially developed single pulse multislit emittance device. The operational experience is also reported. (author)

  10. Investigation of multipactoring discharge in an H-type resonator of an ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobzev, L.D.; Mazalov, Yu.P.; Gusev, E.V.; Shulika, N.G.

    1993-01-01

    The study on the variation of parameters of an auto generator power supply of an ion linear accelerator which is under construction on the base of the H-type resonator with drift tube comb mounts has been made. The main attention was paid to investigating multipactor discharges. It is concluded, that presence of secondary autonomous self-oscillation circuit providing the field rise with the frequency close to operation frequency leads to the decrease of multipactor discharge intensity level, which is enough for the elimination of their harmful effect on accelerator steady-state performance. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  12. The Fermilab Collider D/Phi/ low BETA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInturff, A.D.; Carson, J.; Collins, T.; Koepke, K.; Malamud, E.; Mantsch, P.; Niemann, R.; Riddiford, A.

    1988-06-01

    A new low BETA system has been designed to serve the detector facility under construction at the D/Phi/ location of the Fermilab Superconducting Collider. The low BETA system consists of 18 special cold iron quadrupoles powered as 11 independent circuits that can adjust the BETA value at the intersection point down to 25 cm. Low beta is achieved with a set of 1.4 T/cm, two shell, high current quadrupoles. Smaller 0.7 T/cm, single shell trim quadrupoles are used to match the low beta insertion to the rest of the accelerator lattice. Gaps have been left in the lattice for electrostatic separators to separate the proton and antiproton beams everywhere except at the desired collision points. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Possible Depolarization Mechanism due to Low Beta Squeeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbar, V.; Luccio, A.; Bai, M.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations reveal a potential depolarization mechanism during low beta squeeze. This depolarization appears to be driven by a spin tune modulation caused by spin precession through the strong low beta quads due to the vertical fields. The modulation of the spin tune introduces an additional snake resonance condition at ν s0 ± nν x - ν z l = integer which while the same numerology as the well known sextupole resonance, can operate in the absence of sextupole elements

  14. Linacs for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications have become an important commercial business. Microwave electron linacs for cancer radiation therapy and high-energy industrial radiography form the bulk of this market, but these, as well as induction linacs, are now being offered for radiation processing applications such as sterilization of disposable medical products, food preservation and material modifications. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has now made the ion linac also practical for commercial applications in medicine and industry, including radiation therapy, isotope production, neutron production, materials modification, and energy transfer processes. Ion linacs for several of these applications will soon be commercially available. The market for both ion and electron linacs is expected to significantly grow in several exciting and important areas

  15. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  16. MEQALAC: (multiple electrostatic quadrupole linac): a new approach to low beta rf acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Brodowski, J.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Keane, J.T.; Maschka, A.W.; Sanders, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    MEQALAC is an acronym for a multiple-beam electrostatic-quadrupole array linear accelerator. The principle of operation is very simple. It makes use of the fact that electrostatic quadrupoles focus more effectively at low velocities than conventional magnetic quadrupoles. Moreover, the pole-tip field of an electrostatic quadrupole is limited by field emission of electrons, and is not a function of the size of the quadrupole. Conventional magnetic quadrupoles, on the other hand, require increasingly high current densities if one attempts to scale to smaller size

  17. The FAIR proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR - the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe - constructed at GSI in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research. FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated accelerator system, which delivers beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations - APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA - in parallel. Modern H-type cavities offer highest shunt impedances of resonant structures of heavy ion linacs at low beam energies < 20 MeV/u and enable the acceleration of intense proton and ion beams. One example is the interdigital H-type structure. The crossed-bar H-cavities extend these properties to high energies even beyond 100 MeV/u. Compared to conventional Alvarez cavities, these crossed-bar (CH) cavities feature much higher shunt impedance at low energies. The design of the proton linac is based on those cavities

  18. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  19. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  20. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurennoy, S.S.; O'Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  1. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  2. Inner structure of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows the inner structure of Linac 2, with drift-tubes hanging on stems under a rigid support structure, soon to be mounted inside tank 1 (750 keV to 10 MeV, the lowest-energy one of 3). Frank Malthouse is standing in the background.

  3. Proton induction linacs as high-intensity neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Hoyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induction linacs are explored as high intensity neutron sources. The induction linac - concept, properties, experience with electrons, and possibilities - and its limitations for accelerating ions are reviewed. A number of proton induction linac designs are examined with the LIACEP program and general conclusions are given. Results suggest that a proton induction accelerator of the lowest voltage, consistent with good neutron flux, is preferred and could well be cost competitive with the usual rf linac/storage ring designs. (orig.)

  4. LINAC 3 experiment: This experiment is used to study some scenarios of the future LEIR (low-energy ion ring) vacuum design.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 1 316LN stainless steel sheet 0.7 m thick sheet metal, with water-jet cut holes; before (sheet metal) and after rolling (tube). Photo 2 316LN stainless steel tube with water-jet cut holes. Photo 3 Inner tube is fitted with NEG (non-evaporable getter) strips, creating a kind of total NEG pump. Photo 4 Inner tube is fitted with NEG (non-evaporable getter) strips, creating a kind of total NEG pump. Photo 5 Same tubes but compiled on top of each other. Photo 6 The stack of tubes is put into a vacuum chamber that will be used in the LINAC 3 experiment during summer 2002 (lead-ion beam will be used for this experiment). The holes allow all-round pumping, i.e. close to the vacuum chamber walls.

  5. University of Washington superconducting booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Cramer, J.G.; Swanson, H.E.; Trainor, T.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; Weitkamp, W.G.; Will, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    We have begun construction of a superconducting linac designed to accelerate ions from protons through about mass 60. Injected by our 9 MV-terminal tandem van de Graaff accelerator, the linac is expected to double the proton energy and quadruple the energies of heavier ions. The resonators are lead plated copper quarter wave structures. The overall layout and expected performance of the accelerator will be presented, along with a brief status report. 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  7. Remote alignment of Low beta quadrupoles with micrometric resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, M; Herty, A; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Quesnel, J P

    2008-01-01

    Considering their location in a high radiation environment and the alignment tolerancesrequested, the low beta quadrupoles of LHC will be positioned remotely (controlling 5 degrees of freedom), with a displacement resolution of few microns in horizontal and vertical. Stepping motor gearbox assemblies are plugged into the jacks which support the cryomagnets in order to move them to the desired position regarding the quality of the beam collisions in the detectors. This displacement will be monitored in real time by the sensors located on the magnets. This paper describes the positioning strategy implemented as well as the software tools used to manage it.

  8. Review of induction linac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, Denis

    1984-01-01

    The major emphasis of the U.S. program in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is on developing and understanding induction-linac systems that employ multiple beams of high-current heavy ions. The culmination of the plan lies in building the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) which will involve an ion induction linac to deliver multiple high current beams, that can be focussed and overlapped on a two-millimeter diameter spot. A sequence of three major experimental activities are as follows. In the Single-Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE), the stability or otherwise transport of a high-current Cs +1 beam over a long distance is tested. In the Multiple-Beam Experiment (MBE), the experiment is designed to simulate on a small scale as many as possible of the features to be encountered in the HTE. (Mori, K.)

  9. A new matcher type between RFQ and IH-DTL for the GSI high current heavy ion prestripper linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzinger, U.; Tiede, R.

    1996-01-01

    The adaptation of a RFQ beam to the typical requirements at the entrance of a drift tube linac is rather difficult at high intensities and high A/q values. The high focusing power needed for such a matcher can be provided by a conventional array with rather large quadrupoles and rebuncher cavities only. Many problems arising from such a design can be avoided by using an element which is focusing in transverse and longitudinal direction at the same time, that is a short RFQ ('Super Lens') with 10 cells typically and a larger aperture as compared to the main RFQ. A xy-steerer and a short quadrupole doublet with small aperture were added to gain flexibility with regard to beam mismatch and misalignment corrections. This new concept is realised for the GSI 15 mA U 4+ injector, which is under construction. Beam dynamics calculations are presented and compared with results for a conventional solution consisting of a rebuncher and a quadrupole triplet. (author)

  10. Low beta diversity of Maastrichtian dinosaurs of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Matthew J.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Beta diversity is an important component of large-scale patterns of biodiversity, but its explicit examination is more difficult than that of alpha diversity. Only recently have data sets large enough been presented to begin assessing global patterns of species turnover, especially in the fossil record. We present here an analysis of beta diversity of a Maastrichtian (71–65 million years old) assemblage of dinosaurs from the Western Interior of North America, a region that covers ≈1.5 × 106 km2, borders an epicontinental sea, and spans ≈20° of latitude. Previous qualitative analyses have suggested regional groupings of these dinosaurs and generally concluded that there were multiple distinct faunal regions. However, these studies did not directly account for sampling bias, which may artificially decrease similarity and increase turnover between regions. Our analysis used abundance-based data to account for sampling intensity and was unable to support any hypothesis of multiple distinct faunas; earlier hypothesized faunal delineations were likely a sampling artifact. Our results indicate a low beta diversity and support a single dinosaur community within the entire Western Interior region of latest Cretaceous North America. Homogeneous environments are a known driver of low modern beta diversities, and the warm equable climate of the late Cretaceous modulated by the epicontenental seaway is inferred to be an underlying influence on the low beta diversity of this ancient ecosystem. PMID:20404176

  11. A linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source Project (SNS), to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accelerates H - ions to an energy of 1.0 GeV with an average current of 1-mA for injection into an accumulator ring that produces the short intense burst of protons needed for the spallation-neutron source. The linac will be the most intense source of H - ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals. In particular, low beam loss is stressed for the chopped beam placing strong requirements on the beam dynamics and linac construction. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam-power levels with no increase in duty factor. The author gives an overview of the linac design parameters and design choices made

  12. Dump and Current Measurement of Unstripped H`ions at the Injection from the CERN LINAC4 Into the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Chamizo, R; Goddard, B; Mereghetti, A; Versaci, R; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is the new H- linear accelerator under construction at CERN aiming to double the brightness of the beam injected to the CERN PS Booster (PSB) for delivering proton beams to experiments or further CERN accelerators, down to the LHC. The injection system in the PSB is based on the H- charge exchange where the 160 MeV H- beam is converted into an H+ beam by stripping the electrons with a carbon foil. A beam dump located inside a pulsed magnet for the injection bump will intercept the unstripped ions (H0 and H-) and measure the collected charge to detect the relative efficiency and degradation of the stripping foil. The challenge of the dump design is to meet the requirements of a beam dump providing a current measurement and at the same time minimizing the perturbation of the magnetic field of the surrounding pulsed magnet. This paper describes all phases of the dump design and the main issues related to its integration in the line.

  13. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  14. On the ordinary mode instability for low beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Bashir, M. F. [Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2431 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- and Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability, first discussed by Davidson and Wu [Phys. Fluids 13, 1407 (1970)], has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. In a series of papers, Ibscher, Schlickeiser, and their colleagues [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072116 (2012); ibid. 20, 012103 (2013); ibid. 20, 042121 (2013); ibid. 21, 022110 (2014)] revisited the O mode instability and extended it to the low-beta plasma regime by considering a counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian model. However, the O-mode instability is, thus, far discussed only on the basis of the marginal stability condition rather than actual numerical solutions of the dispersion relation. The present paper revisits the O-mode instability by considering the actual complex roots. The marginal stability condition as a function of the (electron) temperature anisotropy and beta naturally emerges in such a scheme.

  15. Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.

  16. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  17. Essay of accelerator R and D in a small laboratory of an university. Head ion IH linac for fusion material. 1983-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    The linear accelerator of Inter-Digital H type (IH linac) is known to have a high shunt impedance. Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology introduced an IH linac for fusion materials irradiation test in 1983. The beam injector was a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The IH linac was designed and fabricated based on the developmental work at Institute for Nuclear Study of University of Tokyo. The processes of component alignment, cold test and start-up operation are described. Educational aspect of the project is also reviewed. (K.Y.)

  18. Low emittance 0.8A K+ ion source for the LBL Induction Linac System Experiment (ILSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Chupp, W.W.; Yu, S.

    1993-05-01

    A high current injector for heavy ion fusion presently under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory requires large sources of up to 17 an in diameter and total potassium ion current of 790 mA with a low normalized transverse emittance of less than 0.5 mm-mr. A 1 in. diameter hot alumina silicate (zeolite) source was fabricated and tested in the injector setup of SBTE, an existing facility at LBL. Initial measurements showed a maximum space charge limited ion current of 95 mA. The corresponding density of 19 mA/cm 2 was limited by the source diode optics and not be the source emission. The density required for the high current injector is 4 mA/cm 2 . The normalized emittance was measured to be 0.06 mm-mrad, corresponding to a transverse temperature of 0.2 eV. Non-destructive life tests showed that the source can be operated under continuous operating conditions of the high current injector for more than a month (twenty eight-hour days, with 1 μs long pulses at 1 Hz). D.C. destructive life tests showed that ∼30% of the total stored K can be ionized and extracted, allowing, in principle, for years of operation for the high current injector. Furthermore, we shall describe the extension of the fabricating technique to large diameter sources (up to 17 cm) and report on measured ion emission performance, measured surface temperature uniformity and heating power considerations

  19. Operational experience with the CERN hadron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmot, H.; Dutriat, C.; Hill, C.E.; Langbein, K.; Lombardi, A.M.; O'Neil, M.; Tanke, E.; Vretenar, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present CERN proton linac (Linac2) was commissioned in 1978 and since that date has been the primary source of protons to the CERN accelerator complex. During the past 18 years, the machine has had a very good reliability record in spite of the demands made upon it. Modifications have been made with the view of maintaining this reliability with reduced resources and new requirements from the users. Further demands will be made in the future for LHC operation. In 1994, a new linac for heavy ion production was put into service replacing the original CERN proton linac. As this machine was built within an international collaboration, operation had to take into account the novelty of the techniques used and the variety of equipment supplied by outside collaborators. Even so, the new machine has also had very good reliability. (author)

  20. Integrated design of the SSC linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Valiecnti, R.; Wood, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linac act as a unit (referred to as the Linac Injector), the Ion Source and LEBT being cantilevered off of the RFQ. Immediately adjacent to both ends of the RFQ cavity proper are endwall chambers containing beam instrumentation and independently-operated vacuum isolation valves. The Linac Injector delivers 30 mA of H - beam at 2.5 MeV. This paper describes the design constraints imposed on the endwalls, aspects of the integration of the Ion Source and LEBT including attachment to the RFQ, maintainability and interchangeability of LEBTs, vacuum systems for each component, and the design of necessary support structure. (Author) 2 tab

  1. Florida State University superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, E.G.; Fox, J.D.; Frawley, A.D.; Allen, P.; Faragasso, J.; Smith, D.; Wright, L.

    1988-01-01

    As early as the fall of 1977 it was decided that the future research needs of their nuclear structure laboratory required an increase in energy capability to at least 8 MeV per nucleon for the lighter ions, and that these needs could be met by the installation of a 17 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The chief problem with this proposal was the high cost. It became apparent that a far less expensive option was to construct a linear accelerator to boost the energy from their existing 9 MV tandem. The options open to them among linac boosters were well represented by the room temperature linac at Heidelberg and the superconducting Stony Brook and Argonne systems. By the Spring of 1979 it had been decided that both capital cost and electric power requirements favored a superconducting system. As regards the two superconducting resonator technologies - the Argonne niobium-copper or the Caltech-Stony Brook lead plated copper - the Argonne resonators, though more expensive to construct, had the advantages of more boost per resonator, greater durability of the superconducting surface and less stringent beam bunching requirements. In 1980 pilot funding from the State of Florida enabled the construction of a building addition to house the linac and a new target area, and the setting up of a small, three resonator, test booster. Major funding by the NSF for the laboratory upgrade started in 1984. With these funds they purchased their present helium liquefaction and transfer system and constructed three large cryostats, each housing four Argonne beta = 0.105 resonators and two superconducting solenoids. The last large cryostat was completed and installed on-line early this year and the linac was dedicated on March 20. Nuclear physics experiments using the whole linac began in early June. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  2. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Broere, J; Garoby, R; Rohlev, A; Serrano, J

    2004-01-01

    A VME based control system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in linac accelerating structures. It is an all-digital system built on a single VME card, providing digital detection, processing, and modulation. It is foreseen to be used, in different versions, for the needs of both present and future CERN hadron linacs. The first application will be in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3). Design principle and the experimental results are described.

  3. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  4. Construction of SPring-8 LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Yanagida, Ken-ichi; Mizuno, Akihiko; Hori, Toshihiko; Tamezane, Kenji; Kodera, Masahiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Mashiko, Katsuo

    1993-01-01

    Construction of the linac building has been started in February 1993. The components of the linac are under manufacturing. The preinjector of linac was already constructed and temporarily installed in Tokai Establishment in order to test the beam quality. (author)

  5. Accelerator study note: An attempt of 1 GeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takao.

    1987-01-01

    A hypothetical 1 GeV linac is described, including its structure (which includes an ion source, radio frequency quadrupole linac, drift type linac, and coupled cavity linac), criteria for optimized design, cost optimization, frequency dependability of high frequency electric power loss, tuning during operation, the general rf system, computer codes and example calculations, beam dynamics simulation, and reduction of energy spread through the use of a debuncher

  6. 25 years of Pelletron Linac facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, A.; Palit, R.

    2014-01-01

    The DAE-BRNS International Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held in BARC during 2nd to 6th December 2013. A summary of the highlights of this symposium has recently appeared in Physics News. As a part of the symposium, a special session was held to commemorate 25 years of operation of the Mumbai Pelletron Linac Facility (PLF). PLF, being operated jointly by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, has been a major centre for heavy-ion accelerator based research in India. The Pelletron accelerator was formally inaugurated on 30th December 1988, and marked an important milestone in nuclear physics research in India. The facility was augmented with the indigenously developed superconducting LINAC booster to enhance the energy of the accelerated beams. The LINAC booster was commissioned in a phased manner and the entire facility was dedicated to the users on the 28th November 2007. The LINAC booster consists of seven liquid helium cryostat modules, each housing four lead coated (2 μm) copper quarter wave resonators (QWR). The cavities are designed to operate at 150 MHz with an optimum acceptance at a velocity corresponding to β=0.1. The performance of the QWRs is found to be excellent with an average energy gain of 0.4 MV/q per cavity corresponding to 80% of the design value. Beam transmission from the entry to the exit of the LINAC was found to be 80% and the beam timing (FWHM) of 600 ps was measured at the target position. Development of the superconducting LINAC is a major milestone in the accelerator technology in our country. Most of the critical components of the LINAC booster, the first superconducting heavy-ion accelerator in India, have been designed, developed and fabricated indigenously

  7. Workshop: Linac90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyck, Olin

    1990-12-15

    In 1960 the first linear accelerator (linac) conference was organized at Brookhaven by John Blewett. In the few years following, linear accelerator energies jumped from 50 MeV (at Brookhaven and CERN) to 2 GeV at Stanford. With the realization that, at least for electrons, circular accelerators have reached their practical limits, linacs are once more in the spotlight.

  8. Magnet innovations for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to produce large magnetic fields at the aperture of permanent magnet quadrupoles, even when the magnetic aperture is very small. That, combined with their compactness, makes permanent magnet quadrupoles very powerful components of small aperture linacs. Results of past and present work on both fixed and variable strength permanent magnets suitable for use in and around linacs are presented

  9. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  10. Magnet innovations for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1986-06-01

    It is possible to produce large magnetic fields at the aperture of permanent magnet quadrupoles, even when the magnetic aperture is very small. That, combined with their compactness, makes permanent magnet quadrupoles very powerful components of small aperture linacs. Results will be presented about past and present work on both fixed and variable strength permanent magnets suitable for use in and around linacs

  11. Workshop: Linac90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, Olin

    1990-01-01

    In 1960 the first linear accelerator (linac) conference was organized at Brookhaven by John Blewett. In the few years following, linear accelerator energies jumped from 50 MeV (at Brookhaven and CERN) to 2 GeV at Stanford. With the realization that, at least for electrons, circular accelerators have reached their practical limits, linacs are once more in the spotlight

  12. Linac 1 in the process of being pulled back

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1985-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions and, from 1981 to 1996, of protons and negative hydrogen ions for LEAR. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by a much smaller RFQ, which allowed it to be moved to a more convenient location.

  13. Production measurements on the quadrupole correctors for the new Low- Beta System for the Tevatron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtarani, A.; Brown, B.C.; Hanft, R.; Oleck, A.R.; Peterson, T.; Turkot, F.

    1991-05-01

    Each of the Low Beta Systems for the Tevatron Collider requires 12 spool pieces; eight of the spool pieces contain superconducting quadrupoles as part of the low beta insertion as well as standard correction magnets. The remaining four provide correction magnets, beam position monitors, and current feeds for the neighboring low beta main quadrupoles. Thirty-two of these new spools have been fabricated. We describe here the mechanical, cryogenic and magnetic properties of these new spools as determined in the production test and measurement activities. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. TOP LINAC design; Progetto del TOP LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vignati, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1997-11-01

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given.

  15. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  16. BARC-TIFR Pelletron Linac facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.; Saxena, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Pelletron Accelerator, set up as a collaborative project between the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, has been serving as the workhorse for the heavy ion accelerator based research in India since its commissioning in December 30, 1988. The facility was augmented with an indigenously developed superconducting Linac booster to enhance the energy of the Pelletron accelerated beams and was fully commissioned on November 28, 2007. The augmented facility is renamed as Pelletron Linac facility (PLF). While the PLF is predominantly utilized by the experimental users from BARC and TIFR, the users include researchers from other research institutions and universities within India and abroad

  17. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Lutz Matthias

    2013-08-06

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and

  18. LINAC5 - A Quasi-Alvarez Linac for BioLEIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J M; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A

    2017-01-01

    LINAC5 is a new linac proposed for the acceleration of light ions with Q/A = 1/3 to 1/4 for medical applications within the BioLEIR (Low Energy Ion Ring) design study at CERN. We propose a novel quasi-Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) accelerating structure design for LINAC5, which can reduce the length of a more conventional DTL structure, yet allows better beam focussing control and flexibility than the inter-digital H (IH) structures typically used for modern ion acceleration. We present the main sections of the linac with total length ∼12 m, including a 202 MHz radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) a matching medium energy beam transport (MEBT) and a 405 MHz quasi-Alvarez accelerating section with an output energy of 4.2 MeV/u. Permanent magnet quadrupoles are proposed for use in the quasi-Alvarez structure to improve the compactness of the design and increase the efficiency. Lattice design considerations, multi-particle beam dynamics simulations and RFQ and radio frequency (RF) cavity designs are presented. (paper)

  19. Variable-energy drift-tube linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Practical applications of ion linacs are more viable now than ever before because of the recent development of the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerating structure, as well as other technological advances developed under the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations program. This report describes a practical technique for varying the energy of drift-tube linacs and thus further broadening the possibilities for linac applications. This technique involves using the post couplers (normally used to flatten and stabilize the electric fields) to create a step in the fields, thus terminating the acceleration process. In the examples given for a 70-MeV accelerator design, when using this technique the energy is continually variable down to 20 MeV, while maintaining a small energy spread

  20. ARIEL e-LINAC: Commissioning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Zvyagintsev, V.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting electron Linac (e-Linac) will be a part of the ARIEL facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIB) at TRIUMF. The e-Linac will consist of five 1.3GHz 9-cell cavities in three cryomodules delivering a 50MeV 10mA beam. The baseline operation will be single pass but a re-circulating ring is planned to allow either energy boost or energy recovery operation. The first stage of the accelerator which consists of two cryomodules has been successfully commissioned in 2014. The paper will discuss the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) challenges of the accelerator. Cavities, crymodules and RF system design, preparation, and performance will be presented.

  1. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  2. ARIEL e-LINAC: Commissioning and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.; Zvyagintsev, V.

    2016-01-01

    A superconducting electron Linac (e-Linac) will be a part of the ARIEL facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIB) at TRIUMF. The e-Linac will consist of five 1.3GHz 9-cell cavities in three cryomodules delivering a 50MeV 10mA beam. The baseline operation will be single pass but a re-circulating ring is planned to allow either energy boost or energy recovery operation. The first stage of the accelerator which consists of two cryomodules has been successfully commissioned in 2014. The paper will discuss the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) challenges of the accelerator. Cavities, crymodules and RF system design, preparation, and performance will be presented. (paper)

  3. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  4. Electron linac injector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

  5. Range of Possible Beam Current in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Linac4 is a new accelerator under construction at CERN. It is designed to accelerate H- ions to 160MeV, for injection into the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). It is also the front-end of the SPL Linac, a high energy proton driver that will reach the energy of 5GeV. The Linac baseline design has been done for a nominal beam peak current of 70mA but it will certainly have to deal with different currents. 132 out of 155 quadrupoles in the Linac are permanent magnets, this choice of using PMQ having fixed gradient, mainly in the DTL and in the CCDTL may then entail issues concerning the beam transverse matching and quality from current different from the nominal one. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics performances in Linac4 obtained for different currents.

  6. Source and LINAC3 studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Ion Injector Upgrade pro-gramme (LIU), several activities have been carried out in2016 to improve the ion source and Linac3 performance,with the goal to increase the beam current routinely deliv-ered to LEIR. The extraction region of the GTS-LHC ionsource was upgraded with enlarged vacuum chamber aper-tures and the addition of an einzel lens, yielding highertransmission through the rest of the machine. Also, a seriesof experiments have been performed to study the effects ofdouble frequency mixing on the afterglow performance ofthe source after installation of a Travelling Wave Tube Am-plifier (TWTA) as secondary microwave source at variablefrequency. Measurements have been carried out at a dedi-cated oven test stand for better understanding of the ionsource performance. Finally, several MD sessions werededicated to the study and characterization of the strippingfoils, after evidence of degradation in time was discoveredin the 2015 run.

  7. Preliminary Characterization of the O4+ Beam in Linac 3

    CERN Document Server

    Dumas, L; Scrivens, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2007-01-01

    The new GTS-LHC ECR ion source was installed in 2005. An oxygen 4+ beam was delivered to LEIR both for injection line (June 2005) and for the ring commissioning (September to December 2005). During these runs, studies were made of the beam transport in the Linac and towards LEIR. Some of the most significant results concerning the Linac are presented in this report. From 2006 the ECR source and the Linac3 delivered a lead beam for the LEIR commissioning, leaving some questions open for the oxygen beam transport. This report serves as a summary of the status of the investigations on the oxygen beam.

  8. High field electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1985-12-01

    High field electron linacs are considered as potential candidates to provide very high energies beyond LEP. Since almost twenty years not much improvement has been made on linac technologies as they have been mostly kept at low and medium energies to be used as injectors for storage rings. Today, both their efficiency and their performances are being reconsidered, and for instance the pulse compression sheme developed at SLAC and introduced to upgrade the energy of that linac is a first step towards a new generation of linear accelerators. However this is not enough in terms of power consumption and more development is needed to improve both the efficiency of accelerating structures and the performances of RF power sources

  9. Some aspects of linacs as applied to the ISL benchmark facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers several aspects of using linacs in a radioactive beam facility in terms of the Isospin Laboratory (ISL) Benchmark Facility (BMF) plan, described in the 1991 white paper for a possible radioactive-beam laboratory. The intention is not to review comprehensively the application of linacs to an ISL facility, but to compare in outline form several linac options for such a facility. Particular emphasis is given to the use of superconducting rf technology for the secondary beam accelerator. In what follows, first a possible normally-conducting light-ion linac for a primary beam accelerator is briefly outlined. Then the performance and cost of two options for a secondary beam accelerator are compared: a recent design for a normal-conducting cw linac, and an ATLAS-type superconducting linac. Finally, some of the problems which may be encountered at the entrance of a secondary beam linac are discussed

  10. Superconducting linac booster for NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Prakash, P.N.; Ajithkumar, B.P.; Ghosh, S.; Changrani, T.; Mehta, R.; Sarkar, A.; Muralidhar, S.; Dutt, R.N.; Kumar, M.; Shepard, K.W.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    The progress made in the heavy ion superconducting linac booster project for the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron accelerator is overviewed. Prototypes of the accelerating structure have been fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory and undergone several diagnostic tests. In the first phase heavy ions up to mass 80 will be accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier and in the second phase the mass limit would be increased to 120. The subsystems of the project are the basic accelerating structures, the RF instrumentation and control, the cryogenic system and the beam optics. Preliminary designs for the buncher and linac cryostats have been made. Several prototypes of RF electronics and control modules have been fabricated and tested. (R.P.)

  11. RF linacs for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are twenty rf linac-driven Free Electron Lasers (FELs) existing or under construction throughout the world and proposals for several more. A number of these FELs have recently been established as facilities to produce coherent optical beams for materials and biomedical research. Both short pulse low duty factor and long pulse high duty factor linac-driven FELs will be discussed. Accelerator issues that influence the performance of an FEL as a scientific instrument will be indicated. (Author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-05-01

    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  13. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-12-01

    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  14. Fermilab: Linac upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab linear accelerator (Linac) was conceived 20 years ago, produced its first 200 MeV proton beam on 30 November 1970 and has run without major interruption ever since. Demands have steadily increased through the added complexity of the downstream chain of accelerators and by the increased patient load of the Neutron Therapy Facility

  15. TOP LINAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-11-01

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita', ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given

  16. Alignment and Field Error Tolerance in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L; Lallement, J B; Lanzone, S; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P; Sargsyan, E

    2011-01-01

    LINAC4 [1] is a linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton LINAC (LINAC2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The higher output energy (160 MeV) together with charge-exchange injection will allow increasing beam intensity in the following machines. LINAC4 is about 80 m long, normal-conducting, and will be housed in a tunnel 12 m below ground on the CERN Meyrin site. The location has been chosen to allow using LINAC4 as the first stage of acceleration for a Multi-MegaWatt superconducting LINAC (SPL [2]). A 60 m long transfer line brings the beam towards the present LINAC2-to-PS Booster transfer line, which is joined at the position of BHZ20. The new transfer line consists of 17 new quadrupoles, an RF cavity and 4 bending magnets to adjust both the direction and the level for injection into the PS Booster. End-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been carried out in parallel with the codes PATH [3] and TRACEWIN[4]. Following the definition of the layout...

  17. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  18. Update of the Linac4-PSB Transfer Line

    CERN Document Server

    HEIN, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The installation of Linac4 represents the first step of the upgrade plans of the CERN accelerator complex for the future in order to raise the available proton flux to attain amongst others the LHC ultimate luminosity. This linac is capable to accelerate H--ions from 45keV to 160MeV, which will be injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). The increase of energy from 50MeV (Linac2) to 160MeV (Linac4) allows to overcome the space charge limitations at the PSB injection, which is the main bottleneck towards higher beam brightness in the downstream accelerator chain. In order to preserve beam quality from the outlet of Linac4 to PSB injection the design of the transfer line becomes crucial. As the location of Linac4 was chosen in view of upgrade scenarios, the construction of a new transfer line is foreseen, see ref.[1] and ref.[2]. Here part of the Linac2-PSB transfer line will be re-used. In the new part of the transfer line the beam is horizontally and vertically adjusted towards the bending magnet B...

  19. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D.; Kronberger, M.; Kuechler, D.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H - ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  20. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faircloth, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kronberger, M.; Kuechler, D.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R. [BE-ABP, Hadron Sources and Linacs, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H{sup -} ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  1. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  2. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S [ed.

    1996-03-04

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being `Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications`. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.).

  3. An induction linac injector for scaled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Pike, C.; Brodzik, D.; Johnson, R.M.; Vanecek, D.; Hewett, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig

  4. Development of a Solid State RF Amplifier in the kW Regime for Application with Low Beta Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Christian; Borisov, A; Kolesov, Sergej; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Projects based on the use of low beta superconducting cavities for ions are under operation or development at several labs worldwide. Often these cavities are individually driven by RF power sources in the kW regime. For an ongoing project a modular 2 kW, 176 MHz unconditionally stable RF amplifier for CW and pulsed operation was designed, built, and tested. Extended thermal analysis was used to develop a water cooling system in order to optimize the performance of the power transistors and other thermally loaded components. The paper will outline the design concept of the amplifier and present first results on the test of the amplifier with a superconducting cavity.

  5. Design of high-energy high-current linac with focusing by superconducting solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Belugin, V.M.; Bondarev, B.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The advancement of MRTI design for 1.5 GeV and 250 mA ion CW linac was presented in a previous report. In this new linac version all the way from input to output the ions are focused by magnetic fields of superconducting solenoids. The ion limit current is far beyond the needed value. The linac focusing channel offers major advantages over the more conventional ones. The acceptance is 1.7 times as large for such focusing channel as for quadrupole one. Concurrently, a random perturbation sensitivity for such channel is one order of magnitude smaller than in quadrupole channel. These focusing channel features allow to decrease beam matched radius and increase a linac radiation purity without aperture growth. {open_quotes}Regotron{close_quotes} is used as high power generator in linac main part. But D&W cavities need not be divided into sections connected by RF-bridges which denuded them of high coupling factor.

  6. Radioisotope production linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.; Hansborough, L.D.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 70-MeV proton beam would open a new family of medical radioisotopes (including the important 123 I) to wide application. A 70-MeV, 500-μA linac is described, based on recent innovations in accelerator technology. It would be 27.3 m long, cost approx. $6 million, and the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable to existing cyclotrons. By operating the rf-power system to its full capability, the same accelerator is capable of producing a 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons. The technology to build such a linac is in a mature stage of developmnt, ready for use by industry

  7. Current status of femtosecond triplet Linacs 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, M.; Watanabe, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Femtosecond Ultrafast Quantum Phenomenon Research Facility has been commissioned in 2000. It consists the femtosecond linac-laser synchronization system, the 12 TW 50 fs laser system and the analyzing system. Laser photocathode RF gun produced l kA = 7 nC / 7 ps for 250 μJ 267 nm laser irradiation, synchronization of 300 fs (rms) for minutes and l.9 ps (rms) for hours was established. Efforts to avoid such long-term drift are under way. This system is applied to subpico- and picosecond pulseradiolysis for radiation chemistry of water and supercritical water. Laser plasma linac works are under way to generate 20 MeV 10 fs electron bunch and ps ion beam using the 12 TW 50 fs laser. Further, the time-resolved X-ray diffraction is close to dynamic visualization of atomic motions. (author)

  8. Operation of the tandem-linac accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The tandem-linac accelerator system is operated as a source of energetic heavy-ion projectiles for research in several areas of nuclear physics and occasionally in other areas of science. The accelerator system consists of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and a superconducting-linac energy booster that can provide an additional 20 MV of acceleration. A figure shows the layout of this system, which will be operated in its present form until September 1985, when it will be incorporated into the larger ATLAS system. In both the present and future forms the accelerator is designed to provide the exceptional beam quality and overall versatility required for precision nuclear-structure research

  9. Operational experience with the Fermilab Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Lennox, A.J.; Schmidt, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Fermilab 200-MeV Linac has been in operation for nearly 22 years as a proton injector to the Booster synchrotron. It presently accelerates H - ions to 200 MeV for charge-exchange injection into the Booster and to 66 MeV for the production of neutrons at the Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). The beam intensity is typically 35 mA with pulse widths of 30 μsec for the Booster for high energy physics and 57 μsec for NTF at a maximum of 15 pulses per sec. During a typical physics run of nine to twelve months, beam is available for greater than 98% of the scheduled time. The Linac history, operation, tuning, stability and reliability will be discussed. (Author) 15 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Linacs for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV) and high power (10-20 kW) electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV) proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19 F(γ,n) 18 F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11 C, 13 N, and 15 O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99m Tc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18 F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons. (author)

  11. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.

    1996-01-01

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  12. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-01-01

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10 33 (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented

  13. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  14. Neural mechanisms of mental schema: a triplet of delta, low beta/spindle and ripple oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Takefumi; Takei, Yuichi

    2018-02-06

    Schemas are higher-level knowledge structures that integrate and organise lower-level representations. As internal templates, schemas are formed according to how events are perceived, interpreted and remembered. Although these higher-level units are assumed to play a fundamental role in our daily life from an early age, the neuronal basis and mechanisms of schema formation and use remain largely unknown. It is important to elucidate how the brain constructs and maintains these higher-level units. In order to examine the possible neural underpinnings of schema, we recapitulate previous work and discuss their findings related to schemas as the brain template. We specifically focused on low beta/spindle oscillations, which are assumed to be the key components of schemas, and propose that the brain template is implemented with a triplet of neural oscillations, that is delta, low beta/spindle and ripple oscillations. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Status and plans for Linac4 installation and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Arnaudon, L; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Comblin, J F; Coupard, J; Dimov, V A; Fuchs, J F; Funken, A; Gerigk, F; Granemann Souza, E; Hanke, K; Hansen, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Kozsar, I; Lallement, J B; Lenardon, F; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A M; Maglioni, C; Midtun, O; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Paoluzzi, M; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Sanchez Alvarez, J L; Scrivens, R; Tan, J; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Vollaire, J; Wegner, R; Weisz, S; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting 160 MeV Hˉ linear accelerator presently being installed and progressively commissioned at CERN. It will replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the PS Booster (PSB), increasing at the same time its brightness by a factor of two thanks to the higher injection energy. This will be the first step of a program to increase the beam brightness in the LHC injectors for the needs of the High-Luminosity LHC project. After a series of beam measurements on a dedicated test stand the 3 MeV Linac4 front-end, including ion source, RFQ and a beam chopping line, has been recommissioned at its final position in the Linac4 tunnel. Commissioning of the following section, the Drift Tube Linac, is starting. Beam commissioning will take place in steps of increasing energy, to reach the final 160 MeV in 2015. An extended beam measurement phase including testing of stripping equipment for the PSB and a year-long test run to assess and improve Linac4 reliability will take place in 2016, prior to...

  16. LINAC4, A New $H^{-}$ Linear Injector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2004-01-01

    Linac2, the present injector of the CERN PS Booster, limits the performance of the proton accelerator complex because of its low output energy (50 MeV). To remove this bottleneck, a higher energy linac is proposed (called â€ワLinac4†) which will double the brightness and the intensity of the beam delivered by the PSB and ensure the â€ワultimate” beam is available for LHC. Linac4 will deliver H- ions at a kinetic energy of 160 MeV. It is designed to be usable as the front-end of a future multi-GeV multi-MW linear accelerator, the â€ワSuperconducting Proton Linac” (SPL). R&D for Linac4 is now actively taking place with the support of the European Union through the Joint Research Activity HIPPI (â€ワHigh Intensity Pulsed Proton Injectors”), and of three ISTC projects involving three major Russian laboratories (BINP, IHEP and ITEP) and two nuclear centres (VNIIEF and VNIITF). The design of this new accelerator and the on-going developments are described.

  17. Redesign of CERN LINAC3 RFQ for Lead 29+

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Stefano; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lombardi, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    CERN Linac3 is at the heart of the CERN Heavy Ion Facility, providing 4.2 MeV/u ion beams to the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). It mostly accelerates 208Pb29+, though in recent years runs were performed with 40Ar11+ and 129Xe22+, in view of the raising interest of the physics community towards lighter ions experiments. In the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project, measurements and beam dynamics simulations showed that a transmission bottleneck of Linac3 is represented by the RFQ. As this accelerator was originally designed for 208Pb25+, the lower beam rigidity of the heavy ions currently in used – and planned to be used – permits a redesign of the RFQ aimed at increasing its transverse acceptance, and thus the transmitted beam current. The methodology adopted and the results of this study are presented.

  18. CONFERENCE: Linacs at Seeheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-07-15

    The 12th Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by GSI Darmstadt, was held from 8-11 May at the Lufthansa Schulungszentrum in Seeheim, West Germany. It was the first of this series of Linac Accelerator Conferences - started in 1961 with 20 participants and 17 contributions at Brookhaven - held outside North America. In Seeheim, 32 invited talks, 11 oral and 98 poster papers were presented to more than 250 participants from the USA, Canada, Europe, Japan, the USSR and China, representing 39 research institutions and 12 industrial laboratories.

  19. CONFERENCE: Linacs at Seeheim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The 12th Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by GSI Darmstadt, was held from 8-11 May at the Lufthansa Schulungszentrum in Seeheim, West Germany. It was the first of this series of Linac Accelerator Conferences - started in 1961 with 20 participants and 17 contributions at Brookhaven - held outside North America. In Seeheim, 32 invited talks, 11 oral and 98 poster papers were presented to more than 250 participants from the USA, Canada, Europe, Japan, the USSR and China, representing 39 research institutions and 12 industrial laboratories

  20. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, H.E.; Howe, M.A.; Jackson, L.W.; LaCroix, J.M.; Readdy, H.P.; Storm, D.W.; Van Houten, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  1. Mechanical Engineering of the Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, N.K.; Chen, Z.; Collier, M.; Erickson, J.L.; Guthrie, A.; Hunter, W.T.; Ilg, T.; Meyer, R.K.; Snodgrass, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    The linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project will accelerate an average current of 1 mA of H - ions from 20 MeV to 1GeV for injection into an accumulator ring. The linac will be an intense source of H - ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals as well as to minimize costs. The DTL, CCDTL and CCL are 466m long and operate at 805 MHz with a maximum H - input current of 28 mA and 7% rf duty factor. The Drift Tube Linac is a copper-plated steel structure using permanent magnetic quadrupoles. The Coupled-Cavity portions are brazed copper structures and use electromagnetic quads. RF losses in the copper are 80 MW, with total rf power supplied by 52 klystrons. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam power levels with no increase in duty factor. The authors give an overview of the linac mechanical engineering effort and discuss the special challenges and status of the effort

  2. Linac4 Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Baylac, M; Bellodi, G; Body, Y; Borburgh, J; Bourquin, P; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Bruno, L; Carli, C; Caspers, Friedhelm; Cousineau, S M; Cuvet, Y; De Almeida Martins, C; Dobers, T; Fowler, T; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Hori, M; Jones, M; Kahle, K; Kalbreier, Willi; Kroyer, T; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; López-Hernandez, L A; Magistris, M; Martini, M; Maury, S; Page, E; Paoluzzi, M; Pasini, M; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Sargsyan, E; Serrano, J; Scrivens, R; Silari, M; Timmins, M; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vretenar, M; Wegner, R; Weterings, W; Zickler, T

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is an H- linear accelerator, intended to replace Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). By delivering to the PSB a beam at 160 MeV energy, Linac4 will provide the conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam from the PSB, thus removing the first bottleneck towards higher brightness for the LHC and simplifying operation. Moreover, this new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios and could open the way to future extensions of the CERN accelerator complex towards higher performance. This Technical Design Report presents a detailed technical overview of the Linac4 design as it stands at end 2006.

  3. Dissipation of Alfven Waves at Fluid Scale through Parametric Decay Instabilities in Low-beta Turbulent Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Li, H.; Guo, F.; Li, X.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magnetized plasma extending from the upper atmosphere of the sun to the edge of the heliosphere. It carries charged particles and magnetic fields originated from the Sun, which have great impact on the geomagnetic environment and human activities in space. In such a magnetized plasma, Alfven waves play a crucial role in carrying energy from the surface of the Sun, injecting into the solar wind and establishing power-law spectra through turbulent energy cascades. On the other hand, in compressible plasmas large amplitude Alfven waves are subject to a parametric decay instability (PDI) which converts an Alfven wave to another counter-propagating Alfven wave and an ion acoustic wave (slow mode). The counter-propagating Alfven wave provides an important ingredient for turbulent cascade, and the slow-mode wave provides a channel for solar wind heating in a spatial scale much larger than ion kinetic scales. Growth and saturation of PDI in quiet plasma have been intensively studied using linear theory and nonlinear simulations in the past. Here using 3D hybrid simulations, we show that PDI is still effective in turbulent low-beta plasmas, generating slow modes and causing ion heating. Selected events in WIND data are analyzed to identify slow modes in the solar wind and the role of PDI, and compared with our simulation results. We also investigate the validity of linear Vlasov theory regarding PDI growth and slow mode damping in turbulent plasmas. Since PDI favors low plasma beta, we expect to see more evidence of PDI in the solar wind close to the Sun, especially from the upcoming NASA's Parker Solar Probe mission which will provide unprecedented wave and plasma data as close as 8.5 solar radii from the Sun.

  4. Linac4: injecting new life into the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Construction work is nearing completion on the ion source for Linac4, the new linear accelerator that forms part of the LHC injector upgrade programme. Here we find out more about this essential component of the accelerator chain, designed and built at CERN.     The image shows the Linac4 H- source. The red light is the alpha line of the visible hydrogen emission spectrum. The ion source is a key component of Linac4, the linear accelerator that from 2018 will supply H- ions (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) at 160 MeV for injection into the accelerator complex. As the only ion source at CERN, Linac4 must be highly reliable, which requires a full understanding of the production mechanisms, the simulation of physical processes and the validation of those processes through experimentation. “This source is the result of much fruitful collaboration,” says Jacques Lettry of the BE department. “Its design was inspired by the many sources of th...

  5. The quarter wave resonator as a superconducting linac element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Brennan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The electrical and mechanical properties of quarter wave resonators are derived. A procedure for optimal design of a quarter wave resonator for use in a superconducting heavy ion linac is given. It is concluded that a quarter wave resonator has significant advantages for this application. (orig.)

  6. Parametric Study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2007-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K + ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (∼80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  7. Optimization of the cooling power distribution in a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendl, C.M.; Noe, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The benefits of setting the resonators in a superconducting heavy-ion linac to a certain optimum distribution of cooling power have been evaluated in terms of the total acceleration such a distribution may produce, compared to a distribution in which each resonator dissipates power equally. The optimum power distribution can be expressed in closed form in certain simplified cases, but the general case is solved by equalizing the 'marginal power cost' of the resonators by iteration in a computer simulation. For the Stony Brook linac an additional possible acceleration of several percent is thus predicted for typical beams. (author)

  8. Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)

  9. Mechanical design and analysis of a low beta squeezed half-wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shou-Bo; Zhang, Cong; Yue, Wei-Ming; Wang, Ruo-Xu; Xu, Meng-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Shi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Lu; Jiang, Tian-Cai; Wang, Feng-Feng; Zhang, Sheng-Xue; He, Yuan; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2014-08-01

    A superconducting squeezed type half-wave resonator (HWR) of β=0.09 has been developed at the Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou. In this paper, a basic design is presented for the stiffening structure for the detuning effect caused by helium pressure and Lorentz force. The mechanical modal analysis has been investigated the with finite element method (FEM). Based on these considerations, a new stiffening structure is proposed for the HWR cavity. The computation results concerning the frequency shift show that the low beta HWR cavity with new stiffening structure has low frequency sensitivity coefficient df/dp and Lorentz force detuning coefficient KL, and stable mechanical properties.

  10. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  11. Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Henning, W.; Kutschera, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem uses Pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ΔEΔt of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the negative-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam dissociation, and stripper-foil uniformity. This paper discusses these beam-degrading effects

  12. Finite Element Thermal Study of the Linac4 Plasma Generatora

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D; Kuchler, D; Lettry, L; Scrivens, R; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the RF-powered non-cesiated Linac4 H- ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW RF power, 2 Hz, 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of SPL, an extrapolation of the heat load towards 100 kW RF power, 50 Hz repetition rate and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in HP-SPL.

  13. Accelerator mass spectrometry with a coupled tandem-linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    A coupled system provides higher energies, which allows one to extend AMS to hitherto untouched mass regions. Another important argument is that the complexity, although bothersome for the operation, increases the selectivity of detecting a particular isotope. The higher-energy argument holds for any heavy-ion accelerator which is capable of delivering higher energy than a tandem. The present use of tandem-linac combinations for AMS, rather than cyclotrons, linacs or combinations of these machines, has mainly to do with the fact that this technique was almost exclusively developed around tandem accelerators. Therefore the tandem-linac combination is a natural extension to higher energies. The use of negative ions has some particular advantages in suppressing background from unwanted elements that do not form stable negative ions (e.g., N, Mg, Ar). On the other hand, this limits the detection of isotopes to elements which do form negative ions. For particular problems it may therefore be advantageous to use a positive-ion machine. What really matters most for choosing one or the other machine is to what extent the entire accelerator system can be operated in a truly quantiative way from the ion source to the detection system. 20 references, 4 figures

  14. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  15. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  16. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  17. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  18. Commissioning plans for SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.W.; Aprile, R.L.; Chang, C.R.; Crist, C.E.; Cutler, R.I.; Funk, L.W.; Guy, F.W.; Leifeste, G.T.; Raparia, D.; Saadatmand, K.; Sethi, R.C.; Swenson, D.A.; Tooker, J.; Yao, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Presented are the general description of the SSC linac and the plans for commissioning. Sections of the linac are installed, tested, and beam commissioned in a serial approach. A specialized set of diagnostics is used to characterize the beam through each section. In addition to the standard diagnostic set, plans call for the use of a bunch shape monitor and x-ray spectrometer. Streak camera and digital imaging diagnostics will be developed. The commissioning plan is folded into the general linac project schedule to show the relation between delivery, staging, installation, conditioning, and actual commissioning with beam. These plans form the basis for coordination between the various organizations responsible for different elements of the linac including the technical components, infrastructure, and temporary staging and operation facilities. (Author) 2 figs., 17 refs

  19. Superconducting linacs used with tandems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1984-01-01

    The main features of superconducting linacs used as post-accelerators of tandems are reviewed. Various aspects of resonators, cryogenics and electronics are discussed, and recent advances in the field are presented. (orig.)

  20. Localized chromaticity correction of low-beta insertions in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Moshammer, H.; Sullivan, M.; Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.

    1993-01-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in the storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring's arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the insertion point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher order chromatic aberrations. Here the authors consider the approach where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. Each family has two pairs of sextupoles which are located symmetrically on both sides of the IP. The sextupole-like aberrations of individual sextupoles are eliminated by utilizing optics forming a -I transformation between sextupoles in the pair. The optics also includes bending magnets which preserve equal dispersion functions at the two sextupoles in each pair. At sextupoles in one family, the vertical beta function is made large and the horizontal is made small. The situation is reversed in the sextupoles of the other family. The betatron phase advances from the IP to the sextupoles are chosen to eliminate a second order chromatic aberration. The application of the localized chromatic correction is demonstrated using as an example the lattice design for the Low Energy Ring of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL PEP-II B Factory

  1. Localized chromaticity correction of low-beta insertions in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Moshammer, H.; Sullivan, M.; Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.

    1993-04-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in the storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring's arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the insertion point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher order chromatic aberrations. Here we consider the approach where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. Each family has two pairs of sextupoles which are located symmetrically on both sides of the IP. The sextupole-like aberrations of individual sextupoles are eliminated by utilizing optics forming a -I transformation between sextupoles in the pair. The optics also includes bending magnets which preserve equal dispersion functions at the two sextupoles in each pair. At sextupoles in one family, the vertical beta function is made large and the horizontal is made small. The situation is reversed in the sextupoles of the other family. The betatron phase advances from the IP to the sextupoles are chosen to eliminate a second order chromatic aberration. The application of the localized chromatic correction is demonstrated using as an example the lattice design for the Low Energy Ring of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL PEP-II B Factory

  2. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  3. Comparison of LINAC-4 Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, K; Sargsyan, E; Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the expected performance of two drift tube linac (DTL) designs proposed for LINAC-4. The two designs use the same cell geometries but are characterized by different phase (φs) and accelerating field (E0) distributions. In addition we have investigated the expected performance of 3 different quadrupole focusing schemes in each design. The expected performance of these 6 variants is compared with respect to their stability and risk of beam loss with alignment errors.

  4. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    , no beam losses were observed and all emittance growths were well under control. To solve the well-known transition problems between two kinds of different accelerating structures, some matching techniques have been developed and applied for the RFQ accelerator and the KONUS-based H-type DTL with the following idea: to perform the RFQ-DTL matching inside the RFQ, and not in the MEBT, because the continuous, velocity-independent electric focusing is very efficient for a low-{beta} beam. For the FRANZ project, the output longitudinal particle distribution has been rotated by the so-called Longitudinal-Rotation Technique, which can narrow the phase spread of the beam to fit into the acceptance of a KONUS structure. For the EUROTRANS injector, the matching has been done in the transverse planes: two additional transition cells at the end of the RFQ were introduced to turn both output transverse emittance ellipses axial-symmetric and into the same orientation, which helped leading to similar transverse beam developments in the DTL part. In addition, the error study is another important topic of this dissertation. In the design study, usually only ideal operation conditions and perfect accelerator components have been taken into account. According to the capabilities of the simulation codes, seven kinds of RFQ errors and four kinds of DTL errors have been applied to the designed FRANZ RFQ and IFMIF DTL machines, respectively. For the EUROTRANS injector, combined RFQ and DTL errors were used. (orig.)

  5. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  6. LINAC4 - Views of the 3 MeV Front-end (H- Source, LEBT, RFQ, MEBT) with Test Bench.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 is the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as proton low energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operation Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator.

  7. Release the beams! - Linac4 ready to hit the 50 MeV mark

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Linac4 accelerator is now prepared to reach 50 MeV. This milestone energy - expected in the coming weeks - will allow the machine to act as a replacement for the ageing Linac2, four years before it takes over at the head of the accelerator chain in 2020.    Inside the Linac4 tunnel, the final DTL cavities will guide beams to 50 MeV.  (Image: Stephan Russenschuck.) The Linac4 accelerator will bring H- ion beams (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) up to 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster. As a key part of the LHC injector upgrade programme, Linac4 will allow the PS Booster to double its beam brightness, which will contribute to increasing the LHC’s luminosity. Linac4 will soon bring beams up to 50 MeV - the current energy delivered by the Linac2 accelerator. This milestone follows on from another recent accomplishment: the installation and commissioning of the final Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tank. Using an innovati...

  8. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  9. Quench performance of superconducting quadrupole magnets for the new Fermilab low beta insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlay, S.A.; Carson, J.A.; Hanft, R.; Jaffery, T.S.; Koepke, K.; Lamm, M.J.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.

    1991-05-01

    Construction and testing of the components for the new Tevatron D0/B0 low beta insertion has been nearly completed. The devices include superconducting cold iron quadrupoles utilizing a 2-shell, cos2θ coil geometry with a 7.6 cm aperture. The maximum design gradient is 1.41 T/cm at an operating current of 4832 A. They have the highest current density with the highest peak field on the winding of any quadrupole yet built. This paper summarizes the quench performance and ramp rate sensitivity of the 2-shell design and relates the performance characteristics to the relevant aspects of design and fabrication. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Status of the LHC low-$\\beta$ insertion quadrupole magnet development at KEK

    CERN Document Server

    Ogitsu, T; Ohuchi, N; Ajima, Y; Burkhardt, E E; Higashi, N; Hirano, H; Lida, M; Kimura, N; Ohhata, H; Tanaka, K; Shintomi, T; Terashima, A; Tsuchiya, K; Yamamoto, A; Orikasa, T; Murai, S; Oosaki, O

    2002-01-01

    The development of the LHC low-beta insertion quadrupole magnets has been conducted at KEK since 1996. After the successful development of short model magnets, the first prototype magnet has been built by Toshiba and is tested at KEK. Although the quench performance and the field quality of the magnet are satisfactory, a design problem is found in one of the end spacers. The problem increases the risk of a turn-to-turn and in fact causes shorts in the second prototype magnet, and in the trial coil of the first production magnet. The design is modified and the problem appears to be resolved. The construction of the production magnets is now started and lasts till the summer of 2004. (9 refs).

  11. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  12. Linac4 RFQ assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    This series of pictures documents the assembly phase of the Linac4 RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole), performed at the end of July 2012. The Linac4 RFQ is made of 3 modules, 1 meter each, assembled together to accelerate the H- or proton beam from the ion source extraction at 45 kV to the energy of 3 MeV. The RFQ is the first of the Linac4 accelerating structures, which will increase to 160 MeV the beam injection energy into the PS Booster as from the end of LS2.

  13. HOM Consideration of 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz Cavities for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [RIKEN BNL; Belomestnykh, Sergey [SUNY, Stony Brook; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [RIKEN BNL; Blaskiewicz, Michael [RIKEN BNL; Brennan, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Brutus, Jean Clifford [RIKEN BNL; Fedotov, Alexei [RIKEN BNL; Hahn, Harald [RIKEN BNL; McIntyre, Gary [RIKEN BNL; Pai, Chien [RIKEN BNL; Smith, Kevin [RIKEN BNL; Tuozzolo, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Veshcherevich, Vadim [Cornell U., CLASSE; Wu, Qiong [RIKEN BNL; Xin, Tianmu [RIKEN BNL; Xu, Wencan [RIKEN BNL; Zaltsman, Alex [RIKEN BNL

    2016-06-01

    To improve RHIC luminosity for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon, the Low Energy RHIC electron Cooler (LEReC) is currently under development at BNL. The Linac of LEReC is designed to deliver 2 MV to 5 MV electron beam, with rms dp/p less than 5·10⁻⁴. The HOM in this Linac is carefully studied to ensure this specification.

  14. Report of the design study on the proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The design study on the proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project began in May 1987, in the collaboration of Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo and National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. This is the second report of the design study on the 1-GeV proton linac, which includes the developments of the ion source, RFQ, DTL, CCL and RF sources. (author)

  15. Upgrading the Fermilab Linac local control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, E.S.; Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1991-02-01

    A new control system for the Fermilab Linac is being designed, built and implemented. First, the nine-year-old linac control system is being replaced. Second, a control system for the new 805 MHz part of the linac is being built. The two systems are essentially identical, so that when the installations are complete, we will still have a single Linac Control System. 8 refs., 5 figs

  16. Electron Linacs for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some of the basic physical principles underlying the operation of electron linear accelerators (electron linacs). Electron linacs have applications ranging from linacs with an energy of a few MeV, such that the electrons are approximately relativistic, to future electron-positron linear colliders having a collision energy in the several-TeV energy range. For the most part, only the main accelerating linac is treated in this article.

  17. High Voltage Installation of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The high-voltage installation of the linac 1 preinjector in its house-sized Faraday cage. Originally driven by a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator, at the time of this picture the HV came from a 520 kV SAMES generator. The column in the front carries a capacitor. The cubicle in the right background is the electronics platform (see 7403120). The round structure at left houses the ion source, from where the protons (and sometimes other ions), electrostatically accelerated to 520 keV, enter the Alvarez structure of linac 1, to be accelerated to 50 MeV. Jean-Luc Vallet is busy with servicing the installation. See also 7403064X, 7403066X.

  18. Status and performance of PF injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Isamu

    1994-01-01

    PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

  19. Radiotechnical Institute activity in the linac field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    For many years, the Radiotechnical Institute has been involved in a number of projects aimed at constructing linear accelerators for protons or electrons. This report summarizes the experience gained and covers 1) some problems of developing linacs to serve as meson or neutron generators, 2) results of study of a linac with asymmetric alternating phase focusing, and 3) electron linac projects. (author)

  20. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STOVALL, J.; NATH, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance

  1. IMPACT simulation and the SNS linac beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-particle tracking simulations for the SNS linac beam dynamics studies are performed with the IMPACT code. Beam measurement results are compared with the computer simulations, including beam longitudinal halo and beam losses in the superconducting linac, transverse beam Courant-Snyder parameters and the longitudinal beam emittance in the linac. In most cases, the simulations show good agreement with the measured results

  2. A cw 4-rod RFQ linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    A cw 4-rod RFQ linac system has been designed, constructed, and tested as an accelerator section of a MeV-class ion implanter system. The tank diameter is only 60 cm for 34 MHz operating frequency. An equally spaced arrangement of the RFQ electrode supporting plates is proved to be suitable for a low resonant frequency 4-rod RFQ structure. The RFQ electrode cross section is not circular but rectangular to make the handling and maintenance of the electrodes easier. The machining of the electrode is done three dimensionally. Second order corrections in the analyzing magnet of the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) section assure a better transmission through and the matching to the RFQ. A new approach is introduced to measure the rf characteristics of the 4-rod RFQ. This method requires only a few capacitors and a network analyzer. Both the rf and thermal stability of the 4-rod RFQ are tested up to cw 50 kW. Beam experiments with several ions confirm the acceleration of beams to the goal energy of 83 keV/u. The ion beam intensities obtained at the RFQ output for He + , N 2+ , and C + are 32, 13, and 220 pμA, respectively. The measured beam transmissions of >80% agree with the PARMTEQ calculations. The ion implantation method also gives definitive information on the energies of an RFQ output beam. ((orig.))

  3. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  4. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Status of the SNS superconducting linac and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H- ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS generates neutrons by the spallation reaction with the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade and has been operating with beam for almost two years. As the first operational pulsed superconducting linac, many of the aspects of its performance were unknown and unpredictable. A lot of experiences and data have been gathered on the pulsed behavior of cavities and cryomodules at various repetition rates and at various temperatures during the commissioning of its components and beam operations. This experience is of great value in determining future optimizations of SNS as well in guiding in the design and operation of future pulsed superconducting linacs. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam, the performance of the superconducting linac and the future plans will be presented.

  6. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E. S.; Aseev, V. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac

  7. rf quadrupole linac: a new low-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Fuller, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept in low-energy particle accelerators, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is currently being developed at the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. In this new linear accelerating structure both the focusing and accelerating forces are produced by the rf fields. It can accept a high-current, low-velocity dc ion beam and bunch it with a high capture efficiency. The performance of this structure as a low-energy linear accelerator has been verified with the successful construction of a proton RFQ linac. This test structure has accelerated 38 mA of protons from 100 keV to 640 keV in 1.1 meters with a capture efficiency greater than 80%. In this paper a general description of the RFQ linac and an outline of the basic RFQ linac design procedure are presented in addition to the experimental results from the test accelerator. Finally, several applications of this new accelerator are discussed

  8. Failure Modes Analysis for the MSU-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gorelov, Dmitry; Grimm, Terry L; Marti, Felix; York, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Previous end-to-end beam dynamics simulation studies* using experimentally-based input beams including alignment and rf errors and variation in charge-stripping foil thickness have indicated that the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by MSU has adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of at least 400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. During linac operation, equipment loss due to, for example, cavity contamination, availability of cryogens, or failure of rf or power supply systems, will lead to at least a temporary loss of some of the cavities and focusing elements. To achieve high facility availability, each segment of the linac should be capable of adequate performance even with failed elements. Beam dynamics studies were performed to evaluate the linac performance under various scenarios of failed cavities and focusing elements with proper correction schemes, in order to prove the flexibility and robustness of the driver ...

  9. Beam emittance of the Stony Brook Tandem-LINAC booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholldorf, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is primarily a study of the longitudinal and transverse beam emittance of the Stony Brook Heavy Ion Tandem LINAC Accelerator Facility, with a secondary emphasis on the beam dynamical design of two key elements of the system: a low energy double-drift buncher, and an achromatic double-90 0 LINAC injection system. A transverse emittance measuring system consisting of two translation stages controlled by stepper motors is described. Each stage carried a pair of beam defining slits mounted so that both horizontal and vertical emittances could be measured with only linear motion of the stage assembly. Beam currents were measured directly by a low-noise, high-sensitivity electrometer circuit integrated with the second slit-stage assembly. A mini-computer controlled the motors and acquired and displayed the data. Transverse emittance areas of beams of 12 C, 16 O, 32 S, and 58 Ni were measured at ion source extraction potential, after ion source acceleration, after tandem acceleration, and after LINAC acceleration. The results were analyzed in terms of source sputter-cone geometry, angle straggling in gas and foil strippers, and a variety of other factors

  10. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A

    2014-01-01

    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  11. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  12. The new Linac moves mountains

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The civil engineering work has started for Linac 4, one of the major renovation projects for the CERN accelerator complex. The work will be completed at the end of 2010 and the new linear accelerator is scheduled to be commissioned in 2013.

  13. Linac boosters for electrostatic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY

    1990-01-01

    A survey of linacs which are used as boosters to electrostatic accelerators is presented. Machines both operating and under construction, copper and superconducting, are reviewed. The review includes data on the accelerating structures, performance, rf and control, beam optics, budget, vacuum and cryogenics. (orig.)

  14. Conceptual design study of Nb3Sn low-beta quadrupoles for 2nd generation LHC IRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander V Zlobin et al.

    2002-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb 3 Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed

  15. Conceptual Design Study of Nb(3)Sn Low-beta Quadrupoles for 2nd Generation LHC IRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, A. V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, P.

    2002-10-01

    Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb3Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed.

  16. Progress in design of the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardekopf, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 in order to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac is now designed to produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-RF (SRF) linac. Designs of each of these elements support he high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design and the progress made in the R and D program. (author)

  17. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfuraih, A.; Ma, A.; Spyrou, N.M.; Awotwi-Pratt, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  18. Preliminary design of experiment ALVAND 1 and low beta plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, A.; Azodi, H.; Naraghi, M.; Taherzadeh, M.; Torabi-Fard, A.

    1975-12-01

    The ultimate goal of a two years program, namely ''ALVAND PROJECT'' and problems concerned with the achievement of controlled thermonuclear reactions in Iran is covered. The report consists of six sections. The introduction deals with the advantages of a linear theta pinch and its comparison with toroidal and mirror devices. Attention has been paid to two important properties of the ALVAND 1 device, namely, its property of carrying out important missions in support of high beta controlled thermonuclear research and also its acting as a source for developing different diagnostic apparatus and excercising different measurement techniques. Expected plasma parameters for ALVAND 1 are given in the third section. In the fourth section the low beta plasma source and the important diagnostic techniques that may be developed are discussed. References are given in the fifth section. The calculation of the minimum required radius of a toroidal theta pinch reactor has been given in an appendix, which covers at the same time 2 schematic figures. Finally a program schedule is presented in section six

  19. The alignment of the LHC low beta triplets. Review of instrumentation and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coosemans, W.; Mainaud Durand, H.; Marin, A.; Quesnel, J-P.

    2003-01-01

    Alignment tolerances for the LHC insertions are particularly stringent regarding the low beta quadrupoles, which induce strict positioning tolerances, in a severe environment (high radiation fluxes and magnetic fields): positioning of one inner triplet with respect to the other (left/right side): ±0.5 mm (3σ), stability of the positioning of one quadrupole inside its triplet: a few microns. We propose to continuously monitor the relative position of the quadrupoles of one inner triplet with respect to a reference frame materialized by a wire and a water surface, and to use common references to link a triplet on one side to the triplet on the other side of the experiment. When the offset between real and reference position becomes too great, the quadrupole will be moved using remote motorized jacks. Instrumentation (HLS, WPS, radial measuring system, etc.) and methods will be detailed as well as the first results obtained on a cryo-magnet prototype named TAP used as test facility. The TAP is equipped with HLS linked by two types of hydraulic networks (two pipes with air and water separated, one pipe half filled), WPS and one inclinometer. It is installed on three polyurethane motorized jacks in order to study and compare servo positioning using the different sensors. (author)

  20. Low beta rigid mode stability criterion for an arbitrary Larmor radius plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Wong, H.V.

    1987-05-01

    The low beta flute interchange dispersion relation for rigid displacement perturbation of axisymmetric plasma equilibria with arbitrary Larmor radius particles and field line curvature, large compared to the plasma radius, is derived. The equilibrium particle orbits are characterized by two constants of motion, energy and angular momentum, and a third adiabatic invariant derived from the rapid radial motion. The Vlasov equation is integrated, assuming that the mode frequency, axial ''bounce'' frequency, and particle drift frequency are small compared to the cyclotron frequency, and it is demonstrated that the plasma response to a rigid perturbation has a universal character independent of Larmor radius. As a result the interchange instability is the same as that predicted from conventional MHD theory. However, a new prediction, more optimistic than earlier work, is found for the low density threshold of systems like Migma, which are disc-shaped, that is, the axial extent Δz is less than the radial extent r 0 . For Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1, the stability criterion is determined by the total particle number. Whereas the older theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much greater than 1) predicted instability at about the densities achieved in actual Migma experiments, the present theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1) indicates that the experimental results were for plasmas with particle number below the interchange threshold

  1. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  2. Linac particle tracing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    A particle tracing code was developed to study space--charge effects in proton or heavy-ion linear accelerators. The purpose is to study space--charge phenomena as directly as possible without the complications of many accelerator details. Thus, the accelerator is represented simply by harmonic oscillator or impulse restoring forces. Variable parameters as well as mismatched phase--space distributions were studied. This study represents the initial search for those features of the accelerator or of the phase--space distribution that lead to emittance growth

  3. Improved performance of the control scheme for IUAC superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B.K.; Suman, S.K.; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since many years energized ion beams from linac are being delivered routinely for scheduled experiments using all the three accelerating modules of linac along with super buncher and rebuncher. Major efforts are dedicated to improve the performance of the control scheme to minimise the down time of the linac during operation. Earlier, a number of developments were carried out to improve the dynamics of the control scheme. The most significant of them is the piezoelectric actuator based tuning mechanism which is implemented in all the operational resonators of second and third accelerating modules of superconducting linac. This has helped us to bridge the gap between the accelerating fields achieved during Q measurement at 6 W of helium power and during phase locking of the resonator during beam operation at a given RF power (∼120W). The piezoelectric actuator based tuner is also instrumental to reduce the unlocking rate of the resonators. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control based helium gas operated tuner is implemented in few resonators to improve phase locking performance. CAMAC based distributed control scheme is upgraded to VME based distributed control without changing the existing client interface to maintain uniformity between the Pelletron and linac control. Python code support has been implemented to protect the resonators against high forward power during unlocking. This is also integrated with the display status of the resonators for monitoring. A frequency to voltage converter is incorporated in control scheme to monitor the frequency error. This has helped us to develop a scheme for automatic phase locking of the cavities using piezoelectric actuator based tuner control. (author)

  4. Low-β SC linacs: past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a general review of superconducting low-β technology and applications from its beginning in 1969 into the near-term future. The emphasis is on studies of accelerating resonators and on SC linacs that boost the energy of heavy-ion beams from tandem electrostatic accelerators used for nuclear-physics research. Other topics are positive-ion SC injectors to replace tandems and the need for accelerating structures with β outside of the present proven range, 0.008 < β < 0.2

  5. Development of the low energy linac systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, H. J.; Kim, Y. H.

    2005-08-01

    The project 'Development of the Low Energy Linac System' is aiming to develop the 20 MeV proton linac system. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV RFQ, and a 20 MeV DTL. We obtained the first beam signal after the 20 MeV linac. The high power switch installed in the ion source supplies the pulsed beam into the following LEBT. The pulse operation was successfully tested. The main role of the LEBT is to match the beam into the 3 MeV RFQ. The total length of the four-vane type RFQ is about 3.26m. For the field stabilization, we used the resonant coupling scheme and dipole stabilizer rods. An 1 MW klystron supplies the RF power into the RFQ. After tuning, the field deviation of the quadrupole mode is less than 2% of the design value and the dipole fraction is less than 5% of the operating mode. The following accelerating structure is DTL which accelerate 20 mA proton beams up to 20 MeV. It consists of 4 tanks and the length of each tank is less than 5 m. The lattice is FFDD type and the integrated fields of the quadrupole magnets are 1.75 T. The inner walls of the tanks are copper-plated by PR plating method. The thickness is 100m with the roughness of 0.3m. Each drift tube consists of 6 parts and assembled by e-beam welding. The tanks and drift tubes are aligned under the installation limit of 50m by using the laser-tracker. The tuning by the slug tuners and post couplers results in the field uniformity of 2% and field sensitivity of 100%/MHz. In order to detect the beam signal, we installed the Faraday cup after the RFQ or the DTL. For the RFQ, we observed the beam of 12 A under the forward RF power of 450 kW. The beam current after DTL is about 0.5 A when RF power of 150 kW was fed into each tank

  6. Anticipation of electric shocks modulates low beta power and event-related fields during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-09-01

    In humans, the temporal and oscillatory dynamics of pain anticipation and its effects on long-term memory are largely unknown. Here, we investigated this open question by using a previously established behavioral paradigm in combination with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Healthy human subjects encoded a series of scene images, which was combined with cues predicting an aversive electric shock with different probabilities (0.2, 0.5 or 0.8). After encoding, memory for the studied images was tested using a remember/know recognition task. Behaviorally, pain anticipation did not modulate recollection-based recognition memory per se, but interacted with the perceived unpleasantness of the electric shock [visual analogue scale rating from 1 (not unpleasant) to 10 (highly unpleasant)]. More precisely, the relationship between pain anticipation and recollection followed an inverted u-shaped function the more unpleasant the shocks were rated by a subject. At the physiological level, this quadratic effect was mimicked in the event-related magnetic fields associated with successful memory formation ('DM-effect') ∼450ms after image onset at left frontal sensors. Importantly, across all subjects, shock anticipation modulated oscillatory power in the low beta frequency range (13-20Hz) in a linear fashion at left temporal sensors. Taken together, our findings indicate that beta oscillations provide a generic mechanism underlying pain anticipation; the effect on subsequent long-term memory, on the other hand, is much more variable and depends on the level of individual pain perception. As such, our findings give new and important insights into how aversive motivational states can drive memory formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The BATES linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, T.; Radouch, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Bates linac control system (LCS), a distributed processing architecture, is described. Due to the historic evolution of the system, a mix of different hardware, operating systems and programming languages are used throughout. However, a standardized interface at the network level enables a smooth system integration. In particular, a multicasting scheme for data transmission over the network permits simultaneous database updates on more than one workstation. This allows for true distribution of data processing power. 3 figs

  8. Investigation of alternating-phase focusing for superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of alternating-phase focusing (APF) dynamics applicable to ion linacs with short independently controlled superconducting cavities. The equations of motion are derived for a cylindrically symmetric electric field represented by a traveling wave with continuous periodic phase modulation. Solutions are obtained and analyzed for both the linear and nonlinear particle motion. Problems of linear stability and overall longitudinal acceptance are solved using standard mathematical techniques for periodic systems; analytical results are obtained. It is shown that the main beam dynamical aspects of APF are adequately described by four parameters; equilibrium synchronous phase, phase modulation amplitude, length of APF period, and incremental energy gain. The model can be applied to study the feasibility of realizing APF in a low-β section of a proton linac. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  9. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  10. Plants for H- acceleration in the AGS Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.; Witkover, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since its commissioning in 1970, the 200 MeV Linac at the Brookhaven AGS has been capable of producing peak proton beam current of greater than 100 mA with pulse lengths up to 300 μsec at a repetition rate of 10 pulses/second. The linac typically runs at 5 pulses per second, providing a 60 mA pulse of 120 μsec duration every 1.6 to 2.4 seconds for conventional multiturn injection into the AGS. The intervening pulses of length up to 300 μsec are used by the radio-isotope production, chemistry and medical facilities. Preparations are now being made to inject and accelerate H - ions in order to implement charge exchange injection into the AGS. This paper describes the aspects of this work leading to an H - beam at 200 MeV

  11. The split coaxial linac structure and its RF modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Split Coaxial Cavity structure has been invented and applied for the first time in the heavy-ion RFQ linac MAXILAC of GSI. It has an ideally flat RF voltage distribution and a good power economy. From another standpoint, it is a member of the small family of linac structures where the two modes, the wanted one and the unflatness mode, are clearly and strictly separable. The unflatness or ''Q Line'' mode is analyzed in more detail in this paper. It is necessary for the understanding of the interaction of the beam with the cavity, possible beam instabilities resulting from it, and for curing these instabilities with the chance of obtaining improved beams. (orig.)

  12. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  13. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (<Linac Feedback Simulation Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  14. Wakefields in SLAC linac collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Novokhatski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. We also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  15. Diagnostic expert system in the PF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Isamu; Nakahara, Kazuo; Kitamura, Masaharu.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype diagnostic expert system (ES) was developed for the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV electron/positron LINAC injector system. The ES has been on-lined with the conventional linac computer network for receiving real data. This project was undertaken in an attempt to reduce the linac operator's mental workload, diagnosis duties, and to explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The outlook for ES and its problems, and what has been achieved are outlined in this presentation. (author)

  16. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  17. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  18. High Gradient Accelerating Structures for Carbon Therapy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Faillace, L.; Goel, A.; Mustapha, B.; Nassiri, A.; Ostroumov, P.; Plastun, A.; Savin, E.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon therapy is the most promising among techniques for cancer treatment, as it has demonstrated significant improvements in clinical efficiency and reduced toxicity profiles in multiple types of cancer through much better localization of dose to the tumor volume. RadiaBeam, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, are developing an ultra-high gradient linear accelerator, Advanced Compact Carbon Ion Linac (ACCIL), for the delivery of ion-beams with end-energies up to 450 MeV/u for 12C6+ ions and 250 MeV for protons. In this paper, we present a thorough comparison of standing and travelling wave designs for high gradient S-Band accelerating structures operating with ions at varying velocities, relative to the speed of light, in the range 0.3-0.7. In this paper we will compare these types of accelerating structures in terms of RF, beam dynamics and thermo-mechanical performance.

  19. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  20. Analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Lee, E.P.

    1987-07-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (5 to 20 GeV) heavy (130 to 210 amu) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in sources for ions with charge state greater than unity allow a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. The use of high undepressed tunes (σ 0 ≅ 85 0 ) and low depressed tunes (σ ≅ 8.5 0 ) also contributes to a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system are discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several ion masses and charge states. The cost optimization code LIACEP, including accelerating module alternatives, transport modules, and scaling laws, is presented. Items with large cost-leverage are identified as a guide to future research activities and development of technology that can yield substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. Finally, a cost-effective strategy using heavy ion induction linacs in a development scenario for inertial fusion is presented. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  1. The 2017 Xe run at CERN Linac3: measurements and beam dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Stefano; Kuchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Wenander, Fredrik John Carl; Toivanen, Ville Aleksi; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    At CERN quark-gluon plasma and fixed target ion experiments are performed thanks to the Heavy-ion Facility, composed by different accelerators. The starting point is CERN Linac3, which delivers 4.2 MeV/u ion beams to the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). In 2017 Linac3 accelerated Xe instead of the most usual Pb. Machine development (MD) time was allocated to adapt the accelerator to the new ion species. This article summarizes the measurements performed during the MD time allocated to characterize the line from the source to the filtering section. A parallel effort was devoted to match those measurements to the beam dynamics simulations, and the second part of the article highlights the results achieved in this regard. Thanks to the improved understanding of the machine critical areas, a list of possible improvements is proposed at the end.

  2. Induction linacs as radiation processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California, in conjunction with the University of California at Davis have shown induction linear accelerators (linacs) to be suitable for radiation processing of food. Here we describe how it might be possible to optimize this technology developded for the Department of Defense to serve in radiation processing. The possible advantages of accelerator-produced radiation over the use of radioisotopes include a tailor-made energy spectrum that can provide much deeper penetration and thereby better dose uniformity

  3. Signal multiplexing scheme for LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujo, C.I.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Singh, S.K.; Karande, Jitendra

    2004-01-01

    For the proper operation of the LINAC some signals, RF (radio frequency) as well as LF (low frequency) have to be available at the Master Control Station (MCS). These signals are needed to control, calibrate and characterize the RF fields in the resonators. This can be achieved by proper multiplexing of various signals locally and then routing the selected signals to the MCS. A multiplexing scheme has been designed and implemented, which will allow the signals from the selected cavity to the MCS. High isolation between channels and low insertion loss for a given signal are important issues while selecting the multiplexing scheme. (author)

  4. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  5. Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.

  6. Study of characteristics of linac with TWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.L.; Toyama, S.; Emoto, T.; Nomura, M.; Takahashi, N.; Oshita, H.; Hirano, K.; Sato, I.

    1994-01-01

    High power electron linac which is developed by PNC is an electron linac with the TWRR (Traveling Wave Resonant Ring). Some phenomena occurred on our high power test are mentioned. Some important characteristics such as stability and phase characteristic are discussed. (author)

  7. Application of superconductivity to intense proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three examples of proposed superconducting linacs for intense particle beams are presented, and in two cases compared to normal conducting counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed. Suggestions for future developments are presented. Finally a comparison of estimated operational costs of the normal and the superconducting linac for the ESS is given. (R.P.)

  8. Fermilab Linac Upgrade Conceptual Design: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1989-07-01

    The goal of the Tevatron Collider Upgrade program is to improve the Collider luminosity and the fixed-target intensity. The Linac portion of this project will increase the energy of the existing 200- MeV linac to 400 MeV in order to reduce beam emittance degradation in the Booster.

  9. Present status of the ETL LINAC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryoichi; Mikado, Tomohisa; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    1993-01-01

    The ETL LINAC has been operated for the beam injection to the storage rings NIJI-II, III, IV, and TERAS, and for the generation of an intense slow positron beam. The status of the ETL LINAC on the operations, the maintenances, and the improvements is described. (author)

  10. Linac design for the European spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H. [Universitaet Postfach, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A study group has started to develop a conceptual design for a European Spallation Source (ESS). This pulsed 5 MW source presently consists of a 1.334 GeV linac and two compressor rings. In the following mainly the high intensity linac part will be discussed, which has some features of interest for accelerators for transmutation of radioactive waste too.

  11. High gradient linac for proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benedetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proposed for the first time almost 30 years ago, the research on radio frequency linacs for hadron therapy experienced a sparkling interest in the past decade. The different projects found a common ground on a relatively high rf operating frequency of 3 GHz, taking advantage of the availability of affordable and reliable commercial klystrons at this frequency. This article presents for the first time the design of a proton therapy linac, called TULIP all-linac, from the source up to 230 MeV. In the first part, we will review the rationale of linacs for hadron therapy. We then divided this paper in two main sections: first, we will discuss the rf design of the different accelerating structures that compose TULIP; second, we will present the beam dynamics design of the different linac sections.

  12. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The preliminary design of the 600 MeV H - linac for the Superconducting Super Collider injector is described. The linac must provide a 25 mA beam during 7--35 μs macropulses at Hz within injection bursts. Normalized transverse emittances of less than 0.5 π mm-mrad (rms) are required for injection into the Low Energy Booster synchrotron. Cost, ease of commissioning, and operational reliability are important considerations. The linac will consists of an H - source with electrostatic LEBT, 2.5 MeV radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator, a 70 MeV drift-tube linac, and 530 MeV and the side-coupled linac operates at 1284 MHz. A modest total length of 150 m results from the tradeoff between cost optimization and reliability. The expected performance from beam dynamics simulations and the status of the project are described. 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  13. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Valentin; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The computer program LFSC ( ) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output

  14. Argonne National Laboratory 1980-1981 tandem-linac accelerator report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, P.D.; Pardo, R.; Munson, F.; Heath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance of the facility is discussed. The FN tandem Van de Graaff is now used as an injector for the superconducting linac; heavy-ion beams are being injected. Stripper foil development is described, with fabrication by arc evaporation and by RF discharge compared. Facility modifications, such as the control room, are discussed

  15. The control system of the CERN new linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheretakis, A.; Knott, J.; Mead, P.; Schueren, P. van; Tallgren, U.

    1976-01-01

    Two computers are used for the Linac control system, interfaced to the process over CAMAC, configured in such a way that each computer has direct access to the CAMAC system. The control system is designed in such a way as to minimize the knowledge of programming and computers required by the normal users of the system. The consoles use touch panels for parameter, program and option selections and are interfaced over parallel CAMAC to the computers, whereas the process itself is interfaced over bit serial CAMAC. In the case of the ion source, the CAMAC Serial Highway crosses the 750 kV with the help of optical data links

  16. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs

  17. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  18. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1989-01-01

    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of 2 or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US heavy-ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historial anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. (orig.)

  19. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-06-01

    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of two or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US Heavy Ion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historical anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs

  1. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  2. First operation of ATLAS using the PII linac and a comparison to tandem injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) is designed to replace the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. When the PII project is complete, ATLAS will be able to accelerate all ions through uranium to energies above the Coulomb barrier. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 kV platform and a very low-velocity superconducting linac. The PII project is nearing completion. First beam from the complete system is expected in early 1992. Beam tests and experiments using a partially completed PII linac have demonstrated that the technical design goals are being met. The results of the early beam tests and first experiments will be discussed and compared to the performance of ATLAS with tandem injection. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  3. 25th anniversary for Linac-2

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, 3 October 2003, the Linac team celebrated a quarter century of successful operation of one of its linear accelerators: Linac-2, the proton workhorse of the CERN accelerator complex. Linac-2, CERN's linear proton accelerator, has now been running for 25 years - ample reason for a small celebration. About 30 members of the original team (10 of the initially more than 50 are still working at CERN), and other CERN personnel met on 3 October 2003. Linac-2 is the first link in the accelerator chain Linac-2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS and eventually LHC. Beams from Linac-2 are used after further acceleration in the CERN complex for SPS fixed target physics; for antiproton production for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD); for test beams in the East Experimental Hall and in the PS; for nuclear physics at ISOLDE; for LHC test beams and in the past for both ISR physics and Antiproton production (AA/AC) and test beams in LEAR. Linac-2 was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with ...

  4. Acceleration characteristics of the injector Linacs for the Hyogo Hadrontherapy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Sawada, K.; Sakata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Hyogo Hadrontherapy center in Harima Science Garden City is a cancer therapy facility with proton, helium and carbon beams. The beams are supplied by a synchrotron, which has manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, with RF 1inacs as an injector, which has manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd.(SHI). The injector consists of the identical ECR ion sources, a RFQ linac, and an Alvarez linac, which are connected by beam transport systems including vacuum systems, and some kinds of beam monitoring equipments. The results accomplished for the beam conditioning are described in this paper. (author)

  5. Study on design of proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2000-01-01

    Two important directions in the development of proton linacs are high-current proton linacs (mainly applied in nuclear power field) and compact proton linacs (for proton therapy). There are some common characteristics in them: (1) Employment of the novel accelerating structures, which are combination and evolution of the conventional ones; (2) Accelerating beam with small emittance; (3) Requirement for high reliability. The construction of the former is, however, much more difficult because it still needs low beam lose rate and as high power transformation efficiency as possible. Some important problems in the design of these accelerators are discussed and some schemes designed are presented

  6. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  7. Overview of the Pelletron Linac facility, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Pelletron LINAC Facility at TIFR, Mumbai, comprising the 14 MV Pelletron and the superconducting LINAC booster caters to a variety of experiments in basic and applied Sciences. The Liquid Helium Refrigeration plant for the LINAC has been upgraded to enhance the refrigeration capacity. New instrumentation and interface for control and monitor of the cryogenic parameters, beam diagnostics and beam transport devices have been developed and installed. Digital implementation of the LLRF control has been demonstrated. All seven beam lines in new user halls have been commissioned and several new experimental setups have been added. (author)

  8. The superconducting linac booster at the ANU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the progress of the installation of the superconducting Linac booster at the Australian National University. The Linac is based upon four modules, three of which contain three split-loop resonators. The fourth cryostat was intended to be a superbuncher and so houses only one resonator. The first stage of Linac operation will employ only three modules with 2 MV/m from each resonator. It is expected that the implementation of all nine modules, in subsequent stages, would boost beams by 18 MV/q. The project has fostered productive international collaboration between UK and Australian scientists. 1 tab., 6 figs

  9. Operating experience with the ALS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.; Massoletti, D.

    1991-05-01

    The linac injector for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL was recently put into operation. Energy is 50 MeV, frequency 3 GHz. The electron gun delivers up to 6nC in a 3.0-ns bunch at 120 kV. A train of bunches is injected into a 1-Hz booster and accelerated to 1.5 GHz for storage ring injection. A magnetic analysis system is used for optimizing the linac. Measured beam properties from the gun and after acceleration in the linac are described. 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. Upgrade of the AGS H- linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Buxton, W.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Raparia, D.

    1994-01-01

    The AGS linac presently accelerates 25 mA of H - to 200 MeV at a 5 Hz rep-rate and 500 μs pulse width. The Booster takes 4 pulses every 3.8 seconds, and the remaining pulses are used for isotope production. The authors are in the process of upgrading the linac to increase the average current delivered for isotope production by more than a factor of two, while at the same time expecting to decrease linac downtime. Various aspects of this upgrade are discussed, including the upgrade of the control system, new high power transmission line, transport line vacuum, and rf power supply system upgrades

  11. Conceptual design of bend, compression, and final focus components of ILSE [Induction Linac System Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Fong, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Thur, W.

    1989-03-01

    The Induction Linac System Experiment (ILSE) includes a 180/degree/ bend system, drift compression line and a final focus, which test the analogous features of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. These components are novel in their transport of a space-charge-dominated ion beam with large head-to-tail velocity tilt. Their conceptual design is presented, including calculations of the beam envelope, momentum dispersion, and engineering design of magnets, vacuum system, diagnostics, alignment, and support. 3 refs., 5 figs

  12. Laser-driven grating linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    I would like to consider a 50 TeV on 50 TeV collider. Even a hadron machine with such an energy seems unrealistic with current technology. Magnetic fields higher than 10 Tesla are difficult and at this field the circumference would be 120 km. I conclude that only a high gradient Linac could be practical and that one should aim for 10 GeV/meter so as to keep the total length down to the order ot 10 km. Currently it is only plausible to obtain such fields using the very high energy densities produced by lasers. The luminosity is another issue. I aim for 10 33 to 10 34 but I am conscious that higher luminosities than even these are really desired, especially for an e + e - machine. I tend to assume that the machine is an e + e - machine but it will also accept hadrons

  13. Mechanical considerations in cw linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    An 80-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, fabricated and operated at 100% duty factor (cw) for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project at Los Alamos. This paper describes the design features, fabrication techniques, and operational problems of the device. The RFQ is an assembly of heavy steel, copper-plated weldments. It measures about 15 ft (4.5 m) long by 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter and weighs over 12 t. Major components are two pair of diametrically orthogonal vanes mounted in a core cylinder. The core is assembled into a manifold cylinder that couples rf power into the vane quadrants. The design features discussed include assembly of hollow wall, flood-cooled components; high-conductivity rf seals; removable and adjustable vanes; and tuning devices. Fabrication challenges such as close-tolerance weldments, vane-tip-contour machining and large-component plating requirements are covered

  14. Preliminary proposal of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole model for the low {beta} insertions of the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G; Ametrano, F; Bellomo, G; Broggi, F; Rossi, L; Volpini, G [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; [INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy). Laboratorio Acceleratori e Superconduttivita` Applicata

    1995-09-01

    In recent years Nb{sub 3}Sn based conductors have shown wide applicability for superconducting magnets in many research areas like high field solenoids for laboratory experiment, for NMR spectroscopy and high field magnets for fusion. Nb{sub 3}Sn technology is progressing fast, increasing both technical reliability and availability. The Nb{sub 3}Sn technology, which has a higher critical field than NbTi, seems attractive for IR (Insertion Region) quadrupoles of large colliders . In this paper it is proposed the construction of a superconducting quadrupole wound with Nb{sub 3}Sn cable for a second generation IR inner triplet low {beta} quadrupoles, for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The low {beta} quadrupoles, control the beam focusing at collision points, therefore a gain in term of focus strength and/or coil aperture can increase significantly machine performance. Two are the main steps for the whole project: (1) design and construction of a 1 metre long quadrupole to demonstrate the actual feasibility, which is the subject of this proposal; (2) study for integration of the quadrupole in the machine and final design of 5 m long quadrupoles finalized to the LHC.

  15. High duty factor Plasma Generator for CERN’s Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, JM; Kuchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN’s PS-Booster. Its ion source is a non-cesiated RF driven H- volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, it consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV Synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H- plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the...

  16. Design, Manufacture and Measurements of Permanent Quadrupole Magnets for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Vorozhtsov, A

    2012-01-01

    Compact quadrupole magnets are required for the CCDTL (Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac) of Linac 4, a 160 MeV linear accelerator of negative hydrogen ions which will replace the old 50 MeV proton Linac2 at CERN. The magnets, of an overall physical length of 140 mm and an aperture diameter of 45 mm, are based on Sm2Co17 blocks and can provide an integrated gradient of up to 1.6 Tesla. The magnetic field quality is determined by 4 ferromagnetic pole tips, aligned together with the permanent magnets blocks inside a structure made in a single piece. Tuning bars allow to individually trim the magnetic flux provided by each pole, to correct possible differences between blocks and to modify the field gradient intensity within about 20% of the nominal value. The paper describes and discusses the design, manufacture and magnetic measurements of a first prototype magnet.

  17. Design of a 120 MeV $H^{-}$ Linac for CERN High-Intensity Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F

    2002-01-01

    The SPL (Superconducting Proton Linac) study at CERN foresees the construction of a 2.2 GeV linac as a high beam-power driver for applications such as a second-generation radioactive ion beam facility or a neutrino superbeam. At the same time such a high-performance injector would both modernize and improve the LHC injection chain. The 120 MeV normal-conducting section of the SPL could be used directly in a preliminary stage for H- charge-exchange injection into the PS Booster. This would increase the proton flux to the CERN experiments while also improving the quality and reliability of the beams for the LHC. The 120 MeV linac consists of a front-end, a conventional Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to 40 MeV and a Cell Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) to the full energy. All the RF structures will operate at 352 MHz, using klystrons and RF equipment recovered from the LEP collider. This paper concentrates on the design of the 3 to 120 MeV section. It introduces the design criteria for high-stability beam optics and th...

  18. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popielarski, J.; Bierwagen, J.; Bricker, S.; Compton, C.; DeLauter, J.; Glennon, P.; Grimm, T.; Hartung, W.; Harvell, D.; Hodek, M.; Johnson, M.; Marti, F.; Miller, P.; Moblo, A.; Norton, D.; Popielarski, L.; Wlodarczak, J.; York, R.C.; Zeller, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to (ge) 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focusing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  19. Vacuum simulation and characterization for the Linac4 H- source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, C.; Chiggiato, P.; Michet, A.; Hansen, J.; Lettry, J.

    2013-02-01

    At CERN, the 160 MeV H- Linac4 will soon replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2. In the H- source two major sources of gas are identified. The first is the pulsed injection at about 0.1 mbar in the plasma chamber. The second is the constant H2 injection up to 10-5 mbar in the LEBT for beam space charge compensation. In addition, the outgassing of materials exposed to vacuum can play an important role in contamination control and global gas balance. To evaluate the time dependent partial pressure profiles in the H- ion source and the RFQ, electrical network - vacuum analogy and test particle Monte Carlo simulation have been used. The simulation outcome indicates that the pressure requirements are in the reach of the proposed vacuum pumping system. Preliminary results show good agreement between the experimental and the simulated pressure profiles; a calibration campaign is in progress to fully benchmark the implemented calculations. Systematic outgassing rate measurements are on-going for critical components in the ion source and RFQ. Amongst them those for the Cu-coated SmCo magnet located in the vacuum system of the biased electron dump electrode, show results lower to stainless steel at room temperature.

  20. System engineering in the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Chang, C.R.; Cutler, R.I.; Funk, L.W.; Guy, F.W.; Hale, R.; Leifeste, G.T.; Nonte, J.; Prichard, B.; Raparia, D.; Saadatmand, K.; Sethi, R.C.; Yao, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    The design and construction of the SSC Linac involves various departments within the SSCL and many outside vendors. The adaptive incorporation of system engineering principles into the SSC Linac is described. This involves the development of specification trees with the breakdown and flow of functional and physical requirements from the top level system specifications to the lower level component specifications. Interfaces are defined, which specify and control the interconnections between the various components. Review cycles are presented during which the requirements, evolution of the design, and test plans are reviewed, monitored, and finalized. The Linac specification tree, interface definition, and reviews of the Linac are presented, including typical examples. (Author) 2 refs., 3 tabs

  1. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  2. New linac technology - for SSC, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    With recent agreement on the high priority of seeking funding for a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), it is appropriate to consider the injector linac requirements for such a machine. In so doing, the status of established technique and advantages of near-term R and D with relatively clear payoff are established, giving a base line for some speculation about linac possibilities even further in the future

  3. The trajectory control in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.C.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Himel, T.M.; Seeman, J.T.

    1991-05-01

    Due to wake field effects, the trajectories of accelerated beams in the Linac should be well maintained to avoid severe beam breakup. In order to maintain a small emittance at the end of the Linac, the tolerance on the trajectory deviations become tighter when the beam intensities increase. The existing two beam trajectory correction method works well when the theoretical model agrees with the real machine lattice. Unknown energy deviations along the linac as well as wake field effects can cause the real lattice to deviate from the model. This makes the trajectory correction difficult. Several automated procedures have been developed to solve these problems. They are: an automated procedure to frequently steer the whole Linac by dividing the Linac into several small regions; an automated procedure to empirically correct the model to fit the real lattice and eight trajectory correcting feedback loops along the linac and steering through the collimator region with restricted corrector strengths and a restricted number of correctors. 6 refs., 2 figs

  4. The LINAC4 Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Bertone, C; Body, Y; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Buzio, M; Carli, C; Caspers, F; Corso, JP; Coupard, J; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, N; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hammouti, L; Hanke, K; Jones, M; Kozsar, I; Lettry, J; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Lopez-Hernandez, LA; Maglioni, C; Mathot, S; Maury, S; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Noels, C; Paoluzzi, M; Puccio, B; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schwerg, N; Scrivens, R; Vandoni, G; Weisz, S; Vollaire, J; Vretenar, M; Zickler, T

    2011-01-01

    As the first step of a long-term programme aiming at an increase in the LHC luminosity, CERN is building a new 160 MeV H¯ linear accelerator, Linac4, to replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). Linac4 is an 86-m long normal-conducting linac made of an H¯ source, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a chopping line and a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift-Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS). The civil engineering has been recently completed, and construction of the main accelerator components has started with the support of a network of international collaborations. The low-energy section up to 3 MeV including a 3-m long 352 MHz RFQ entirely built at CERN is in the final construction phase and is being installed on a dedicated test stand. The present schedule foresees beam commissioning of the accelerator in the new tunnel in 2013/14; the moment of connection of the new linac to the CERN accelerator chain will depend on the L...

  5. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.

  6. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction

  7. History, developments and recent performance of the CERN linac 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseroth, H.; Hill, C.E.; Langbein, K.; Tanke, E.; Tylor, C.; Tetu, P.; Warner, D.; Weiss, M.

    1992-01-01

    In early June 1992 the original CERN 50 MeV proton Linac accelerated its last beam after nearly 33 years of loyal service. Although conceived as a proton machine and commissioned in 1959 as an injector for the 26 GeV Proton Synchrotron, it finished its life as a light-ion source for the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and as a cheap source of particles for tests in the Low Energy Anti-Proton Ring (LEAR). Highlights in its recent history were the installation of RFQs and the upgrading with an ECR source for O 6+ and S 12+ ions. The early parameters and the subsequent modifications as well as the performance are reviewed in this paper. (Author) 8 refs., 3 figs., tab

  8. Complex approach of beam dynamic investigation in SC LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoshin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Beam dynamic investigation is difficult for superconducting linac consisting from periodic sequences of independently phased accelerating cavities and focusing solenoids. The matrix calculation was preferably used for previous estimate of accelerating structure parameters. The matrix calculation does not allow properly investigate the longitudinal motion. The smooth approximation can be used to investigate the nonlinear ion beam dynamics in such accelerating structure and to calculate the longitudinal and transverse acceptances. The potential function and equation of motion in the Hamiltonian form are devised by the smooth approximation. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will describe, the results of investigation will compare. Application package for ion beam dynamic analysis will create. A numerical simulation of beam dynamics in the full field will carry out for the different variants of the accelerator structure based on analytically obtained results.

  9. Development of an RFQ linac for unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.; Imanishi, A.; Morimoto, T.; Shibuya, S.; Tojyo, E.; Tokuda, N.

    1990-05-01

    A split coaxial RFQ (SCRFQ) is being developed for accelerating unstable nuclei with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/60 from 1 to 170 keV/u in the JHP heavy-ion linac. The SCRFQ is equipped with modulated vanes to generate ideal quadrupole and accelerating fields. The fundamental problems on the SCRFQ have been clarified and solved through studies on a cold model, and the excellent accelerating performance has been confirmed by using a proton accelerating model working at 50 MHz. A 25.5-MHz prototype for the JHP SCRFQ is now under development. The prototype, 2.1 m in length and 0.9 m in diameter, will accelerate ions with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/30 from 1 to 45 keV/u. Low-power tests conducted so far show that the prototype cavity has good rf characteristics. (author)

  10. Space charge compensation on the low energy beam transport of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)733270; Scrivens, Richard; Jesus Castillo, Santos

    Part of the upgrade program in the injector chains of the CERN accelerator complex is the replacement of the the proton accelerator Linac2 for the brand new Linac4 which will accelerate H$^-$ and its main goal is to increase the beam intensity in the next sections of the LHC accelerator chain. The Linac4 is now under commissioning and will use several ion sources to produce high intensity unbunched H$^-$ beams with different properties, and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) is the system in charge of match all these different beams to the Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The space charge forces that spread the beam ions apart of each other and cause emittance growth limits the maximum intensity that can be transported in the LEBT, but the space charge of intense unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the generated ions by the impact ionization of the residual gas, which creates a source of secondary particles inside the beam pipe. For negative ion beams, the effect of the beam electric field is to ex...

  11. Beam Based Measurements of Field Multipoles in the RHIC Low Beta Insertions and Extrapolation of the Method to the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Ptitsyn, V I

    2001-01-01

    The multipolar content of the dipoles and quadrupoles is known to limit the stability of the beam dynamics in super-conducting machines like RHIC and even more in LHC. The low-beta quadrupoles are thus equipped with correcting coils up to the dodecapole order. The correction is planned to rely on magnetic measurements. We show that a relatively simple method allows an accurate measurement of the multipolar field aberrations using the beam. The principle is to displace the beam in the non-linear fields by local closed orbit bumps and to measure the variation of sensitive beam observable. The resolution and robustness of the method are found appropriate. Experimentation at RHIC showed clearly the presence of normal and skew sextupolar field components in addition to a skew quadrupolar component in the interaction regions. Higher-order components up to decapole order appear as well.

  12. First H- beam accelerated at Linac4: 3MeV done, 157 MeV to go!

    CERN Multimedia

    Linac4 Project Team

    2013-01-01

    On 14 November, the first H- (one proton surrounded by two electrons) beam was accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV in the Linac4 - the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as low-energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain.      A view of the Linac4 taken during the recent tests (top image) and the current measured by the instruments at the end of the acceleration line on 14 November (bottom image). Images: Linac4 collaboration. Using the recently installed Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, 13 mA of current were accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV. After the successful commissioning of the Linac4 RFQ at the 3 MeV test stand completed during the first months of 2013, the whole equipment (composed of the RFQ itself, the following Medium Energy Beam Transport line and its diagnostic line) were moved to the Linac4 tunnel during summer and installed in their final position. In the meantime, a new ion source was assembled, installed and successfu...

  13. Dispersion and betatron matching into the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Adolphsen, C.; Corbett, W.J.; Emma, P.; Hsu, I.; Moshammer, H.; Seeman, J.T.; Spence, W.L.

    1991-05-01

    In high energy linear colliders, the low emittance beam from a damping ring has to be preserved all the way to the linac, in the linac and to the interaction point. In particular, the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) should provide an exact betatron and dispersion match from the damping ring to the linac. A beam with a non-zero dispersion shows up immediately as an increased emittance, while with a betatron mismatch the beam filaments in the linac. Experimental tests and tuning procedures have shown that the linearized beta matching algorithms are insufficient if the actual transport line has some unknown errors not included in the model. Also, adjusting quadrupole strengths steers the beam if it is offset in the quadrupole magnets. These and other effects have lead to a lengthy tuning process, which in the end improves the matching, but is not optimal. Different ideas will be discussed which should improve this matching procedure and make it a more reliable, faster and simpler process. 5 refs., 2 figs

  14. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  15. SU-E-T-781: Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for Correlating Linac Photon Beam Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaddanapudi, S; Cai, B; Sun, B; Noel, C; Goddu, S; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have proven to be useful for measuring several parameters of interest in linear accelerator (linac) quality assurance (QA). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using EPIDs for determining linac photon beam energies. Methods: Two non-clinical Varian TrueBeam linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with 6MV and 10MV photon beams were used to perform the measurements. The linacs were equipped with an amorphous silicon based EPIDs (aSi1000) that were used for the measurements. We compared the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for predicting changes in linac photon beam energy. PDD was measured in 1D water tank (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL) and the profiles were measured using 2D ion-chamber array (IC-Profiler, Sun Nuclear) and the EPID. Energy changes were accomplished by varying the bending magnet current (BMC). The evaluated energies conformed with the AAPM TG142 tolerance of ±1% change in PDD. Results: BMC changes correlating with a ±1% change in PDD corresponded with a change in flatness of ∼1% to 2% from baseline values on the EPID. IC Profiler flatness values had the same correlation. We observed a similar trend for the 10MV beam energy changes. Our measurements indicated a strong correlation between changes in linac photon beam energy and changes in flatness. For all machines and energies, beam energy changes produced change in the uniformity (AAPM TG-142), varying from ∼1% to 2.5%. Conclusions: EPID image analysis of beam profiles can be used to determine linac photon beam energy changes. Flatness-based metrics or uniformity as defined by AAPM TG-142 were found to be more sensitive to linac photon beam energy changes than PDD. Research funding provided by Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Sasa Mutic receives compensation for providing patient safety training services from Varian Medical Systems, the sponsor of this study.

  16. Challenges of the ILC Main Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Marc

    2007-01-01

    With the completion of the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR), we begin the next phase of the project - development of the Engineering Design. Our strategy and priorities come from the identification, contained in the RDR, of scientific and engineering challenges of the ILC. First among these is the cost of the main linac which, including the associated earthworks and cooling/power systems, amounts to 60% of the ILC total cost. Next is the challenge to reach the highest practical gradient since this R and D has the largest cost leverage of any of the ongoing programs. Finally, we have to understand the beam dynamics and beam tuning processes in the main linac, as we will not have the opportunity to do full (or even large) scale tests of these before the linac is constructed.

  17. Focussing magnets for proton Linac of ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Sanjay; Mahapatra, U.; Singh, Pitamber; Choudhury, R.K.; Goel, Priyanshu; Verma, Vishnu; Bhattacharya, S.; Srivastava, G.P.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    A linear accelerator comprising of Radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) and drift tube linac (DTL) is being developed by BARC. The Alvarez type post-coupled cw DTL accelerates protons from an energy of 3 MeV to 20 MeV. The drift tube linac is excited in TM010 mode, wherein the particles are accelerated by longitudinal electric fields at the gap crossings between drift tubes. The particles are subjected to transverse RF defocusing forces at the gap crossings due to the increasing electric fields in the gap. The transverse defocusing is corrected by housing magnetic quadrupole focussing lenses inside the drift tubes. The permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are placed inside the hermetically sealed drift tubes and provide a constant magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture. This paper discusses various aspects of magnetic design, selection of magnetic materials and the engineering development involved in the prototype development of these drift tubes for proton Linac. (author)

  18. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Perez L, L. H.

    2012-10-01

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A → (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  19. Magnetron based high energy S-band linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, T.; Krishnan, R.; Phatangare, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of magnetron based high energy S-band linear accelerator (linac) system operating at spot frequency 2.998 GHz. The energy and dose are two important parameters of linac system which depend on input power of microwave source and length of linac tube. Here the author has studied how these parameters can be improved for side coupled standing wave S-band linac system

  20. Application of RF Superconductivity to High-Current Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the authors initiated a development program in Los Alamos for high-current superconducting proton-linac technology to build prototypes components of this linac to demonstrate the feasibility. The authors are building 700-MHz niobium cavities with elliptical shapes, as well as power couplers to transfer high RF power to these cavities. The cavities and power couplers will be integrated in cryostats as linac cryomodules. In this paper, they describe the linac design and the status of the development program

  1. Development of the Medium Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Park, Bum Sik; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Yun, Sang Pil; Cho, Yong Sub; Hong, In Seok

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of this project is developing 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for proton engineering frontier project (PEFP). In the first phase of the PEFP, the development of the 20-MeV linac has successfully finished. Hence the work scope of this project is designing the linac to accelerate proton beams from 20-MeV up to 100-MeV, fabricating the linac up to 45 MeV, fabricating one set of the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) tank, and developing the low level radio frequency (LLRF) system and the control system. The basic role of the new proton accelerator is accelerating 20-mA proton beams from 20 MeV up to 100 MeV. The first step of the design procedure is optimizing and determining the accelerator parameters. The beam loss is also main concern in the design stage. The drift tube (DT) and the quadrupole magnets are designed to be optimized to the new linac design. The other purpose is confirming the new design by fabricating and tuning the drift tube linac (DTL). The 20MeV proton beam divided into two directions. One is supplying the beams to user group by turning on the 45-degree bending magnet. The other is guided into the 100-MeV DTL by tuning off the dipole magnet. That is why the PEFP MEBT located after 20-MeV DTL. The MEBT is realized as two small DTL tanks with three cells and a 45-degree bending magnet. The fabrication of one MEBT tank is another purpose of this project. The other purposes of this project is developing the LLRF system to control the RF signal and control system to monitor and control the vacuum system, magnet power supply, etc

  2. Development of the High Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Chung, Byung Chul; Jang, Ji Ho; Gao, Changgi; Li, Yingmin; Sun, An; Tang, Yazhe; Zhang, Lipoing; Hwang, Yong Seok

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of this project is studying the extension plan of the proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) 100-MeV Linac. It includes three categories. One is studying operation plan of the PEFP linac and its extended accelerators, and developing a distribution system of 100-MeV proton beams with a laser striping. Other is designing superconducting RF (SRF) modules and fabricating and testing a copper cavity model. The other is designing a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The operation scheme of the PEFP linac is related to the optimization in the operation of the 100-MeV linac, 200-MeV SRF, and RCS. We studied several operational method to increase the validity of the accelerators. The beam distribution system has two roles. One is supplying proton beams of 100 MeV to the user group. The laser stripping of the negative hydrogen atoms is used in this case. The other beams are directed to the next high energy accelerators. This study contributes to increase the availability of the proton beams. The SRF is one of candidates to extend the PEFP linac system. Since the accelerating gradient of the SRF is much higher than the normal conducting accelerator, a lot of institutes over the world are developing the SRF structure. Main purposes are designing an SRF module, fabricating and testing an copper model which has similar material properties as Nb of the usual SRF cavity material. The RCS is a synchrotron whose injector is the PEFP 100-MeV linac. Main purposes are determining the lattice structure, studying the fast and slow extraction system, simulating beam behavior in the designed synchrotron. The RCS will be used as the spallation neutron source and tools in the basic and applied science including medical application

  3. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  4. Superconducting linac beam dynamics with high-order maps for RF resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, A A; Pardo, R C; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.177

    2004-01-01

    The arbitrary-order map beam optics code COSY Infinity has recently been adapted to calculate accurate high-order ion-optical maps for electrostatic and radio-frequency accelerating structures. The beam dynamics of the superconducting low-velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab is used to demonstrate some advantages of the new simulation capability. The injector linac involves four different types of superconducting accelerating structures and has a total of 18 resonators. The detailed geometry for each of the accelerating cavities is included, allowing an accurate representation of the on- and off-axis electric fields. The fields are obtained within the code from a Poisson-solver for cylindrically symmetric electrodes of arbitrary geometry. The transverse focusing is done with superconducting solenoids. A detailed comparison of the transverse and longitudinal phase space is made with the conventional ray-tracing code LINRAY. The two codes are evaluated for ease ...

  5. Assembly and RF Tuning of the Linac4 RFQ at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, C; Hansen, J; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, AM; Pugnat, D; Vandoni, G; Timmins, M; Vretenar, M; Mathot, S; Piquet, O; Novo, J; Le Noa, Y; France, A; Desmons, M

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of Linac4 is progressing at CERN with the goal of making a 160 MeV H- beam available to the LHC injection chain as from 2015. In the Linac4 the first stage of beam acceleration, after its extraction from the ion source, is provided by a Radiofrequency Quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), operating at the RF frequency of 352.2 MHz and which accelerates the ion beam to the energy of 3 MeV. The RFQ, made of three modules, one meter each, is of the four-vane kind, has been designed in the frame of a collaboration between CERN and CEA and has been completely machined and assembled at CERN. The paper describes the assembly of the RFQ structure and reports the results of RF low power measurements, in order to achieve the required accelerating field flatness within 1% of the nominal field profile.

  6. Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.; Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design

  7. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A three-year modification of the EG and G electron linac has been performed to replace obsolete equipment and bring all subsystems up to the current state of the art. Components and subsystems were designed, constructed, and tested off-line to minimize interruption of experiments. The configuration of the modified linac is shown schematically, and performance characteristics are give. Each subsystem is described, including: the electron gun; solenoid focusing system; subharmonic bunchers; accelerating system; RF system; klystron modulators and power supplies; control system; beam handling system; vacuum system; and beam current monitors. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Proton linacs for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.

    1993-08-01

    Recent advances in the ability to deliver boron-containing drugs to brain tumors have generated interest in ∼4 MeV linacs as sources of epithermal neutrons for radiation therapy. In addition, fast neutron therapy facilities have been studying methods to moderate their beams to take advantage of the high cross section for epithermal neutrons on boron-10. This paper describes the technical issues involved in each approach and presents the motivation for undertaking such studies using the Fermilab linac. the problems which must be solved before therapy can begin are outlined. Status of preparatory work and results of preliminary measurements are presented

  9. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    RHIC and LHC injector chains for the heaviest ion species used to date. The RHIC pulsed sputter source (PSC) and Tandem electrostatic accelerator are being replaced by an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and short linac (08Ale1). With EBIS beams of any element can be prepared for RHIC including uranium and spin-polarized 3He. At CERN an ECR ion source is used, followed by an RFQ and Linac. The ions are then accumulated, electron cooled, and accelerated in LEIR. After transfer to and acceleration in the PS, ion beams are injected into the SPS.

  10. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    RHIC and LHC injector chains for the heaviest ion species used to date. The RHIC pulsed sputter source (PSC) and Tandem electrostatic accelerator are being replaced by an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and short linac [08Ale1]. With EBIS beams of any element can be prepared for RHIC including uranium and spin-polarized 3He. At CERN an ECR ion source is used, followed by an RFQ and Linac. The ions are then accumulated, electron cooled, and accelerated in LEIR. After transfer to and acceleration in the PS, ion beams are injected into the SPS.

  11. Overview of linac applications at future radioactive beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest worldwide in the research which could be done at a next generation, advanced radioactive beam facility. To generate high quality, intense beams of accelerated radionuclides via the open-quotes isotope separator on-lineclose quotes (ISOL) method requires two major accelerator components: a high power (100 kW) driver device to produce radionuclides in a production target/ion source complex, and a secondary beam accelerator to produce beams of radioactive ions up to energies on the order of 10 MeV per nucleon over a broad mass range. In reviewing the technological challenges of such a facility, several types of modem linear accelerators appear well suited. This paper reviews the properties of the linacs currently under construction and those proposed for future facilities for use either as the driver device or the radioactive beam post-accelerator. Other choices of accelerators, such as cyclotrons, for either the driver or secondary beam devices of a radioactive beam complex will also be compared. Issues to be addressed for the production accelerator include the choice of ion beam types to be used for cost-effective production of radionuclides. For the post-accelerator the choice of ion source technology is critical and dictates the charge-to-mass requirements at the injection stage

  12. Comparison of the dynamical processes in plasma turbulence observed in the high- and low-{beta} regions of the terrestrial foreshock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coca, D.; Balikhin, M.; Billings, S

    2001-06-01

    This paper highlights the fact that the dynamical processes that characterise plasma turbulence observed in the high-{beta} region of the terrestrial foreshock are significantly different from the dynamical processes identified in the low-{beta} region. The study is based on a time-domain model identified from measurements taken by AMPTE-UKS and AMPTE-IRM satellites. (author)

  13. Beam transfer between the coupled cavity linac and the low energy booster synchrotron for the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.; Penner, S.

    1990-09-01

    Ion optical design of the transfer line, which will be used to inject H - beam at 600 MeV from the Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) into the Low Energy Booster (LEB) synchrotron, is described. Space charge effects of up to 50 mA average beam current have been taken into account

  14. Development of a charged particle detector array in Pelletron-LINAC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Bency; Inkar, A.L.; Saxena, A.; Vind, R.P.; Gupta, Y.K.; Biswas, D.C.; Nayak, B.K.; Thomas, R.G.; Danu, L.S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Kailas, S.; Topkar, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Kumar, Manish; Sunilkumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    A charged particle detector array consisting of 50 Si-CsI detector telescopes for study of heavy-ion reactions is under construction in BARC-TIFR Pelletron-LINAC facility. Developmental work carried out for the detector modules, front-end and pulse shape discrimination electronics, scattering chamber and other mechanical parts are summarized. Some new ideas developed during the course of work are pointed out. (author)

  15. Dynamics and tolerances for the CERN interdigital H LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, S.; Ratzinger, U.

    1992-01-01

    A three tank interdigital H structure has been chosen for the 0.25 to 4.2 MeV/u part of the CERN heavy-ion injector linac. The complete design has been developed by GSI, in particular the longitudinal dimensions have been determined and multi-particle studies have been made using the program LORAS. Some RF tolerance studies have also be made at CERN using this program. For more general approach to the dynamics, the program DYNAC is being used at CERN especially where statistical analyses are essential i.e for determining emittance growth, tolerances on accelerator parameters and alignment. The approaches and results of these two programs are compared for this novel type of accelerator

  16. Dynamics and tolerances for the CERN Interdigital H linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bylinsky, Y.; Ratzinger, U.; Valero, S.

    1992-01-01

    A three tank Interdigital H structure has been chosen for the 0.25 to 4.2 MeV/u part of the CERN heavy-ion injector linac. The complete design has been developed by GSI; in particular the longitudinal dimensions have been determined and multi-particle studies have been made using the program LORAS. Some RF tolerance studies have also been made at CERN using this program. For a more general approach to the dynamics, the program DYNAC is being used at CERN, especially where statistical analyses are essential; i.e. for determining emittance growth, tolerances on accelerator parameters and alignment. The approaches and results of these two programs are compared for this novel type of accelerator. (Author) 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Overview of the CERN Linac4 beam instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Bravin, E; Dehning, B; Duraffourg, M; Gerard, D; Holzer, E B; Lenardon, F; Focker, G; Raich, U; Soby, L; Sordet, M; Tan, J; Tranquille, G; Vuitton, C; Zamantzas, C; Cheymol, B

    2010-01-01

    The CERN LINAC4 will represent the first upgrade of the LHC injection chain, by accelerating H- ions from 45 KeV to 160 MeV for charge-exchange injection into the PS Booster. In order to provide its safe and efficient commissioning and operation, a wide variety of beam diagnostics devices has been designed for installation at convenient locations all over the accelerator length and in the transfer line to the PS Booster. This paper gives an overview of all instrumentation devices, including those to measure beam position, transverse and longitudinal profile, beam current and beam loss. The well advanced status of the system design and the main instrument features are discussed

  18. Consistent patterns of high alpha and low beta diversity in tropical parasitic and free-living protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentendu, Guillaume; Mahé, Frédéric; Bass, David; Rueckert, Sonja; Stoeck, Thorsten; Dunthorn, Micah

    2018-05-30

    Tropical animals and plants are known to have high alpha diversity within forests, but low beta diversity between forests. By contrast, it is unknown whether microbes inhabiting the same ecosystems exhibit similar biogeographic patterns. To evaluate the biogeographies of tropical protists, we used metabarcoding data of species sampled in the soils of three lowland Neotropical rainforests. Taxa-area and distance-decay relationships for three of the dominant protist taxa and their subtaxa were estimated at both the OTU and phylogenetic levels, with presence-absence and abundance-based measures. These estimates were compared to null models. High local alpha and low regional beta diversity patterns were consistently found for both the parasitic Apicomplexa and the largely free-living Cercozoa and Ciliophora. Similar to animals and plants, the protists showed spatial structures between forests at the OTU and phylogenetic levels, and only at the phylogenetic level within forests. These results suggest that the biogeographies of macro- and micro-organismal eukaryotes in lowland Neotropical rainforests are partially structured by the same general processes. However, and unlike the animals and plants, the protist OTUs did not exhibit spatial structures within forests, which hinders our ability to estimate the local and regional diversity of protists in tropical forests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Improvement of the Longitudinal Beam Dynamics Tuning Procedure for the MSU RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Doleans, Marc; Grimm, Terry L; Marti, Felix; Wu, Xiaoyu; York, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac will use a superconducting, cw linac with independently phased superconducting radio frequency cavities for acceleration and, for the heavier ions, utilize beams of multiple-charge-states (multi-q). Given the acceleration of multi-q beams and a stringent beam loss requirement in the RIA driver linac, a new beam envelope code capable of simulating nonlinearities of the multi-q beam envelopes in the longitudinal phase space was developed. Using optimization routines, the code is able to maximize the linearity of the longitudinal phase space motion and thereby minimizing beam loss by finding values for the amplitude and phase of the cavities for a given accelerating lattice. Relative motion of the multi-q beams is also taken into account so that superposition of the beam centroids and matching of their Twiss parameters are automatically controlled. As a result, the linac tuning procedure has been simplified and the longitudinal lattice performance has been improved...

  20. Klystron High Power Operation for KOMAC 100-MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) accelerator facility has a 100-MeV proton linac, five beam lines for 20-MeV beam utilization, and another five beam lines for 100-MeV beam utilization. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 50-keV proton injector based on a microwave ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ with a four-vane structure, and a 100-MeV DTL. Nine sets of 1MW klystrons have been operated for the 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was approximately 5700 hours in 2014, and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours. During the high power operation of the klystron, unstable RF waveforms appeared at the klystron output, and we have checked and performed cavity frequency adjustments, magnet and heater current, reflection from a circulator, klystron test without a circulator, and the frequency spectrum measurement. Nine sets of the klystrons have been operated for the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was 5700 hours and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours during the operation in 2014. Some klystrons have unstable RF waveforms at specific power level. We have checked and tested the cavity frequency adjustment, reflection from a circulator, high power test without a circulator, and frequency spectrum at the unstable RF.

  1. 10 MeV RF electron linac for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Electron linacs have found numerous applications in the field of radiation processing on an industrial scale. High power RF electron linacs are commonly used for food irradiation, medical sterilization, cross-linking of polymers, etc. For this purpose, the 10 MeV RF linac has been indigenously designed, developed, commissioned and is being used regularly at 3 kW beam power. This paper gives a brief description of the linac and its utilization for various applications. Safety considerations and regulatory aspects of the linac are also discussed

  2. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Martínez-Ovalle, S.A.; Lallena, A.M.; Mercado, G.A.; Benites-Rengifo, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 –6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  3. Microphonic measurements on superconducting linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzali, A.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Microphonics in multi-cell linac structures lead to energy and pointing modulation of the electron beam despite RF stabilization. Evaluation of the microphonic behaviour of a 500 MHz two cell structure is planned in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper we describe a method of evaluation based on accelerometer measurements. (Author) fig., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  4. Status of the Novosibirsk energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, V.P.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Gavrilov, N.G.; Kayran, D.A.; Knyazev, B.A.; Kolobanov, E.I.; Kotenkov, V.V.; Kubarev, V.V.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Matveenko, A.N.; Medvedev, L.E.; Miginsky, S.V.; Mironenko, L.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Ovchar, V.K.; Popik, V.M.; Salikova, T.V.; Serednyakov, S.S.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.A.; Scheglov, M.A.; Tcheskidov, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser is based on the energy recovery linac (ERL) with room-temperature radiofrequency system. Some features of the ERL are discussed. The results of emittance measurements and electron optics tests are presented. The second stage of the ERL, which has four orbits, is described briefly

  5. Linac based radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Definition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT); Stereo market; Indications for SRS/SRT; History of linac-based SRS/SRT; Variety of systems; QA for SRS; Localization; and Imaging. (P.A.)

  6. First beam in Linac4 DTL

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Following the installation of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) earlier this summer (see here), the first DTL tank saw beams at 12 MeV on 5 August.   Transverse emittance measured at 12 MeV after the DTL tank1 using a temporary slit-and-grid emittance device. You never forget your first beam. That was especially true for the Linac4 DTL team, as it followed years of design, construction and vigorous testing. "We performed countless measurements of the geometry, vacuum and magnet polarisation of the DTL tanks while we were in the workshop," says Suitbert Ramberger, project engineer for the Linac4 DTL. "Add that preparation to the excellent RF conditioning that we carried out in the weeks before the beam tests and I was confident that the acceleration with beam would fully meet expectations!" Indeed it did. Beam commissioning tests ran until 21 August and found the DTL operating with nominal transmission. This successful run has confirmed the innovative design ...

  7. Linac technology for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Morton, P.L.; Wilson, P.B.; Keefe, D.; Faltens, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to concentrate on the properties of high-energy electron linear accelerators for use in free-electron lasers operating principally in the Compton regime. To fix our focus somewhat, we shall consider electron energies in the 20- to 200-MeV range and consider requirements for high-power free-electron lasers operating in the 0.5- to 10-μm range. Preliminary remarks are made on high-power free-electron laser amplifiers and oscillators and some desirable characteristics of the linacs that deliver electron beams for these devices. Both the high peak-current requirements of the amplifier and the high pulse-repetition frequency requirements of the oscillator can be met by present-day linac technology, although not necessarily by the same machine. In this papers second and third section, the technology of two rather different types of linear accelerators, the rf linac and the induction linac, is reviewed. In conclusion, applications to the Free Electron Lasers are stated

  8. CEBAF Cryomodule Commissioning in the South Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Drury; H. Lankford; T. Lee; J. Marshall; J. Preble; Q. Saulter; W. Schneider; Michael Spata; Mark Wiseman

    1993-01-01

    When complete, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility will house a 4 GeV recirculating linear accelerator containing 42 1/4 cryomodules arrayed in two antiparallel linacs and an injector. Currently, 38 1/4 cryomodules have been installed. Each cryomodule contains eight superconducting niobium 5-cell rf cavities that operate at 1.497 GHz[1]. A cryomodule must provide an energy gain of 20 MeV to the 200 mu-A beam[2]. The resultant dynamic heat load must be less than 45 W. The cavity parameters that are measured during the commissioning process include the external Q's (Q(sub ext)) of the cavity ports, the unloaded Q (Q(sub 0)) of the cavity as a function of accelerating gradient, and the maximum operating gradient of the cavity[3]. Finally, the mechanical tuners are cycled and characterized. A portable test stand allows local control of the rf system and provides automated data acquisition. During the period from April 1993 through September 1993, 16 of the 20 cryomodules installed in the South Linac were commissioned. All cryomodules tested in the South Linac meet or exceed the CEBAF specifications. This paper describes the results of the commissioning of the first 10 cryomodules in the South Linac

  9. Preinjector for Linac 1, SAMES generator

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070x. When the original 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator broke down in 1973, it was replaced by this much smaller 520 kV SAMES generator, seen here sitting on the floor of the Faraday cage.

  10. Upgrade of GUI for linac control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuma, Tadahiro; Shibasaki, Yoshinobu

    1993-01-01

    We are now upgrading GUI(Graphical User Interface) of the control system at Tohoku Linac. This system uses Personal Computer (DECpc466D2LP-66MHz) and Visual Basic which makes coding GUI easy and simple. The first results of this system are presented. (author)

  11. Initial use of the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The positive-ion injector of ATLAS consists of an ECR heavy-ion source coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac. The ECR source and a 3-MV version of the partially completed linac have been used to accelerate successfully several species of heavy ions. The operating experience is summarized, with emphasis on the excellent beam quality of beams from the new injector. Two new fast-timing detectors are described. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Statistical simulations of machine errors for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M.; Froidefond, E.; Sargsyan, E.

    2006-01-01

    LINAC 4 is a normal conducting H- linac proposed at CERN to provide a higher proton flux to the CERN accelerator chain. It should replace the existing LINAC 2 as injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster and can also operate in the future as the front end of the SPL, a 3.5 GeV Superconductingg Proton Linac. LINAC 4 consists of a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, a chopper line, a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Cell Coupled DTL all operating at 352 MHz and finally a Side Coupled Linac at 704 MHz. Beam dynamics was studied and optimized performing end-to-end simulations. This paper presents statistical simulations of machine errors which were performed in order to validate the proposed design.

  13. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios

  14. Conceptual design of linac for power HIF driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshkarev, D.G.; Korenev, I.L.; Yudin, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Linac for singly-charged (positive and negative) ions of the four various Pt isotopes has been proposed. Eight beams of different charges and masses of ions are accelerated in parallel RFQ channels to an energy of 100 MeV. The beams are then brought together by a system of alternating gradient magnet for a 180 degrees bending and matching of the beams. The main channel which accelerates all beams together consists of three stages. The first one (till 600 MeV) is a Wideroe structure followed by two consecutive Alvarez channels (2.5 GeV and 10 GeV) having different radio frequencies. Characteristics of the output beam for each kind of ions are: average pulse current 45 mA, horizontal emittance 0.6π cm · mrad, vertical emittance 0.4π cm · mrad, momentum spread ± 0.07%, bunch length 3.6 cm, and spacing between bunches of each kind is 15.3 m. (author)

  15. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C s + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  17. The source development lab linac at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.S.; Johnson, E.D.

    1996-12-01

    A 210 MeV SLAC-type electron linac is currently under construction at BNL as part of the Source Development Laboratory. A 1.6 cell RF photoinjector is employed as the high brightness electron source which is excited by a frequency tripled Titanium:Sapphire laser. This linac will be used for several source development projects including a short bunch storage ring, and a series of FEL experiments based on the 10 m long NISUS undulator. The FEL will be operated as either a SASE or seeded beam device using the Ti:Sapp laser. For the seeded beam experiments; direct amplification, harmonic generation, and chirped pulse amplification modes will be studied, spanning an output wavelength range from 900 nm down to 100 nm. This paper presents the project's design parameters and results of recent modeling using the PARMELA and MAD simulation codes

  18. Electron linac design for pion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Brown, K.L.; Miller, R.H.; Walz, D.R.

    1977-03-01

    The electron linac provides a straightforward, state-of-the-art method of producing the primary beam required for a hospital-based multiport pion radiotherapy facility for cancer treatment. The accelerator and associated beam transport system described are capable of generating an electron beam of about 250 kW and delivering it alternately to one of several pion generators and treatment areas. Each pion generator, a prototype of which now exists at the Stanford W. W. Hansen Laboratory, would contain a target for the electron beam and sixty separate superconducting magnet channels which focus the pions in the patient. The considerations which enter the design of a practical linac are presented together with a possible layout of a flexible beam transport system

  19. New high power linacs and beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Crandall, K.R.; Hasegawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    New high-power proton linacs must be designed to control beam loss, which can lead to radioactivation of the accelerator. The threat of beam loss is increased significantly by the formation of beam halo. Numerical simulation studies have identified the space-charge interactions, especially those that occur in rms mismatched beams, as a major concern for halo growth. The maximum-amplitude predictions of the simulation codes must be subjected to independent tests to confirm the validity of the results. Consequently, the authors compare predictions from the particle-core halo models with computer simulations to test their understanding of the halo mechanisms that are incorporated in the computer codes. They present and discuss scaling laws that provide guidance for high-power linac design

  20. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  1. Low-energy linac structure for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.; Stovall, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The higher radio frequency (450 MHz) and lower injection energy (250 keV) of the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) linac design seriously compound the problem of beam containment in the first few meters of the structure. The conventional quadrupole-focused, drift-tube linac represents the best solution for beam energies above 8 MeV, but because of the small space available for quadrupoles in the PIGMI designs, cannot provide the required focusing at lower energies. A satisfactory solution to this focusing problem has been found based on pure alternating phase focusing for the first few MeV, followed by a smooth transition to a pure permanent magnet quadrupole-focused structure at 8 MeV. The structure and its calculated performance are described

  2. A proposed injector for the LCLS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Bharadwaj, V.K.; Emma, P.; Miller, R.H.; Palmer, D.T.; Woodley, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will use the last portion of the SLAC accelerator as a driver for a short wavelength FEL. The injector must produce 1-nC, 3-ps rms electron bunches at a repetition rate of up to 120 Hz with a normalized rms emittance of about 1 mm-mrad. The injector design takes advantage of the photocathode rf gun technology developed since its conception in the mid 1980's, in particular the S-band rf gun developed by the SLAC/BNL/UCLA collaboration, and emittance compensation techniques developed in the last decade. The injector beamline has been designed using the SUPERFISH, POISSON, PARMELA, and TRANSPORT codes in a consistent way to simulate the beam from the gun up to the entrance of the main accelerator linac where the beam energy is 150 MeV. PARMELA simulations indicate that at 150 MeV, space charge effects are negligible

  3. Research on backward traveling wave electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Future electron linacs require high gradient acceleration. The studies on the high shunt impedance backward traveling wave electron linac accelerating structure (BTW) are presented. At first, the characteristics of BTW are researched. The option of mode and optimal design methods of accelerating cavity for BTW are studied. A physical design method for BTW accelerators, including longitudinal and transversal particle dynamics, is given. Based on above studies, a 9 MeV BTW accelerating tube at 3π/4 mode with frequency 2856 MHz for inspecting large container as radiation source at customs is designed, and a comparison with disk-loaded waveguide accelerating tube is made. The result of research leads to the conclusion that backward traveling wave accelerating structure is preferable. Because BTW has higher effective shunt impedance, shorter filling time and more stable operation

  4. Commissioning the Linac Coherent Light Source injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Akre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Linac Coherent Light Source is a SASE x-ray free-electron laser (FEL project presently under construction at SLAC [J. Arthur et al., SLAC-R-593, 2002.]. The injector section, from drive laser and rf photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in the fall of 2006. The initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August of 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photocathode drive laser, rf gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band rf systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  5. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10ΜA recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10ΜA average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of motor unit for the jacks for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 134 motor units for the jacks for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ZTS VVU KOSICE (SK), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 134 motor units for a total amount of 1 266 674 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  7. Making electron beams for the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.; Sheppard, J.C.; Sodja, J.; Truher, J.B.; Minten, A.

    1984-01-01

    A source of high-intensity, single-bunch electron beams has been developed at SLAC for the SLC. The properties of these beams have been studied extensively utilizing the first 100-m of the SLAC linac and the computer-based control system being developed for the SLC. The source is described and the properties of the beams are summarized. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Control system in the technological electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriskin, V.N.; Akchurin, Yu.I.; Bahmetev, N.N.; Gurin, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The special system has been developed for linac control.It controls the electron beam current,the energy and the position,protects the accelerating and scanning systems from the damage caused by the beam;blocks the modulator and the klystron amplifier in the case of intolerable operating modes;regulates the phase and power of the HF signals in the injecting system and also regulates the source power currents in the magnetic system

  9. LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Robert W.; Sheffreld, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  10. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  11. Superconducting linac at Inter-University Accelerator Centre: Operational challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A superconducting linear accelerator based on niobium quarter wave resonators has recently become operational to boost the energy of the heavy ion beams available from the existing 15 UD (unit doubled Pelletron accelerator. The niobium resonators typically performed at an accelerating field of 3–6  MV/m at 6 watts of input power in the test cryostat. When they were tested in the linac cryostat, the accelerating fields were drastically reduced and a number of other problems were also encountered. At present, all the problems have been diagnosed and solved. Many design modifications, e.g., in power coupler, mechanical tuner, helium cooling system, etc. were incorporated to solve the problems. A novel method of vibration damping was also implemented to reduce the effect of microphonics on the resonators. Finally, the accelerated beam through linac was delivered to conduct experiments.

  12. Septa and Distributor Developments for H- Injection into the Booster from LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Linac4 requires the modification of the existing injection system of the CERN PS Booster. A new transfer line will transport 160 MeV H- ions to this machine. A system of 5 pulsed magnets (BIDIS) and 3 vertical septa (BISMV) will distribute and inject the Linac pulses into the four-vertically separated Booster rings. Subsequently the beam will be injected horizontally, using a local bump created with bumpers (BS magnets) to bring the injected H- beam together with the orbiting proton beam onto the stripper foil. To accommodate the injected H- beam, the first of the BS magnets will have to be a septum-like device, deflecting only the orbiting beam. This paper highlights the requirements and technical issues and describes the solutions to be adopted for both the BIDIS and BISMV. The results of initial prototype testing of the BIDIS magnet will also be presented.

  13. Mechanical design, fabrication and initial tests on prototype drift tube linac at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacharias, J.; Mehta, R.; Hariwal, R.V.; Ajithkumar, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) project is a major subsection of High Current Injector project at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC). It has been designed to accelerate ions from 180 keV/u to 1.8 MeV/u, using six IH type RF resonators operating at 97 MHz. The required output energy of the DTL is decided by the minimum input velocity of nearly 6% of velocity of light, required for the existing superconducting LINAC. IH type resonators are the preferred choice for multiple gap DTL applications due to their high shunt impedance values. The mechanical design and CNC machining of parts and assembly of DTL were carried out at IUAC to validate the electrical design. (author)

  14. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  15. The RF system for FELI linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Y.; Abe, S.; Keishi, T.; Tomimasu, T.

    1995-01-01

    FELI (Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc.) is constructing a Free Electron Laser facility covering from 20μm (infra red region) to 0.35μm (ultra violet region), using as S-band linac. The linac consists of a thermoionic 0.5ns-pulse triggered gun, a 714-MHz SHB (subharmonic buncher), a 2856-MHz standing wave type buncher, and seven ETL (Electro-technical Laboratory) type accelerating sections. An RF system of the linac for FELs is required of long pulse duration and high stability. Two S-band klystrons (TOSHIBA E3729) are operated in three pulse operation modes (pulse width and peak RF power): 24μs-24MW, 12.5μs-34MW, 0.5μs-70MW. Each klystron modulator has a PFN consisting of 4 parallel networks of 24 capacitors and 24 variable inductors, and it has a line switch of an optical thyristor stack. An S-band klystron and its modulator were combined to test their performance at the works of NISSIN ELECTRIC Co. in December 1993. These equipments were installed at FELI in January 1994. The design and experimental results of the RF system are summarized in this paper. (author)

  16. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  17. Preliminary design of a dedicated proton therapy linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design has been completed for a low current, compact proton linac dedicated to cancer therapy. A 3 GHz side-coupled structure accelerates the beam from a 70 MeV drift tube linac using commercially available S-band rf power systems and accelerating cavities. This significantly reduces the linac cost and allows incremental energies up to 250 MeV. The short beam pulse width and high repetition rate make the linac similar to the high energy electron linacs now used for cancer therapy, yet produce a proton flux sufficient for treatment of large tumors. The high pulse repetition rate permits raster scanning, and the small output beam size and emittance result in a compact isocentric gantry design. Such a linac will reduce the facility and operating costs for a dedicated cancer therapy system

  18. RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Brown, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems

  19. A 2--4 nm Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-05-01

    We describe the use of the SLAC linac to drive a unique, powerful. short wavelength Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Operating as an FEL, lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a high peak current electron beam through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The main components are a high-brightness rf photocathode electron gun; pulse compressors; about 1/5 of the SLAC linac; and a long undulator with a FODO quadrupole focussing system. Using electrons below 8 GeV, the system would operate at wavelengths down to about 3 nm, producing ≥10 GW peak power in sub-ps pulses. At a 120 Hz rate the average power is ∼ 1 W

  20. S-band linac-based X-ray source with {pi}/2-mode electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Abhay, E-mail: abhay@post.kek.jp [Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Araki, Sakae [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Dixit, Tanuja [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Fukuda, Masafumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Krishnan, R; Pethe, Sanjay [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sakaue, Kazuyuki [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the {pi}/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the {pi}/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  1. A SUPER-CONDUCTING LINAC DRIVER FOR THE HFBR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.; Raparia, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    2000-08-21

    This paper reports on the feasibility study of a proton Super-Conducting Linac (SCL) as a driver for the High-Flux Breeder Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Linac operates in Continuous Wave (CW) mode to produce an average 10 MW of beam power. The Linac beam energy is 1.0 GeV. The average proton beam intensity in exit is 10 mA.

  2. Wire scanner data analysis for the SSC Linac emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.Y.; Hurd, J.W.; Sage, J.

    1993-07-01

    The wire scanners are designed in the SSC Linac for measurement of beam emittance at various locations. In order to obtain beam parameters from the scan signal, a data analysis program was developed that considers the problems of noise reduction, machine modeling, parameter fitting, and correction. This program is intended as a tool for Linac commissioning and also as part of the Linac control program. Some of the results from commissioning runs are presented

  3. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  4. Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152 last August. After an assembly phase and tests that concluded last March with the acceleration of a hydrogen beam to 3 MeV, the module has just been permanently installed in the new Linac4 tunnel (Building 400). The installation of the MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) will begin shortly, followed by the start of the first Linac4 commissioning phase.     To find out more about the Linac4 RFQ module, read the previous Bulletin articles published in Nos. 21-22/2010 and 35-36/2012.

  5. Two-pulse acceleration for BEPCII injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Shilun; Wang Shuhong; Lu Weibin

    2007-01-01

    In order to double the injection rate of positron beam from the linac to the storage ring of BEPC II, a two-pulse generation and acceleration scheme has been proposed. The two-pulse simulation by programs including LIAR, PARMELA, EGUN and TRANSPORT is described first and the method is applied in the beam dynamics studies of BEPC II linac. The experiment of two-pulse acceleration was performed in BEPC II linac and some preliminary results are obtained, which provides a good reference for further upgrading of BEPC II injector linac. (authors)

  6. Upgrade of the controls for the Brookhaven linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The control of the magnets, rf system, and other components at the Brookhaven Linac uses a system that was developed at Brookhaven in the late 1960's. This system will be retired in the summer of 1995. The Linac controls are being upgraded using modem VME-based hardware compatible with RHIC generation controls, and an existing serial field bus. The timing for the Linac will also be upgraded and will use components developed for RHIC. The controls in general, the timing for the Linac, and the modules developed will be described

  7. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: design and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Pardo, R C [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Shepard, K W [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Billquist, P J [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bogaty, J M [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clifft, B E [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Harkewicz, R [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Munson, F H [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nolen, J A [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zinkann, G P [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed. (orig.)

  8. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: Design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed Positive-Ion Injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed

  9. Berkeley research program on ion induction linacs for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Currently under study, is a driver example that relies on exactly sixteen beams from start to finish, and avoids the extra dilution that inevitably accompanies either beam-merging or beam-splitting. (orig./HSI)

  10. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several ...

  11. SU-E-T-119: Dosimetric and Mechanical Characteristics of Elekta Infinity LINAC with Agility MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J; Xu, Q; Xue, J; Zhai, Y; An, L; Chen, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Elekta Infinity is the one of the latest generation LINAC with unique features. Two Infinity LINACs are recently commissioned at our institution. The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of the machines are presented. Methods: Both Infinity LINACs with Agility MLC (160 leaves with 0.5 cm leaf width) are configured with five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and two photon energies (6 and 15 MV). One machine has additional photon energy (10 MV). The commissioning was performed by following the manufacturer's specifications and AAPM TG recommendations. Beam data of both electron and photon beams are measured with scanning ion chambers and linear diode array. Machines are adjusted to have the dosimetrically equivalent characteristics. Results: The commissioning of mechanical and imaging system meets the tolerances by TG recommendations. The PDD 10 of various field sizes for 6 and 15 MV shows < 0.5% difference between two machines. For each electron beams, R 80 matches with < 0.4 mm difference. The symmetry and flatness agree within 0.8% and 0.9% differences for photon beams, respectively. For electron beams, the differences of the symmetry and flatness are within 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively. The mean inline penumbras for 6, 10, and 15 MV are respectively 5.1±0.24, 5.6±0.07, and 5.9±0.10 mm for 10x10 cm at 10 cm depth. The crossline penumbras are larger than inline penumbras by 2.2, 1.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The MLC transmission factor with interleaf leakage is 0.5 % for all photon energies. Conclusion: The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of two Infinity LINACs show good agreements between them. Although the Elekta Infinity has been used in many institutions, the detailed characteristics of the machine have not been reported. This study provides invaluable information to understand the Infinity LINAC and to compare the quality of commissioning data for other LINACs

  12. Laser system for a subpicosecond electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    At the Argonne Chemistry Division efforts are underway to develop a sub-picosecond electron beam pulse radiolysis facility for chemical studies. The target output of the accelerator is to generate electron pulses that can be adjusted from 3nC in .6ps to 100nC in 45ps. In conjunction with development of the accelerator a state-of-the-art ultrafast laser system is under construction that will drive the linac's photocathode and provide probe pulses that are tunable from the UV to IR spectral regions

  13. A new RFQ linac fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.; Roybal, P.; Young, L.; Clark, W.; DePaula, R.; Martinez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The use of hydrogen furnace brazing has been applied as a joining technology to the fabrication of a Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac for the Los Alamos Accelerator Performance Demonstration Facility (APDF). The design concept provides a monolithic cavity with no longitudinal rf, vacuum, or mechanical joints. A 530 MHz, 0.46 meter long engineering model RFQ has been fabricated and tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory as a technical demonstration of this concept. It is planned that two funneled RFQ's for the APDF (7 MeV, 350 MHz, 100 mAmp CW, each eight meters in length) will be manufactured by this method

  14. High power CW linac in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.; Wang, Y.L.; Emoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) is developing a high power electron linac for various applications. The electron beam is accelerated in CW operation to get maximum beam current of 100 mA and energy of 10 MeV. Crucial components such as a high power L-band klystron and a high power traveling wave resonant ring (TWRR) accelerator guides were designed and manufactured and their performance were examined. These design and results from the recent high power RF tests were described in this paper. (author)

  15. Fermilab linac upgrade. Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, T.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 10 6 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and discusses the near-on-line commissioning plans for this accelerator. (Author) ref., 4 figs

  16. Fermilab Linac Upgrade: Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, T.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.

    1992-12-01

    The 805 MHz Side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side-cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 10 6 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and disc the near-online commissioning plans for this accelerator

  17. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  18. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  19. Event Registration System for INR Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekhov, O.V.; Drugakov, A.N.; Kiselev, Yu.V.

    2006-01-01

    The software of the Event registration system for the linear accelerators is described. This system allows receiving of the information on changes of operating modes of the accelerator and supervising of hundreds of key parameters of various systems of the accelerator. The Event registration system consists of the source and listeners of events. The sources of events are subroutines built in existing ACS Linac. The listeners of events are software Supervisor and Client ERS. They are used for warning the operator about change controlled parameter of the accelerator

  20. Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    As the Fermilab Tevatron Collider program draws to a close, a strategy has emerged of an experimental program built around the high intensity frontier. The centerpiece of this program is a superconducting H- linac that will support world leading programs in long baseline neutrino experimentation and the study of rare processes. Based on technology shared with the International Linear Collider, Project X will provide multi-MW beams at 60-120 GeV from the Main Injector, simultaneous with very high intensity beams at lower energies. Project X also supports development of a Muon Collider as a future facility at the energy frontier.

  1. Model measurements for the switched power linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.; Caspers, F.; Haseroth, H.; Knott, J.; Willis, W.

    1987-01-01

    To study some aspects of the structure of the switched power linac (or wakefield transformer), a scaled-up model with 2.4 m diameter has been built. Measurements were performed with real-time and synthetic pulses with spectral components up to 5 GHz. Results are obtained for the achievable transformer ratio as a function of the spectral composition of the pulses and for the influence of discrete feeding at the circumference of the transformer disk. The effects of asymmetric feeding in space and time were also investigated experimentally as well as the influence of the central geometry

  2. Survey of vibration amplitudes throughout the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude of vibrations of the Linac structure due to on site disturbances, such as cooling towers, pumps, generators, Highway 280 overpass traffic, is of interest. CN-263, for example, discusses tolerances of random (i.e., uncorrelated) quad jitter and suggests that amplitudes should not exceed 0.7 microns rms. This note describes the results of a series of measurements carried out in the summer of 1983. In general, the tolerance is not exceeded, but there appears not to be a good safety factor at low frequencies

  3. Post acceleration of a pseudospark-produced electron beam by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, B.N.; Myers, T.J.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a high-brightness electron beam produced by a simple pseudospark device has been reported. Typically, the electron beam has a peak current of up to 1 kA, FWHM pulse duration of 30 ns, and an effective emittance of 4[ 2 > r2 > - 2] 1/2 = 100 mm-mrad. The normalized brightness of the beam is estimated to be on the order of 10 11 A/(m 2 -rad 2 ). This high-brightness beam may be immediately useful for high current accelerators and free-electron lasers if the beam energy can be boosted up. In this paper, the authors present preliminary results of the post acceleration of the electron beam by using an induction linac. The pseudospark device is modified by adding a trigger electrode in the hollow cavity of the cathode so that the generation of the electron beam is synchronized with the induction linac. A simple induction linac system of 25 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse is being constructed. The electron beam, which is born in a low pressure gas, will be accelerated in the same background gas. This gas provides a sufficient ion channel for necessary focusing of this high-current density beam. Preliminary results on the beam current, energy spectrum, and emittance measurements of the post-accelerated beam will be presented

  4. Effects of Field Distortions in IH-APF Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, Satoru

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelerators for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is a doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-Mev/u 200-MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in the IH-cavity are caused by an asymmetry of the gap fields due to presence of the stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the gap voltages from programmed values. The RF fields in the IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically. The intrinsic field distortions a...

  5. Conceptual design of the SPL II A high-power superconducting $H^-$ linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M; Benedico-Mora, E; Caspers, Friedhelm; Chel, S; Deconto, J M; Duperrier, R; Froidefond, E; Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Hill, C; Hori, M; Inigo-Golfin, J; Kahle, K; Kroyer, T; Küchler, D; Lallement, J B; Lindroos, M; Lombardi, A M; López Hernández, A; Magistris, M; Meinschad, T; Millich, Antonio; Noah-Messomo, E; Pagani, C; Palladino, V; Paoluzzi, M; Pasini, M; Pierini, P; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Sanmartí, M; Sargsyan, E; Scrivens, R; Silari, M; Steiner, T; Tückmantel, Joachim; Uriot, D; Vretenar, M

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the revised physics needs and recent progress in the technology of superconducting RF cavities have led to major changes in the speci cation and in the design for a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN. Compared with the rst conceptual design report (CERN 2000–012) the beam energy is almost doubled (3.5 GeV instead of 2.2 GeV), while the length of the linac is reduced by 40% and the repetition rate is reduced to 50 Hz. The basic beam power is at a level of 4–5MW and the approach chosen offers enough margins for upgrades. With this high beam power, the SPL can be the proton driver for an ISOL-type radioactive ion beam facility of the next generation (`EURISOL'), and for a neutrino facility based on superbeam C beta-beam or on muon decay in a storage ring (`neutrino factory'). The SPL can also replace the Linac2 and PS Booster in the low-energy part of the CERN proton accelerator complex, improving signi cantly the beam performance in terms of brightness and intensity for the bene t of al...

  6. View into the cage of the 520 keV preaccelerator of the PS Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The "open pill box" (in the background at the left) contains the ion source, where for many years all protons accelerated at CERN were "born". It is directly attached to the acceleration column where the protons pass from 520 kV to earth potential. The "electronics platform" (big metal structure on insulating pillars in the middle of the picture, for details see 7403120 and 7403071X) contains all the equipment that has to be at the same potential as the source itself. The smaller metal box in the foreground is part of the "bouncer", which compensated the voltage drop during acceleration of a proton pulse. The high voltage generator (not included in this photo)was originally a Cockcroft-Walton column. In 1973 it was replaced by a Sames generator (see 7403074X). Visible at the bottom right of the picture is the conductor from the "Sames". The "old" 50 MeV Linac 1, the original PS injector built in the 1950s, was (since 1976) replaced by a new 50 keV linac (Linac 2). It had a 750 keV "Cockcroft-Walton" pre-injec...

  7. Simulation at the SSCL low energy booster and coupled cavity linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourianoff, G.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, the SSC has made significant use of the MFE computer center for simulating the low energy accelerators in the SSC complex. There are two primary supercomputer applications reported here. They are the calculation of emittance growth in the LEB due to space charge effects and simulation of the side coupled cavities used in the linac. The SSC is designed to have a luminosity of 10 33 interactions per second per square centimeter. It directly determines the amount of physics which can be done with the collider and is therefore of critical importance. The luminosity is inversely proportional to the emittance of the two colliding beams. Since emittance increases monotonically through the chain of accelerators, an emittance budget has been set up defining what the allowable emittance increase is in each individual component of the accelerator. The emittance budget for the LEB calls for the emittance to enter the LEB at .4π mm - mrad and leave the LEB at .6π mm -mrad. Therefore, a set of simulations was done to determine the actual emittance growth. The linac is designed to accelerate 25 MA of H - ions from 70 MEV to 600 MEV. There are several possible cavity designs which might be used but the side coupled cavity design operating in the π/2 mode has a number of advantages concerning operating stability and ease of manufacture. It has therefore been chosen for the linac accelerator

  8. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources

  9. Compensated linac beam colliding with a stored beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csonka, P.L.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1981-01-01

    The disruptive effect of a linac beam on a beam circulating in a storage ring can be reduced by compensating for the space charge of the linac beam with a beam which is oppositely charged, may have different bunchlength as well as lower energy, and need not be circulating in a storage ring. (orig.)

  10. Characteristics of short pulse grid pulser for an electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guicheng; Fang Zhigao; Hong Jun

    1996-01-01

    An equivalent circuit is used to obtain the output waveform of a short pulse grid pulser for an electron LINAC, and the amplitude of the output pulse is studied as a function of number of switching transistors for some kinds of transistor. Two pulsers were fabricated to fulfill the requirements of the 200 MeV LINAC at NSRL

  11. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  12. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described

  13. A Pencil Beam for the Linac4 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the different accelerating structures and transport lines of Linac4 and to proceed to its commissioning, we need to produce a low current, low emittance beam. This note describes the generation of two pencil beams and their dynamic through the Linac.

  14. Proposal for the Purchase, Without a New Call for Tenders, of Four Additional Superconducting Quadrupole Magnets for the Duplication of the Low-Beta Insertion of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR)

    CERN Document Server

    1978-01-01

    Proposal for the Purchase, Without a New Call for Tenders, of Four Additional Superconducting Quadrupole Magnets for the Duplication of the Low-Beta Insertion of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR)

  15. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  16. Vacuum Technology for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiggiato, P

    2013-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for ion sources are presented, with emphasis on pressure profile calculation and choice of pumping technique. A Monte Carlo code (Molflow+) for the evaluation of conductances and the vacuum-electrical analogy for the calculation of time-dependent pressure variations are introduced. The specific case of the Linac4 H - source is reviewed. (author)

  17. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  18. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  19. Linac design for the LCLS project at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.K.; Bane, K.; Clendenin, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC is being designed to produce intense, coherent 0.15-nm x-rays. These x-rays will be produced by a single pass of a 15 GeV bunched electron beam through a long undulator. Nominally, the bunches have a charge of 1 nC, normalized transverse emittances of less than 1.5π mm-mr and an rms bunch length of 20 μm. The electron beam will be produced using the last third of the SLAC 3-km linac in a manner compatible with simultaneous operation of the remainder of the linac for PEP-II. The linac design necessary to produce an electron beam with the required brightness for LCLS is discussed, and the specific linac modifications are described

  20. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Martinez O, S. A.; Benites R, J. L.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 -6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  1. Stabilization of the RF system at the SPring-8 linac

    CERN Document Server

    Asaka, T; Hori, T; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Sakaki, H; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K; Yokomizo, H; Yoshikawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Beam energy variation of the SPring-8 linac was 1% or more at the start of beam commissioning. Depending on fluctuation, beam transmission efficiency from the linac to the booster synchrotron was significantly affected, and beam intensity in the booster synchrotron changed 20-30%. This caused delay of optimization of the various parameters in the booster synchrotron. More problematic, the beam intensities stored in each RF (radio frequency) bucket of the storage ring at SPring-8 were all different from each other. The users utilizing synchrotron radiation requested that the beam intensity in each RF bucket be as uniform as possible. It was thus a pressing necessity to stabilize the beam energy in the linac. Investigation of the cause has clarified that the various apparatuses installed in the linac periodically changed depending on circumstances and utilities such as the air conditioner, cooling water and electric power. After various improvements, beam energy stability in the linac of <0.06% rms was attai...

  2. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  3. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  4. CERN’s Linac4 H− sources: Status and operational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D.; Gil-Flores, J.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Machado, C.; Mastrostefano, C.

    2015-01-01

    Two volume sources equipped with DESY and CERN plasma generators and a low voltage electron dump were operated at 45 kV in the Linac4 tunnel and on a dedicated test stand. These volume sources delivered approximately 20 mA and ensured the commissioning of the Radio Frequency Quadrupole accelerator and of the first section of the Drift Tube Linac. CERN’s prototype of a cesiated surface source equipped with this electron dump was operated continuously from November 2013 to April 2014 on the ion source test stand and is being commissioned in the Linac4 tunnel. Before cesiation, the prototype conditioned in volume mode provided up to 30 mA H − beam. Short cesiations, of the order of 10 mg effectively reduced the intensity of co-extracted electrons down to 2 - 8 times the H − current; this cesiated surface operation mode delivered up to 60 mA H − beam. An H − beam of the order of 40 mA was sustained up to four weeks operation with 500 μs pulses at 1.2s spacing. A new extraction was designed to match these beam properties. A copy of BNL’s magnetron produced at CERN was tested at BNL and delivered at 40 kV H − beam exceeding Linac4’s nominal intensity of 80 mA. In this contribution, the performances, dynamic response to cesiation, stability and availability of these prototypes are described. The needed optimization of the emittance of H − beam above 40 mA is presented, which requires an evolution of the front end that encompasses implementation of a large ceramic insulator

  5. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-01-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun

  6. Measurements of longitudinal phase space in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Adolphsen, C.; Lavine, T.L.; Ross, M.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.

    1990-05-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the beam leaves a damping ring and then enters the Ring-to-Linac (RTL) transfer line. In the RTL it is compressed in length by a factor of 10 by means of an rf section, with which a longitudinally correlated energy variation is induced in the beam, and a following beam line which has non-zero momentum compaction. The compressed beam then enters the linac proper. In this paper we describe three measurements of longitudinal properties of the beam in the SLC linac. We present measurements of single bunch beam loading, of the energy spectrum at the end of the linac, and of the linac bunch length. Since the results of all three measurements depend on the beam's longitudinal charge distribution in the linac they, in turn, also depend on the bunch lengthening that occurs in the damping rings, as well as on the behavior of the compressor. The results of the first two measurements, in addition, depend critically on the strength of the longitudinal wakefields in the linac. The results of these three measurements are compared with simulations. For these calculations, at any given current, the potential well distortion in the damping ring is first computed. The compression process is then simulated to obtain the longitudinal charge distribution in the linac. For the first two measurements this distribution is then convolved with the calculated longitudinal wake function of the SLAC linac in order to obtain the induced voltage. Finally, the induced voltage is combined with the effect of the linac rf wave to give the final energy spectrum. 8 refs., 5 figs

  7. Production of Medical Isotopes with Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, D A; Alford, K.; Bailey, J. L.; Bowers, D. L.; Brossard, T.; Brown, M. A.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Ehst, D.; Greene, J.; Gromov, R. G.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Hafenrichter, L.; Hebden, A. S.; Henning, W.; Heltemes, T. A.; Jerden, J.; Jonah, C. D.; Kalensky, M.; Krebs, J. F.; Makarashvili, V.; Micklich, B.; Nolen, J.; Quigley, K. J.; Schneider, J. F.; Smith, N. A.; Stepinski, D. C.; Sun, Z.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Virgo, M J; Wesolowski, K. A.; Youker, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Radioisotopes play important roles in numerous areas ranging from medical treatments to national security and basic research. Radionuclide production technology for medical applications has been pursued since the early 1900s both commercially and in nuclear science centers. Many medical isotopes are now in routine production and are used in day-to-day medical procedures. Despite these advancements, research is accelerating around the world to improve the existing production methodologies as well as to develop novel radionuclides for new medical appli-cations. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) represent a unique method for the production of radioisotopes. Even though the basic technology has been around for decades, only recently have electron linacs capable of producing photons with sufficient energy and flux for radioisotope production become available. Housed in Argonne Nation-al Laboratory’s Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a newly upgraded 55 MeV/25-kW electron linear ac-celerator, capable of producing a wide range of radioiso-topes. This talk will focus on the work being performed for the production of the medical isotopes 99Mo (99Mo/99mTc generator), 67Cu, and 47Sc.

  8. Linac-driven spallation-neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Strong interest has arisen in accelerator-driven spallation-neutron sources that surpass existing facilities (such as ISIS at Rutherford or LANSCE at Los Alamos) by more than an order of magnitude in beam power delivered to the spallation target. The approach chosen by Los Alamos (as well as the European Spallation Source) provides the full beam energy by acceleration in a linac as opposed to primary acceleration in a synchrotron or other circular device. Two modes of neutron production are visualized for the source. A short-pulse mode produces 1 MW of beam power (at 60 pps) in pulses, of length less than 1 ms, by compression of the linac macropulse through multi-turn injection in an accumulator ring. A long-pulse mode produces a similar beam power with 1-ms-long pulses directly applied to a target. This latter mode rivals the performance of existing reactor facilities to very low neutron energies. Combination with the short-pulse mode addresses virtually all applications

  9. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  10. Sawtooth-wave prebuncher with dual-gaps in Linac injector for HIRFL-SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Yuan, Youjin; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Jin, Peng; Xu, Zhe; Du, Heng; Li, Zhongshan; Qiao, Jian; Wang, Kedong

    2018-01-01

    An RFQ structure is normally composed of radial matcher, shaper, gentle buncher and accelerator section with changing cell geometry. Bunching is started in the shaper, and adiabatic bunching is done in gentle buncher section. The beam preforms from DC beam to bunch beam through the RFQ and the longitudinal emittance for the ions linacs is defined initially in the RFQ, in which the beam bunch has been shaped. In the present SSC-Linac injector, an RFQ has been designed to accelerate the continuous beam from 3.728 keV/u to 143 keV/u. The heavy ions beam is injected into the SSC (Separated Sector Cyclotron) with the kinetic energy of 1.025 MeV/u after four IH DTLs. The rf frequency of the SSC is 13.417 MHz, and the frequency of the heavy ions RFQ is set to four times of the rf frequency of the SSC. In order to increase the longitudinal capture efficiency of the SSC and suppress the longitudinal emittance at the exit of RFQ, an external MHB (Multi-Harmonics Buncher) is proposed in front of the RFQ. The fundamental frequency of the MHB is the same as the rf frequency of the cyclotron. The scheme of dual-gaps prebuncher with the sawtooth waveform is firstly carried out through multi-harmonics synthetic technology. The multi-particle beam dynamic simulations of the MHB have been done by the BEAMPATH code.

  11. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  12. Computation of Normal Conducting and Superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Availabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    A brief study was conducted to roughly estimate the availability of a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (LINAC) as compared to a normal conducting (NC) one. Potentially, SC radio frequency cavities have substantial reserve capability, which allows them to compensate for failed cavities, thus increasing the availability of the overall LINAC. In the initial SC design, there is a klystron and associated equipment (e.g., power supply) for every cavity of an SC LINAC. On the other hand, a single klystron may service eight cavities in the NC LINAC. This study modeled that portion of the Spallation Neutron Source LINAC (between 200 and 1,000 MeV) that is initially proposed for conversion from NC to SC technology. Equipment common to both designs was not evaluated. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer-event-driven simulation (EDS) computer computations were performed. The estimated gain in availability when using the SC option ranges from 3 to 13% under certain equipment and conditions and spatial separation requirements. The availability of an NC LINAC is estimated to be 83%. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer EDS modeling gave the same 83% answer to within one-tenth of a percent for the NC case. Tabular fault-tree calculations of the availability of the SC LINAC (where a klystron and associated equipment drive a single cavity) give 97%, whereas EDS computer calculations give 96%, a disagreement of only 1%. This result may be somewhat fortuitous because of limitations of tabular fault-tree calculations. For example, tabular fault-tree calculations can not handle spatial effects (separation distance between failures), equipment network configurations, and some failure combinations. EDS computer modeling of various equipment configurations were examined. When there is a klystron and associated equipment for every cavity and adjacent cavity, failure can be tolerated and the SC availability was estimated to be 96%. SC availability decreased as

  13. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  14. First Linac4 DTL & CCDTL cavities installed in tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June, the first Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was successfully transported to its forever home in the Linac4 tunnel. Similarly, the first Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) was installed on 6 June. These moves marked the end of years of design and manufacturing by Linac4 teams.   Although it may seem like a relatively routine transport operation, the DTL's move was a landmark event for the entire Linac4 collaboration. "Along with the first four Cell-Coupled DTL modules, which were installed on the following two working days, these are the first accelerating structures after front-end commissioning to be installed in the tunnel," says Frank Gerigk, who is responsible for all Linac4 accelerating structures. "It is a major milestone, because work on all these structures started well over a decade ago." The transport operation was also quite a victory for the Linac4 DTL team, whose journey to a complete DTL structure has been a bit of a wild ride. &qu...

  15. Simulation studies of the LAMPF proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Gray, E.R.; Rybarcyk, L.J.; Wangler, T.P.

    1995-01-01

    The LAMPF accelerator consists of two 0.75-MeV injectors, one for H + and the other for H - , a separate low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line for each beam species, a 0.75 to 100-MeV drift-tube linac (DTL) operating at 201.25-MHz, a 100-MeV transition region (TR), and a 100 to 800-MeV side-coupled linac (SCL) operating at 805-MHz. Each LEBT line consists of a series of quadrupoles to transport and transversely match the beam. The LEBT also contains a prebuncher, a main buncher, and an electrostatic deflector. The deflector is used to limit the fraction of a macropulse which is seen by the beam diagnostics throughout the linac. The DTL consists of four rf tanks and uses singlet FODO transverse focusing. The focusing period is doubled in the last two tanks by placing a quadrupole only in every other drift-tube. Doublet FDO transverse focusing is used in the SCL. The TR consists of separate transport lines for the H + and H - beams. The pathlengths for the two beams differ, by introducing bends, so as to delay arrival of one beam relative to the other and thereby produce the desired macropulse time structure. Peak beam currents typically range from 12 to 18-mA for varying macropulse lengths which give an average beam current of 1-mA. The number of particles per bunch is of the order 10 8 . The work presented here is an extension of previous work. The authors have attempted to do a more complete simulation by including modeling of the LEBT. No measurements of the longitudinal structure of the beam, except phase-scans, are performed at LAMPF. The authors show that, based on simulation results, the primary causes of beam spill are inefficient longitudinal capture and the lack of longitudinal matching. Measurements to support these claims are not presently made at LAMPF. However, agreement between measurement and simulation for the transverse beam properties and transmissions serve to benchmark the simulations

  16. The Fermilab 400-MeV Linac Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade will increase the linac energy from 201 MeV to 401.5 MeV. Seven accelerating modules, composed of 805-MHz side-coupled cells, will accelerate H - beams from 116.5 to 401.5 MeV. The side-coupled structure (SCS) has been built, tuned, tested to full power, and placed in the linac enclosure along side the operating Linac. All seven accelerating modules, each containing four sections of sixteen cells, have been connected to 12-MW power klystrons and tested to full power for a significant period. The transition section to match the beam from the 201.25-MHz drift-tube linac to the SCS, consisting of a sixteen-cell cavity and a vernier four-cell cavity, has also been tested at full power. A new import line from the Linac to the Booster synchrotron with a new Booster injection girder is to be installed. Removal of the last four Alvarez linac tanks (116.5 to 201 MeV) and beam-line installation of the Upgrade components is to begin in early June 1993 and should take about 12 weeks. Beam commissioning of the project will follow and normal operation is expected in a short period. In preparation for beam commissioning, studies are being done with done operating linac to characterize the beam at transition and prepare for phase, amplitude and energy measurements to commission the new linac. The past, present and future activities of the 400-MeV Upgrade will be reviewed

  17. Major projects for the use of high power linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prome, M.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the major projects for high power linacs is given. The field covers the projects aiming at the transmutation of nuclear waste or the production of tritium, as well as the production of neutrons for hybrid reactors or basic research with neutron sources. The technologies which arc common to all the projects are discussed. Comments are made on the technical difficulties encountered by all the projects, and the special problems of the pulsed linacs are mentioned. Elements for a comparison of normal conducting linacs versus superconducting ones are given. Finally the technical developments being made in various laboratories are reviewed. (author)

  18. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  19. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Baily, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  20. Transverse Matching Progress Of The SNS Superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Experience using laser-wire beam profile measurement to perform transverse beam matching in the SNS superconducting linac is discussed. As the SNS beam power is ramped up to 1 MW, transverse beam matching becomes a concern to control beam loss and residual activation in the linac. In our experiments, however, beam loss is not very sensitive to the matching condition. In addition, we have encountered difficulties in performing a satisfactory transverse matching with the envelope model currently available in the XAL software framework. Offline data analysis from multi-particle tracking simulation shows that the accuracy of the current online model may not be sufficient for modeling the SC linac.