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Sample records for low-altitude himalayan lah

  1. Generalized r-Lah numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-0309-0. Generalized r-Lah numbers. MARK SHATTUCK. Department of ...... of Dowling lattices, Discrete Math. 312. (2012) 2337–2348. [7] Hsu L C and Shiue P J-S, A unified approach to generalized Stirling numbers, Adv. Appl. Math.

  2. Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sebastian

    Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 rims at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle cost expansion for path planning quickly and demonstrate it on a micro aerial vehicle, and an autonomous helicopter avoiding obstacles. Next, we examine the mission of finding a place to land near a ground goal. Good landing sites need to be detected and found and the final touch down goal is unknown. To detect the landing sites we convey a model based algorithm for landing sites that incorporates many helicopter relevant constraints such as landing sites, approach, abort, and ground paths in 3D range data. The landing site evaluation algorithm uses a patch-based coarse evaluation for slope and roughness, and a fine evaluation that fits a 3D model of the helicopter and landing gear to calculate a goodness measure. The data are evaluated in real-time to enable the helicopter to decide on a place to land. We show results from urban, vegetated, and desert environments, and demonstrate the first autonomous helicopter that selects its own landing sites. We present a generalized

  3. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  4. Source of the low-altitude hiss in the ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hájoš, Mychajlo; Zheng, L.; Zhima, Z.; Heelis, R.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Horne, R. B.; Parrot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2017), s. 2060-2069 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07027S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionospheric hiss * low-altitude hiss * plasmaspheric hiss * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL072181/full

  5. Space environment monitoring by low-altitude operational satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehl, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary task of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is the acquisition of meteorological data in the visual and infrared spectral regions. The Air Weather Service operates two satellites in low-altitude, sun-synchronous, polar orbits at 850 km altitude, 98.7 deg inclination, 101.5 minute period and dawn-dusk or noon-midnight equatorial crossing times. Special DMSP sensors of interest to the space science community are the precipitating electron spectrometer, the terrestrial noise receiver, and the topside ionosphere plasma monitor. Data from low-altitude, meteorological satellites can be used to build empirical models of precipitating electron characteristics of the auroral zone and polar cap. The Tiros-NOAA satellite program complements the DMSP program. The orbital elements are the same as DMSP's, except for the times of equatorial crossing, and the tilt of the orbital plane. The Tiros-NOAA program meets the civilian community's needs for meteorological data as the DMSP program does for the military

  6. The Study of a Super Low Altitude Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi; Homma, Masanori; Utashima, Masayoshi

    This paper reports the result of a study for super low altitude satellite. The altitude of this satellite's orbit is lower than ever. The altitude of a conventional earth observing satellite is generally around from 600km to 900km. The lowest altitude of earth observing satellite launched in Japan was 350km; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). By comparison, the satellite reported in this paper is much lower than that and it is planned to orbit below 200km. Furthermore, the duration of the flight planned is more than two years. Any satellite in the world has not achieved to keep such a low altitude that long term. The satellite in such a low orbit drops quickly because of the strong air drag. Our satellite will cancel the air drag effect by ion engine thrust. To realize this idea, a drag-free system will be applied. This usually leads a complicated and expensive satellite system. We, however, succeeded in finding a robust control law for a simple system even under the unpredictable change of air drag. When the altitude of the satellite is lowered successfully, the spatial resolution of an optical sensor can be highly improved. If a SAR is equipped with the satellite, it enables the drastic reduction of electric power consumption and the fabulous spatial resolution improvement at the same time.

  7. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...... to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning.......8-0.9) is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electro-jet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring...

  8. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    1990-01-01

    Rotorcraft operating in high-threat environments fly close to the earth's surface to utilize surrounding terrain, vegetation, or manmade objects to minimize the risk of being detected by an enemy. Increasing levels of concealment are achieved by adopting different tactics during low-altitude flight. Rotorcraft employ three tactics during low-altitude flight: low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The key feature distinguishing the NOE mode from the other two modes is that the whole rotorcraft, including the main rotor, is below tree-top whenever possible. This leads to the use of lateral maneuvers for avoiding obstacles, which in fact constitutes the means for concealment. The piloting of the rotorcraft is at best a very demanding task and the pilot will need help from onboard automation tools in order to devote more time to mission-related activities. The development of an automation tool which has the potential to detect obstacles in the rotorcraft flight path, warn the crew, and interact with the guidance system to avoid detected obstacles, presents challenging problems. Research is described which applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigtion. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle-detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automatic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. The presentation concludes with some comments on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  9. Low-altitude ion heating with downflowing and upflowing ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; James, G.; Miles, D.; Cogger, L. L.; Perry, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms that energize ions at the initial stage of ion upflow are still not well understood. We statistically investigate ionospheric ion energization and field-aligned motion at very low altitudes (330-730 km) using simultaneous plasma, magnetic field, wave electric field and optical data from the e-POP satellite. The high-time-resolution (10 ms) dataset enables us to study the micro-structures of ion heating and field-aligned ion motion. The ion temperature and field-aligned bulk flow velocity are derived from 2-D ion distribution functions measured by the SEI instrument. From March 2015 to March 2016, we've found 17 orbits (in total 24 ion heating periods) with clear ion heating signatures passing across the dayside cleft or the nightside auroral regions. Most of these events have consistent ion heating and flow velocity characteristics observed from both the SEI and IRM instruments. The perpendicular ion temperature goes up to 4.5 eV within a 2 km-wide region in some cases, in which the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) sees broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves, demonstrating significant wave-ion heating down to as low as 350 km. The e-POP Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) and Magnetic Field (MGF) instruments show that many events are associated with active aurora and are within downward current regions. Contrary to what would be expected from mirror-force acceleration of heated ions, the majority of these heating events (17 out of 24) are associated with the core ion downflow rather than upflow. These statistical results provide us with new sights into ion heating and field-aligned flow processes at very low altitudes.

  10. UAV Low Altitude Photogrammetry for Power Line Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the distance between an obstacle and a power line is less than the discharge distance, a discharge arc can be generated, resulting in the interruption of power supplies. Therefore, regular safety inspections are necessary to ensure the safe operation of power grids. Tall vegetation and buildings are the key factors threatening the safe operation of extra high voltage transmission lines within a power line corridor. Manual or laser intensity direction and ranging (LiDAR based inspections are time consuming and expensive. To make safety inspections more efficient and flexible, a low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote-sensing platform, equipped with an optical digital camera, was used to inspect power line corridors. We propose a semi-patch matching algorithm based on epipolar constraints, using both the correlation coefficient (CC and the shape of its curve to extract three dimensional (3D point clouds for a power line corridor. We use a stereo image pair from inter-strip to improve power line measurement accuracy by transforming the power line direction to an approximately perpendicular to epipolar line. The distance between the power lines and the 3D point cloud is taken as a criterion for locating obstacles within the power line corridor automatically. Experimental results show that our proposed method is a reliable, cost effective, and applicable way for practical power line inspection and can locate obstacles within the power line corridor with accuracy better than ±0.5 m.

  11. Fast calculation of low altitude disturbing gravity for ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Fanghao; Tian, Shasha

    2018-03-01

    Fast calculation of disturbing gravity is a key technology in ballistics while spherical cap harmonic(SCH) theory can be used to solve this problem. By using adjusted spherical cap harmonic(ASCH) methods, the spherical cap coordinates are projected into a global coordinates, then the non-integer associated Legendre functions(ALF) of SCH are replaced by integer ALF of spherical harmonics(SH). This new method is called virtual spherical harmonics(VSH) and some numerical experiment were done to test the effect of VSH. The results of earth's gravity model were set as the theoretical observation, and the model of regional gravity field was constructed by the new method. Simulation results show that the approximated errors are less than 5mGal in the low altitude range of the central region. In addition, numerical experiments were conducted to compare the calculation speed of SH model, SCH model and VSH model, and the results show that the calculation speed of the VSH model is raised one order magnitude in a small scope.

  12. Identification and observations of the plasma mantle at low altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, Ching-I.; Sanchez, E.R.; Burke, W.J.; Greenspan, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The direct injection of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp produces at low altitude a precipitation regime with an energy-latitude dispersion-the more poleward portion of which the authors herein term the cusp plume. An extensive survey of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F7 and F9 32 eV to 30 keV precipitating particle data shows that similar dispersive signatures exist over much of the dayside, just poleward of the auroral oval. Away from noon (or more precisely, anywhere not immediately poleward of the cusp) the fluxes are reduced by a factor of about 10 as compared to the cusp plume, but other characteristics are quite similar. For example, the inferred temperatures and flow velocities, and the characteristic decline of energy and number flux with increasing latitude is essentially the same in a longitudinally broad ring of precipitation a few degrees thick in latitude over much of the dayside. They conclude that the field lines on which such precipitation occurs thread the magnetospheric plasma mantle over the entire longitudinally extended ring. Besides the location of occurence (i.e., immediately poleward of the dayside oval), the identification is based especially on the associated very soft ion spectra, which have densities from a few times 10 -2 to a few times 10 -1 /cm 3 ; on the temperature range, which is form from a few tens of eV up to about 200 eV; amd on the characteristic gradients with latitude. Further corroborating evidence that the precipitation is associated with field lines which thread the plasma mantle includes drift meter observations which show that regions so identified based on the particle data consistently lie on antisunward convecting field lines. The observations indicate that some dayside high-latitude auroral features just poleward of the auroral oval are embedded in the plasma mantle

  13. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly in the auroral electrojets. First, we examine the results during a recent geomagnetic storm. The currents derived from two satellites at different altitudes are in very good agreement, which verifies good stability of the method. Further, a very high degree of correlation (correlation coefficients of 0.8–0.9 is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electrojet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring. A specific advantage of the satellite observations over the ground-based magnetic measurements is their coverage of the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the Northern. We utilize this in an investigation of the ionospheric currents observed in both polar regions during a period of unusually steady interplanetary magnetic field with a large negative Y-component. A pronounced asymmetry is found between the currents in the two hemispheres, which indicates real inter-hemispheric differences beyond the mirror-asymmetry between hemispheres that earlier studies have revealed. The method is also applied to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning of the magnetosphere (history of the interplanetary magnetic field is seen to play an important role, and in the winther hemisphere, it seems to be harder to

  14. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  15. Wetland Vegetation Integrity Assessment with Low Altitude Multispectral Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area. Specifically, NDVI derived from multispectral UAV imagery was used to inform the determination of the integrity of the wetland vegetation. Furthermore, we tested different software applications for the processing of the imagery. The advantages and disadvantages we experienced of these applications are also shortly presented in this paper. A JAG-M fixed-wing imaging system equipped with a MicaScene RedEdge multispectral camera were utilised for the survey. A single surveying campaign was undertaken in early autumn of a 17 ha study area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Structure-from-motion photogrammetry software was used to reconstruct the camera position's and terrain features to derive a high resolution orthoretified mosaic. MicaSense Atlas cloud-based data platform, Pix4D and PhotoScan were utilised for the processing. The WET-Health level one methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland's structure and function from its natural reference condition. An on-site evaluation of the vegetation integrity was first completed. Disturbance classes were then mapped using the high resolution multispectral orthoimages and NDVI. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the multispectral UAV products indicated that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified ("D" PES Category) and that the condition is expected to

  16. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  17. A Robust Photogrammetric Processing Method of Low-Altitude UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyao Ai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV images which include distortion, illumination variance, and large rotation angles are facing multiple challenges of image orientation and image processing. In this paper, a robust and convenient photogrammetric approach is proposed for processing low-altitude UAV images, involving a strip management method to automatically build a standardized regional aerial triangle (AT network, a parallel inner orientation algorithm, a ground control points (GCPs predicting method, and an improved Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT method to produce large number of evenly distributed reliable tie points for bundle adjustment (BA. A multi-view matching approach is improved to produce Digital Surface Models (DSM and Digital Orthophoto Maps (DOM for 3D visualization. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for photogrammetric processing of low-altitude UAV images and 3D visualization of products.

  18. Effects of repetitive training at low altitude on erythropoiesis in 400 and 800 m runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, F; Friedmann-Bette, B

    2010-06-01

    Classical altitude training can cause an increase in total hemoglobin mass (THM) if a minimum "dose of hypoxia" is reached (altitude >or=2,000 m, >or=3 weeks). We wanted to find out if repetitive exposure to mild hypoxia during living and training at low altitude (training camps at low altitude interspersed by 3 weeks of sea-level training and at the same time points in a control group (CG) of 5 well-trained runners. EPO, sTfR and ferritin were also repeatedly measured during the altitude training camps. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases in EPO- and sTfR-levels during both training camps and a significant decrease in ferritin indicating enhanced erythropoietic stimulation during living and training at low altitude. Furthermore, significant augmentation of THM by 5.1% occurred in the course of the 2 altitude training camps. In conclusion, repetitive living and training at low altitude leads to a hypoxia-induced increase in erythropoietic stimulation in elite 400 m and 800 m runners and, apparently, might also cause a consecutive augmentation of THM.

  19. 75 FR 6319 - Proposed Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by eliminating the segment... safety and the efficient use of the navigable airspace in the Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Comments...

  20. 75 FR 16336 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (T-284); Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes a low altitude area navigation (RNAV) route, designated T-284, in the Houston... navigable airspace in the Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC, July 29, 2010. The...

  1. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends low altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by... Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Effective Dates: 0901 UTC, June 3, 2010. The Director of the Federal...

  2. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS flight operations. Given this, and understanding that the FAA faces a mandate to modernize the present air traffic management system through computer automation and significantly reduce the number of air traffic controllers by FY 2020, the FAA maintains that a comprehensive, yet fully automated UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace is needed. The concept of UTM is to begin by leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today. Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management (ATM), NASA is working with industry to develop prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that would evolve airspace integration procedures for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude flight operations that autonomously manage UAS operating in an approved low-altitude airspace environment. UTM is a cloud-based system that will autonomously manage all traffic at low altitudes to include UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight of an operator. UTM would thus enable safe and efficient flight operations by providing fully integrated traffic management services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning re-routing, separation management, sequencing spacing, and contingency management. UTM removes the need for human operators to continuously monitor aircraft operating in approved areas. NASA envisions concepts for two types of UTM systems. The first would be a small portable system, which could be moved between geographical areas in support of operations such as precision agriculture and public safety. The second would be a Persistent system, which would support low-altitude operations in an approved area by providing continuous automated

  3. Lah is a transmembrane protein and requires Spa10 for stable positioning of Woronin bodies at the septal pore of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Yannik; Kakoschke, Sara Carina; Wagener, Johannes; Ebel, Frank

    2017-03-10

    Woronin bodies are specialized, fungal-specific organelles that enable an immediate closure of septal pores after injury to protect hyphae from excessive cytoplasmic bleeding. In most Ascomycetes, Woronin bodies are tethered at the septal pore by so-called Lah proteins. Using the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus as a model organism, we show that the C-terminal 288 amino acids of Lah (LahC 288 ) bind to the rim of the septal pore. LahC 288 essentially consists of a membrane spanning region and a putative extracellular domain, which are both required for the targeting to the septum. In an A. fumigatus rho4 deletion mutant that has a severe defect in septum formation, LahC 288 is recruited to spot-like structures in or at the lateral membrane. This suggests that LahC is recruited before Rho4 starts to govern the septation process. Accordingly, we found that in wild type hyphae Lah is bound before a cross-wall emerges and thus enables a tethering of Woronin bodies at the site of the newly formed septum. Finally, we identified Spa10, a member of a recently described family of septal pore-associated proteins, as a first protein that directly or indirectly interacts with LahC to allow a stable positioning of Woronin bodies at the mature septum.

  4. Method for the visualization of landform by mapping using low altitude UAV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan Kumar, N.; Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Cheang, William

    2018-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Digital Photogrammetry are evolving drastically in mapping technology. The significance and necessity for digital landform mapping are developing with years. In this study, a mapping workflow is applied to obtain two different input data sets which are the orthophoto and DSM. A fine flying technology is used to capture Low Altitude Aerial Photography (LAAP). Low altitude UAV (Drone) with the fixed advanced camera was utilized for imagery while computerized photogrammetry handling using Photo Scan was applied for cartographic information accumulation. The data processing through photogrammetry and orthomosaic processes is the main applications. High imagery quality is essential for the effectiveness and nature of normal mapping output such as 3D model, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Ortho Images. The exactitude of Ground Control Points (GCP), flight altitude and the resolution of the camera are essential for good quality DEM and Orthophoto.

  5. Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line-of-sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth's elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

  6. Accurate Modeling of Ionospheric Electromagnetic Fields Generated by a Low Altitude VLF Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2009-1055 Accurate Modeling of Ionospheric Electromagnetic Fields Generated by a Low Altitude VLF Transmitter ...m (or even 500 m) at mid to high latitudes . At low latitudes , the FDTD model exhibits variations that make it difficult to determine a reliable...Scientific, Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 02-08-2006 – 31-12-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Accurate Modeling of Ionospheric Electromagnetic Fields

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  8. Proton isotropy boundaries as measured on mid- and low-altitude satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Polar CAMMICE MICS proton pitch angle distributions with energies of 31-80 keV were analyzed to determine the locations where anisotropic pitch angle distributions (perpendicular flux dominating change to isotropic distributions. We compared the positions of these mid-altitude isotropic distribution boundaries (IDB for different activity conditions with low-altitude isotropic boundaries (IB observed by NOAA 12. Although the obtained statistical properties of IDBs were quite similar to those of IBs, a small difference in latitudes, most pronounced on the nightside and dayside, was found. We selected several events during which simultaneous observations in the same local time sector were available from Polar at mid-altitudes, and NOAA or DMSP at low-altitudes. Magnetic field mapping using the Tsyganenko T01 model with the observed solar wind input parameters showed that the low- and mid-altitude isotropization boundaries were closely located, which leads us to suggest that the Polar IDB and low-altitude IBs are related. Furthermore, we introduced a procedure to control the difference between the observed and model magnetic field to reduce the large scatter in the mapping. We showed that the isotropic distribution boundary (IDB lies in the region where Rc/ρ~6, that is at the boundary of the region where the non-adiabatic pitch angle scattering is strong enough. We therefore conclude that the scattering in the large field line curvature regions in the nightside current sheet is the main mechanism producing isotropization for the main portion of proton population in the tail current sheet. This mechanism controls the observed positions of both IB and IDB boundaries. Thus, this tail region can be probed, in its turn, with observations of these isotropy boundaries. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Energetic particles, Precipitating; Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; Magnetotail

  9. Proton isotropy boundaries as measured on mid- and low-altitude satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Polar CAMMICE MICS proton pitch angle distributions with energies of 31-80 keV were analyzed to determine the locations where anisotropic pitch angle distributions (perpendicular flux dominating change to isotropic distributions. We compared the positions of these mid-altitude isotropic distribution boundaries (IDB for different activity conditions with low-altitude isotropic boundaries (IB observed by NOAA 12. Although the obtained statistical properties of IDBs were quite similar to those of IBs, a small difference in latitudes, most pronounced on the nightside and dayside, was found. We selected several events during which simultaneous observations in the same local time sector were available from Polar at mid-altitudes, and NOAA or DMSP at low-altitudes. Magnetic field mapping using the Tsyganenko T01 model with the observed solar wind input parameters showed that the low- and mid-altitude isotropization boundaries were closely located, which leads us to suggest that the Polar IDB and low-altitude IBs are related. Furthermore, we introduced a procedure to control the difference between the observed and model magnetic field to reduce the large scatter in the mapping. We showed that the isotropic distribution boundary (IDB lies in the region where Rc/ρ~6, that is at the boundary of the region where the non-adiabatic pitch angle scattering is strong enough. We therefore conclude that the scattering in the large field line curvature regions in the nightside current sheet is the main mechanism producing isotropization for the main portion of proton population in the tail current sheet. This mechanism controls the observed positions of both IB and IDB boundaries. Thus, this tail region can be probed, in its turn, with observations of these isotropy boundaries.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Energetic particles, Precipitating; Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; Magnetotail

  10. Exotic Meteoritic Phenomena: The Tunguska Event and Anomalous Low Altitude Fireballs - Manifestations of the Mirror World ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Yoon, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of very puzzling meteoritic events including (a) The Tunguska event. It is the only known example of a low altitude atmospheric explosion. It is also the largest recorded event. Remarkably no fragments or significant chemical traces have ever been recovered. (b) Anomalous low altitude fireballs which (in some cases) have been observed to hit the ground. The absence of fragments is particularly striking in these cases, but this is not the only reason they are anomalous. The other main puzzling feature is the lack of a consistent trajectory: low altitude fireballs, if caused by an ordinary cosmic body penetrating the Earth's atmosphere, should have been extremely luminous at high altitudes. But in these anomalous cases this is (remarkably) not observed to occur !. On the other hand, there is strong evidence that most of our galaxy is made from exotic dark material - ''dark matter''. Mirror matter is one well motivated dark matter candidate, since it is dark and stable and it is required to exist if particle interactions are mirror symmetric. If mirror matter is the dark matter, then some amount must exist in our solar system. Although there is not much room for a large amount of mirror matter in the inner solar system, numerous small asteroid sized mirror matter objects are a fascinating possibility because they can potentially collide with the Earth. We demonstrate that the mirror matter theory allows for a simple explanation for the puzzling meteoritic events [both (a) and (b)] if they are due to mirror matter space-bodies. A direct consequence of this explanation is that mirror matter fragments should exist in (or on) the ground at various impact sites. The properties of this potentially recoverable material depend importantly on the sign of the photon-mirror photon kinetic mixing parameter, ε. We argue that the broad characteristics of the anomalous events suggests that ε is probably negative. Strategies for detecting mirror matter in the

  11. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  12. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. This research project will serve to help poor and vulnerable women, men, and children learn to adapt to and manage climate change in Asia's Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Why the Himalayan region is important. The region, stretching from central Afghanistan to northern ...

  13. Low altitude observations of the energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt during isolated substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.; Venkatesan, D.; Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD; Meng, C.I.

    1985-01-01

    The low energy (1-20 keV) detector registering particles onboard the polar-orbiting low altitude (approx. 850 km) DMSP-F2 and -F3 satellites also records high energy electrons penetrating the detector walls. Thus the dynamics of this electron population at L=3.5 can be studied during isolated periods of magnetospheric substorms identified by the indices of auroral electrojet (AE), geomagnetic (Ksub(p)) and ring current (Dsub(st)). Temporal changes in the electron flux during the substorms are observed to be an additional contribution riding over the top of the pre-storm (or geomagnetically quiet-time) electron population; the duration of the interval of intensity variations is observed to be about the same as that of the enhancement of the AE index. This indicates the temporal response of the outer radiation belt to the substorm activity, since the observation was made in the ''horns'' of the outer radiation belt. The observed enhanced radiation at low altitude may associate with the instantaneous increase and/or dumping of the outer radiation belt energetic electrons during each isolated substorm activity. (author)

  14. Normobaric Hypoxia Exposure during Low Altitude Stay and Performance of Elite-Level Race-Walkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sikri, AB Srinivasa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We read with profound interest the article titled ‘Increased hypoxic dose after training at low altitude with 9h per night at 3000m normobaric hypoxia’ by Carr et al. (2015. Authors have concluded that low altitude (1380 m combined with normobaric hypoxia of 3000 m improves total haemoglobin mass (Hbmass and is an effective alternate method for training. Like other studies on elite athletes, the authors of present work have brought out that a major limitation was non-availability of a control group consisting of subjects undertaking same supervised training at normoxia. The total number of ‘possible’ subjects for control group which were taken from a previous study (Saunders et al., 2010 was 11 i.e placebo group (n = 6; 3 male and 3 female and Nocebo group (n = 5; 3 female and 2 male. It seems likely that authors of the present study have chosen only 10 subjects out of those 11. The criteria for exclusion of one subject and selection of 10 out of 11 subjects from the previous study to form the control group of the present study may require further elaboration.

  15. Math modeling for helicopter simulation of low speed, low altitude and steeply descending flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, P. F.; Robinson, C.; Shaw, J.; White, F.

    1982-01-01

    A math model was formulated to represent some of the aerodynamic effects of low speed, low altitude, and steeply descending flight. The formulation is intended to be consistent with the single rotor real time simulation model at NASA Ames Research Center. The effect of low speed, low altitude flight on main rotor downwash was obtained by assuming a uniform plus first harmonic inflow model and then by using wind tunnel data in the form of hub loads to solve for the inflow coefficients. The result was a set of tables for steady and first harmonic inflow coefficients as functions of ground proximity, angle of attack, and airspeed. The aerodynamics associated with steep descending flight in the vortex ring state were modeled by replacing the steady induced downwash derived from momentum theory with an experimentally derived value and by including a thrust fluctuations effect due to vortex shedding. Tables of the induced downwash and the magnitude of the thrust fluctuations were created as functions of angle of attack and airspeed.

  16. Stable low-altitude orbits around Ganymede considering a disturbing body in a circular orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, J.; Carvalho, J. P. S.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2014-10-01

    Some missions are being planned to visit Ganymede like the Europa Jupiter System Mission that is a cooperation between NASA and ESA to insert the spacecraft JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Ganymedes orbit. This comprehension of the dynamics of these orbits around this planetary satellite is essential for the success of this type of mission. Thus, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around Ganymede. An emphasis is given in polar orbits and it can be useful in the planning of space missions to be conducted around, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of artificial satellites around Ganymede under the influence of the third-body (Jupiter's gravitational attraction) and the polygenic perturbations like those due to non-uniform distribution of mass (J_2 and J_3) of the main body. A simplified dynamic model for these perturbations is used. The Lagrange planetary equations are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. The results show the argument of pericenter circulating. However, low-altitude (100 and 150 km) polar orbits are stable. Another orbital elements behaved variating with small amplitudes. Thus, such orbits are convenient to be applied to future space missions to Ganymede. Acknowledgments: FAPESP (processes n° 2011/05671-5, 2012/12539-9 and 2012/21023-6).

  17. Stylistics of Khaje Abd ol-Lah Ansari’s Epistles

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    Azadeh Poode

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Stylistics is a knowledge that has been particularly considered by writers and speakers. Literary style of every writer shows the way of indicating speaker's thought and it is his opening key of speech's style in conveying meaning to the addressee's mind. Type of words, structures, sentences, and the way of interpreting meaning are factors in literary style elements. The effect of Khaje Abd ol-Lah Ansari's word on Sufi didactic literature is known among literary scholars. Deeply mystical concepts' integration with eloquent style in song has made the works of Khaje eternal so stylistic research about his works can show good points in literary aesthetics of his works. So besides Al-Sufi categories, his five epistles are the most preferred among his works that are described in this study.   Khaje Abd ol-Lah Ansari is among mysticism and Persian literature celebrities that besides having numerous writings, he is worthy to be analyzed in this subject in order to study his methods in writing his Sufism didactic works especially in five epistles of Kanz ol-Salekin, Vareda'at, Del va Jan, Haft Hesar, Ghalandar nama, and the pattern that is for providing next works.   At the lexical level , Khaje Abd ol-Lah's style does not have a manifest feature. His only lexical feature is repetition that is seen in three levels of letter, word, and sentence. Sometimes he repeats a word in several consecutive sentences and even in several pages. Number of old words and sounds are very few in epistles that this simplicity of language relates to the addresses that are common people and his didactic works.   According to linguistic and literary level, epistles are closer to the second period of Persian prose than the first period there is no sign of oldness in these works. Arabic words are used moderately and most of these words have been used in its modern sense. At syntax level, he has used prefix verbs specially "Dar" and

  18. Correction for reflected sky radiance in low-altitude coastal hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Park, Joong Yong; Kopilevich, Yuri; Tuell, Grady; Philpot, William

    2013-11-10

    Low-altitude coastal hyperspectral imagery is sensitive to reflections of sky radiance at the water surface. Even in the absence of sun glint, and for a calm water surface, the wide range of viewing angles may result in pronounced, low-frequency variations of the reflected sky radiance across the scan line depending on the solar position. The variation in reflected sky radiance can be obscured by strong high-spatial-frequency sun glint and at high altitude by path radiance. However, at low altitudes, the low-spatial-frequency sky radiance effect is frequently significant and is not removed effectively by the typical corrections for sun glint. The reflected sky radiance from the water surface observed by a low-altitude sensor can be modeled in the first approximation as the sum of multiple-scattered Rayleigh path radiance and the single-scattered direct-solar-beam radiance by the aerosol in the lower atmosphere. The path radiance from zenith to the half field of view (FOV) of a typical airborne spectroradiometer has relatively minimal variation and its reflected radiance to detector array results in a flat base. Therefore the along-track variation is mostly contributed by the forward single-scattered solar-beam radiance. The scattered solar-beam radiances arrive at the water surface with different incident angles. Thus the reflected radiance received at the detector array corresponds to a certain scattering angle, and its variation is most effectively parameterized using the downward scattering angle (DSA) of the solar beam. Computation of the DSA must account for the roll, pitch, and heading of the platform and the viewing geometry of the sensor along with the solar ephemeris. Once the DSA image is calculated, the near-infrared (NIR) radiance from selected water scan lines are compared, and a relationship between DSA and NIR radiance is derived. We then apply the relationship to the entire DSA image to create an NIR reference image. Using the NIR reference image

  19. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  20. High-resolution Ceres Low Altitude Mapping Orbit Atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-06-01

    The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera (FC) acquired over 31,300 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 35 m/pxl during the eleven cycles in the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phase between December 16 2015 and August 8 2016. We ortho-rectified the images from the first four cycles and produced a global, high-resolution, uncontrolled photomosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 62 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:250,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The full atlas is available to the public through the Dawn Geographical Information System (GIS) web page [http://dawngis.dlr.de/atlas] and will become available through the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) (http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/).

  1. Low-Altitude and Slow-Speed Small Target Detection Based on Spectrum Zoom Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuwang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spectrum zoom processing based target detection algorithm for detecting the weak echo of low-altitude and slow-speed small (LSS targets in heavy ground clutter environments, which can be used to retrofit the existing radar systems. With the existing range-Doppler frequency images, the proposed method firstly concatenates the data from the same Doppler frequency slot of different images and then applies the spectrum zoom processing. After performing the clutter suppression, the target detection can be finally implemented. Through the theoretical analysis and real data verification, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can obtain a preferable spectrum zoom result and improve the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR with a very low computational load.

  2. Statistical Correlation of Low-Altitude ENA Emissions with Geomagnetic Activity from IMAGE MENA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, D. A.; Jahn, J.- M.; Perez, J. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma sheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with exospheric/thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low-altitude (300-800 km) ion precipitation in the high-latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed low-altitude emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly nonisotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90deg. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity. The LAE data are from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000-2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest sensitivity. The magnetic local time distribution of LAEs is centered about midnight and spreads with increasing activity. The invariant latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate LAE behavior similar to that of ion precipitation.

  3. Statistical correlation of low-altitude ENA emissions with geomagnetic activity from IMAGE/MENA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, D. A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Perez, J. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma sheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with exospheric/thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low-altitude (300-800 km) ion precipitation in the high-latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed low-altitude emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly nonisotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90°. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity. The LAE data are from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000-2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest sensitivity. The magnetic local time distribution of LAEs is centered about midnight and spreads with increasing activity. The invariant latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate LAE behavior similar to that of ion precipitation.

  4. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana I; Ehsani, Reza; Ploetz, Randy C; Crane, Jonathan H; Buchanon, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs), band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR), (Red-Green) and Combination 1 (COMB1) in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB) to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the rapid detection

  5. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I de Castro

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana. This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs, band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR, (Red-Green and Combination 1 (COMB1 in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the

  6. Lagrangian analysis of low altitude anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical evolution of an anthropogenic plume from the New-York/Boston region during its transport at low altitudes over the North Atlantic to the European west coast has been studied using a Lagrangian framework. This plume, originally strongly polluted, was sampled by research aircraft just off the North American east coast on 3 successive days, and then 3 days downwind off the west coast of Ireland where another aircraft re-sampled a weakly polluted plume. Changes in trace gas concentrations during transport are reproduced using a photochemical trajectory model including deposition and mixing effects. Chemical and wet deposition processing dominated the evolution of all pollutants in the plume. The mean net photochemical O3 production is estimated to be −5 ppbv/day leading to low O3 by the time the plume reached Europe. Model runs with no wet deposition of HNO3 predicted much lower average net destruction of −1 ppbv/day O3, arising from increased levels of NOx via photolysis of HNO3. This indicates that wet deposition of HNO3 is indirectly responsible for 80% of the net destruction of ozone during plume transport. If the plume had not encountered precipitation, it would have reached Europe with O3 concentrations of up to 80 to 90 ppbv and CO between 120 and 140 ppbv. Photochemical destruction also played a more important role than mixing in the evolution of plume CO due to high levels of O3 and water vapour showing that CO cannot always be used as a tracer for polluted air masses, especially in plumes transported at low altitudes. The results also show that, in this case, an increase in O3/CO slopes can be attributed to photochemical destruction of CO and not to photochemical O3 production as is often assumed.

  7. Himalayan hydro on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The prospects for development of hydro in the Himalayas has been enhanced by privatisation and the urgent need for clean electricity in the north of India. There are various hurdles to be overcome before the projects are likely to move forward in earnest before 2005, and these are mentioned. The demand for electricity in India is said to be enormous. At present, there is much polluting industry along the Himalayas. As throughout the Indian privatisation dilemma, the critical issues for development of Himalayan hydro come down to credible commercial power markets and finance. With regard to finance and administrative changes, the Indian government is carrying out a number of actions and these are itemised. The US is vigorously promoting the development of Himalayan hydro as a key to much needed regional co-operation and the World Bank is supportive

  8. Ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation in rain forests of low altitude on complex metamorphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cantos Cevallos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation of the low altitude rain forest on a metamorphic complex, Quibiján-Naranjal del Toa sector, a floristic inventory was carried out, 36 sample plots of 20 x 25 m in the forest in both sides of Toa's riverside. Tree species with d1,3 e» 5 cm were measured, a total of 1507 individuals represented in 52 species belonging to 49 genera and 24 families were identified and evaluated. Both forests were statistically compared in terms of richness, composition, structure, diversity and abundance, with a high alpha and beta diversity. The species with the highest value index of ecological importance were determined. The families Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lauraceae and Meliaceae are the most representative in terms of species and genera. The most important species are Hibiscus elatus, Calophyllum utile, Carapa guianensis, Buhenavia capitata, y Guarea guara, among others, which stand out as the most abundant. Economic occupation was adequate in a few plots and incomplete in most of the sampling units. Taking into account the results obtained, we propose silvicultural actions aimed at sustainable forest management through the application of improvement shorts and the method of enrichment in dense spaced-groups for the rehabilitation and the achievement of the expected multiethane forest.

  9. Some low-altitude cusp dependencies on the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, C.; Sibeck, D.G.; Lepping, R.

    1989-01-01

    Although it has become well established that the low-altitude polar cusp moves equatorward during intervals of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B z y negative (positive) in the northern (southern) hemisphere and postnoon for B y positive (negative) in the northern (southern) hemisphere. The B y induced shift is much more pronounced for southward than for northward B z , a result that appears to be consistent with elementary considerations from, for example, the antiparallel merging model. No interhemispherical latitudinal differences in cusp positions were found that could be attributed to the IMF B x component. As expected, the cusp latitudinal position correlated reasonably well (0.70) with B z when the IMF had a southward component; the previously much less investigated correlation for B z northward proved to be only 0.18, suggestive of a half-wave rectifier effect. The ratio of cusp ion number flux precipitation for B z southward to that for B z northward was 1.75±0.12. The statistical local time (full) width of the cusp proper was found to be 2.1 hours for B z northward and 2.8 hours for B z southward. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  10. Local-time survey of plasma at low altitudes over the auroral zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Local-time survey of the low-energy proton and electron intensities precipitated into the earth's atmosphere over the auroral zones during periods of magnetic quiescence. This survey was constructed by selecting a typical individual satellite crossing of this region in each of eight local-time sectors from a large library of similar observations with the polar-orbiting satellite Injun 5. The trapping boundary for more-energetic electron intensities, E greater than 45 keV, was found to be a 'natural coordinate' for delineating the boundary between the two major types of lower-energy, 50 less than or equal to E less than or equal to 15,000 eV, electron precipitation commonly observed over the auroral zones at low altitudes. Poleward of this trapping boundary inverted 'V' electron precipitation bands are observed in all local-time sectors. These inverted 'V' electron bands in the evening and midnight sectors are typically more energetic and have greater latitudinal widths than their counterparts in the noon and morning sectors. In general, the main contributors to the electron energy influx into the earth's atmosphere over the auroral zones are the electron inverted 'V' precipitation poleward of the trapping boundary in late evening, the plasma-sheet electron intensities equatorward of this boundary in early morning, and both of these precipitation events near local midnight.

  11. Field lin topology in the dayside cusp region inferred from low altitude particle observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeraas, F.

    1977-12-01

    Dayside low altitude satellite observations of the pitch angle and energy distribution of electrons and protons in the energy range 1 keV to 100 keV during quiet geomagnetic conditions reveal that at times there is a clear latitudinal separation between the precipitating low energy (keV) electrons and protons, with the protons precipitating poleward of the electrons. The high energy (100keV) proton precipitation overlaps both the low energy electron and proton precipitation. These observations are consistent with a model where magnetosheath particles stream in along the cusp field lines and are at the same time convected poleward by an electric field. Electrons with energies of a few keV move fast and give the ''ionospheric footprint'' of the distant cusp. The protons are partly convected poleward of the cusp and into the polar cap. Here the mirroring protons populate the plasma mantle. Equatorward of the cusp the pitch angle distribution of both electrons and protons with energies above a few keV have a pancake shaped distribution indicating closed geomagnetic field lines. The 1 keV electrons penetrate into this region of closed field line structure maintaining an isotropic pitch angle distribution. The intensity is, however, reduced with respect to what it was in the cusp region. It is suggested that these electrons, the lowest measured on the satellite, are associated with the entry layer.(Auth.)

  12. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  13. ELF and VLF signatures of sprites registered onboard the low altitude satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Błęcki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of ELF and VLF signature of sprites recorded on the low altitude satellite DEMETER during thunderstorm activity. At an altitude of ~700 km, waves observed on the E-field spectrograms at mid-to-low latitudes during night time are mainly dominated by up-going 0+ whistlers. During the night of 20 July 2007 two sprites have been observed around 20:10:08 UT from the observatory located on the top of the mountain Śnieżka in Poland (50°44'09" N, 15°44'21" E, 1603 m and, ELF and VLF data have been recorded by the satellite at about 1200 km from the region of thunderstorm activity. During this event, the DEMETER instruments were switched in the burst mode and it was possible to register the wave forms. It is shown that the two sprites have been triggered by two intense +CG lightning strokes (100 kA occurring during the same millisecond but not at the same location. Despite the distance DEMETER has recorded at the same time intense and unusual ELF and VLF emissions. It is shown that the whistler wave propagates from the thunderstorm regions in the Earth-ionosphere guide and enters in the ionosphere below the satellite. They last several tens of milliseconds and the intensity of the ELF waveform is close to 1 mV/m. A particularly intense proton whistler is also associated with these emissions.

  14. Low altitude unmanned aerial vehicle for characterising remediation effectiveness following the FDNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Payton, O.D.; Fardoulis, J.S.; Richards, D.A.; Yamashiki, Y.; Scott, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    On the 12th of March 2011, The Great Tōhoku Earthquake occurred 70 km off the eastern coast of Japan, generating a large 14 m high tsunami. The ensuing catalogue of events over the succeeding 12 d resulted in the release of considerable quantities of radioactive material into the environment. Important to the large-scale remediation of the affected areas is the accurate and high spatial resolution characterisation of contamination, including the verification of decontaminated areas. To enable this, a low altitude unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a lightweight gamma-spectrometer and height normalisation system was used to produce sub-meter resolution maps of contamination. This system provided a valuable method to examine both contaminated and remediated areas rapidly, whilst greatly reducing the dose received by the operator, typically in localities formerly inaccessible to ground-based survey methods. The characterisation of three sites within Fukushima Prefecture is presented; one remediated (and a site of much previous attention), one un-remediated and a third having been subjected to an alternative method to reduce emitted radiation dose. - Highlights: • Contamination near FDNPP was mapped with a UAV. • Effectiveness of remediation is observed. • Sub-meter resolution mapping is achieved. • Isotopic nature of radiation is determined.

  15. Differences in Hematological Traits between High- and Low-Altitude Lizards (Genus Phrynocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsong Lu

    Full Text Available Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae is considered to be the highest living reptile in the world (about 4500-5000 m above sea level, whereas Phrynocephalus przewalskii inhabits low altitudes (about 1000-1500 m above sea level. Here, we report the differences in hematological traits between these two different Phrynocephalus species. Compared with P. przewalskii, the results indicated that P. erythrurus own higher oxygen carrying capacity by increasing red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration ([Hb] and hematocrit (Hct and these elevations could promote oxygen carrying capacity without disadvantage of high viscosity. The lower partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2 of P. erythrurus did not cause the secondary alkalosis, which may be attributed to an efficient pulmonary system for oxygen (O2 loading. The elevated blood-O2 affinity in P. erythrurus may be achieved by increasing intrinsic O2 affinity of isoHbs and balancing the independent effects of potential heterotropic ligands. We detected one α-globin gene and three β-globin genes with 1 and 33 amino acid substitutions between these two species, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation results showed that amino acids substitutions in β-globin chains could lead to the elimination of hydrogen bonds in T-state Hb models of P. erythrurus. Based on the present data, we suggest that P. erythrurus have evolved an efficient oxygen transport system under the unremitting hypobaric hypoxia.

  16. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  17. The Advantage by Using Low-Altitude UAV for Sustainable Urban Development Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djimantoro, Michael I.; Suhardjanto, Gatot

    2017-12-01

    The City will always grow and develop along with the increasing number of population which affect more demands of building space in the city. Thoserequirements of development can be done by the government, the private sector or by the individual sectors, but it needs to follow the ordinance which is set in the city plan to avoid the adverse negative impact in the future. The problems are if the monitored development in the city is like Jakarta - Indonesia, which have an area of 661 square kilometres compared with the limitation of government employee source. Therefore, it is important to advancing the new tools to monitor the development of the city, due to the large development area and the limitation of source. This research explores the using of Low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) combined with photogrammetry techniques - a new rapidly developing technology - to collect as-built building development information in real time, cost-effective and efficient manner. The result of this research explores the possibility of using the UAV in sustainable urban development control and it can detect the anomalies of the development.

  18. Medical Implications of Space Radiation Exposure Due to Low-Altitude Polar Orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Auñon-Chancellor, Serena M; Charles, John

    2018-01-01

    Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity. In this study, we have modeled the nominal and off-nominal radiation environment that a MOL-like spacecraft vehicle would be exposed to during a 30-d mission using high performance, multicore computers. Projected doses from a historically large SPE (e.g., the August 1972 solar event) have been analyzed in the context of the MOL orbit profile, providing an opportunity to study its impact to crew health and subsequent contingencies. It is reasonable to presume that future commercial, government, and military spaceflight missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) will have vehicles with similar shielding and orbital profiles. Studying the impact of cosmic radiation to the mission's operational integrity and the health of MOL crewmembers provides an excellent surrogate and case-study for future commercial and military spaceflight missions.Chancellor JC, Auñon-Chancellor SM, Charles J. Medical implications of space radiation exposure due to low-altitude polar orbits. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):3-8.

  19. DETERMINING SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE COEFFICIENTS FROM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES OBTAINED FROM LOW ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Walczykowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based, object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor

  20. Real-Time Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Low-Altitude Fixed-Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, Shahboddin

    The GeoSurv II is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) being developed by Carleton University and Sander Geophysics. This thesis is in support of the GeoSurv II project. The objective of the GeoSurv II project is to create a fully autonomous UAV capable of performing geophysical surveys. In order to achieve this level of autonomy, the UAV, which due to the nature of its surveys flies at low altitude, must be able to avoid potential obstacles such as trees, powerlines, telecommunication towers, etc. Developing a method to avoid these obstacles is the objective of this thesis. The literature is rich in methods for trajectory planning and mid-air collision avoidance with other aircraft. In contrast, in this thesis, a method for avoiding static obstacles that are not known a priori is developed. The potential flow theory and panel method are borrowed from fluid mechanics and are employed to generate evasive maneuvers when obstacles are encountered. By means of appropriate modelling of obstacles, the aircraft's constraints are taken into account such that the evasive maneuvers are feasible for the UAV. Moreover, the method is developed with consideration of the limitations of obstacle detection in GeoSurv II. Due to the unavailability of the GeoSurv II aircraft, and the lack of a complete model for GeoSurv II, the method developed is implemented on the non-linear model of the Aerosonde UAV. The Aerosonde model is then subjected to various obstacle scenarios and it is seen that the UAV successfully avoids the obstacles.

  1. Propagation of whistler-mode chorus to low altitudes: divergent ray trajectories and ground accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chum

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ray trajectories of nonductedly propagating lower-band chorus waves with respect to their initial angle θ0, between the wave vector and ambient magnetic field. Although we consider a wide range of initial angles θ0, in order to be consistent with recent satellite observations, we pay special attention to the intervals of initial angles θ0, for which the waves propagate along the field lines in the source region, i.e. we mainly focus on waves generated with &theta0 within an interval close to 0° and on waves generated within an interval close to the Gendrin angle. We demonstrate that the ray trajectories of waves generated within an interval close to the Gendrin angle with a wave vector directed towards the lower L-shells (to the Earth significantly diverge at the frequencies typical for the lower-band chorus. Some of these diverging trajectories reach the topside ionosphere having θ close to 0°; thus, a part of the energy may leak to the ground at higher altitudes where the field lines have a nearly vertical direction. The waves generated with different initial angles are reflected. A small variation of the initial wave normal angle thus very dramatically changes the behaviour of the resulting ray. Although our approach is rather theoretical, based on the ray tracing simulation, we show that the initial angle θ0 of the waves reaching the ionosphere (possibly ground is surprisingly close - differs just by several degrees from the initial angles which fits the observation of magnetospherically reflected chorus revealed by CLUSTER satellites. We also mention observations of diverging trajectories on low altitude satellites.

  2. Determining Spectral Reflectance Coefficients from Hyperspectral Images Obtained from Low Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Orych, A.; Siok, K.

    2016-06-01

    Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based), object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor mounted on an

  3. Influence of Ionization Degrees on the Evolutions of Charged Particles in Atmospheric Plasma at Low Altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xuexia; Deng Zechao; Jia Pengying; Liang Weihua; Li Xia

    2012-01-01

    A zero-dimensional model which includes 56 species of reactants and 427 reactions is used to study the behavior of charged particles in atmospheric plasmas with different ionization degrees at low altitude (near 0 km). The constant coefficient nonlinear equations are solved by using the Quasi-steady-state approximation method. The electron lifetimes are obtained for afterglow plasma with different initial values, and the temporal evolutions of the main charged species are presented, which are dominant in reaction processes. The results show that the electron number density decays quickly. The lifetimes of electrons are shortened by about two orders with increasing ionization degree. Electrons then attach to neutral particles and produce negative ions. When the initial electron densities are in the range of 10 10 ∼ 10 14 cm −3 , the negative ions have sufficiently high densities and long lifetimes for air purification, disinfection and sterilization. Electrons, O 2 − , O 4 − , CO 4 − and CO 3 − are the dominant negative species when the initial electron density n e0 ≤ 10 13 cm −3 , and only electrons and CO 3 − are left when n e0 ≥ 10 15 cm −3 · N + 2 , N + 4 and O + 2 are dominant in the positive charges for any ionization degree. Other positive species, such as O + 4 , N + 3 , NO + , NO + 2 , Ar + 2 and H 3 O + ·H 2 O, are dominant only for a certain ionization degree and in a certain period. (low temperature plasma)

  4. Tinjauan Hukum Islam tentang Praktik Jual Beli Sayur Melalui Wakâlah di Desa Krisik Ponorogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harir Muzakki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the transaction of vegetables through wakâlah method in Krisik Village Ponorogo from Islamic legal perspective. Wakâlah requires four important elements: the person who gives a trust (muwakkil, the trustee (muwakkal or wakîl, the deed (muwakkal fîh, and the transaction statements (ijâb-qabûl. The transaction of vegetables in Krisik Village is done in an unusual way. In many areas, the brokers usually buy all farmers’ crops at once and pay for the farmers in-cash. In Krisik Village, the brokers, however, first of all, sell farmers’ vegetables into markets. The brokers will pay the farmers for their vegetables afterward. It means that the brokers do not pay for the farmers in-cash. It is also found that the farmers and brokers in Krisik Village make an uncommon agreement (‘aqd, in which they agree to reduce the scale. The practice seems to violate a number of Quranic verses, which ask people to enhance the scales. Such a practice of reducing scale has been a “common agreement” among the Krisik people for decades. On the one hand, the practice aims at preventing the brokers from loss, while on the other the farmers do not feel aggrieved from the reduction of the scale.

  5. DOA Estimation of Low Altitude Target Based on Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization-multiple Signal Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm requires significant computational effort and can not be employed for the Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation of targets in a low-altitude multipath environment. As such, a novel MUSIC approach is proposed on the basis of the algorithm of Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization (ASGSO. The virtual spatial smoothing of the matrix formed by each snapshot is used to realize the decorrelation of the multipath signal and the establishment of a fullorder correlation matrix. ASGSO optimizes the function and estimates the elevation of the target. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can overcome the low altitude multipath effect and estimate the DOA of target readily and precisely without radar effective aperture loss.

  6. Mercury's Hollows: New Information on Distribution and Morphology from MESSENGER Observations at Low Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, D. T.; Stadermann, A. C.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    MESSENGER's orbital mission at Mercury led to the discovery of an unusual landform not known from other airless rocky bodies of the Solar System. Hollows are irregularly shaped, shallow, rimless depressions, often occurring in clusters and with high-reflectance interiors and halos. The fresh appearance of hollows suggests that they are relatively young features. For example, hollows are uncratered, and talus aprons downslope of hollows in certain cases appear to be covering small impact craters (100-200 in diameter). Hence, some hollows may be actively forming at present. The characteristics of hollows are suggestive of formation via destruction of a volatile-bearing phase (possibly one or more sulfides) through solar heating, micrometeoroid bombardment, and/or ion impact. Previous analysis showed that hollows are associated with low-reflectance material (LRM), a color unit identified from global color images. The material hosting hollows has often been excavated from depth by basin or crater impacts. Hollows are small features (tens of meters to several kilometers), so their detection and characterization with MESSENGER's global maps have been limited. MESSENGER's low-altitude orbits provide opportunities for collection of images at high spatial resolutions, which reveal new occurrences of hollows and offer views of hollows with unprecedented detail. As of this writing, we have examined more than 21,000 images with pixel sizes Shadow-length measurements were made on 280 images, yielding the depths of 1343 individual hollows. The mean depth is 30 m, with a standard deviation of 17 m. We also explored correlations between the geographic locations of hollows and maps provided by the MESSENGER geochemical sensors (X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Spectrometers), including the abundances of Al/Si, Ca/Si, Fe/Si, K, Mg/Si, and S/Si, as well as total neutron cross-section. No clear compositional trends emerged; it is likely that any true compositional preference for terrain

  7. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network.

  8. Impacts of more frequent droughts on a relict low-altitude Pinus uncinata stand in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eCorona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold microclimatic conditions provide exceptional microhabitats to Pinus uncinata stands occurring at abnormally low altitudes in seven paleorefugia of the northern French Alps. Here, P. uncinata is located at the lower bounds of its ecological limits and therefore expected to provide a sensitive indicator of climate change processes. We used dendrochronological analysis to study the growth patterns of closely spaced chronologies across an elevational transect and compare a relict low-altitude to a P. uncinata stand located at the alpine treeline. Two detrending procedures are used to reveal high and low-frequency wavelengths embedded in annually resolved ring-width series. Growth response of P. uncinata to instrumental temperature and precipitation data is investigated by means of moving response function analyses. Results show an increase in the sensitivity of tree-ring widths to drought during previous summer in both stands. At the treeline stand, an increasing correlation with fall temperature is observed whereby low-frequency variability of fall temperature and radial tree growth increased in two synchronous steps around ~1930 and from ~1980–present. At the low-altitude stand, P. uncinata appears more drought sensitive and exhibits a sharp growth decline since the mid-1980s, coinciding with increasing summer temperatures. Growth divergence between the two stands can be observed since the mid-1980s. We argue that the positive growth trend at the high-altitude stand is due to increasing fall temperatures which would favor the formation of metabolic reserves in conjunction with atmospheric CO2 enrichment that in turn would facilitate improved water use efficiency. At the relict low-altitude stand, in contrast, it seems that improved water use efficiency cannot compensate for the increase in summer temperatures.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  10. Increased Hypoxic Dose After Training at Low Altitude with 9h Per Night at 3000m Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Saunders, Philo U; Vallance, Brent S; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    This study examined effects of low altitude training and a live-high: train-low protocol (combining both natural and simulated modalities) on haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion, and submaximal exercise measures. Eighteen elite-level race-walkers were assigned to one of two experimental groups; lowHH (low Hypobaric Hypoxia: continuous exposure to 1380 m for 21 consecutive days; n = 10) or a combined low altitude training and nightly Normobaric Hypoxia (lowHH+NHnight: living and training at 1380 m, plus 9 h.night(-1) at a simulated altitude of 3000 m using hypoxic tents; n = 8). A control group (CON; n = 10) lived and trained at 600 m. Measurement of Hbmass, time to exhaustion and VO2max was performed before and after the training intervention. Paired samples t-tests were used to assess absolute and percentage change pre and post-test differences within groups, and differences between groups were assessed using a one-way ANOVA with least significant difference post-hoc testing. Statistical significance was tested at p altitude (1380 m) combined with sleeping in altitude tents (3000 m) as one effective alternative to traditional altitude training methods, which can improve Hbmass. Key pointsIn some countries, it may not be possible to perform classical altitude training effectively, due to the low elevation at altitude training venues. An additional hypoxic stimulus can be provided by simulating higher altitudes overnight, using altitude tents.Three weeks of combined (living and training at 1380 m) and simulated altitude exposure (at 3000 m) can improve haemoglobin mass by over 3% in comparison to control values, and can also improve time to exhaustion by ~9% in comparison to baseline.We recommend that, in the context of an altitude training camp at low altitudes (~1400 m) the addition of a relatively short exposure to simulated altitudes of 3000 m can elicit physiological and performance benefits, without compromise to

  11. Bovine α-Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (α-LAH Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+ radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD were investigated. The insulin resistance model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice with HFD (60% kcal from fat for eight weeks. Then, the mice were fed with HFD and bovine α-LAH of different doses (100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. for another 12 weeks to evaluate its protective effects against HFD-induced insulin resistance. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT were conducted after intervention with α-LAH for 10 weeks and 11 weeks, respectively. Results showed that bovine α-LAH significantly reduced body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, lowered the area-under-the-curve (AUC during OGTT and ipITT, and downregulated inflammation-related gene [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1] expression in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, bovine α-LAH also suppressed insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (Ser307, Ser612, enhanced protein kinase B (known as Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited the activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. These results suggested that bovine α-LAH could ameliorate adipose insulin resistance and inflammation through IKK and MAPK signaling

  12. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...... the hypothesis that the color pattern in question-light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)-is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results in temperature-sensitive pigment production. Our study shows that marbled mink carry a mutation in exon 4...... of the TYR gene (c.1835C > G) which results in an amino acid substitution (p.H420Q). The location of this substitution corresponds to the amino acid position that is also mutated in the TYR protein of the Himalayan mouse. Thus, the marbled variant is more aptly referred to as the Himalayan mink....

  13. Increased Hypoxic Dose After Training at Low Altitude with 9h Per Night at 3000m Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Carr, Philo U. Saunders, Brent S. Vallance, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Christopher J. Gore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined effects of low altitude training and a live-high: train-low protocol (combining both natural and simulated modalities on haemoglobin mass (Hbmass, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max, time to exhaustion, and submaximal exercise measures. Eighteen elite-level race-walkers were assigned to one of two experimental groups; lowHH (low Hypobaric Hypoxia: continuous exposure to 1380 m for 21 consecutive days; n = 10 or a combined low altitude training and nightly Normobaric Hypoxia (lowHH+NHnight: living and training at 1380 m, plus 9 h.night-1 at a simulated altitude of 3000 m using hypoxic tents; n = 8. A control group (CON; n = 10 lived and trained at 600 m. Measurement of Hbmass, time to exhaustion and VO2max was performed before and after the training intervention. Paired samples t-tests were used to assess absolute and percentage change pre and post-test differences within groups, and differences between groups were assessed using a one-way ANOVA with least significant difference post-hoc testing. Statistical significance was tested at p < 0.05. There was a 3.7% increase in Hbmass in lowHH+NHnight compared with CON (p = 0.02. In comparison to baseline, Hbmass increased by 1.2% (±1.4% in the lowHH group, 2.6% (±1.8% in lowHH+NHnight, and there was a decrease of 0.9% (±4.9% in CON. VO2max increased by ~4% within both experimental conditions but was not significantly greater than the 1% increase in CON. There was a ~9% difference in pre and post-intervention values in time to exhaustion after lowHH+NH-night (p = 0.03 and a ~8% pre to post-intervention difference (p = 0.006 after lowHH only. We recommend low altitude (1380 m combined with sleeping in altitude tents (3000 m as one effective alternative to traditional altitude training methods, which can improve Hbmass.

  14. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  15. The usefulness of low-altitude aerial photography for the assessment of channel morphodynamics of a lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowski Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of using low-altitude aerial images of a modern river channel, acquired from an ultralight aircraft. The images have been taken for two sections of the Vistula river: in the Małopolska Gorge and near Dęblin and Gołąb. Alongside with research flights, there were also terrestrial investigations, such as echo sounding of the riverbed and geological mapping, carried out in the river channel zone. A comparison of the results of aerial and terrestrial research revealed high clarity of the images, allowing for precise identification of the evidence that indicates the specific course of river channel processes. Aerial images taken from ultralight aircrafts can significantly increase the accuracy of geological surveys of river channel zones in the Polish Lowlands due to low logistic requirements.

  16. Geometry of duskside equatorial current during magnetic storm main phase as deduced from magnetospheric and low-altitude observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dubyagin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a coordinated study of the moderate magnetic storm on 22 July 2009. The THEMIS and GOES observations of magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere were complemented by energetic particle observations at low altitude by the six NOAA POES satellites. Observations in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit revealed a relatively thin (half-thickness of less than 1 RE and intense current sheet in the dusk MLT sector during the main phase of the storm. The total westward current (integrated along the z-direction on the duskside at r ~ 6.6 RE was comparable to that in the midnight sector. Such a configuration cannot be adequately described by existing magnetic field models with predefined current systems (error in B > 60 nT. At the same time, low-altitude isotropic boundaries (IB of > 80 keV protons in the dusk sector were shifted ~ 4° equatorward relative to the IBs in the midnight sector. Both the equatorward IB shift and the current strength on the duskside correlate with the Sym-H* index. These findings imply a close relation between the current intensification and equatorward IB shift in the dusk sector. The analysis of IB dispersion revealed that high-energy IBs (E > 100 keV always exhibit normal dispersion (i.e., that for pitch angle scattering on curved field lines. Anomalous dispersion is sometimes observed in the low-energy channels (~ 30–100 keV. The maximum occurrence rate of anomalous dispersion was observed during the main phase of the storm in the dusk sector.

  17. Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intense rainfall often leads to floods and landslides in the Himalayan region even with rainfall amounts that are considered comparatively moderate over the plains; for example, 'cloudbursts', which are devastating convective phenomena producing sudden high-intensity rainfall (∼10 cm per hour) over a small area.

  18. A New Perspective: Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Coral Bleaching with Unmanned Low Altitude Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J.; Franklin, E. C.; Hunter, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Coral reefs are biodiversity hotspots that are vital to the function of global economic and biological processes. Coral bleaching is a significant contributor to the global decline of reefs and can impact an expansive reef area over short timescales. In order to understand the dynamics of coral bleaching and how these stress events impact reef ecosystems, it is important to conduct rapid bleaching surveys at functionally important spatial scales. Due to the inherent heterogeneity, size, and in some cases, remoteness of coral reefs, it is difficult to routinely monitor coral bleaching dynamics before, during, and after bleaching. Additionally, current in situ survey methods only collect snippets of discrete reef data over small reef areas, which are unable to accurately represent the reef as a whole. We present a new technique using small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) as cost effective, efficient monitoring tools that target small to intermediate-scale reef dynamics to understand the spatial distribution of bleached coral colonies during the 2015 bleaching event on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Overlapping low altitude aerial images were collected at four reefs during the bleaching period and processed using Structure-from-Motion techniques to produce georeferenced and spatially accurate orthomosaics of complete reef areas. Mosaics were analyzed using manual and heuristic neural network classification schemes to identify comprehensive populations of bleached and live coral on each patch reef. We found that bleached colonies had random and clumped distributions on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay depending on local environmental conditions. Our work demonstrates that sUAS provide a low cost, efficient platform that can rapidly and repeatedly collect high-resolution imagery (1 cm/pixel) and map large areas of shallow reef ecosystems (5 hectares). This study proves the feasibility of utilizing sUAS as a tool to collect spatially rich reef data that will provide reef

  19. Applications of Low Altitude Remote Sensing in Agriculture upon Farmers' Requests– A Case Study in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M.

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams. PMID:25386696

  20. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams.

  1. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhang

    Full Text Available With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams.

  2. The Origin of Low Altitude ENA Emissions from Storms in 2000-2005 as Observed by IMAGE/MENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J. D.; Sheehan, M. M.; Jahn, J.; Mackler, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Low Altitude Emissions (LAEs) are prevalent features of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the inner magnetosphere. It is believed that they are created by precipitating ions that reach altitudes near 500 km and then charge exchange with oxygen atoms, subsequently escaping to be observed by satellite borne ENA imagers. In this study, LAEs from the MENA instrument onboard the IMAGE satellite are studied in order to learn about the origin of the precipitating ions. Using the Tsyganenko 05 magnetic field model, the bright pixels capturing the LAEs are mapped to the equator. The LAEs are believed to originate from ions near their mirroring point, i.e., with pitch angles near 90o. Therefore the angle between the line-of-sight and the magnetic field at the point of origin is used to further constrain possible magnetospheric regions that are the origin of the ENAs. By observing the time dependence of the strength and location of the LAEs during geomagnetic storms in the years 2000-2005, the dynamics of the emptying and filling of the loss cone by injected particles is observed. Thus, information regarding the coupling between the inner magnetosphere and the ionosphere is obtained.

  3. Adoption of an unmanned helicopter for low-altitude remote sensing to estimate yield and total biomass of a rice crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radio-controlled unmanned helicopter-based LARS (Low-Altitude Remote Sensing) platform was used to acquire quality images of high spatial and temporal resolution, in order to estimate yield and total biomass of a rice crop (Oriza Sativa, L.). Fifteen rice field plots with five N-treatments (0, 33,...

  4. A low-altitude mountain range as an important refugium for two narrow endemics in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel, Gunnar; Robinson, Todd P.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Yates, Colin J.; Niel, Van Kimberly P.; Byrne, Margaret; Schut, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Low-altitude mountains constitute important centres of diversity in landscapes with little topographic variation, such as the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). They also provide unique climatic and edaphic conditions that may allow them to function as refugia. We

  5. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  6. Depth Estimation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Clear Water Streams Using Low-Altitude Optical Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Fleur; Buis, Kerst; Verschoren, Veerle; Meire, Patrick

    2015-09-30

    UAVs and other low-altitude remote sensing platforms are proving very useful tools for remote sensing of river systems. Currently consumer grade cameras are still the most commonly used sensors for this purpose. In particular, progress is being made to obtain river bathymetry from the optical image data collected with such cameras, using the strong attenuation of light in water. No studies have yet applied this method to map submergence depth of aquatic vegetation, which has rather different reflectance characteristics from river bed substrate. This study therefore looked at the possibilities to use the optical image data to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) depth in shallow clear water streams. We first applied the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis method (OBRA) of Legleiter et al. (2009) to a dataset of spectral signatures from three macrophyte species in a clear water stream. The results showed that for each species the ratio of certain wavelengths were strongly associated with depth. A combined assessment of all species resulted in equally strong associations, indicating that the effect of spectral variation in vegetation is subsidiary to spectral variation due to depth changes. Strongest associations (R²-values ranging from 0.67 to 0.90 for different species) were found for combinations including one band in the near infrared (NIR) region between 825 and 925 nm and one band in the visible light region. Currently data of both high spatial and spectral resolution is not commonly available to apply the OBRA results directly to image data for SAV depth mapping. Instead a novel, low-cost data acquisition method was used to obtain six-band high spatial resolution image composites using a NIR sensitive DSLR camera. A field dataset of SAV submergence depths was used to develop regression models for the mapping of submergence depth from image pixel values. Band (combinations) providing the best performing models (R²-values up to 0.77) corresponded with the OBRA

  7. Breeding for Increased Water Use Efficiency in Corn (Maize) Using a Low-altitude Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, A. N.; Li, J.; Ge, Y.; Schnable, J. C.; Rodriguez, O.; Liang, Z.; Miao, C.

    2017-12-01

    Low-altitude aerial imagery collected by unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at centimeter-level spatial resolution provides great potential to collect high throughput plant phenotyping (HTP) data and accelerate plant breeding. This study is focused on UAS-based HTP for breeding increased water use efficiency in corn in eastern Nebraska. The field trail is part of an effort by the Genomes to Fields consortium effort to grow and phenotype many of the same corn (maize) hybrids at approximately 40 locations across the United States and Canada in order to stimulate new research in crop modeling, the development of new plant phenotyping technologies and the identification of genetic loci that control the adaptation of specific corn (maize) lines to specific environments. It included approximately 250 maize hybrids primary generated using recently off patent material from major seed companies. These lines are the closest material to what farmers are growing today which can be legally used for research purposes and genotyped by the public sector. During the growing season, a hexacopter equipped with a multispectral and a RGB cameras was flown and used to image this 1-hectare field trial near Mead, NE. Sensor data from the UAS were correlated directly with grain yield, measured at the end of the growing season, and were also be used to quantify other traits of interest to breeders including flowering date, plant height, leaf orientation, canopy spectral, and stand count. The existing challenges of field data acquisition (to ensure data quality) and development of effective image processing algorithms (such as detecting corn tassels) will be discussed. The success of this study and others like it will speed up the process of phenotypic data collection, and provide more accurate and detailed trait data for plant biologists, plant breeders, and other agricultural scientists. Employing advanced UAS-based machine vision technologies in agricultural applications have the potential

  8. Improved growth velocity of a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH) without growth hormone deficiency by low-dose growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Kei; Takishima, Shigeru; Morioka, Chikako; Nishioka, Masato; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Aoki, Yoko; Shimohira, Masayuki; Kashimada, Kenichi; Morio, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH; OMIM 607721) is caused by a heterozygous c.4A>G mutation in SHOC2. Most cases exhibit both growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) and thus require a high dose of growth hormone (GH) therapy (e.g., 35-40 µg/kg/day). We report on a genetically diagnosed NS/LAH patient manifesting severe short stature (-3.85 SDs) with low serum level of IGF1, 30 ng/ml. The peak levels of GH stimulation tests were within the normal range, and GHI was not observed in the IGF1 generation test. However, with low-dose GH therapy (25 µg/kg/day) for two years, IGF1 level and height were remarkably improved (IGF1: 117 ng/ml, height SDs: -2.20 SDs). Further, catch-up of motor development and improvement of the proportion of extending limbs to trunk were observed (the Developmental Quotient score increased from 68 to 98 points, and the relative sitting height ratio decreased from 0.62 to 0.57). Our results suggest that endocrinological causes for short stature are variable in NS/LAH and that GH therapy should be considered as a possible treatment for delayed development in NS/LAH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sporotrichosis in sub-himalayan India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santwana; Verma, Ghanshyam K; Singh, Gagandeep; Kanga, Anil; Shanker, Vinay; Singh, Digvijay; Gupta, Poonam; Mokta, Kiran; Sharma, Vinita

    2012-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is endemic in the Sub-Himalayan belt, which ranges from the northern to the north-eastern Indian subcontinent. Similar to many parts of the developing world, sporotrichosis is commonly recognized clinically in this region however consolidated epidemiological data is lacking. We report epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data from a hundred culture positive cases of sporotrichosis. Out of 305 clinically suspicious cases of sporotrichosis, a total of 100 isolates were identified as Sporothrix schenckii species complex (S. schenckii) on culture. Out of the culture proven cases 71% of the cases presented with lymphocutaneous type of lesions while 28% had fixed localized type and 1% had disseminated sporotrichosis. Presentation with lesions on hands was most frequently seen in 32% with arm (23%) and face (21%) in that sequence. The male to female ratio was 1∶1.27. Age ranged from 1 ½ years to 88 years. Mean age was 43.25 years. Disease was predominantly seen in the fourth to sixth decade of life with 58% cases between 31 and 60 years of age. Since the first report from the region there has been a steady rise in the number of cases of sporotrichosis. Seasonal trends reveal that most of the patients visited for consultation in the beginning of the year between March and April. This is the first study, from the most endemic region of the Sub-Himalayan belt, to delve into epidemiological and clinical details of such a large number of culture proven cases over a period of more than eighteen years which would help in the understanding of the local disease pattern of sporotrichosis.

  10. Sporotrichosis in sub-himalayan India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santwana Verma

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is endemic in the Sub-Himalayan belt, which ranges from the northern to the north-eastern Indian subcontinent. Similar to many parts of the developing world, sporotrichosis is commonly recognized clinically in this region however consolidated epidemiological data is lacking. We report epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data from a hundred culture positive cases of sporotrichosis. Out of 305 clinically suspicious cases of sporotrichosis, a total of 100 isolates were identified as Sporothrix schenckii species complex (S. schenckii on culture. Out of the culture proven cases 71% of the cases presented with lymphocutaneous type of lesions while 28% had fixed localized type and 1% had disseminated sporotrichosis. Presentation with lesions on hands was most frequently seen in 32% with arm (23% and face (21% in that sequence. The male to female ratio was 1∶1.27. Age ranged from 1 ½ years to 88 years. Mean age was 43.25 years. Disease was predominantly seen in the fourth to sixth decade of life with 58% cases between 31 and 60 years of age. Since the first report from the region there has been a steady rise in the number of cases of sporotrichosis. Seasonal trends reveal that most of the patients visited for consultation in the beginning of the year between March and April. This is the first study, from the most endemic region of the Sub-Himalayan belt, to delve into epidemiological and clinical details of such a large number of culture proven cases over a period of more than eighteen years which would help in the understanding of the local disease pattern of sporotrichosis.

  11. Effects of hiking at moderate and low altitude on cardiovascular parameters in male patients with metabolic syndrome: Austrian Moderate Altitude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Günther; Fries, Dietmar; Mittermayer, Markus; Humpeler, Egon; Klingler, Anton; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Spiesberger, Reinhard; Pokan, Rochus; Schmid, Peter; Berent, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is a cornerstone in therapy for patients with metabolic syndrome. Walking and hiking in a mountain scenery represents an ideal approach to make them move. The Austrian Moderate Altitude Study (AMAS) 2000 main study is a randomized controlled trial to investigate the cardiovascular effects of hiking at moderate altitude on patients with metabolic syndrome compared with a control group at low altitude, to assess a potential altitude-specific effect. Seventy-one male patients with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to a moderate altitude group (at 1700 m), with 36 participants, or to a low altitude group (at 200 m), with 35 participants. The 3-week vacation program included 12 hiking tours (4 per week, average duration 2.5 hours, intensity 55% to 65% of heart rate maximum). Physical parameters, performance capacity, 24-hour blood pressure, and heart rate profiles were obtained before, during, and after the stay. In both groups, we found a significant mean weight loss of -3.13 kg; changes in performance capacity were minor. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and circadian heart rate profiles were significantly reduced in both groups, with no differences between them. Consequently, the pressure-rate product was reduced as well. All study participants tolerated the vacation well without any adverse events. A 3-week hiking vacation at moderate or low altitude is safe for patients with metabolic syndrome and provides several improvements in their cardiovascular parameters. The cardiovascular benefits achieved are more likely to be the result of regular physical activity than the altitude-specific effect of a mountain environment. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the Space Station: Measurement at high and extremely low altitude using Space Station-controlled free-flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W., Jr.; Frawley, J. J.; Stefanik, M.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation studies established that the main (core), crustal and electrojet components of the Earth's magnetic field can be observed with greater resolution or over a longer time-base than is presently possible by using the capabilities provided by the space station. Two systems are studied. The first, a large lifetime, magnetic monitor would observe the main field and its time variation. The second, a remotely-piloted, magnetic probe would observe the crustal field at low altitude and the electrojet field in situ. The system design and the scientific performance of these systems is assessed. The advantages of the space station are reviewed.

  13. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas K. Tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt, by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL. For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n=13 in each group were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH, and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  14. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  15. Radiation countermeasures from Himalayan herbs - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    A successful radioprotector is the one, which essentially renders protection from the multi-organ dis-function syndrome (MODS) caused by the total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Our rationale is that and instead of a single molecule, a group of molecules/compounds working synergistically can combat the MODS more effectively. Plant extracts offer natural combinations of a plethora of compounds, which act through different mechanisms and are, therefore, the ideal choice. Plants of Himalayan regions have survived under extreme climatic conditions through millions of years and are expected to harbor a battery of anti-stress adaptive molecules offering survival benefits. Our group is actively engaged in developing composite herbal radioprotective preparations from Himalayan Plants. This group is working to develop radiation countermeasures by tapping the essential complex phytochemicals from the plants inhabiting extreme climatic zones of Himalayas. In our laboratory, systematic studies were undertaken to investigate some of these plants located at high altitude regions of Himalayas viz. Hippophae rhamnoides, Rhodiola imbricata and Podophylium hexandruin. The most effective preparation from each of these plants individually, could provide more than 80% survival benefit to the irradiated (10 Gy) mice population against zero per cent survival in non-drug treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. It was observed that whole extracts of plant provided much better protection than the partial extracts/fractions. It was also observed that some of the partial extracts/fractions although, provided much higher survival benefits, yet were found to be unsuitable for drug development due to much higher mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects in comparison to the whole extracts, One of the preparations from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (drug) showed more than 90% survival benefits in the irradiated mice population. Only one time intra-peritoneal administration of the drug

  16. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  17. Are small-scale field-aligned currents and magneto sheath-like particle precipitation signatures of the same low-altitude cusp?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, J.; Stauning, P.; Luhr, H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined some 75 observations from the low-altitude Earth orbiting DMSP, Orsted and CHAMP satellites which were taken in the region of the nominal cusp. Our objective was to determine whether the actually observed cusp locations as inferred from magnetosheath-like particle precipitation...... ("particle cusp") and intense small-scale magnetic field variations ("current cusp"), respectively, were identical and were consistent with the statistically expected latitude of the cusp derived from a huge number of charged particle spectrograms ("statistical cusp"). The geocentric coordinates...... of the satellites were converted into AACGM coordinates, and the geomagnetic latitude of the cusp boundaries (as indicated by precipitating particles and small-scale field-aligned currents) set in relation to the IMF-B-z dependent latitude of the equatorward boundary of the statistical cusp. We find...

  18. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  19. Extreme heterogeneity in Sr isotope systematic in the Himalayan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    due to post-collision partial melting within the Himalayan crust. ... plutons occur in two linear belts either close to ... can explain, even in outcrop scale, the observed ... between the northern Eurasian plate and the southern Indian plate. ... (b) Thrusting model and boundary conditions used for calculating transient geotherms.

  20. Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2004-01-01

    There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock

  1. Low Altitude Emission (LAE) of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) Observed by TWINS and its Relation to the CINEMA CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, D.; Sotirelis, T.; Nair, H.; Roelof, E. C.; Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    The brightest source of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) at energies >1keV is low altitude emission (LAE) from ~200-400km near auroral latitudes where precipitating energetic ions undergo multiple atomic collisions with the monatomic (O) exosphere. This emission is many times brighter than that from the high-altitude ring current region where the energetic ions interact only weakly with the much less dense monatomic (H) hydrogen geocorona. The recently selected NSF CubeSat mission CINEMA [Lin et al., this special session] has, as part of its science payload (STEIN), an ENA imager covering energies 4-100keV. From a high-inclination ~800km orbit, STEIN will view the LAE four times during every 90 minutes. The NASA TWINS stereo ENA imagers (2-40keV) will also view the LAE from their Molniya orbits (apogee radius~7Re). We have been analyzing the TWINS ENA images of LAE and comparing them with in situ ion measurements (1-40keV) from DMSP spacecraft when their tracks take them under the ion precipitation regions imaged by TWINS. We have developed an ENA emissivity function that relates the directionally-dependent emergent ENA spectrum to that of the precipitating ions. The TWINS/DMSP direct comparisons show good agreement. We offer suggestions on joint observing strategies for CINEMA, TWINS and DMSP after the CINEMA launch in the second half of 2011.

  2. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  3. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  4. A fast and mobile system for registration of low-altitude visual and thermal aerial images using multiple small-scale UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyanejad, Saeed; Rinner, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    The use of multiple small-scale UAVs to support first responders in disaster management has become popular because of their speed and low deployment costs. We exploit such UAVs to perform real-time monitoring of target areas by fusing individual images captured from heterogeneous aerial sensors. Many approaches have already been presented to register images from homogeneous sensors. These methods have demonstrated robustness against scale, rotation and illumination variations and can also cope with limited overlap among individual images. In this paper we focus on thermal and visual image registration and propose different methods to improve the quality of interspectral registration for the purpose of real-time monitoring and mobile mapping. Images captured by low-altitude UAVs represent a very challenging scenario for interspectral registration due to the strong variations in overlap, scale, rotation, point of view and structure of such scenes. Furthermore, these small-scale UAVs have limited processing and communication power. The contributions of this paper include (i) the introduction of a feature descriptor for robustly identifying corresponding regions of images in different spectrums, (ii) the registration of image mosaics, and (iii) the registration of depth maps. We evaluated the first method using a test data set consisting of 84 image pairs. In all instances our approach combined with SIFT or SURF feature-based registration was superior to the standard versions. Although we focus mainly on aerial imagery, our evaluation shows that the presented approach would also be beneficial in other scenarios such as surveillance and human detection. Furthermore, we demonstrated the advantages of the other two methods in case of multiple image pairs.

  5. Taking a step back: Himalayan erosion as seen from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, M.; France-Lanord, C.; Lavé, J.; Blard, P.; Galy, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan range represents the archetype of mountain building and is considered in many studies as the locus of intense interactions between climate, denudation and tectonics. A better understanding of these interactions requires that the flux of material removed from the system through erosion is known. The products of Himalayan erosion are exported to the Bengal fan and the Indian Ocean by two major rivers: the Ganga and Brahmaputra. These rivers provide the opportunity to quantify the Himalayan denudation rates as they integrate surface and tectonic processes across the entire basin. Basin wide erosion or denudation rates have classically been derived from the gauging of sediments fluxes. By coping with the inherent spatial and temporal variability of sediment concentration in rivers, sediment budgets yield average denudation rate over the observational period ranging from years to decades. Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10-Be allow the estimation of basin-wide denudation rates averaged over typical time scales of hundreds to thousand of years, from a single measurement in river sediments. We compare these methods for the case of the Ganga basin that drains the central part of the Himalayan range. By using a distal point of view, i.e. by sampling and evaluating the sediment flux at the outlet of the Ganga in Bangladesh we are able to propose an average denudation rate of the entire, central part of the Himalayan range. This sampling location offers the benefit of integrating the entire basin and its distance from the sediment source makes it also less prone to perturbations in the headwaters. However, the effects of 500 to 1000 km floodplain transfer on the sedimentary signal needs to be correctly evaluated. The gauged sediment flux can mainly be impacted by the sequestration of sediments in the floodplain. For the Ganga basin, sequestration is limited to ca. 10 % of the eroded sediment flux as deduced from geochemical mass balance approaches [1]. On their side

  6. Investigating the Surface and Subsurface in Karstic Regions – Terrestrial Laser Scanning versus Low-Altitude Airborne Imaging and the Combination with Geophysical Prospecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining measurements of the surface and subsurface is a promising approach to understand the origin and current changes of karstic forms since subterraneous processes are often the initial driving force. A karst depression in south-west Germany was investigated in a comprehensive campaign with remote sensing and geophysical prospecting. This contribution has two objectives: firstly, comparing terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and low-altitude airborne imaging from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV regarding their performance in capturing the surface. Secondly, establishing a suitable way of combining this 3D surface data with data from the subsurface, derived by geophysical prospecting. Both remote sensing approaches performed satisfying and the established digital elevation models (DEMs differ only slightly. These minor discrepancies result essentially from the different viewing geometries and post-processing concepts, for example whether the vegetation was removed or not. Validation analyses against high-accurate DGPS-derived point data sets revealed slightly better results for the DEMTLS with a mean absolute difference of 0.03 m to 0.05 m and a standard deviation of 0.03 m to 0.07 m (DEMUAV: mean absolute difference: 0.11 m to 0.13 m; standard deviation: 0.09 m to 0.11 m. The 3D surface data and 2D image of the vertical cross section through the subsurface along a geophysical profile were combined in block diagrams. The data sets fit very well and give a first impression of the connection between surface and subsurface structures. Since capturing the subsurface with this method is limited to 2D and the data acquisition is quite time consuming, further investigations are necessary for reliable statements about subterraneous structures, how these may induce surface changes, and the origin of this karst depression. Moreover, geophysical prospecting can only produce a suspected image of the subsurface since the apparent resistivity is measured

  7. Pilot study on the effects of a 2-week hiking vacation at moderate versus low altitude on plasma parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwenger, Ivana; Hofer, Georg; Gutwenger, Anna K; Sandri, Marco; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2015-03-28

    Hypoxic and hypobaric conditions may augment the beneficial influence of training on cardiovascular risk factors. This pilot study aimed to explore for effects of a two-week hiking vacation at moderate versus low altitude on adipokines and parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome. Fourteen subjects (mean age: 55.8 years, range: 39 - 69) with metabolic syndrome participated in a 2-week structured training program (3 hours of guided daily hiking 4 times a week, training intensity at 55-65% of individual maximal heart rate; total training time, 24 hours). Participants were divided for residence and training into two groups, one at moderate altitude (1,900 m; n = 8), and the other at low altitude (300 m; n = 6). Anthropometric, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before and after the training period. In study participants, training overall reduced circulating levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.024), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.025) and adiponectin (p triglycerides (p = 0.025) and leptin (p = 0.015), whereas in the low altitude group (n = 6), none of the lipid parameters was significantly changed (each p > 0.05). Hiking-induced relative changes of triglyceride levels were positively associated with reductions in leptin levels (p = 0.006). As compared to 300 m altitude, training at 1,900 m showed borderline significant differences in the pre-post mean reduction rates of triglyceride (p = 0.050) and leptin levels (p = 0.093). Preliminary data on patients with metabolic syndrome suggest that a 2-week hiking vacation at moderate altitude may be more beneficial for adipokines and parameters of lipid metabolism than training at low altitude. In order to draw firm conclusions regarding better corrections of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome by physical exercise under mild hypobaric and hypoxic conditions, a sufficiently powered randomized clinical trial appears warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT

  8. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Sinha, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (similar to 4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers....

  9. RIS and reservoirs in the NW and central Himalayan foothills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, R.C.

    1989-02-01

    There are nine (impounded) and three (under construction) tall (height exceeding 100 m) and large (capacity exceeding 1 km 3 ) reservoirs located in the northwestern and central Himalayan foothills. Natural earthquakes having magnitude greater than 7 have occurred in their vicinity in the past but there are no reports of reservoir associated seismic activity from a few of these sites which are under seismic surveillance following the guidelines of Indian Standard IS: 4967-1968. Case study of monitoring the seismicity around one site points to the need for rewriting the Standard. Reasons for non-occurrence of RIS in this seismically active environment are discussed. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra

    2018-01-01

    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Current flow and pair creation at low altitude in rotation-powered pulsars' force-free magnetospheres: space charge limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of an investigation of particle acceleration and electron-positron plasma generation at low altitude in the polar magnetic flux tubes of rotation-powered pulsars, when the stellar surface is free to emit whatever charges and currents are demanded by the force-free magnetosphere. We apply a new 1D hybrid plasma simulation code to the dynamical problem, using Particle-in-Cell methods for the dynamics of the charged particles, including a determination of the collective electrostatic fluctuations in the plasma, combined with a Monte Carlo treatment of the high-energy gamma-rays that mediate the formation of the electron-positron pairs. We assume the electric current flowing through the pair creation zone is fixed by the much higher inductance magnetosphere, and adopt the results of force-free magnetosphere models to provide the currents which must be carried by the accelerator. The models are spatially one dimensional, and designed to explore the physics, although of practical relevance to young, high-voltage pulsars. We observe novel behaviour (a) When the current density j is less than the Goldreich-Julian value (0 electrically trapped particles with the same sign of charge as the beam. The voltage drops are of the order of mc2/e, and pair creation is absent. (b) When the current density exceeds the Goldreich-Julian value (j/jGJ > 1), the system develops high voltage drops (TV or greater), causing emission of curvature gamma-rays and intense bursts of pair creation. The bursts exhibit limit cycle behaviour, with characteristic time-scales somewhat longer than the relativistic fly-by time over distances comparable to the polar cap diameter (microseconds). (c) In return current regions, where j/jGJ generated pairs allow the system to simultaneously carry the magnetospherically prescribed currents and adjust the charge density and average electric field to force-free conditions. We also elucidate the conditions for pair creating beam flow to be

  12. Abrasion-set limits on Himalayan gravel flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Elizabeth H; Attal, Mikaël; Sinclair, Hugh D

    2017-04-26

    Rivers sourced in the Himalayan mountain range carry some of the largest sediment loads on the planet, yet coarse gravel in these rivers vanishes within approximately 10-40 kilometres on entering the Ganga Plain (the part of the North Indian River Plain containing the Ganges River). Understanding the fate of gravel is important for forecasting the response of rivers to large influxes of sediment triggered by earthquakes or storms. Rapid increase in gravel flux and subsequent channel bed aggradation (that is, sediment deposition by a river) following the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes reduced channel capacity and increased flood inundation. Here we present an analysis of fan geometry, sediment grain size and lithology in the Ganga Basin. We find that the gravel fluxes from rivers draining the central Himalayan mountains, with upstream catchment areas ranging from about 350 to 50,000 square kilometres, are comparable. Our results show that abrasion of gravel during fluvial transport can explain this observation; most of the gravel sourced more than 100 kilometres upstream is converted into sand by the time it reaches the Ganga Plain. These findings indicate that earthquake-induced sediment pulses sourced from the Greater Himalayas, such as that following the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, are unlikely to drive increased gravel aggradation at the mountain front. Instead, we suggest that the sediment influx should result in an elevated sand flux, leading to distinct patterns of aggradation and flood risk in the densely populated, low-relief Ganga Plain.

  13. New particle formation infrequently observed in Himalayan foothills – why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Neitola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A fraction of the Himalayan aerosols originate from secondary sources, which are currently poorly quantified. To clarify the climatic importance of regional secondary particle formation in the Himalayas, data from 2005 to 2010 of continuous aerosol measurements at a high-altitude (2180 m Indian Himalayan site, Mukteshwar, were analyzed. For this period, the days were classified, and the particle formation and growth rates were calculated for clear new particle formation (NPF event days. The NPF events showed a pronounced seasonal cycle. The frequency of the events peaked in spring, when the ratio between event and non-event days was 53 %, whereas the events were truly sporadic on any other seasons. The annual mean particle formation and growth rates were 0.40 cm−3 s−1 and 2.43 nm h−1, respectively. The clear annual cycle was found to be mainly controlled by the seasonal evolution of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL height together with local meteorological conditions. Spring NPF events were connected with increased PBL height, and therefore characterised as boundary layer events, while the rare events in other seasons represented lower free tropospheric particle formation. This provides insight on the vertical extent of NPF in the atmosphere.

  14. Characterization of a petroleum system in the Himalayan foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorkhabi, R. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    The Himalayan foreland basin that is a part of the Tethyan tectonic belt is a potential target for hydrocarbon exploration. Petroleum has been yield in the west part of basin (Pakistan), and in the east part (Myanmar). This study takes aim to the central parts of the Himalayan foreland basin (India and Nepal), and identifies sediments Paleocene in age (the Subathu Formation made up of limestone and shale, and Murree Group made up of mudstone and shale) as source rock (TOC content up to 0.5 %), and also identifies permeable Siwalik sandstone (Paleocene-Middle to Neogene) as reservoir rock (porosity ranges from 4 to 27%, and permeability ranges from 0.1 to 10 millidarcy). Source rock had been occurred thermal maturity by burial in late Miocene. The serious problem is the localization of seals and traps. It indicates a potentiality that suitable trap structures had been formed by Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), close to Lesser Himalaya, lifting up and transporting the Proterozoic shale and carbonate rocks atop the Siwalik sandstone. The overthrust activities of source rock (Subathu-Murree Group) atop the Siwalik are important for formation of seals and traps. Actuary, gas and oil seeps are found not in Tarai (plain) but in the vicinity of the MBT. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Geoethical Audit of Himalayan Stratigraphy: A Current Insight from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep Ahluwalia, Arun

    2014-05-01

    Focus of this presentation is to illustrate how learned societies and an eminent academy fellow can unfortunately become a pressure group. It is a very unfair and unbecoming even perhaps more than HIMALAYAN HOAX perpetrated by V. J. Gupta two decades back for over 25 years where he fooled journals, funding agencies and about 120 co-authors. Unless corrected, our learned societies and academies may continue degenerate even more. If this can happen today in the biggest democracy of the world with rule of law and freedom of press, what may happen in other set ups across our planet. The ill conceived and highly misleading book HIMALAYAN FOSSIL FRAUD recently published from PSI, Lucknow University, gives some vital but also unfortunately partial, selective and falsified historical and scientific perspectives of the Himalayan Hoax. This book is a standing testimony of a geoethical failure of individuals and of a learned society who published it without checking facts. Lot of personal testimonies and experiences can be added by the presenter. Some INSA Fellows are today like a cooperative society for cover ups and dirty politicking. The nexus within INSA Fellows to mutually protect each other and gratify at public cost is transparent but ignored for fear and power of their huge clout. Mistakes are allowed in science but science ethics does not allow silence once a fraud is known. If one is such a celebrated VIP like Ashok Sahni and D. M. Banerjee highly rewarded and awarded by so many, it becomes mandatory to maintain highest ethical standards and appear to be doing so. Our eminent INSA Fellows and learned society PSI are making themselves look like a mafia. This is neither ethics nor science. It is pure reckless money making and petty politicking by big guns to save their own skin. Very unfortunate indeed for Lucknow University, Lucknow where PSI is based and the retired teachers manning it are staying put for a life time endlessly getting self elected. Ever lowering

  16. Into the Himalayan Exile: The Phylogeography of the Ground Beetle Ethira clade Supports the Tibetan Origin of Forest-Dwelling Himalayan Species Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joachim; Opgenoorth, Lars; Höll, Steffen; Bastrop, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan mountain arc is one of the hotspots of biodiversity on earth, and species diversity is expected to be especially high among insects in this region. Little is known about the origin of the Himalayan insect fauna. With respect to the fauna of high altitude cloud forests, it has generally been accepted that Himalayan lineages are derived from ancestors that immigrated from Western Asia and from adjacent mountainous regions of East and Southeast Asia (immigration hypothesis). In this study, we sought to test a Tibetan Origin as an alternative hypothesis for groups with a poor dispersal ability through a phylogeographic analysis of the Ethira clade of the genus Pterostichus. We sequenced COI mtDNA and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes in 168 Pterostichini specimens, including 46 species and subspecies of the Ethira clade. In our analysis, we were able to show that the Ethira clade is monophyletic and, thus, represents a Himalayan endemic clade, supporting endemism of two of the basal lineages to the Central Himalaya and documenting large distributional gaps within the phylogeographic structure of the Ethira clade. Furthermore, the molecular data strongly indicate very limited dispersal abilities of species and subspecies of these primary wingless ground beetles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a Tibetan Origin, which explains the evolution, diversity and distribution of the Himalayan ground beetle Ethira clade much more parsimoniously than the original immigration hypothesis. PMID:23049805

  17. Summer Temperature Trend Over the Past Two Millennia Using Air Content in Himalayan Ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, S; Chappellaz, J; Jouzel, J; Chu, P. C; Masson-Delmotte, V; Qin, D; Raynaud, D; Mayewski, P. A; Lipenkov, V. Y; Kang, S

    2007-01-01

    Two Himalayan ice cores display a factor-two decreasing trend of air content over the past two millennia, in contrast to the relatively stable values in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores over the same period...

  18. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  19. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  20. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  1. Himalayan tectonic evolution and uranium ore formation, south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wanwen; Wang Liming; Tian Li

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of stress field and geomorphic environment of Songliao Basin during Himalayan Movement, it is presented that Himalayan Movement supplied favorite structural and geomorphic conditions with Eocene and Pliocene being metallogenic epoch for sandstone-type uranium in Songliao Basin. Degradation inliers at the southern margin of Songliao Basin, where structure and mineralization developed well, are the target area for in-situ sandstone type uranium. (authors)

  2. Timing and mechanism of the rise of the Shillong Plateau in the Himalayan foreland.

    OpenAIRE

    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...

  3. Understanding Himalayan extreme rainfall to inform disaster governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, M. B.; Kumar, A.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological aspects of the Himalayan flooding events were investigated with the coupled atmospheric and Hydrological (WRF-LIS) modeling tool. The Convective storms occurring at the steep edge of broad high topography, such as the Rocky Mountains and Himalayas, are notorious for producing surprising and lethal flash floods. We investigated two recent Himalayan flood events (a) 2010 Ladakh flood: A flash flood and landslide in the Leh region of the Indus Valley in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir on 5-6 August 2010 resulted in hundreds of deaths and great property damage. (b) 2013 Uttrakhand flood: Over a three-day period in June 2013, approximately 500-1000 mm of rain fell over Uttarakhand and its river valleys as well as neighboring Nepal. The extensive precipitation and runoff led to devastating floods and landslides throughout the region and resulted in much destruction and loss of life (over 4,000 villages were affected, and the death toll exceeded 5,000). The Uttarakhand flood had characteristics in common with major 2013 floods in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Alberta. Our study examines the land-atmosphere interactions & cloud structure and dynamics of these flooding events in more detail, identifying the synoptic, mesoscale, convective, orographic, and land-surface components of the storm. We include satellite observations, ground-based radar imagery, and convection-permitting model simulations down to 1 km grid resolution to show the three-dimensional character of the precipitating cloud systems in more detail than previous studies. Our Land Information System (LIS) calculations suggest that soil moisture preconditioning by prior storms in the area in a vulnerable watershed is a hydrologic ingredient that should be taken into account along with the meteorological ingredients. In this regard, our results will be seen to reinforce the position taken by Doswell et al. (1996) that local forecasting of flood situations is ideally based on

  4. Black carbon and the Himalayan cryosphere: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Charles G.; Puppala, Siva Praveen; Panday, Arnico; Stumm, Dorothea; Shea, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayan cryosphere borders global hotspots for emissions of black carbon (BC), a carbonaceous aerosol with a short atmospheric lifespan and potentially significant impacts on glaciers and snow cover. BC in the atmosphere absorbs radiation efficiently, leading to localized positive climate forcing. BC may also be deposited onto snow and ice surfaces, thereby changing their albedo. This review presents up-to-date observational data of BC in the atmosphere and in snow and ice, as well as its effects on the cryosphere in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region along the northern edge of South Asia. Significant spatial variation exists in the measured concentrations of BC in the atmosphere and cryosphere. A strong seasonal pattern exists, with highest concentrations in the pre-monsoon and lowest during the monsoon. Existing observations show bias towards certain areas, with a noticeable lack of measurements on the south side of the Himalaya. Significant uncertainty persists in the emissions estimates of BC in the HKH region, with a standard deviation of regional emissions from various emission inventories of 0.5150 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1, or 47.1% of the mean (1.0931 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1). This and other uncertainties, including poor model resolution, imprecision in deposition modeling, and incongruities among measurement types, propagate through simulations of BC concentration in atmosphere and cryosphere. Modeled atmospheric concentrations can differ from observations by as much as a factor of three with no systematic bias, and modeled concentrations in snow and ice can differ from observations by a factor of 60 in certain regions. In the Himalaya, estimates of albedo change due to BC range from about 2 to 10%, estimates of direct radiative forcing due to BC in the atmosphere from (-2)-7 W m-2, and surface forcing estimates from 0 to 28 W m-2, though every forcing estimate uses its own definition, with varying degrees of complexity and numbers of feedbacks. We find the

  5. Enhanced hepatic insulin signaling in the livers of high altitude native rats under basal conditions and in the livers of low altitude native rats under insulin stimulation: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dera, Hussain; Eleawa, Samy M; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H; Mahzari, Moeber M; Hoja, Ibrahim; Al Khateeb, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of the liver in lowering fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) in rats native to high (HA) and low altitude (LA) areas. As compared with LA natives, besides the improved insulin and glucose tolerance, HA native rats had lower FBG, at least mediated by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and activation of glycogen synthesis. An effect that is mediated by the enhancement of hepatic insulin signaling mediated by the decreased phosphorylation of TSC induced inhibition of mTOR function. Such effect was independent of activation of AMPK nor stabilization of HIF1α, but most probably due to oxidative stress induced REDD1 expression. However, under insulin stimulation, and in spite of the less activated mTOR function in HA native rats, LA native rats had higher glycogen content and reduced levels of gluconeogenic enzymes with a more enhanced insulin signaling, mainly due to higher levels of p-IRS1 (tyr612).

  6. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  7. Himalayan origin and evolution of Myricaria (Tamaricaeae in the neogene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myricaria consists of about twelve-thirteen species and occurs in Eurasian North Temperate zone, most species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP and adjacent areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve species of Myricaria plus two other genera Tamarix and Reaumuria in Tamaricaceae, were sampled, and four markers, ITS, rps16, psbB-psbH, and trnL-trnF were sequenced. The relaxed Bayesian molecular clock BEAST method was used to perform phylogenetic analysis and molecular dating, and Diva, S-Diva, and maximum likelihood Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area. The results indicated that Myricaria could be divided into four phylogenetic clades, which correspond to four sections within the genus, of them two are newly described in this paper. The crown age of Myricaria was dated to early Miocene ca. 20 Ma, at the probable early uplifting time of the Himalayas. The Himalayas were also shown as the center of origin for Myricaria from the optimization of ancestral distribution. Migration and dispersal of Myricaria were indicated to have taken place along the Asian Mountains, including the Himalayas, Kunlun, Altun, Hendukosh, Tianshan, Altai, and Caucasus etc., westward to Europe, eastward to Central China, and northward to the Mongolian Plateau. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Myricaria spatiotemporal evolution presented here, especially the Himalayan origin at early Miocene ca. 20 Ma, and then migrated westward and eastward along the Asian mountains, offers a significant evolutionary case for QTP and Central Asian biogeography.

  8. The Invisible Path of Karma in a Himalayan Purificatory Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Moran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indic rites of purification aim to negate the law of karma by removing the residues of malignant past actions from their patrons. This principle is exemplified in the Kahika Mela, a rarely studied religious festival of the West Himalayan highlands (Himachal Pradesh, India, wherein a ritual specialist assumes karmic residues from large publics and then sacrificed to their presiding deity. British officials who had ‘discovered’ this purificatory rite at the turn of the twentieth century interpreted it as a variant of the universal ‘scapegoat’ rituals that were then being popularized by James Frazer and found it loosely connected to ancient Tantric practises. The However, observing a recent performance of the ritual significantly complicated this view. This paper proposes a novel reading of the Kahika Mela through the prism of karmic transference. Tracing the path of karmas from participants to ritual specialist and beyond, it delineates the logic behind the rite, revealing that the culminating act of human sacrifice is, in fact, secondary to the mysterious force that impels its acceptance.

  9. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Sinha, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (similar to 4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers....... Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated...... luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after similar to 8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than...

  10. Les premières années de The Himalayan Journal (1929-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raspaud

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLa création de The Himalayan Club, sur le territoire de l’Empire des Indes à la fin de l’année 1927, s’accompagne presque aussitôt de la publication de The Himalayan Journal, en février 1929, soit mois de dix-huit mois après la création officielle de l’institution. L’objet du présent texte concerne donc la vie de The Himalayan Club lors de ses premières années d’existence, depuis la date de sa création jusqu’au début de la seconde guerre mondiale. Cependant, l’intérêt se focaliser...

  11. Case Report Associated with Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfection in Himalayan Griffons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a death which occurred in four Himalayan griffons housed in Beijing zoo, China. Based on pathogen identification and the pathological changes observed, we did characterize the fungi and Hepatitis E virus (HEV in four dead Himalayan griffons. Pathological changes were severe. Membranous-like material was observed on the surface of the internal organs. Spleen was necrotic. Focal lymphocyte infiltration in the liver and many sunflower-like fungi nodules were evident in the tissues, especially in the kidney. PCR was used to identify the pathogen. Based on the 18SrRNA genomic sequence of known fungi, the results confirmed that all four dead Himalayan griffons were infected with Aspergillus. At the same time the detection of HEV also showed positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this work appears to be the first report of concurrent presence of Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E virus in rare avian species.

  12. Enhancing Earth Observation Capacity in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observations bear special significance in the Himalayan Region owing to the fact that routine data collections are often hampered by highly inaccessible terrain and harsh climatic conditions. The ongoing rapid environmental changes have further emphasized its relevance and use for informed decision-making. The International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), with a regional mandate is promoting the use of earth observations in line with the GEOSS societal benefit areas. ICIMOD has a proven track record to utilize earth observations notably in the areas of understanding glaciers and snow dynamics, disaster risk preparedness and emergency response, carbon estimation for community forestry user groups, land cover change assessment, agriculture monitoring and food security analysis among others. This paper presents the challenges and lessons learned as a part of capacity building of ICIMOD to utilize earth observations with the primary objectives to empower its member countries and foster regional cooperation. As a part of capacity building, ICIMOD continues to make its efforts to augment as a regional resource center on earth observation and geospatial applications for sustainable mountain development. Capacity building possesses multitude of challenges in the region: the complex geo-political reality with differentiated capacities of member states, poorer institutional and technical infrastructure; addressing the needs for multiple user and target groups; integration with different thematic disciplines; and high resources intensity and sustainability. A capacity building framework was developed based on detailed needs assessment with a regional approach and strategy to enhance capability of ICIMOD and its network of national partners. A specialized one-week training course and curriculum have been designed for different thematic areas to impart knowledge and skills that include development practitioners, professionals, researchers and

  13. Microseismicity, tectonics and seismic potential in the Western Himalayan segment, NW Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, Mahesh Prasad; Kumar, Sushil; Tiwari, V. M.; Rao, N. Purnachandra; Kumar, Narendra; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Singh, Ishwar

    2018-06-01

    The tectonics and seismic potential of the western Himalayan segment (30-33°N; 76-80°E) of the NW Himalayan (India) region have been determined in this study. 423 earthquakes were located in the NW Himalaya between 2004 and 2013 using more than 4495 P and 4453 S differential travel times to determine the moment tensors for 8 (Mw ≥ 4.0) of these earthquakes using their broadband regional waveforms. The geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) plane which varies along the strike of the Himalaya in flat and ramp segments with a dip ranging between ∼2.5 to ∼4° to ∼19° below the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in the south to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the north has also been deduced in this study. Two crustal ramps were reported in this study with a depth variance below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) between 12 to 22 km and 28 to 40 km depth respectively. The estimated earthquake potential prevailing in the western Himalayan seismic gap lying between the epicentral zone of the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake reveals that the total amount of energy released since the last great event is only a fraction (3-5%) of the accommodated energy i.e.1.1E+28 dyne-cm/yr. This suggests that if an earthquake hits this NW Himalayan segment in the future, its magnitude might be around Mw ≥ 8.0.

  14. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these.

  15. CMIP5 based downscaled temperature over Western Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, M.; Das, L.; Meher, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Limited numbers of reliable temperature data is available for assessing warming over the Western Himalayan Region (WHR) of India. India meteorological Department provided many stations having more than 30% missing values. Stations having values, were replaced using the Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 16 stations having continuous records during 1969-2009 were considered as the "reference stations" for assessing the trends in addition to evaluate the Coupled Model Intercomparison, phase 5 (CMIP5) Global Circulation Model(GCMs). Station data indicates higher and rapid (1.41oC) winter warming than the other seasons and least warming was observed in the post monsoon (0.31oC) season. Mean annual warming is 0.84 oC during 1969-2009 indicating the warming over the WHR is more than double the global warming (0.85oC during 1880-2012). The performance of 34 CMIP5 models was evaluated through three different approaches namely comparison of: i) mean seasonal cycle ii) temporal trends and iii) spatial correlation and a rank was assigned to each GCM. How the better performing GCMs able to reproduce the observed spatial details were verified the ERA-interim reanalysis data. Finally station level future downscaled winter temperature has constructed using Empirical Statistical Downscaling (ESD) technique where 2 meter air temperature (T2m) is considered as predictor and station temperature as predictant. Future range of downscaled temperature change for the stations Dheradun, Manali and Gulmarg are 1.3-6.1OC, 1.1-5.8OC and 0.5-5.8OC respectively at the end of 21st century.

  16. Himalayan porter's specialization: metabolic power, economy, efficiency and skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Alberto E; Formenti, Federico; Ardigò, Luca P

    2006-11-07

    Carrying heavy loads in the Himalayan region is a real challenge. Porters face extreme ranges in terrain condition, path steepness, altitude hypoxia and climate for 6-8h a day, many months a year, since they were boys. It has been previously shown that, when carrying loads on level terrain, porters' metabolic economy is higher than in Caucasians but the reasons are still unknown. We monitored Nepalese porters both during 90 km trekking in Khumbu Valley and at two different altitudes (3490 and 5050 m above sea-level), where they were compared to Caucasian mountaineers during (22%) gradient walking. Both subject groups carried a load of up to 90% body mass. The remarkably higher performance of porters during uphill locomotion (+60% in speed, +39% mechanical power) is only partly explained by the lower cost of loaded walking (-20%), being also the result of a better cardio-circulatory adaptation to altitude, which generates a higher mass-specific metabolic power (+30%). Consequently, Nepalese porters show higher efficiency, both during uphill and downhill loaded walking. Their higher economy on steep paths cannot be ascribed to a better exchange between potential and kinetic energy, as in our experiments the body centre of mass travelled monotonically uphill (or downhill). A different oscillation pattern of the loaded head-trunk segment, together with the analysis of the different components of the mechanical work during load carrying, suggests that achieved motor skills in balancing the loaded body segment above the hip could play a role in determining the better economy of porters.

  17. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  18. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Negi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% differences. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broadband albedo. The retrieved snow grain sizes using different models based on the ART theory were compared for various snow types and it was observed that the grain size model using two channel method (one in visible and another in NIR region can work well for the Himalayan seasonal snow and it was found consistent with temporal changes in grain size. This method can work very well for clean, dry snow as in the upper Himalaya, but sometimes, due to the low reflectances (<20% using wavelength 1.24 μm, the ART theory cannot be applied, which is common in lower and middle Himalayan old snow. This study is important for monitoring the Himalayan cryosphere using air-borne or space-borne sensors.

  19. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  20. Engaging the state: ethnic patronage and cultural politics in the eastern Himalayan borderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    In the eastern Himalayan borderland, state-led initiatives have led to the transformation of pre-existing patronage networks and placed ethnic identity at the core of regional politics. Based on ethnographic research in Sikkim, the paper illustrates the prolific rise of affirmative action politics...

  1. Effects of experience and commercialisation on survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, John L; Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T

    2012-06-13

    To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Retrospective cohort study. Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. 23,995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39,038 climbs, 23,295 on 8000 m peaks. Death. After controlling for use of standard route, peak, age, season, sex, summit success, and year of expedition, increased Himalayan experience was not associated with a change in the odds of death (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.05, P = 0.904). Participation in a commercial climb was associated with a 37% lower odds of death relative to a traditional venture, although not significantly (0.63, 0.37 to 1.09, P = 0.100). Choice of peak was clearly associated with altered odds of death (omnibus P<0.001); year of expedition was associated with a significant trend toward reduced odds of death (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.011). No net survival benefit is associated with increased Himalayan experience or participation in a traditional (versus commercial) venture. The incremental decrease in risk associated with calendar year suggests that cumulative, collective knowledge and general innovation are more important than individual experience in improving the odds of survival.

  2. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187646. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * feeding strategies * soil microfauna * Himalayan cold deserts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  3. Distributional congruence of mammalian herbivores in the Trans-Himalayan Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale distribution and diversity patterns of mammalian herbivores, especially less charismatic species in alpine environments remain little understood. We studied distributional congruence of mammalian herbivores in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh to see if the distributions of less

  4. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Mazumdar, Sweety

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  5. Himalayan Vultures in Khodpe, far-west Nepal: is there any threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis is susceptible to the veterinary drug diclofenac, which is responsible for the decline of other Gyps species across South Asia.  Unlike other Gyps species, there is little quantitative data to assess Himalayan Vultures population.  Based on observation, we analyzed the flock size and breeding success of the Himalayan Vultures on two cliffs of Khodpe in Baitadi District, far-west Nepal.  The mean flock size of Himalayan Vulture was 25.83±6.33.  Overall breeding success was 90.9% based on active nests.  We also conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the perceived threats in the view of local people to vultures and these threats include loss of food, veterinary drug, lack of proper nest sites, and lack of public awareness.  Additionally, 76% of the respondents felt that vultures were decreasing in the area, 94.7% were not aware of the toxicity of diclofenac to vultures, and very few (2% knew about the availability of meloxicam as a safe alternative drug.  The colony we studied is one of the few remaining known breeding populations, which provide baseline information from far-west Nepal, thus we recommend for conservation and continuous monitoring of this species to understand their population change and breeding biology. 

  6. Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pelliciotti, F.; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Greater Himalayan glaciers are retreating and losing mass at rates comparable to glaciers in other regions of the world1–5 . Assessments of future changes and their associated hydrological impacts are scarce, oversimplify glacier dynamics or include a limited number of climate models6–9 . Here, we

  7. High-resolution monitoring of Himalayan glacier dynamics using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Kraaijenbrink, P. D A; Shea, J. M.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794; De Jong, S. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    2014-01-01

    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and they are an important source of melt water. However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers

  8. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  9. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina J; Sinha, Rajiv; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Mark, Darren F; Mason, Philippa J; Densmore, Alexander L; Murray, Andrew S; Jain, Mayank; Paul, Debajyoti; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-28

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (~4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers. Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after ~8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than an active Himalayan river. Confinement of the Sutlej to its present incised course after ~8 ka likely reduced its propensity to re-route frequently thus enabling long-term stability for Indus settlements sited along the relict palaeochannel.

  10. Low-Altitude Aerial Methane Concentration Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara J. Emran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of leaks of fugitive greenhouse gases (GHGs from landfills and natural gas infrastructure is critical for not only their safe operation but also for protecting the environment. Current inspection practices involve moving a methane detector within the target area by a person or vehicle. This procedure is dangerous, time consuming, labor intensive and above all unavailable when access to the desired area is limited. Remote sensing by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a methane detector is a cost-effective and fast method for methane detection and monitoring, especially for vast and remote areas. This paper describes the integration of an off-the-shelf laser-based methane detector into a multi-rotor UAV and demonstrates its efficacy in generating an aerial methane concentration map of a landfill. The UAV flies a preset flight path measuring methane concentrations in a vertical air column between the UAV and the ground surface. Measurements were taken at 10 Hz giving a typical distance between measurements of 0.2 m when flying at 2 m/s. The UAV was set to fly at 25 to 30 m above the ground. We conclude that besides its utility in landfill monitoring, the proposed method is ready for other environmental applications as well as the inspection of natural gas infrastructure that can release methane with much higher concentrations.

  11. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Thayyen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is

  12. Pollinator scarcity drives the shift to delayed selfing in Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Ze; Fang, Qiang; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetics have indicated that American mayapple (mainly self-incompatible, SI) and Himalayan mayapple, which was considered to be self-compatible (SC), are sister species with disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We test a hypothesis that the persistence of this early spring flowering herb in the Himalayan region is attributable to the transition from SI to SC, the capacity for selfing in an unpredictable pollination environment. Pollinator observations were conducted in an alpine meadow with hundreds of Himalayan mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle) individuals over 2 years. To examine autogamy, seed set under different pollination treatments was compared. To clarify whether automatic self-pollination is achieved by movement of the pistil as a previous study suggested, we measured incline angles of the pistil and observed flower movement during anthesis using video. Floral visitors to the nectarless flowers were very rare, but solitary bees and honeybees could be potential pollinators. Seed set of bagged flowers was not significantly different from that of open-pollinated, self- or cross-pollinated flowers. However, removal of petals or stamens lowered seed yield. The angles of inclination of pistils did not change during the process of pollination. Automatic self-pollination was facilitated by petals closing and stamens moving simultaneously to contact the stigma. Stigmatic pollen load increased little during the day time, in contrast to a sharp increase when the flowers closed during the night-time. These observations indicated that Himalayan mayapple was SC and delayed self-pollination was facilitated by the movement of petals rather than the pistil. Compared with SI American mayapple, no obvious inbreeding depression in SC Himalayan mayapple may contribute its existence in the uplifting zone. A scarcity of pollinators may have driven the shift to delayed selfing in P. hexandrum.

  13. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  14. Tibet- Himalayan Analogs of Pan-African Shear Zones : Implications for Neoproterozoic Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale shear zones are distinct features of Tibet-Himalayan orogen and the Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt. Prominent examples in the Pan-African-belt extend for ~2500 km from the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea and are characterized by right-slip movements. The NS shear zones, such as 4°50’-Kandi shear zone (KSZ) are complemented by NE-SW shear zones that preserve a record of sinistral movements and are represented by the Central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) in the eastern part of the Pan-African domain. The West African shear zones project into similar structures in the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. In addition, the Pan-African belt preserves structures and rock assemblages that indicate subduction-collision tectonics We propose that structures of Tibet-Himalayan collisional orogen are instructive analogs of the Pan-African structures where: (i) the Pan-African front corresponds to the Main Himalayan thrust and it’s splays; (ii) the main Pan-African suture zone is analogous to the Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Tibet-Himalayan belt; (iii) the 4°50’-KSZ corresponds to Karakoram and it’s linkages with Jiali fault system and (iv) left-slip CCSZ and related shear zones are analogs of Altyn Tagh and Kumlun faults and their splays. This suggests the operation of escape-type tectonics in the Neoproterozoic belt of West-Africa and predicts the nature of the deep structures in the Cenozoic Tibet-Himalayan orogen.

  15. Expedition 354 on the Bengal fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling in the Bengal fan generated a comprehensive record of Himalayan erosion over the Neogene and Quaternary. It documents the interplay between Himalayan tectonic and the monsoon. The fan is predominantly composed of detrital turbiditic sediments originating from Himalayan rivers, and transported through the delta and shelf canyon, supplying turbidity currents loaded with a wide spectrum of grain sizes. Turbiditic deposition makes that record at a given site is discontinuous which was the reason for an E-W transect approach. Exp. 354 drilled seven sites along a 320 km E-W transect at 8°N allowing the restitution of an almost complete record of Himalayan erosion at the scale of the Neogene. In spite of the transect's extension, a long absence of deposition was observed between 0.6 to 1.2 Ma indicating that turbiditic depocenter was derived more to the West for ca. 600 kyr. Turbidites have clear Himalayan origin with close mineralogical and isotopic analogy with those of the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments. Geochemistry shows relatively stable compositions throughout the Neogene and Quaternary and reveal a very weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. Concentrations in mobile elements such as Na and K relative to Al are significantly higher than in modern sediments suggesting that weathering is amplified in the modern time. Low weathering of the sediments at 8°N indicates that erosion was dominated by physical processes and that transport is rapid enough to prevent evolution of particles in the floodplain. In the modern Himalaya, low weathering is achieved primarily by landslides and rapid transfer through the floodplain, i.e. limited recycling of sediment deposited in the floodplain. Both processes are favoured by the seasonality and the intensity of the monsoon. Although relatively stable, source tracers such as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and detrital carbonate compositions show organised variations with time

  16. Large paleoearthquake timing and displacement near Damak in eastern Nepal on the Himalayan Frontal Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Pierce, Ian K.; Reedy, Tabor; Angster, Stephen J.; Giri, Bibek

    2017-08-01

    An excavation across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust near Damak in eastern Nepal shows displacement on a fault plane dipping 22° has produced vertical separation across a scarp equal to 5.5 m. Stratigraphic, structural, geometrical, and radiocarbon observations are interpreted to indicate that the displacement is the result of a single earthquake of 11.3 ± 3.5 m of dip-slip displacement that occurred 1146-1256 A.D. Empirical scaling laws indicate that thrust earthquakes characterized by average displacements of this size may produce rupture lengths of 450 to >800 km and moment magnitudes Mw of 8.6 to >9. Sufficient strain has accumulated along this portion of the Himalayan arc during the roughly 800 years since the 1146-1256 A.D. earthquake to produce another earthquake displacement of similar size.

  17. Breeding biology and conservation strategy of the Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris innominata) in southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang; Youhui Shen; Qingyi Liao; Jianzhang Ma

    2013-01-01

    From April 1994 to November 2007, we studied the breeding biology of the Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris innominata) based on field investigations, behavior observations, and bird bandings in the Shenjing Cave of Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province. Overall, we found a total breeding population of 2,000 swiftlets in the cave. The Himilayan swiftlet is a summer migrant in the area which arrives in early April and departs in early November. This species is monogamous ...

  18. Effects of experience and commercialisation on survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. Participants 23 995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39 038 climbs, 23 295 on 8000 m peaks. Outcome Death. Results After controlling for use of standard route, peak, age, season, sex, summit success, and year of expedition, increased Himalayan experience was not associated with a change in the odds of death (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.05, P=0.904). Participation in a commercial climb was associated with a 37% lower odds of death relative to a traditional venture, although not significantly (0.63, 0.37 to 1.09, P=0.100). Choice of peak was clearly associated with altered odds of death (omnibus P<0.001); year of expedition was associated with a significant trend toward reduced odds of death (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99, P=0.011). Conclusions No net survival benefit is associated with increased Himalayan experience or participation in a traditional (versus commercial) venture. The incremental decrease in risk associated with calendar year suggests that cumulative, collective knowledge and general innovation are more important than individual experience in improving the odds of survival. PMID:22695902

  19. Sediment pathways and emergence of Himalayan source material in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Ismaiel, M.; Srinivas, K.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; Saha, D.

    . R., Emmel, F. J. and Moore, D. G., The Bengal Fan: geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 2003, 19, 1191–1223. 26. Bull, J. M. and Scrutton, R. A., Seismic reflection images of intraplate deformation, central Indian... information on the linkage among Himalayan tectonics, Asian climate and erosional history of the Himalaya. There is a general belief that the sediment dis- charge from the Himalaya to the BoB had begun around the Eocene (~40 Ma)9...

  20. Perineal burn contractures: An experience in tertiary hospital of a Himalayan state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineal burn contracture is a rare burn sequel. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases with perineal burn contractures managed in a tertiary care centre of a Himalayan state. We found that all cases sustained burn injury from burning firewood and the time of presentation was two to six years after the burn injury. We analyzed our treatment method and have classified these contractures into two types.

  1. Reconnaissance Rb-Sr dates for the Himalayan Central Gneiss, Northwest India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C. McA.; Crawford, A.R.; Armstrong, R.L.; Wynne-Edwards, H.R.; Prakash, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr analysis of whole-rock samples and biotite and biotite - or muscovite - whole rock pairs suggests that the Himalayan Central Gneiss in the crystalline nappes of the Lesser Himalaya and the root zone in the High Himalaya was formed during Oligocene to mid-Miocene times by deformation and metamorphism of older rocks, including Precambrian. Four whole-rock samples from the Almora-Askot thrust sheets define an isochron of 1620 +- 90 Ma with a high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.749 +- 0.007; other single whole-rock samples give dates in the range 268 to 1065 Ma, assuming an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.704. These dates are considered to represent either depositional or early instructive/deformational events. Three biotite-whole rock pairs from the root zone of the Himalayan Central Gneiss in Lahaul give aqes of 16 to 19 Ma and two muscovite-whole rock pairs give similar mid-Cenozoic ages (12 and 26 Ma); two muscovite-whole rock pairs give Paleozoic ages, which suggests incomplete resetting of the muscovite by the Cenozoic metamorphism. The pattern of ages is similar to recent results from adjacent areas, and consistent with models of Himalayan tectonics involving formation of the Central Gneiss from older Indian crust during the mid-Cenozoic. (auth.)

  2. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Himalayan-Tibetan Region from Historical and Instrumental Earthquake Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Moklesur; Bai, Ling; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Li, Guohui

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan region has a long history of devastating earthquakes with wide-spread casualties and socio-economic damages. Here, we conduct the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by incorporating the incomplete historical earthquake records along with the instrumental earthquake catalogs for the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Historical earthquake records back to more than 1000 years ago and an updated, homogenized and declustered instrumental earthquake catalog since 1906 are utilized. The essential seismicity parameters, namely, the mean seismicity rate γ, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, and the maximum expected magnitude M max are estimated using the maximum likelihood algorithm assuming the incompleteness of the catalog. To compute the hazard value, three seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) and two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined by means of a logic tree on accounting the epistemic uncertainties. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at 0.2 and 1.0 s are predicted for 2 and 10% probabilities of exceedance over 50 years assuming bedrock condition. The resulting PGA and SA maps show a significant spatio-temporal variation in the hazard values. In general, hazard value is found to be much higher than the previous studies for regions, where great earthquakes have actually occurred. The use of the historical and instrumental earthquake catalogs in combination of multiple seismogenic source models provides better seismic hazard constraints for the Himalayan-Tibetan region.

  3. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  4. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  5. Evolution of the Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin is immensely important as it preserves evidence of India-Asia collision and related records of the Himalayan orogenesis. In this paper, the depositional regime of the Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin and variations in composition of the hinterland at different stages of the basin developments are presented. The Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin developed in two stages, i.e. syn-collisional stage and post-collisional stage. At the onset, chert breccia containing fragments derived from the hanging walls of faults and reworked bauxite developed as a result of erosion of the forebulge. The overlying early Eocene succession possibly deposited in a coastal system, where carbonates represent barriers and shales represent lagoons. Up-section, the middle Eocene marl beds likely deposited on a tidal flat. The late Eocene/Oligocene basal Murree beds, containing tidal bundles, indicate that a mixed or semi-diurnal tidal system deposited the sediments and the sedimentation took place in a tide-dominated estuary. In the higher-up, the succession likely deposited in a river-dominated estuary or in meandering rivers. In the beginning of the basin evolution, the sediments were derived from the Precambrian basement or from the metasediments/volcanic rocks possessing terrains of the south. The early and middle Eocene (54.7–41.3 Ma succession of the embryonic foreland possibly developed from the sediments derived from the Trans-Himalayan schists and phyllites and Indus ophiolite of the north during syn-collisional stage. The detrital minerals especially the lithic fragments and the heavy minerals suggest the provenance for the late Eocene/Oligocene sequences to be from the recycled orogenic belt of the Higher Himalaya, Tethyan Himalaya and the Indus-suture zone from the north during post-collisional stage. This is also supported by the paleocurrent

  6. REVIEW: TRANSCULTURAL ENCOUNTERS IN THE HIMALAYAN BORDERLANDS - KALIMPONG AS A "CONTACT ZONE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Enrico Beltramini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Markus Viehbeck (ed., 2017. Transcultural Encounters in the Himalayan Borderlands - Kalimpong as a "Contact Zone." Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, viii + 350 pp, ISBN 978-3-946054-58-0 (paperback 55.37USD. This volume is both a story of the hill station of Kalimpong, in the Eastern Himalayan region, and a study of transcultural dynamics seen through the prism of the local story of Kalimpong. A collaborative work, the book is the result of a conference that brought together various international scholars on the cultural history of Kalimpong. Scholars from Europe (Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Heidelberg, Manchester, Oxford, Roskilde, North America (Los Angeles, Toronto, Oceania (Melbourne, and India (Sikkim met in Kalimpong 6-8 March 2015, to discuss the topic from a variety of disciplinary viewpoints, including social history, Tibetan studies, anthropology, ethnography, religious studies, and postcolonial literature. The publisher, Heidelberg University Publishing, has included this anthology in its prestigious Heidelberg Studies on Transculturality. The history of Kalimpong, the other mountain town of Darjeeling and, more generally the entire Eastern Himalayan region, has been the focus of a specialized yet expanding scholarly field. Works center on Kalimpong (Hilker, 2005, Darjeeling (Besky, 2014; Sharma, 2011 and 2014; Warner, 2014, and the entire area of the Himalayan territories of Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan, as well as parts of Northern-Eastern India (Huber and Blackburn, 2012; McKay, 2007; Mullard, 2011; Phuntsho, 2013; Shneiderman, 2015. In this context, scholars note how Kalimpong and Darjeeling shared the same destiny: originally sparsely populated settlements in the foothills of the Himalayas, both villages were acquired in the nineteenth century by the English East India Company (Kalimpong was annexed in 1865 from the kingdom of Bhutan, and Darjeeling from the kingdom of Sikkim in 1835 to become British-ruled towns and

  7. Rusçuklu Zarîfî Ömer Baba ve Manzum-Mensur Tasavvuf Terimleri Lügatçesi: Istılahât-ı Meşâyıh Zarîfî Omar Baba From Ruscuk and His Glossary Of Verse-Prose Sufi Terminology: Istilahât-i Mashayikh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut KOÇOĞLU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough information about Zarîfî Omar Baba in the sources we have studied. According to the available sources Zarîfî Omar Baba, who was from Ruscuk village within the borders of Bulgaria today, participated in Sa’diyye Sect and he ascended to the position of sheikh in this sect. Zarîfî has two works which are mentioned in the biograhical antologies. These are Pend-name and Divan. Yet, in the catalogue searches we have done 7 more works, which are denoted to belong to him, have been identified. These works are: Tasavvuf-nâme, İsm-i A’zam, Kitâb-ı İ'tikâd, Hikâye-yi Kan Kalesi, Beyân-ı Ser-encâm, Kısasu’l-Enbiyâ and Istılahât-ı Mashayikh. As far as we could study, Zarîfî’s works have religion-sufism and moral contents. His work, Istılahât-ı Mashayikh, which has not been mentioned in the sources, is a kind of dictionary of sufism terms. In this work, which starts with 23 verses narrating some religion and sufism themes, 70 sufism terms are explained in all. It is possible to group these terms into two as names and positions. In this work, names and their characteristics are written in prose while positions are written in verse. Firstly in verse, the author explains the name which identifies the qualities and characterisitcs of human being in his own sufistic point. Then in prose, he explains the positions the one, who has the characteristics of this name, will get to. In this article Zarîfî’s life, his literary personality and works; language, style and contents of Istılahât-ı Mashayikh have been examined. Besides, some terms in this work have been compared to other sufism dictionaries in order to clarify that meanings ascribed to the same terms show difference according to sects, tariqah and perhaps according to time and place. Finally, the text of Istılahât-ı Mashayikh has been translated into contemporary letters in accordance with its two copies by critical edition method.

  8. Evidence of Himalayan erosional event at approx. 0.5 Ma from a sediment core from the equatorial Indian Ocean in the vicinityof ODP Leg 116 sites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Gupta, S.M.; Mislankar, P.G.; Rao, B.R.; Parthiban, G.; Roelandts, I.; Patil, S.K.

    ; discrimination plots of Ca/Ti versus K/Ti and K sub(2)O/Al sub(2) O sub(3) and La/Yb ratios suggest a highly metamorphosed source such as higher Himalayan crystalline (HHC) series indicating two events of increased physical weathering and erosion in the Himalayan...

  9. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  10. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Shradda; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV), Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s-1) dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September). Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m-3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2-3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of pollutants from the IGP to the

  11. Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Himalayan Medicinal Plants for Treating Wound Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habiba, U.; Ahmad, M.; Shinwari, S.; Sultana, S.; Zafar, M.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial and fungal strains are involved in wound infectious diseases as most of these strains become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Himalayan region. Plant based natural products seem to be an alternative to this problem. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of 30 medicinal plants used in folk recipes by Himalayan people to treat wound infections against multi-drug resistant pathogens. In total of six medically important Myco-bacterial strains Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were tested against methanolic plant extracts at 5 mg/ml concentration using agar disc well diffusion method to determined Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The plant extracts showed varied levels of MICs against test microorganisms. The strongest antibacterial activity was reported in methanolic extract of Cynadon dactylon (L.) Pers. against Klebsiella pneumoniae with 20.67±1.36 mm MICs, while Candida albicans was considered to be the most resistant pathogen with MICs 9.6±0.57 mm. The findings were compared with results obtained using standard antibiotics, aminooxanilic, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, fluconazole and itraconazole at conc. 5mg/ ml. The results provide an evidence of folk medicinal uses of plants among the Himalayan communities to treat wounds. Further research needs to be carried out to identify the active molecules and evaluate the in vivo antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as toxicity level with clinical trials to use full potential of these plants for drug discovery development to control wounds globally. (author)

  12. Penetrating head injury with bilateral eye avulsion due to Himalayan bear bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Yam B; Roka, Narayani; Shrestha, Manzil; Puri, Puspa R; Adhikari, Hari B

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), although an omnivore, is more carnivorous than its American counterpart. It is also more aggressive towards humans and is a threatened species because of the deforestation in the Himalayas. Furthermore, poverty, encroachment of the forest, extensive deforestation, lack of education and living near the forest are factors that increase the probability of such animal injuries. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who suffered a severe penetrating head injury with scalp and bilateral eye avulsion, which was managed successfully. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  14. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler Lidar and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) observations are utilized to show wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth (AOD) during daytime boundary layer evolution over the Himalayan region. Fourier analysis depicted 60–80 min periods dominant during afternoon hours, implying that observed modulations could be plausible reason for the AOD forenoon–afternoon asymmetry which was previously reported. Inclusion of wave amplitude in diurnal variation of aerosol radiative forcing estimates showed ~40% additional warming in the atmosphere relative to mean AOD. The present observations emphasize the importance of wave induced variations in AOD and radiation budget over the site.

  15. Chemical evolution of Himalayan leucogranites based on an O, U-Pb and Hf study of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Thomas N.; Warren, Clare J.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Parrish, Randall R.

    2015-04-01

    Crustal melting is a characteristic process at convergent plate margins, where crustal rocks are heated and deformed. Miocene leucogranite sheets and plutons are found intruded into the high-grade metasedimentary core (the Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) across the Himalayan orogen. Previously-published Himalayan whole-rock data suggest that these leucogranites formed from a purely meta-sedimentary source, isotopically similar to those into which they now intrude. Bulk rock analyses carry inherent uncertainties, however: they may hide contributions from different contributing sources, and post-crystallization processes such as fluid interaction may significantly alter the original chemistry. In contrast, zircon is more able to retain precise information of the contributing sources of the melt from which it crystallises whilst its resistant nature is impervious to post-magmatic processes. This multi-isotope study of Oligocene-Miocene leucogranite zircons from the Bhutan Himalaya, seeks to differentiate between various geochemical processes that contribute to granite formation. Hf and O isotopes are used to detect discrete changes in melt source while U-Pb isotopes provide the timing of zircon crystallisation. Our data show that zircon rims of Himalayan age yield Hf-O signatures that lie within the previously reported whole-rock GHS field, confirming the absence of a discernible mantle contribution to the leucogranite source. Importantly, we document a decrease in the minimum ɛHf values during Himalayan orogenesis through time, correlating to a change in Hf model age from 1.4 Ga to 2.4 Ga. Nd model ages for the older Lesser Himalayan metasediments (LHS) that underthrust the GHS are significantly older than those for the GHS (2.4-2.9 Ga compared with 1.4-2.2 Ga), and as such even minor contributions of LHS material incorporated into a melt would significantly increase the resulting Hf model age. Hence our leucogranite data suggest either a change of source within

  16. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  17. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively.

  18. Plant diversity and conservation status of Himalayan Region Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Mir Ajab; Hussain, Mazhar; Mujtaba, Ghulam

    2014-09-01

    The plant diversity of Himalayan region has been reduced to greater extent due to environmental degradation and human exploitation. Anthropogenic disturbance was the major factor responsible for fragmentation of forest vegetation into small patches. Little research has been conducted in the Himalayan region of Poonch Valley of North eastern Pakistan with reference to plants biodiversity and its conservation. The present research was carried out to provide a checklist of vegetation for biodiversity conservation. A total of 430 vascular and 5 nonvascular plant species with 5 species of Bryophytes (5 families), 13 species of Pteridophytes (6 families), 4 species of Gymnosperms (1 family) and 413 species of angiosperms (95 families) were enumerated from the Poonch valley Azad Kashmir. The genera were classified into three categories according to the number of species. 25 plant communities with phytosociological parameters and diversity indices were reported. Present study revealed that there were 145 threatened, 30 endangered, 68 vulnerable and 47 rare species. It is recorded that extensive grazing, uprooting of plants and soil slope erosion intensify the environmental problems. Since there is maximum exploitation of vegetation, the valley showed a decline in plant diversity. The study was also indicated that the main threats to the biodiversity are expansion of settlement and army installations in the forest area of the valley. For sustainable use In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, controlled harvesting and afforestation may be the solution. Moreover, forest area should be declared prohibited for settlements and army installations.

  19. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  20. Orogen-transverse tectonic window in the Eastern Himalayan fold belt: A superposed buckling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Acharyya, S. K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Saha, Puspendu

    2014-09-01

    The Eastern Lesser Himalayan fold-thrust belt is punctuated by a row of orogen-transverse domal tectonic windows. To evaluate their origin, a variety of thrust-stack models have been proposed, assuming that the crustal shortening occurred dominantly by brittle deformations. However, the Rangit Window (RW) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) shows unequivocal structural imprints of ductile deformations of multiple episodes. Based on new structural maps, coupled with outcrop-scale field observations, we recognize at least four major episodes of folding in the litho-tectonic units of DSH. The last episode has produced regionally orogen-transverse upright folds (F4), the interference of which with the third-generation (F3) orogen-parallel folds has shaped the large-scale structural patterns in DSH. We propose a new genetic model for the RW, invoking the mechanics of superposed buckling in the mechanically stratified litho-tectonic systems. We substantiate this superposed buckling model with results obtained from analogue experiments. The model explains contrasting F3-F4 interferences in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS). The lower-order (terrain-scale) folds have undergone superposed buckling in Mode 1, producing large-scale domes and basins, whereas the RW occurs as a relatively higher-order dome nested in the first-order Tista Dome. The Gondwana and the Proterozoic rocks within the RW underwent superposed buckling in Modes 3 and 4, leading to Type 2 fold interferences, as evident from their structural patterns.

  1. Remote Sensing of Cryosphere: Estimation of Mass Balance Change in Himalayan Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Joshi, Kabindra

    2012-07-01

    Glacial changes are an important indicator of climate change. Our understanding mass balance change in Himalayan glaciers is limited. This study estimates mass balance of some major glaciers in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) in Nepal using remote sensing applications. Remote sensing technique to measure mass balance of glaciers is an important methodological advance in the highly rugged Himalayan terrain. This study uses ASTER VNIR, 3N (nadir view) and 3B (backward view) bands to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the SNP area for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. Glacier boundaries were delineated using combination of boundaries available in the Global land ice measurement (GLIMS) database and various band ratios derived from ASTER images. Elevation differences, glacial area, and ice densities were used to estimate the change in mass balance. The results indicated that the rate of glacier mass balance change was not uniform across glaciers. While there was a decrease in mass balance of some glaciers, some showed increase. This paper discusses how each glacier in the SNP area varied in its annual mass balance measurement during the study period.

  2. Estimating Regional Mass Balance of Himalayan Glaciers Using Hexagon Imagery: An Automated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J. M.; Rupper, S.

    2013-12-01

    Currently there is much uncertainty regarding the present and future state of Himalayan glaciers, which supply meltwater for river systems vital to more than 1.4 billion people living throughout Asia. Previous assessments of regional glacier mass balance in the Himalayas using various remote sensing and field-based methods give inconsistent results, and most assessments are over relatively short (e.g., single decade) timescales. This study aims to quantify multi-decadal changes in volume and extent of Himalayan glaciers through efficient use of the large database of declassified 1970-80s era Hexagon stereo imagery. Automation of the DEM extraction process provides an effective workflow for many images to be processed and glacier elevation changes quantified with minimal user input. The tedious procedure of manual ground control point selection necessary for block-bundle adjustment (as ephemeral data is not available for the declassified images) is automated using the Maximally Stable Extremal Regions algorithm, which matches image elements between raw Hexagon images and georeferenced Landsat 15 meter panchromatic images. Additional automated Hexagon DEM processing, co-registration, and bias correction allow for direct comparison with modern ASTER and SRTM elevation data, thus quantifying glacier elevation and area changes over several decades across largely inaccessible mountainous regions. As consistent methodology is used for all glaciers, results will likely reveal significant spatial and temporal patterns in regional ice mass balance. Ultimately, these findings could have important implications for future water resource management in light of environmental change.

  3. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity’s sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot’s claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops’ resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop.

  4. Assessment of permafrost distribution maps in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region using rock glaciers mapped in Google Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, M.O.; Baral, P.; Gruber, S.; Shahi, S.; Shrestha, T.; Stumm, D.; Wester, P.

    2015-01-01

    The extent and distribution of permafrost in the mountainous parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region are largely unknown. A long tradition of permafrost research, predominantly on rather gentle relief, exists only on the Tibetan Plateau. Two permafrost maps are available digitally that

  5. Effective Reversible Immobilization of Captive Himalayan Black Bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) with Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Attur Shanmugam; Krishna, Sanath; Antony, Linto; Pillai, Harikrishnan Chandran; Venkataramanappa, Manjunatha; Suresh, Sujay

    2016-04-28

    We used a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize five Himalayan black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) in Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bangalore, India. Medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam were administered at 0.01 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. We describe procedures and observations recorded during the immobilization.

  6. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  7. Testing the effect of the Himalayan mountains as a physical barrier to gene flow in Hippophae tibetana Schlect. (Elaeagnaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Qiong

    Full Text Available Hippophae tibetana is a small, dioecious wind-pollinated shrub endemic to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau. It is one of the shrubs that occur at very high elevations (5250 m a.s.l.. The Himalayan mountains provides a significant geographical barrier to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, dividing the Himalayan area into two regions with Nepal to the south and Tibet to the north. There is no information on how the Himalayan mountains influence gene flow and population differentiation of alpine plants. In this study, we analyzed eight nuclear microsatellite markers and cpDNA trnT-trnF regions to test the role of the Himalayan mountains as a barrier to gene flow between populations of H. tibetana. We also examined the fine-scale genetic structure within a population of H. tibetana on the north slope of Mount (Mt. Everest. For microsatellite analyses, a total of 241 individuals were sampled from seven populations in our study area (4 from Nepal, 3 from Tibet, including 121 individuals that were spatially mapped within a 100 m × 100 m plot. To test for seed flow, the cpDNA trnT-trnF regions of 100 individuals from 6 populations (4 from Nepal, 2 from Tibet were also sequenced. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two regions by both microsatellite and cpDNA data analyses. These two datasets agree about southern and northern population differentiation, indicating that the Himalayan mountains represent a barrier to H. tibetana limiting gene flow between these two areas. At a fine scale, spatial autocorrelation analysis suggests significant genetic structure within a distance of less than 45 m, which may be attributed mainly to vegetative reproduction and habitat fragmentation, as well as limited gene flow.

  8. Vertical profile of aerosols in the Himalayan region using an ultralight aircraft platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Mahata, K.; Rupakheti, M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Junkermann, W.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-gangetic plain (IGP) and Himalayan foothills have large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in aerosols characteristics. Regional meteorology around 850-500 mb plays an important role in the transformation and transportation of aerosols from west Asia to IGP, into Himalayan foothill, as well to high-altitude region of the Himalayas. In order to quantify the vertical and horizontal variation of aerosol properties in the Himalayan , an airborne campaign was carried out in the Pokhara Valley/Nepal (83°50'-84°10' E, 25°7'-28°15' N, 815 masl ) in two phases: test flights during May 2016 and an intensive airborne sampling flight in December-January 2017. This paper provides an overview of airborne measurement campaign from the first phase of measurements in May 2016. A two-seater microlight aircraft (IKARUS C 42) was used as the aerial platform. This was deemed the feasible option in Nepal for an aerial campaign; technical specification of the aircraft include an approximately 6 hrs of flying time, short-take off run, > 100 kgs of payload, suitable for spiral upward and downward profiling. The instrument package consist of GRIMM 1.108 for particle size distribution from 0.3 to 20 um at 6 seconds time resolution, and TSI CPC 3375 for total ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration at 1 s. The package also includes a Magee Scientific Aethalometer (AE42) for aerosol absorption at seven different wavelengths. Meteorological parameters include temperature and dew point at a sampling rate of 1 Hz or higher. The paper provides a snapshot of observed vertical profile (from 800 to 4500masl) of aerosols size, number and black carbon over one of populated mountain valley in Nepal during the pre-monsoon season. During the airborne measurement, local fires- mostly agriculture burn were observed, however no large scale forest fire was captured. Sharp morning and afternoon gradients were observed in the vertical profile for aerosol number and size, mostly dominated by 2000 masl

  9. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhungel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo–Gangetic plains (IGP from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC, ozone (O3, and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV, Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s−1 dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September. Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m−3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2–3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of

  10. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil K.; Gosain, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km 2 with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO 3 ) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO 3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R 2 correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO 3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO 3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates

  11. Re-evaluation of P-T paths across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, M.; Kelly, E. D.; Ashley, K.; Lovera, O. M.; Etzel, T.; Lizzadro-McPherson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Main Central Thrust (MCT) is the dominant crustal thickening structure in the Himalayas, juxtaposing high-grade Greater Himalayan Crystalline rocks over the lower-grade Lesser Himalaya Formations. The fault is underlain by a 2 to 12-km-thick sequence of deformed rocks characterized by an apparent inverted metamorphic gradient, termed the MCT shear zone. Garnet-bearing rocks sampled from across the MCT along the Marysandi River in central Nepal contain monazite that decrease in age from Early Miocene (ca. 20 Ma) in the hanging wall to Late Miocene-Pliocene (ca. 7 Ma and 3 Ma) towards structurally lower levels in the shear zone. We obtained high-resolution garnet-zoning pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from 11 of the same rocks used for monazite geochronology using a recently-developed semi-automated Gibbs-free-energy-minimization technique. Quartz-in-garnet Raman barometry refined the locations of the paths. Diffusional re-equilibration of garnet zoning in hanging wall samples prevented accurate path determinations from most Greater Himalayan Crystalline samples, but one that shows a bell-shaped Mn zoning profile shows a slight decrease in P (from 8.2 to 7.6kbar) with increase in T (from 590 to 640ºC). Three MCT shear zone samples were modeled: one yields a simple path increasing in both P and T (6 to 7kbar, 540 to 580ºC); the others yield N-shaped paths that occupy similar P-T space (4 to 5.5 kbar, 500 to 560ºC). Five lower lesser Himalaya garnet-bearing rocks were modeled. One yields a path increasing in both P-T (6 to 7 kbar, 525 to 550ºC) but others show either sharp compression/decompression or N-shape paths (within 4.5-6 kbar and 530-580ºC). The lowermost sample decreases in P (5.5 to 5 kbar) over increasing T (540 to 580°C). No progressive change is seen from one type of path to another within the Lesser Himalayan Formations to the MCT zone. The results using the modeling approach yield lower P-T conditions compared to the Gibbs method and lower

  12. Botany, ethnomedicines, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Himalayan paeony (Paeonia emodi Royle.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Malik, Khafsa; Tariq, Akash; Zhang, Guolin; Yaseen, Ghulam; Rashid, Neelam; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Ullah, Kifayat; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada

    2018-06-28

    Himalayan paeony (Paeonia emodi Royle.) is an important species used to treat various diseases. This study aimed to compile the detailed traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicological investigations on P. emodi. This study also highlights taxonomic validity, quality of experimental designs and shortcomings in previously reported information on Himalayan paeony. The data was extracted from unpublished theses (Pakistan, China, India and Nepal), and different published research articles confined to pharmacology, phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities using different databases through specific keywords. The relevant information regarding medicinal uses, taxonomic/common names, part used, collection and identification source, authentication, voucher specimen number, plant extracts and their characterization, isolation and identification of phytochemicals, methods of study in silico, in vivo or in vitro, model organism used, dose and duration, minimal active concentration, zone of inhibition (antimicrobial study), bioactive compound(s), mechanism of action on single or multiple targets, and toxicological information. P. emodi is reported for diverse medicinal uses with pharmacological properties like antioxidant, nephroprotective, lipoxygenase inhibitory, cognition and oxidative stress release, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, anticonvulsant, haemaglutination, alpha-chymotrypsin inhibitory, hepatoprotective, hepatic chromes and pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine expression, β-glucuronidase inhibitory, spasmolytic and spasmogenic, and airway relaxant. Data confined to its taxonomic validity, shows 10% studies with correct taxonomic name while 90% studies with incorrect taxonomic, pharmacopeial and common names. The literature reviewed, shows lack of collection source (11 reports), without proper source of identification (15 reports), 33 studies without voucher specimen number, 26 reports lack information on authentic herbarium

  13. Outbreak of scrub typhus in the North East Himalayan region-Sikkim: An emerging threat

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    S Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that is known to be endemic in the South East Asian countries and the Western Pacific region. We here report an outbreak in the tiny Himalayan state of Sikkim. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin were evaluated. They were screened by Weil-Felix test and the rapid immunochromatographic method. Samples that were positive by either Weil-Felix agglutination test or by rapid immunochromatography were confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total 204 samples were screened. Sixty-three patients were confirmed positive among which 42 were male and 21 were female. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics will help prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

  14. Climate-growth relationships of Abies spectabilis in a central Himalayan treeline ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Niels; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Schickhoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines as well as rather insignificant responses. The large spectrum of responses is not fully understood. In the framework of investigating the sensitivity and response of a near-natural treeline ecotone in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal, to climate warming we present results from dendroclimatological analyses of Abies spectabilis (Himalayan Fir) increment cores. Tree ring width was measured and cross-dated. After standardization, the chronology was correlated with temperature and precipitation variables. Preliminary results point to positive correlations with autumn temperature and precipitation. We will present improved climate-growth relationships. The resulting climate - tree growth relationships may be used as an indication of future growth patterns and treeline dynamics under climate change conditions.

  15. Radon emanations: a tectonic indicator in the Dharamsala area of Himalayan Frontal Zone, Himachal Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    While throughout the length of Himalayas good exposures of the tertiary and the pre-Tertiary occurs occur, but in the Dharamsala and its adjoining areas of Himalayan Frontal Zone, tertiary and the pre-Tertiary rocks are present within a short aerial distance. This diverse lithology within a short span of distance along with the structural heterogeneity has made this region of Himalayas tectonically significant. This unique tectano-stratigraphic configuration of this area is primarily attributed to the major faults and folds which are either along the Himalayan trend or transverse to it. Interestingly the area is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zone-V of seismic atlas of India. It has been observed that regional thrusts systems and lineaments, control seismo-tectonic activity in the region. Contemporary geomorphological re-adjustments in the form of erosion intensity (meandering/drainage pattern or river incision) as a result of active nature of lineaments have been observed. In addition, due to the rampant seismic activity in the region especially in year 2013, the area has witnessed a sequence of landslides. The study further reveals these the signatures of morphological adjustment coincide with zones which have deciphered higher proportions of radon activity. Because radon transport through rocks is largely dependent on the geology of the area, which includes lithology, compaction, porosity structural/tectonic features like thrusts, faults, joints and fractures. Occurrences of landslide the thrust zones, coupled with high emanations of radon (both in soil and water) alludes attention towards dominant role of neo-tectonic activity in the area. (author)

  16. Land use/cover changes, extreme events and ecohydrological responses in the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. B.

    1998-10-01

    Land use describes human activities on the earth, and forms a major element of the terrestrial ecosystem modified by humans in the Himalayan region, where developmental activities are increasing rapidly to support the tourism infrastructure. The unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation. Land use and agricultural practices have undergone drastic changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the application of various newly developed techniques in agrosciences. An analysis of the land use as it has occurred over the last 70 years suggests that it and property rights in the Upper Beas Basin are complex and dynamic. For example, people are giving importance to orchards because of their high profitability. Thus, some agricultural land has been encroached on by orchards. In addition, wastelands are now being used by people for orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building. Since the Upper Beas River Basin is mountainous, it is fragile and prone to processes like soil erosion, slope instability, landslides and floods. Risks from natural hazards are increasing. However, the state of ecohydrological responses highlight that human-induced ecological changes can be largely proved at the microwatershed level. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. There is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities (deforestation) in the mountains and hazards in the plains such as floods. Owing to a lack of basic research, there is little effective information which cannot be used for long-term effective monitoring of ecological and hydrological responses to global change. Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs).

  17. Determining bioclimatic space of Himalayan alder for agroforestry systems in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan alder species are proven to be very useful in traditional as well as contemporary agroforestry practice. These nitrogen-fixing trees are also useful in the land restoration. Therefore, understanding the distribution of Himalayan alder and the potential zone for plantation is meaningful in the agroforestry sector. Suitable climatic zones of Alnus spp. were modelled in MaxEnt software using a subset of least correlated bioclimatic variables for current conditions (1950–2000, topographic variables (DEM derived and Landuse Landcover (LULC data. We generated several models and selected the best model against random models using ANOVA and t-test. The environmental variables that best explained the current distribution of the species were identified and used to project into the future. For future projections, ensemble scenarios of climate change projection derived from the results of 19 Earth System Models (ESM were used. Our model revealed that the most favorable conditions for Alnus nepalensis are in central Nepal in the moist north-west facing slope, whereas for Alnus nitida they are in western Nepal. The major climatic factor that contributes to Alnus species distribution in Nepal appears to be precipitation during the warmest quarter for A. nepalensis and precipitation during the driest quarter for A. nitida. Future projections revealed changes in the probability distribution of these species, as well as where they need conservation and where they can be planted. Also, our model predicts that the distribution of Alnus spp. in hilly regions will remain unchanged, and therefore may represent sites that can be used to revitalize traditional agroforestry systems and extract source material for land restoration.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Trans-Himalayan Alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B.; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P.; Upreti, Dalip K.; Toppo, Kiran; Arora, Rajesh; Suseela, M. R.; Srivastava, Ravi B.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve, a filamentous charophyte, collected from the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert, was identified on the basis of morpho-anatomical characters. Extracts of this alga were made using solvents of varying polarity viz. n-hexane, acetonitrile, methanol and water. The antioxidant capacities and phenolic profile of the extracts were estimated. The methanol extract showing highest antioxidant capacity and rich phenolic attributes was further investigated and phytochemical profiling was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) hyphenated technique. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and colon carcinoma RKO cell lines. The anti-hypoxic effect of methanol extract of the alga was tested on in vivo animal system to confirm its potential to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antioxidant assays viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property and lipid peroxidation exhibited analogous results, wherein the algal extracts showed significantly high antioxidant potential. The extracts were also found to possess high content of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of thirteen chemotypes in the methanol extract representing different phytochemical groups like fatty acid esters, sterols, unsaturated alcohols, alkynes etc. with substantial phyto-pharmaceutical importance. The methanol extract was observed to possess anticancer activity as revealed from studies on HepG2 and RKO cell lines. In the present study, S. porticalis methanol extract also provided protection from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and accelerated the onset of adaptative changes in rats during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The

  19. A Three-Year Experience of Medical Thoracoscopy at A Tertiary Care Center of Himalayan Region

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    Rakhee Sodhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing and treating pleural diseases. Despite its proven role in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, it is infrequently used, which could be because of cost of equipment and lack of training. We analyzed our initial 3 years record of thoracoscopy at Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care center in Himalayan region of north India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was to analyze our experience of medical thoracoscopy which was started in Jan 2011 at our center. All patients who underwent thoracoscopy during the period between Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 were included in the study. Thoracoscopy was performed for diagnosis of undiagnosed pleural effusions. Clinical, radiological, cytological & histopathological data of the patients were collected prospectively and analysed. Results: The diagnostic yield for a pleuroscopic pleural biopsy in our study was 87.23% (41/47. Malignancy was diagnosed histopathologically in 70.2% (33/47 patients (both primary & metastatic pleural carcinoma and tuberculosis in 10.6% (5/47. There was no mortality related to procedure. Only three patients had minor complications like subcutaneous emphysema which was mild and resolved by second post-procedure day. Pain at intercostal drain site was observed in some patients. Conclusion: Thoracoscopy is an easy outpatient procedure and an excellent diagnostic tool for pleural effusion of uncertain etiology. It has low complication rate even in settings where the procedure is just started. It should be included in the armamentarium of tools for management of pleural effusion.

  20. Species composition and community structure of subtropical forest stands in western himalayan foothills of kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Malik, N. M.; Dar, M. E. U. I.

    2015-01-01

    Lesser Himalayan subtropical forests have unique species composition due to diverse climatic and topographic factors which create numerous microhabitats. Phytosociological characteristics, structural attributes and biological spectrum of plant communities in the forests of Himalayan foothills in Kashmir were analyzed. A total of 65 species belonging to 26 plant families were recorded constituting 6 plant communities. Average value of diversity recorded for the communities was 2.44; species richness 4.01; whereas evenness was found to be 0.48. The species data indicated random distribution of species with a hump shaped diversity pattern directly correlated with increasing altitude. Themeda anathera was the dominant species with an importance value percentage of 14.7 percentage followed by Pinus roxburghii (9.6 percentage), Mallotus philippenensis (5.2 percentage), Malvastrum coromandelianum (5.1 percentage), Acacia modesta (5 percentage), Olea ferruginea (3.8 percentage) and Oxalis corniculata (3.2 percentage). Vegetation was dominated by Therophytes (30 percentage) and megaphanerophytes (23.3) with dominant leaf spectrum as leptophylls (31.6 percentage). Thirty seven percent plants had medicinal values followed by 31 percentage having fodder values where as 12 percentage used as fuel. Principal component analyses and cluster analyses revealed the association of dominant species with specific sites due to prevailing environmental conditions. The distribution of species in ordination diagrams indicated a continuous change in species composition along the altitudinal gradient. Key stone tree species were subject to immense tree felling resulting in deteriorating changes in forest structure. Visual indicators showed over grazing at all the studied sites evident from the dominance of unpalatable species. Local forest stands demand immediate attention of policy makers as well as forest management so that local diversity and floristic richness could be conserved and

  1. Application of artificial neural networks in hydrological modeling: A case study of runoff simulation of a Himalayan glacier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A. M.; Narain, A.; Pandey, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of runoff from a Himalayan Glacier basin using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is presented. The performance of the ANN model is found to be superior to the Energy Balance Model and the Multiple Regression model. The RMS Error is used as the figure of merit for judging the performance of the three models, and the RMS Error for the ANN model is the latest of the three models. The ANN is faster in learning and exhibits excellent system generalization characteristics.

  2. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  3. Timing and nature of Holocene glacier advances at the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sourav; Owen, Lewis A.; Orr, Elizabeth N.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2018-05-01

    Holocene glacial chronostratigraphies are developed for four glaciated valleys at the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen using geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. The study areas include the Hamtah valley in the Lahul Himalaya, and the Karzok, Lato and upper Stok valleys in Zanskar. Five local glacial stages are dated to ∼10.4, ∼6.1-3.3, ∼2.1-0.9, ∼0.7-0.4, and ∼0.3-0.2 ka based on 49 new moraine boulder ages. Large age dispersions are evident for each of the local glacial stages. This is especially the case for ∼6.1-3.3 and ∼2.1-0.9 ka, which is likely a result of prior and/or incomplete exposures in very young moraine boulders. An additional compilation of 187 published 10Be moraine boulder ages help define seven Himalayan Holocene regional glacial stages (HHs) for the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. These HHs date to ∼10.9-9.3, ∼8.2-7.4, ∼6.9-4.3, ∼4.5-2.8, ∼2.7-1.8, ∼1.8-0.9, and forced northerly migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and enhanced summer monsoon. The timing of the majority of HHs during mid- and late Holocene corresponds well with the North Atlantic cooling that is likely teleconnected via mid-latitude westerlies, particularly during ∼8 ka and after ∼5 ka. These chronostratigraphies suggest that Holocene glaciation in the northwestern part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is largely influenced by long-term orbital forcing amplified by large-scale migration of the Earth's thermal equator and the associated hemispheric oceanic-atmospheric systems.

  4. Conservation implications for the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of packs and home sites in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Werhahn, G; Kusi, N; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Macdonald, DW

    2017-01-01

    We provide insights into pack composition and den site parameters of the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of free-ranging wolves in three study areas in Nepal. We combine this with a social survey of the local Buddhist communities regarding human–carnivore conflict, to draw inferences for conservation practice in the Nepalese Himalayas. We recorded eight wolf packs (with an average composition of two adults and three pups), and found five home sites in high-alti...

  5. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ketan; Anbazhagan, P.

    2018-01-01

    Advancement in the seismic networks results in formulation of different functional forms for developing any new ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for a region. Till date, various guidelines and tools are available for selecting a suitable GMPE for any seismic study area. However, these methods are efficient in quantifying the GMPE but not for determining a proper functional form and capturing the epistemic uncertainty associated with selection of GMPE. In this study, the compatibility of the recent available functional forms for the active region is tested for distance and magnitude scaling. Analysis is carried out by determining the residuals using the recorded and the predicted spectral acceleration values at different periods. Mixed effect regressions are performed on the calculated residuals for determining the intra- and interevent residuals. Additionally, spatial correlation is used in mixed effect regression by changing its likelihood function. Distance scaling and magnitude scaling are respectively examined by studying the trends of intraevent residuals with distance and the trend of the event term with magnitude. Further, these trends are statistically studied for a respective functional form of a ground motion. Additionally, genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method are used respectively for calculating the hinge point and standard error for magnitude and distance scaling for a newly determined functional form. The whole procedure is applied and tested for the available strong motion data for the Himalayan region. The functional form used for testing are five Himalayan GMPEs, five GMPEs developed under NGA-West 2 project, two from Pan-European, and one from Japan region. It is observed that bilinear functional form with magnitude and distance hinged at 6.5 M w and 300 km respectively is suitable for the Himalayan region. Finally, a new regression coefficient for peak ground acceleration for a suitable functional form that governs the attenuation

  6. Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronometric Constraints on Himalayan Thrust Belt Exhumation, Bedrock Weathering, and Cenozoic Seawater Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleps, Cody L.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Singh, Birendra P.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Myrow, Paul M.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Horton, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    Shifts in global seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr are often utilized as proxies to track global weathering processes responsible for CO2 fluctuations in Earth history, particularly climatic cooling during the Cenozoic. It has been proposed, however, that these isotopic records instead reflect the weathering of chemically distinctive Himalayan lithologies exposed at the surface. We present new zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic evidence from the Himalaya of northwest India to explore these contrasting interpretations concerning the driving mechanisms responsible for these seawater records. Our data demonstrate in-sequence southward thrust propagation with rapid exhumation of Lesser Himalayan strata enriched in labile 187Os and relatively less in radiogenic 87Sr at ˜16 Ma, which directly corresponds with coeval shifts in seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr. Results presented here provide substantial evidence that the onset of exhumation of 187Os-enriched Lesser Himalayan strata could have significantly impacted the marine 187Os/188Os record at 16 Ma. These results support the hypothesis that regional weathering of isotopically unique source rocks can drive seawater records independently from shifts in global-scale weathering rates, hindering the utility of these records as reliable proxies to track global weathering processes and climate in deep geologic time.

  7. Surface area changes of Himalayan ponds as a proxy of hydrological climate-driven fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Guyennon, Nicolas; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    The meteorological measurements at high-elevations of the Himalayan range are scarce due to the harsh conditions of these environments which limit the suitable maintenance of weather stations. As a consequence, the meager knowledge on how the climate is changed in the last decades at Himalayan high-elevations sets a serious limit upon the interpretation of relationships between causes and recent observed effects on the cryosphere. Although the glaciers masses reduction in Himalaya is currently sufficiently well described, how changes in climate drivers (precipitation and temperature) have influenced the melting and shrinkage processes are less clear. Consequently, the uncertainty related to the recent past amplifies when future forecasts are done, both for climate and impacts. In this context, a substantial body of research has already demonstrated the high sensitivity of lakes and ponds to climate. Some climate-related signals are highly visible and easily measurable in lakes. For example, climate-driven fluctuations in lake surface area have been observed in many remote sites. On interior Tibetan Plateau the lake growth since the late 1990s is mainly attributed to increased regional precipitation and weakened evaporation. Differently, other authors attribute at the observed increases of lake surfaces at the enhanced glacier melting. In our opinion these divergences found in literature are due to the type of glacial lakes considered in the study and in particular their relationship with glaciers. In general, in Himalaya three types of glacial lakes can be distinguished: (i) lakes that are not directly connected with glaciers, but that may have a glacier located in their basin (unconnected glacial lakes); (ii) supraglacial lakes, which develop on the surface of the glacier downstream; or (iii) proglacial lakes, which are moraine-dammed lakes that are in contact with the glacier front. Some of these lakes store large quantities of water and are susceptible to GLOFs

  8. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km{sup 2} with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO{sub 3}) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO{sub 3} transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R{sup 2} correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO{sub 3} removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO{sub 3} concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the

  9. Podophyllum hexandrum (Himalayan mayapple) extract provides radioprotection by modulating the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Ashok; Prasad, Jagdish; Sagar, Ravinder; Singh, Surender; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2005-08-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Himalayan mayapple), a high-altitude Himalayan plant, has been shown to provide over 80% whole-body radioprotection in mice. To investigate the radioprotective potential of P. hexandrum at the molecular level, expression patterns of various proteins associated with apoptosis were studied in the spleen of male Swiss albino strain A mice by immunoblotting. Treatment with P. hexandrum [200 mg/kg of body weight; an ethanolic 50% (w/v) extract delivered intraperitoneally] 2 h before irradiation resulted in MAPKAP (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein) kinase-2 activation along with HSF-1 (heat-shock transcription factor-1), leading to up-regulation of HSP-70 (heat-shock protein-70) as compared with sham-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. Strong inhibition of AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) expression was observed in the mice treated with P. hexandrum 2 h before irradiation as compared with the sham-irradiated group. Inhibition in the translocation of free NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) from cytoplasm to nucleus was observed upon P. hexandrum pretreatment 2 h before irradiation when compared with radiation-treated mice. P. hexandrum pre-treatment (2 h before irradiation) resulted in inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation, and the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 was observed to be down-regulated as compared with sham-irradiated control. An increase in the expression of proteins responsible for cell proliferation [Bcl-2 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic lymphoma 2), Ras-GAP (Ras-GTPase-activating protein) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)] was observed in the P. hexandrum-pretreated irradiated mice as compared with sham-irradiated controls. Caspase 3 activation resulted PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) DNA polymerase] cleavage, and DNA degradation was strongly inhibited in the mice treated with P. hexandrm (+/-irradiation) as compared with the mice treated with radiation (+/-heat shock). The present study thus clearly

  10. Land use impact on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bordoloi, L J; Kumar, Manoj; Hazarika, S; Parmar, Brajendra

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of soil quality is required to determine the sustainability of land uses in terms of environmental quality and plant productivity. Our objective was to identify the most appropriate soil quality indicators and to evaluate the impact of six most prevalent land use types (natural forestland, cultivated lowland, cultivated upland terrace, shifting cultivation, plantation land, and grassland) on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India. We collected 120 soil samples (20 cm depth) and analyzed them for 29 physical, chemical, and biological soil attributes. For selection of soil quality indicators, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the measured attributes, which provided four principal components (PC) with eigenvalues >1 and explaining at least 5% of the variance in dataset. The four PCs together explained 92.6% of the total variance. Based on rotated factor loadings of soil attributes, selected indicators were: soil organic carbon (SOC) from PC-1, exchangeable Al from PC-2, silt content from PC-3, and available P and Mn from PC-4. Indicators were transformed into scores (linear scoring method) and soil quality index (SQI) was determined, on a scale of 0-1, using the weighting factors obtained from PCA. SQI rating was the highest for the least-disturbed sites, i.e., natural forestland (0.93) and grassland (0.87), and the lowest for the most intensively cultivated site, i.e., cultivated upland terrace (0.44). Ratings for the other land uses were shifting cultivation (0.60) > cultivated low land (0.57) > plantation land (0.54). Overall contribution (in percent) of the indicators in determination of SQI was in the order: SOC (58%) > exch. Al (17.1%) > available P (8.9%) > available Mn (8.2%) > silt content (7.8%). Results of this study suggest SOC and exch. Al as the two most powerful indicators of soil quality in study area. Thus, organic C and soil acidity management holds the key to improve soil

  11. Seasonality of Precipitation over Himalayan Watersheds in CORDEX South Asia and their Driving CMIP5 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeh ul Hasson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 experiments exhibit limited skill in reproducing the statistical properties of prevailing precipitation regimes over the major Himalayan watersheds (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong, this study evaluates the anticipated added skill of their dynamically refined simulations performed under the framework of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments for South Asia (CX-SA. For this, the fidelity of eight CX-SA experiments against their six driving CMIP5 experiments is assessed for the historical period (1971–2005 in terms of time-dependent statistical properties (onset/retreat timings and rapid fractional accumulation—RFA of the dominant summer monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR. Further, a self-defining seasonality index (SI, which is a product of precipitation and the distance of its actual distribution relative to its uniform distribution (relative entropy—RE, has been computed for MPR, westerly precipitation regime (WPR and annual precipitation. The time evolution of precipitation, RE and SI has also been analyzed. Results suggest that CX-SA experiments simulate even higher wet biases than their driving CMIP5 experiments over all study basins, mainly due to higher wet biases simulated over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Most of the CX-SA experiments suggest unrealistic timings of the monsoon onset that are far earlier than their driving CMIP5 experiments for all basins. Generally, CX-SA experiments feature higher underestimation of RFA slope, RE and SI, distancing their driving CMIP5 experiments farther from observations. Interestingly, regardless of the diverse skill of CMIP5 experiments, their fine scale CX-SA experiments exhibit quite a similar skill when downscaled by the same regional climate model (RCM, indicating RCM’s ability to considerably alter the driving datasets. These findings emphasize on improving the fidelity of simulated precipitation

  12. Temporal and spatial changes in Western Himalayan firn line altitudes from 1998 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongming; Wang, Ninglian; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Mao, Ruijuan; Wu, Hongbo; Wu, Yuwei; Jiang, Xi

    2014-07-01

    Understanding changes in glacier mass balance is important because it is indicative of changes in climate and the hydrologic cycle. The latter also has particular influence on people living near glaciers and/or glacier-fed rivers. The Western Himalayas remain one of the regions where recent changes in glacier mass balance are not well-known. The temporal and spatial changes in firn line altitudes are an indicator of equilibrium line altitudes and thus reflect changes in glacier mass balance. Here, we use Himalayan Landsat TM/ETM + data in July and August (the late summer melt season) to quantify changes in firn line altitudes from 1998 to 2009. We produced reflectance maps through radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction and use topographic correction to remove or reduce terrain or shadow effects. The real ‘surface albedo’ is obtained by narrowband-to-broadband (NTB) albedo conversion from the combined solar radiation. The firn line altitude was then extracted by combining the ‘surface albedo’ with pre-registered digital elevation model. The individual firn line altitude varies by region. The Western Himalayas display the largest range of firn line variability, where the firn line altitudes vary from 4840 m a.s.l. to 5770 m a.s.l. The individual glacier mean firn line altitude from 1998 to 2009 rose from 5072 ± 77 m a.s.l. to 5640 ± 74 m a.s.l. in the Western Himalayas. The mean firn line altitude increased from 1998 to 2009. The lowest mean recorded firn line altitude recorded was 5237 ± 166 m a.s.l. in 1998, whereas the highest was 5397 ± 135 m a.s.l. in 2000. We also observed a difference between the changes in fine line altitudes of northern and southern slopes of the western Himalayans, as the northern slope glaciers display a greater increase in firn line altitudes than the southern slope glaciers. In the southern slope, changes in firn line altitudes correlate with NCDC-NOAA temperature and precipitation data. This sustained increase of

  13. Mineralogy of Nicobar Fan turbidites (IODP Leg 362): Himalayan provenance and diagenetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, M.; Garzanti, E.; Ando, S.; Carter, A.; Milliken, K. L.; Pickering, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we use quantitative petrographic and heavy-mineral data on silt-sized and sand-sized sediments from the Nicobar Fan turbiditic depositional system to unravel their provenance and discriminate between pre-depositional and post-depositional processes controlling sediment mineralogy. Eighteen samples from the two drill sites U1480 e U1481, collected down to a depth of 1400 m during International Ocean Discovery Expedition 362, were selected for analysis. A complete section of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basaltic basement was recovered at the U1480 drill site, whereas the U1481 drill site, located 35 km to the southeast, focused on the deeper interval of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basement. Here we illustrate the compositional trends observed throughout the recovered succession, and compare heavy-mineral suites characterizing sediments drilled at the two U1480 and U1481 sites to check for potential differences in sediment provenance over a relatively short distance in trench settings. Diagenetic control with increasing burial depth was also specifically investigated. In Pleistocene sediments at depths of a few tens of meters only, rich heavy-mineral assemblages include mainly hornblende, epidote, and garnet, associated with apatite, clinopyroxene, tourmaline, sillimanite, kyanite, zircon, titanite, and rare staurolite and rutile, testifying to long-distance provenance from the Himalayan range via the Ganga-Brahmaputra fluvio-deltaic-turbiditic system. Heavy-mineral concentration shows a progressive decrease with burial depth, pointing to selective diagenetic dissolution of less durable detrital minerals. Clinopyroxene becomes rare below 400 m depth and was not recorded below 500 m depth, where amphibole decreases notably in relative abundance. More durable heavy minerals, including zircon, tourmaline, apatite, garnet and epidote, consequently tend to be relatively enriched with increasing age and burial depth. Petrographic and

  14. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  15. Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov., isolated from goats of the Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergser, Joachim; Wieser, Monika; Täubel, Martin; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon A; Rosengarten, Renate; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    Four coagulase-negative, novobiocin-resistant cocci, designated CW1(T), PM34, MM3 and RW78, were isolated from the respiratory tract of goats kept in the Himalayan region. The four isolates were assigned to a single species on the basis of almost identical biochemical and physiological traits, protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE and identical genomic fingerprints generated after enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Strain CW1(T) showed highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus ATCC 49330(T), Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305(T), S. cohnii subsp. cohnii ATCC 29974(T), Staphylococcus arlettae ATCC 43957(T), Staphylococcus gallinarum ATCC 35539(T), Staphylococcus succinus ATCC 700337(T) and Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 29971(T) (99.0, 98.8, 98.8, 98.4, 98.2, 98.1 and 98.1 %, respectively), indicating its classification within the genus Staphylococcus. The polar lipid composition, fatty acid profiles, quinone systems and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid were in agreement with the characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related Staphylococcus species suggested that strain CW1(T) represents an as-yet unrecognized species. Based on these results, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus is described, Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov. The type strain is CW1(T) (=DSM 15150(T)=CCM 7045(T)) and the most dissimilar strain is PM34 (=DSM 15151=CCM 7046).

  16. Thermal modeling and parametric studies of a greenhouse fish pond in the Central Himalayan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Bikash; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the thermal modeling and its validation of greenhouse fish pond systems. Numerical computations have been performed for a typical day in the month of June, 2005, for the climatic condition of Champawat in the Central Himalayan Region. The energy balance equations have been written considering the effects of conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation and ventilation. The governing equations are numerically solved with Matlab 7.0 software to predict the water temperature. A parametric study has also been performed to find the effects of various parameters, namely the number of air changes per hour, the transmissivity (τ) and the isothermal mass and height of the greenhouse. It is observed that there is no significant effect in the parametric studies on water temperature due to the larger isothermal mass. The model has been validated with experimental data. On an average, the even span passive greenhouse fish pond can increase the inside temperature 4.14 deg. C higher than the temperature of an outdoor pond. Statistical analysis shows that the predicted and experimental values of water temperature exhibited fair agreement with a coefficient of correlation r = 0.90 and root mean square percent deviation e = 1.67%

  17. Seismic vulnerability of the Himalayan half-dressed rubble stone masonry structures, experimental and analytical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Half-Dressed rubble stone (DS masonry structures as found in the Himalayan region are investigated using experimental and analytical studies. The experimental study included a shake table test on a one-third scaled structural model, a representative of DS masonry structure employed for public critical facilities, e.g. school buildings, offices, health care units, etc. The aim of the experimental study was to understand the damage mechanism of the model, develop damage scale towards deformation-based assessment and retrieve the lateral force-deformation response of the model besides its elastic dynamic properties, i.e. fundamental vibration period and elastic damping. The analytical study included fragility analysis of building prototypes using a fully probabilistic nonlinear dynamic method. The prototypes are designed as SDOF systems assigned with lateral, force-deformation constitutive law (obtained experimentally. Uncertainties in the constitutive law, i.e. lateral stiffness, strength and deformation limits, are considered through random Monte Carlo simulation. Fifty prototype buildings are analyzed using a suite of ten natural accelerograms and an incremental dynamic analysis technique. Fragility and vulnerability functions are derived for the damageability assessment of structures, economic loss and casualty estimation during an earthquake given the ground shaking intensity, essential within the context of risk assessment of existing stock aiming towards risk mitigation and disaster risk reduction.

  18. The Himalayan hydro machine and space transmission power systems - An Asian dream of 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admoddie, M.

    The advantages and disadvantages for the development of hydroelectric power are assessed for the Himalayan Rectangle, an area rising 1500 km north of a baseline between Karachi and Mandalay. This area has the potential for possessing one of the world's greatest power production capabilities. Among the disadvantages cited are the political instability and religious fundamentalism of the area, the bankrupt governments, environmental degradation, and inefficient power and irrigation systems. The advantages include the millions of talented and enterprising people in the region awaiting higher opportunities who are eager to improve their families' living standards and the large untapped hydropower resources. The concepts for hydropower development are discussed and go beyond the technologies of power and water. They include catchment ecodevelopment strategies with massive afforestation plans, setting up plans to strengthen village-level institutions to manage local natural biomass and water assets, the conversion of this regional hydropower potential into a subcontinental power system, and the exporting of power and the development of an interregional and international power grid by 2030, when both oil and local ecosystems would be dangerously depleted.

  19. Natural resources assessment and their utilization: analyses from a Himalayan state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, Rakesh D

    2012-08-01

    The present paper quantifies and reviews the natural resource use in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). Twenty-five percent of the geographical area of HP is under forests and harbour ca. 3,400 plant species. The available bioresources not only support the livelihood of nearly 6 million people but also fulfill the forage requirement of 5.2 million livestock. Thus, dependence on bioresources is manifold. Based on field surveys to different localities of HP and analyses of published information, two types of resource use patterns have been identified. One, the direct use of forest resources which is represented by extraction of timber, fuelwood and fodder; and the second represents indirect resource use from the forest that is represented by activities related to agriculture, tourism and industry. Amongst the direct resource use, annual timber requirement of the local people works out to be 310,063 m(3). On the other hand, annual fuelwood and fodder requirement of local people is to the tune of 3,646,348.8 and 10,294,116.5 tons, respectively. Extraction of fodder therefore appears to be one of the main reasons for forest degradation in HP as opposed to timber and fuelwood extraction. However, compared to direct resource use, indirect resource use and pressures have far more pronounced effect on the forests. Of the indirect pressures, shifts in agriculture patterns and increased tourism seem to be the most prominent.

  20. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  1. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Himalayan Lichen Fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Devkota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species' response to forest disturbance and fragmentation. Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data and assessed them in 109 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 with an average of 6.9. Nei's unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.514 to 0.685 in the three populations studied. The cross-amplification success with related species (L. chinensis, L. gyrophorica, L. isidiophora, L. orientalis, L. pulmonaria, L. spathulata, and Lobaria sp. was generally high and decreased with decreasing relationship to L. pindarensis. Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and differentiation within L. pindarensis across its distribution. Moreover, they will enable us to study the effects of forest management on the genetic population structure of this tree-colonizing lichen and to carry out population genetic studies of related species in East Asia.

  2. HIMALA: climate impacts on glaciers, snow, and hydrology in the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Racoviteanu, Adina

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world's population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  3. Soil-gas radon/helium surveys in some neotectonic areas of NW Himalayan foothills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at accessing the relationship between variation in the soil gases radon (222Rn and helium (4He and recently developed fissures and other neotectonic features in Nurpur and Nadha areas of the NW Himalayas, India. Two soil-gas surveys were conducted on/near known faults to reconfirm their position using soil gas technique and to check their present activity. During these surveys, soil-gas samples were collected along traverses crossing the observed structures. The data analysis reveals that the concentrations of radon and helium along the Dehar lineament and the longitudinal profile (Profile D are very high compared to any other thrust/lineament of the Nurpur area. The Nadha area shows high values of radon and helium concentrations along/near the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF as compared to the adjoining areas. This indicates the presence of some buried fault/fault zone running parallel to the HFF, not exposed to the surface and not delineated by satellite data but is geochemically active and might be tectonically active too. Hence, soil helium and radon gas patterns have been combined with morphological and geological observations to supply useful constraints for deformation of tectonic environments.

  4. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  5. HIMALA: Climate Impacts on Glaciers, Snow, and Hydrology in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; hide

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world s population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  6. Landslide Hazard Assessment near Kedarnath Temple in Himalayan region considering cloudburst tragedy in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, T. A.; Singh, T. N., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The world famous Shri Kedarnath Temple in Uttarakhand state of India is located in the western extremity of the young and dynamically active Central Himalaya. As Indian plate is moving towards Eurasian plate which has steep slopes, highly variable altitudes and uncertain climatic conditions. Due to high seismic activity Himalayan rock mass is highly fractured, shattered and inherently weakness pose threat for landslide. On 16th and 17th June 2013, was witness an extreme climatic events of century in the history of the region, the high intensity rainfall, (> 400mm) caused number of landslide which have adverse economic and societal impacts, including the potential for heavy loss of human and widespread devastation of natural resources, infrastructures. The study region is at high altitude around 3583 meters, which is affected from impact of glacial melt due to climate change and future increase in rainfall subjected to high level uncertainty of landslides. Aerial and field survey has been done of the region and most vulnerable landslide locations of hill slope and road cut slope are studied for future prospect of safety. SLIDE 6.0, PHASE27 (numerical software) for slope stability, geomechanical profile of rock and kinematics analysis to know the type of failures. Rock quality tunneling index (Q), Geological strength (GSI), Slope mass Rating (SMR) and factor of safety were determined to know the slope instability. Our finding provides an important aspect for future safety as provide the information for landslide warning system and engineering countermeasures.

  7. Conceptual model development for landscape management in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region: an approach for sustainable socio-ecological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nautiyal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting a conceptual model for landscape management in the Himalayan region of India, using quantitative/mathematical approach. Keeping in view the requirement, (based on fifteen years empirical field work in the Himalayan region and as well as literature survey the MODAM (Multiple Objectives Decision Support Tools for Landscape Management model along with linear programming approach was adopted with a view to presenting additional methodological perspectives on interdisciplinary landscape research. The work has stemmed out from the original research contribution, which tries to integrate interdisciplinary research planning with landscape management related research in the Himalayan region. This biodiversity hotspot has relatively high complexity in terms of sustainable socioeconomic development vis a vis conservation and management of the resources. The concepts and insights presented in this article will provide the basis for a discussion, on decisionmaking issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to sustainable socioecological development within complex environments.

  8. Bacterial community of cushion plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum on elevational gradient in the Himalayan cold desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řeháková, Klára; Chroňáková, Alica; Krištůfek, Václav; Kuchtová, Barbora; Čapková, Kateřina; Scharfen, Josef; Čapek, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    heterotrophic bacteria in Himalayan soil.

  9. Earthquake swarms near eastern Himalayan Syntaxis along Jiali Fault in Tibet: A seismotectonic appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The seismotectonic characteristics of ten repeated earthquake swarm sequence within a seismic cluster along Jiali Fault in eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS have been analysed. The swarms are spatially disposed in and around Yigong Lake (a natural lake formed by blocking of Yigong River by landslide and are characterized by low magnitude, crustal events with low to moderate b values. Ms : mb discriminant functions though indicate anomalous nature of the earthquakes within swarm but are considered as natural events that occurred under condition of high apparent stress and stress gradients. Composite fault plane solutions of selected swarms indicate strike–slip sense of shear on fault planes; solution parameters show low plunging compression and tensional axes along NW–SE and NE–SW respectively with causative fault plane oriented ENE–WSW, dipping steeply towards south or north. The fault plane is in excellent agreement with the disposition and tectonic movement registered by right lateral Jiali Fault. The process of pore pressure perturbation and resultant ‘r–t plot’ with modelled diffusivity (D = 0.12 m2/s relates the diffusion of pore pressure to seismic sequence in a fractured poro-elastic fluid saturated medium at average crustal depth of 15–20 km. The low diffusivity depicts a highly fractured interconnected medium that is generated due to high stress activity near the eastern syntaxial bent of Himalaya. It is proposed that hydro fracturing with respect to periodic pore pressure variations is responsible for generation of swarms in the region. The fluid pressure generated due to shearing and infiltrations of surface water within dilated seismogenic fault (Jiali Fault are causative factors.

  10. Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus in Pregnancy in Sub-Himalayan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Thakur, Surinder; Bhawani, Rajesh; Kanga, Anil; Ranjan, Asha

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is rare in pregnancy, but it has now become an important cause of febrile illness in pregnancy in sub-Himalayan region of India. Only a few case reports have been published so far, and they show adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. No consensus has been reached till now regarding treatment. All the pregnant patients irrespective of period of gestation admitted with febrile illness with positive IgM ELISA for scrub typhus with or without eschar were included. The clinical profile was observed using a detailed history of symptoms, travel, recreation, agricultural activities, treatment record prior to admission, and a detailed examination, and the treatment outcome was noted. Fever workup including cultures, CXR, CSF analysis, serology for scrub was done. IgM scrub typhus was done by kit method manufactured by InBios Intertational, Inc. We observed in total 14 pregnant patients out of which eight were in the the second trimester and six were in the third trimester. The clinical features of the disease observed for pregnant females were the same as for nonpregnant females. There was no difference in the severity of scrub typhus between pregnant and nonpregnant women. No mortality was found in these patients. On follow-up, they had normal peripartum and postpartum periods. All were treated with azithromycin 500 mg once a day for 5 days. Although rare, scrub typhus should be considered in differential diagnosis of fever in pregnant patients especially in scrub season. Azithromycin should be the drug of choice in pregnancy as it has no adverse effect on fetus and pregnancy outcome.

  11. Predictability of Western Himalayan river flow: melt seasonal inflow into Bhakra Reservoir in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Snowmelt-dominated streamflow of the Western Himalayan rivers is an important water resource during the dry pre-monsoon spring months to meet the irrigation and hydropower needs in northern India. Here we study the seasonal prediction of melt-dominated total inflow into the Bhakra Dam in northern India based on statistical relationships with meteorological variables during the preceding winter. Total inflow into the Bhakra Dam includes the Satluj River flow together with a flow diversion from its tributary, the Beas River. Both are tributaries of the Indus River that originate from the Western Himalayas, which is an under-studied region. Average measured winter snow volume at the upper-elevation stations and corresponding lower-elevation rainfall and temperature of the Satluj River basin were considered as empirical predictors. Akaike information criteria (AIC and Bayesian information criteria (BIC were used to select the best subset of inputs from all the possible combinations of predictors for a multiple linear regression framework. To test for potential issues arising due to multicollinearity of the predictor variables, cross-validated prediction skills of the best subset were also compared with the prediction skills of principal component regression (PCR and partial least squares regression (PLSR techniques, which yielded broadly similar results. As a whole, the forecasts of the melt season at the end of winter and as the melt season commences were shown to have potential skill for guiding the development of stochastic optimization models to manage the trade-off between irrigation and hydropower releases versus flood control during the annual fill cycle of the Bhakra Reservoir, a major energy and irrigation source in the region.

  12. Recent shifts in Himalayan vegetation activity trends in response to climatic change and environmental drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, N. B.; Mainali, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic changes along with anthropogenic disturbances are causing dramatic ecological impacts in mid to high latitude mountain vegetation including in the Himalayas which are ecologically sensitive environments. Given the challenges associated with in situ vegetation monitoring in the Himalayas, remote sensing based quantification of vegetation dynamics can provide essential ecological information on changes in vegetation activity that may consist of alternative sequence of greening and/or browning periods. This study utilized a trend break analysis procedure for detection of monotonic as well as abrupt (either interruption or reversal) trend changes in smoothed normalized difference vegetation index satellite time-series data over the Himalayas. Overall, trend breaks in vegetation greenness showed high spatio-temporal variability in distribution considering elevation, ecoregion and land cover/use stratifications. Interrupted greening was spatially most dominant in all Himalayan ecoregions followed by abrupt browning. Areas showing trend reversal and monotonic trends appeared minority. Trend type distribution was strongly dependent on elevation as majority of greening (with or without interruption) occurred at lower elevation areas at higher elevation were dominantly. Ecoregion based stratification of trend types highlighted some exception to this elevational dependence as high altitude ecoregions of western Himalayas showed significantly less browning compared to the ecoregions in eastern Himalaya. Land cover/use based analysis of trend distribution showed that interrupted greening was most dominant in closed needleleafed forest following by rainfed cropland and mosaic croplands while interrupted browning most dominant in closed to open herbaceous vegetation found at higher elevation areas followed by closed needleleafed forest and closed to open broad leafed evergreen forests. Spatial analysis of trend break timing showed that for majority of areas experiencing

  13. Interesting insights into instability of slopes and rock fall in the morphodynamic Himalayan terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T. N.; Vishal, V.; Pradhan, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan mountain ranges are tectonically and seismically very active and experience many disastrous events with time due to slope failure. Frequent failures of rock cut slopes cause obstruction in traffic and often lead to fatalities. In recent years, the number of tragedies has increased when associated with regional phenomena such at the Kedarnath tragedy of 2013 and the Gorkha earthquake of 2015. The influence of such phenomena on the stability of slopes along important national highways and key settlement areas only raise the risk to lives and property. We conducted a multi-approach investigation for some key slopes along the National Highway 58 in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. A very detailed field work was conducted to identify the unstable slopes and those with some history of failure. The pertinent geomechanical characteristics of the representative rock samples were determined in the laboratory. Based on the structural data, kinematic analysis was carried out. Finally the slopes were simulated using FDM based simulator, Flac/Slope for analysing the health of the slopes and Rockfall 4.0 to investigate the phenomenon of rockfall along the Highway. It was found that few slopes were weak due to the inherent weak rock materials while few slopes made up of high strength rocks were effectively weak due to prone-to-failure orientation of the joints. Quantification of bounce-height of rock blocks during fall, their energy, velocity and displacement along the slope was also done. Using 3-D simulations, few critically-stable slopes that appear to be stable, were identified. Little ground movement could be capable of triggering a large scale failure in the area. Slopes in the studied region are under threat to failure and need immediate proper planning using the suggested remedial measures.

  14. Improvement of downscaled rainfall and temperature across generations over the Western Himalayan region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, L.; Dutta, M.; Akhter, J.; Meher, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    It is a challenging task to create station level (local scale) climate change information over the mountainous locations of Western Himalayan Region (WHR) in India because of limited data availability and poor data quality. In the present study, missing values of station data were handled through Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 22 numbers of rain gauge and 16 number of temperature station data having continuous record during 1901­2005 and 1969­2009 period respectively were considered as reference stations for developing downscaled rainfall and temperature time series from five commonly available GCMs in the IPCC's different generation assessment reports namely 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th hereafter known as SAR, TAR, AR4 and AR5 respectively. Downscaled models were developed using the combined data from the ERA-interim reanalysis and GCMs historical runs (in spite of forcing were not identical in different generation) as predictor and station level rainfall and temperature as predictands. Station level downscaled rainfall and temperature time series were constructed for five GCMs available in each generation. Regional averaged downscaled time series comprising of all stations was prepared for each model and generation and the downscaled results were compared with observed time series. Finally an Overall Model Improvement Index (OMII) was developed using the downscaling results, which was used to investigate the model improvement across generations as well as the improvement of downscaling results obtained from the Empirical Statistical Downscaling (ESD) methods. In case of temperature, models have improved from SAR to AR5 over the study area. In all most all the GCMs TAR is showing worst performance over the WHR by considering the different statistical indices used in this study. In case of precipitation, no model has shown gradual improvement from SAR to AR5 both for interpolated and downscaled values.

  15. Estimating stream discharge from a Himalayan Glacier using coupled satellite sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Tarpanelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The 4th IPCC report highlighted our limited understanding of Himalayan glacier behavior and contribution to the region's hydrology. Seasonal snow and glacier melt in the Himalayas are important sources of water, but estimates greatly differ about the actual contribution of melted glacier ice to stream discharge. A more comprehensive understanding of the contribution of glaciers to stream discharge is needed because streams being fed by glaciers affect the livelihoods of a large part of the world's population. Most of the streams in the Himalayas are unmonitored because in situ measurements are logistically difficult and costly. This necessitates the use of remote sensing platforms to obtain estimates of river discharge for validating hydrological models. In this study, we estimate stream discharge using cost-effective methods via repeat satellite imagery from Landsat-8 and SENTINEL-1A sensors. The methodology is based on previous studies, which show that ratio values from optical satellite bands correlate well with measured stream discharge. While similar, our methodology relies on significantly higher resolution imagery (30 m) and utilizes bands that are in the blue and near-infrared spectrum as opposed to previous studies using 250 m resolution imagery and spectral bands only in the near-infrared. Higher resolution imagery is necessary for streams where the source is a glacier's terminus because the width of the stream is often only 10s of meters. We validate our methodology using two rivers in the state of Kansas, where stream gauges are plentiful. We then apply our method to the Bhagirathi River, in the North-Central Himalayas, which is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and has a well monitored stream gauge. The analysis will later be used to couple river discharge and glacier flow and mass balance through an integrated hydrologic model in the Bhagirathi Basin.

  16. Soil erosion assessment of a Himalayan river basin using TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Mishra, S. K.; Gautam, A. K.; Kumar, D.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the soil erosion of a Himalayan river basin, the Karnali basin, Nepal, using rainfall erosivity (R-factor) derived from satellite-based rainfall estimates (TRMM-3B42 V7). Average annual sediment yield was estimated using the well-known Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The eight-year annual average rainfall erosivity factor (R) for the Karnali River basin was found to be 2620.84 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. Using intensity-erosivity relationships and eight years of the TRMM daily rainfall dataset (1998-2005), average annual soil erosion was also estimated for Karnali River basin. The minimum and maximum values of the rainfall erosivity factor were 1108.7 and 4868.49 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively, during the assessment period. The average annual soil loss of the Karnali River basin was found to be 38.17 t ha-1 year-1. Finally, the basin area was categorized according to the following scale of erosion severity classes: Slight (0 to 5 t ha-1 year-1), Moderate (5 to 10 t ha-1 year-1), High (10 to 20 t ha-1 year-1), Very High (20 to 40 t ha-1 year-1), Severe (40 to 80 t ha-1 year-1) and Very Severe (>80 t ha-1 year-1). About 30.86% of the river basin area was found to be in the slight erosion class. The areas covered by the moderate, high, very high, severe and very severe erosion potential zones were 13.09%, 6.36%, 11.09%, 22.02% and 16.64% respectively. The study revealed that approximately 69% of the Karnali River basin needs immediate attention from a soil conservation point of view.

  17. High-Resolution Monitoring of Himalayan Glacier Dynamics Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Shea, J.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.; de Jong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and play an important role in modulating the glacier response to climate . However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers are therefore limited to point locations and airborne remote sensing may bridge the gap between scarce, point field observations and coarse resolution space-borne remote sensing. In this study we deploy an Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) on two debris covered glaciers in the Nepalese Himalayas: the Lirung and Langtang glacier during four field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. Based on stereo-imaging and the structure for motion algorithm we derive highly detailed ortho-mosaics and digital elevation models (DEMs), which we geometrically correct using differential GPS observations collected in the field. Based on DEM differencing and manual feature tracking we derive the mass loss and the surface velocity of the glacier at a high spatial resolution and accuracy. We also assess spatiotemporal changes in supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs based on the imagery. On average, mass loss is limited and the surface velocity is very small. However, the spatial variability of melt rates is very high, and ice cliffs and supra-glacial ponds show mass losses that can be an order of magnitude higher than the average. We suggest that future research should focus on the interaction between supra-glacial ponds, ice cliffs and englacial hydrology to further understand the dynamics of debris-covered glaciers. Finally, we conclude that UAV deployment has large potential in glaciology and it represents a substantial advancement over methods currently applied in studying glacier surface features.

  18. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt: Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains: the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate; it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF, which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1 plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2 suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50–60 km, we suggest that the “suprasubduction-type” magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  19. Crustal Structure and Evolution of the Eastern Himalayan Plate Boundary System, Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Gaur, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from 24 broadband seismographs located south of the Eastern Himalayan plate boundary system to investigate the crustal structure beneath Northeast India. P wave receiver function analysis reveals felsic continental crust beneath the Brahmaputra Valley, Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills, and mafic thinned passive margin transitional crust (basement layer) beneath the Bengal Basin. Within the continental crust, the central Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have the thinnest crust (30 ± 2 km) with similar velocity structure, suggesting a unified origin and uplift history. North of the plateau and Mikir Hills the crustal thickness increases sharply by 8-10 km and is modeled by ˜30∘ north dipping Moho flexure. South of the plateau, across the ˜1 km topographic relief of the Dawki Fault, the crustal thickness increases abruptly by 12-13 km and is modeled by downfaulting of the plateau crust, overlain by 13-14 km thick sedimentary layer/rocks of the Bengal Basin. Farther south, beneath central Bengal Basin, the basement layer is thinner (20-22 km) and has higher Vs (˜4.1 km s-1) indicating a transitional crystalline crust, overlain by the thickest sedimentary layer/rocks (18-20 km). Our models suggest that the uplift of the Shillong Plateau occurred by thrust faulting on the reactivated Dawki Fault, a continent margin paleorift fault, and subsequent back thrusting on the south dipping Oldham Fault, in response to flexural loading of the Eastern Himalaya. Our estimated Dawki Fault offset combined with timing of surface uplift of the plateau reveals a reasonable match between long-term uplift and convergence rate across the Dawki Fault with present-day GPS velocities.

  20. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Debnath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on rhizosphere micobiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant R. arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang-Thang (PTSO, Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border (in triplicates each along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912m to Bum La (4509 m, revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN, organic matter (OM significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02. Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%, Acidobacteria (24.02%, Proteobacteria (16.00%, AD3 (9.23%, WPS-2 (5.1% and Chloroflexi (1.48% dominated the core microbiome.

  1. K/Ar hornblende ages from the higher Himalaya: implications for India-Asia collision and Himalayan metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkhabi, R.B.; Stump, A.K.; Jain, A.K.; Manickavasagam, R.M.; Nishimura Susumu

    1993-01-01

    Two amphibolite samples from the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) belt from the Suru Valley, Zanskar, have yielded Eocene K/Ar hornblende cooling ages between 40 and 45 Ma, thus indicating much older peak metamorphic conditions in northern parts of the Indian Plate. These ages are in conformity with almost identical ages from metamorphic complexes across the Nanga Parbat syntaxis in Pakistan and reveal a 65 to 70-Ma collision phase of the Indian indentor in the NW-Himalaya. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs

  2. Forest fires in Himalayan region during 2016 - Aerosol load and smoke plume heights detection by multi sensor observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Dumka, U. C.

    2017-12-01

    The forest fires are common events over the Central Himalayan region during the pre-monsoon season (March - June) of every year. Forest fire plays a crucial role in governing the vegetation structure, ecosystem, climate change as well as in atmospheric chemistry. In regional and global scales, the combustion of forest and grassland vegetation releases large volumes of smoke, aerosols, and other chemically active species that significantly influence Earth's radiative budget and atmospheric chemistry, impacting air quality and risks to human health. During the year 2016, massive forest fires have been recorded over the Central Himalayan region of Uttarakhand which continues for several weeks. To study this event we used the multi-satellite observations of aerosols and pollutants during pre-fire, fire and post-fire period over the central Himalayan region. The data used in this study are active fire count and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aerosol index and gases pollutants from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), along with vertical profiles of aerosols and smoke plume height information from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). The result shows that the mean fire counts were maximum in April. The daily average AOD value shows an increasing trend during the fire events. The mean value of AOD before the massive fire (25 April), during the fire (30 April) and post fire (5 May) periods are 0.3, 1.2 and 0.6 respectively. We find an increasing trend of total columnar NO2 over the Uttarakhand region during the massive fire event. Space-born Lidar (CALIPSO) retrievals show the extent of smoke plume heights beyond the planetary boundary layer up to 6 km during the peak burning day (April 30). The HYSPLIT air mass forward trajectory shows the long-range transportation of smoke plumes. The results of the present study provide valuable information for addressing smoke plume and

  3. Autonomous navigation for low-altitude UAVs in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Thomas; Sharghi, Aidean; Harper, Don; Tremeau, Alain; Shah, Mubarak

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, consumer Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have become very popular, everyone can buy and fly a drone without previous experience, which raises concern in regards to regulations and public safety. In this paper, we present a novel approach towards enabling safe operation of such vehicles in urban areas. Our method uses geodetically accurate dataset images with Geographical Information System (GIS) data of road networks and buildings provided by Google Maps, to compute a weighted A* sh...

  4. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other remote wind sensors must operate.

  5. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low-altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of research that applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automataic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data, however, presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. Some comments are made on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  6. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  7. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Miah, M. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Wefel, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of about 10 deg but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 Km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969-1982) of the intensity.

  8. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, T.G.; Miah, M.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Wefel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of ∼10 0 but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969--1982) of the intensity. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  9. UAV low-altitude remote sensing for precision weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultur...

  10. Current leakage for low altitude satellites: modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J.E.; Garriott, O.K.

    1979-01-01

    To simulate the behavior of a high voltage solar cell array in the ionospheric plasma environment, the large (90 ft x 55 ft diameter) vacuum chamber was used to measure the high-voltage plasma interactions of a 3 ft x 30 ft conductive panel. The chamber was filled with nitrogen and argon plasma at electron densities of up to 1,000,000 per cu cm. Measurements of current flow to the plasma were made in three configurations: (a) with one end of the panel grounded, (b) with the whole panel floating while a high bias was applied between the ends of the panel, and (c) with the whole panel at high negative voltage with respect to the chamber walls. The results indicate that a simple model with a constant panel conductivity and plasma resistance can adequately describe the voltage distribution along the panel and the plasma current flow. As expected, when a high potential difference is applied to the panel ends more than 95% of the panel floats negative with respect to the plasma

  11. Mobile carbohydrates in Himalayan treeline trees I. Evidence for carbon gain limitation but not for growth limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mai-He; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Wang, San-Gen; Cheng, Gen-Wei; Cherubini, Paolo; Cai, Xaio-Hu; Liu, Xing-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Wan-Ze

    2008-08-01

    To test whether the altitudinal distribution of trees is determined by a carbon shortage or an insufficient sugar fraction (sugar:starch ratio) in treeline trees, we studied the status of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and their components (total soluble sugars and starch) in Abies fabri (Mast.) Craib and Picea balfouriana var. hirtella Rehd. et Wils. trees along three elevational gradients, ranging from lower elevations to the alpine treeline, on the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. For comparison, we investigated a low-altitude species (Tsuga yunnanensis (Franch.) Pritz.) which served as a warm-climate reference because it is distributed in closed montane forests below 3100 m a.s.l. in the study area. The carbon status of T. yunnanensis responded to altitude differently from that of the treeline species. At the species level, total NSC was not consistently more abundant in treeline trees than in trees of the same species growing at lower elevations. Thus there was no consistent evidence for carbon limitation of growth in treeline trees. For the three treeline species studied (P. balfouriana and A. fabri in the Kang-Ding Valley and A. fabri in the Mo-Xi Valley), winter NSC concentrations in treeline trees were significantly lower than in lower-elevation trees of the same species, suggesting that, in winter, carbon is limited in treeline trees. However, in no case was there total overwinter depletion of NSC or its components in treeline trees. Treeline and low-altitude species had similar sugar:starch ratios of about three at their upper-elevational limits in April. We conclude that survival and growth of trees at the elevational or latitudinal climate limit depend not only on NSC concentration in perennial tissues, but also on the maintenance of an overwintering sugar:starch ratio greater than three.

  12. Widespread albedo decreasing and induced melting of Himalayan snow and ice in the early 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Wang, Yaqiang; Du, Zhencai; Zhang, Tong; Guo, Wanqin; Xiao, Cunde; Xu, Xiaobin; Ding, Minghu; Zhang, Dongqi; Yang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers. The surface albedo based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data over the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) glaciers is surveyed in this study for the period 2000-2011. The general albedo trend shows that the glaciers have been darkening since 2000. The most rapid decrease in the surface albedo has occurred in the glacial area above 6000 m, which implies that melting will likely extend to snow accumulation areas. The mass-loss equivalent (MLE) of the HKH glacial area caused by surface shortwave radiation absorption is estimated to be 10.4 Gt yr-1, which may contribute to 1.2% of the global sea level rise on annual average (2003-2009). This work probably presents a first scene depicting the albedo variations over the whole HKH glacial area during the period 2000-2011. Most rapidly decreasing in albedo has been detected in the highest area, which deserves to be especially concerned.

  13. Widespread albedo decreasing and induced melting of Himalayan snow and ice in the early 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ming

    Full Text Available The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers.The surface albedo based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data over the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH glaciers is surveyed in this study for the period 2000-2011. The general albedo trend shows that the glaciers have been darkening since 2000. The most rapid decrease in the surface albedo has occurred in the glacial area above 6000 m, which implies that melting will likely extend to snow accumulation areas. The mass-loss equivalent (MLE of the HKH glacial area caused by surface shortwave radiation absorption is estimated to be 10.4 Gt yr-1, which may contribute to 1.2% of the global sea level rise on annual average (2003-2009.This work probably presents a first scene depicting the albedo variations over the whole HKH glacial area during the period 2000-2011. Most rapidly decreasing in albedo has been detected in the highest area, which deserves to be especially concerned.

  14. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  15. Use of Satellite and In Situ Reflectance Data for Lake Water Color Characterization in the Everest Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Matta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing techniques to the study of water color in Himalayan glacial lakes as a proxy of suspended solid load. In situ measurements gathered in 5 lakes in October 2014 during satellite data acquisition enabled the characterization of water reflectance and clarity and supported image processing. Field data analysis led to a distinction between 3 water colors and a consequent lake water color classification on a regional scale from Landsat-8 data previously corrected for atmospheric and adjacency effects. Several morphometric parameters (lake size and shape, distance between lake and glacier were also computed for the lakes thus classified. The results showed spatial and temporal variations in lake water color, suggestive of relationships between glacier shrinkage and the presence of brighter and more turbid water. A finer-scale analysis of the spatial variability of water reflectance on Chola Lake (based on GeoEye-1 data captured on 18 October 2014 showed the contribution of water component absorption from the inflow. Overall, the findings support further research to monitor Himalayan lakes using both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 (with its improved resolutions.

  16. Quantifying present and future glacier melt-water contribution to runoff in a central Himalayan river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water supply of most lowland cultures heavily depends on rain and melt water from the upstream mountains. Especially melt-water release of alpine mountain ranges is usually attributed a pivotal role for the water supply of large downstream regions. Water scarcity is assumed as consequence of glacier shrinkage and possible disappearance due to global climate change (GCC, in particular for large parts of Central and Southeast Asia. In this paper, the application and validation of a coupled modeling approach with regional climate model (RCM outputs and a process-oriented glacier and hydrological model is presented for the central Himalayan Lhasa River basin despite scarce data availability. Current and possible future contributions of ice melt to runoff along the river network are spatially explicitly shown. Its role among the other water balance components is presented. Although glaciers have retreated and will continue to retreat according to the chosen climate scenarios, water availability is and will be primarily determined by monsoon precipitation and snowmelt. Ice melt from glaciers is and will be a minor runoff component in summer monsoon-dominated Himalayan river basins.

  17. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  18. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  19. Himalayan Lake- and River-Impacting Landslides and Ice Avalanches: Some So Deadly, Some No Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Karki, A.; Haritashya, U. K.; Shugar, D. H.; Harrison, S.

    2017-12-01

    the same area. Factors for landslide triggering of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) include some of the same factors, but the mass/energy input rate into the lake, the lake's shape and length, and moraine dam properties are also important in GLOF triggering. Himalayan examples will illustrate some hazard factors.

  20. Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savale, Swapnil Anil; Pol, Chaitrali Satish; Khare, Roshni; Verma, Neeraj; Gaikwad, Subhash; Mandal, Bapi; Behera, Bhaskar C

    2016-01-01

    antioxidant, PEPI, and antimicrobial potential. The present study indicates therapeutic potential of Himalayan lichen C. olivetorum against neurodegenerative diseases owing to its radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Further, the result encourages its commercial exploitation through mass culture for production of its bioactive components and their use in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.

  1. Distrofia retiniana com onda rápida escotópica (DRORE associada à síndrome dos cabelos anágenos frouxos (SCAF. Parte II: Genética Scotopic fast wave retinal dystrophy (SFWRD associated with loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS. Part II: Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Teruo Sato

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Propor complementação da atual classificação do eletrorretinograma (ERG com a inclusão deste novo tipo de onda, discutir os possíveis mecanismos para a distrofia retiniana com onda rápida escotópica (DRORE associada à síndrome dos cabelos anágenos frouxos (SCAF e análise do heredograma da família estudada. MÉTODO: Foram descritos na parte I deste trabalho. RESULTADOS: A análise do heredograma da família demonstrou tratar-se de herança autossômica recessiva com expressão parcial no heterozigoto; outros resultados foram descritos na parte I deste trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: Por se tratar do primeiro relato na literatura, os achados descritos sugerem fortemente que a distrofia retiniana com onda rápida escotópica associada à síndrome dos cabelos anágenos frouxos pode ser uma nova entidade nosológica. Neste trabalho propomos uma classificação inédita de todas as distrofias maculares e degenerações retinianas associadas a distúrbios capilares no grupo B das displasias ectodérmicas.PURPOSE: To propose the complementation of present classification of the electroretinogram (ERG with the inclusion of this new kind of wave, to discuss the possible mechanisms for the scotopic fast wave retinal dystrophy (SFWRD associated with the loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS and to analyze the pedigree of the studied family. METHODS: Were described in part I of this study. RESULTS: The pedigree analysis of the family showed to be an autosomal recessive form of inheritance with partial expression in the heterozygote; other results were described in part I of this study. CONCLUSION: Being the first account in the literature, the described finding strongly suggests that scotopic fast wave retinal dystrophy associated with the loose anagen hair syndrome can be a new nosological entity. In this study, we propose an unpublished classification of all macular dystrophies and retinal degenerations associated with hair disorders in group B

  2. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  3. West-directed thrusting south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis indicates clockwise crustal flow at the indenter corner during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, Peter J.; Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2018-01-01

    Whether continental deformation is accommodated by microplate motion or continuum flow is a central issue regarding the nature of Cenozoic deformation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The microplate model predicts southeastward extrusion of rigid blocks along widely-spaced strike-slip faults, whereas the crustal-flow model requires clockwise crustal rotation along closely-spaced, semi-circular right-slip faults around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Although global positioning system (GPS) data support the crustal-flow model, the surface velocity field provides no information on the evolution of the India-Asia orogenic system at million-year scales. In this work, we present the results of systematic geologic mapping across the northernmost segment of the Indo-Burma Ranges, located directly southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Early research inferred the area to have experienced either right-slip faulting accommodating northward indentation of India or thrusting due to the eastward continuation of the Himalayan orogen in the Cenozoic. Our mapping supports the presence of dip-slip thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults. Specifically, the northern Indo-Burma Ranges exposes south- to west-directed ductile thrust shear zones in the hinterland and brittle fault zones in the foreland. The trends of ductile stretching lineations within thrust shear zones and thrust sheets rotate clockwise from the northeast direction in the northern part of the study area to the east direction in the southern part of the study area. This clockwise deflection pattern of lineations around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis mirrors the clockwise crustal-rotation pattern as suggested by the crustal-flow model and contemporary GPS velocity field. However, our finding is inconsistent with discrete strike-slip deformation in the area and the microplate model.

  4. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr−1 and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs  ∼  150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa–Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm, an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo

  5. AJARAN TAREKAT SYATTARIYYAH DALAM NASKAH RISĀLAH SHATTARIYYAH GRESIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahwan Fanani

    2012-12-01

    Tarekat (aliran sufi merupakan bagian penting dalam per­kembangan Islam di Indonesia. Missi Islam pertama di Nusantara dijalankan oleh para tokoh sufi. Kemampuan mereka untuk mendekati penguasa setempat memungkin­kan mereka untuk dapat menyebarkan agama Islam di keraja­an setempat. Tarekat memiliki jaringan internasional sehingga percepatan Islamisasi Indonesia di­dukung oleh jaringan yang dimiliki oleh para tokoh sufi tersebut. Per­kembangan ajaran sufi ber­jalan dengan sangat halus karena ajaran yang di­perkenal­kan mengandung unsur-unsur mistis yang telah dikenal oleh masyarakat setempat. Perkenalan Islam secara perlahan oleh para tokoh tarekat di berbagai tempat telah menjadikan persebaran Islam ber­jalan secara damai. Unsur-unsur mistis yang dibawa oleh para tokoh tarekat ini menciptakan harmoni antara Islam dengan budaya se­tempat. Tulisan ini membahas manuskrip Risalah Syatariyah Gresik. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah filologi.

  6. Investigation of geothermal fields in himalayan range in pakistan using isotope and chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Sheikh, M.R.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Latif, Z.

    2007-07-01

    There are many geothermal sites in Himalayan belt of Pakistan having low to high temperatures(boiling water). Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields at Tatta Pani and Tato lying along Main Mantle Thrust, Murtazabad along Main Karakoram Thrust and Kotli in the area of overlapping thrusts: Punjal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust and the Himalaya Frontal Thrust. Discharge of the springs varies from 30 to 2000 liters per minute with the surface temperature from 47.3 to 92 degree C. Two sets of water samples were collected from these fields. The samples were analyzed for various isotopes (O/sup 18/, H/sup 2/ and H/sup 3/ of water; C/sup 13/ of dissolved inorganic carbon; S/sup 34/ and O/sup 18/ of dissolved sulphates); and water chemistry. The thermal waters of the Northern Areas of Pakistan are generally neutral to slightly alkaline and have low dissolved contents. Sodium is the dominant cation in all the cases. In terms of anions, HCO/sub 3/ is dominating. Source of recharge is meteoric water (rains and/or snow-melt). The dominant process of cooling is conduction at Tatta Pani, Tato, and Murtazabad. Shallow groundwater is mixing with the thermal springs in different proportions at Murtazabad, while there is no mixing in the thermal waters of Tatta Pani and Tato. The equilibrium temperature of the thermal end-member at Murtazabad is in the range of 185- 225 degree C and the isochemical-mixing model based on the Na-K and quartz geothermometers estimates 227 degree C temperature. O/sup 18/ (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geothermometer indicates equilibrium temperatures (before mixing) above I85 degree C. The dissolved silica vs. enthalpy plot suggests heat losses through conduction from the original temperature about 245 degree C. The reservoir temperatures of Tatta Pani (100-130 degree C) determined by the Na-K, K-Mg and quartz geothermometers are in good agreement. O/sup 18/ (SO

  7. Himalayan/Karakoram Disaster After Disaster: The Pain Will Not Be Ending Anytime Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Are recent natural disasters in the Himalaya/Karakoram partly human-caused? Will disasters diminish or increase in frequency? Natural disasters in this region are nothing new. Earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, and debris flows have occurred in the Himalaya/Karakoram since the mountains first grew from the sea. Simply put, the Himalaya/Karakoram, being South Asia's 'water tower' and an active plate tectonic collision zone, must shed water and debris to the lowlands and the sea. When this activity occurs swiftly and with high intensity at or near human settlements, the results are often deadly. Remote sensing analysis of recent disasters coupled with demography, news accounts, and field studies indicate that there is a component of human responsibility. Two overarching human elements include (1) settlement and infrastructure encroachment into hazardous mountain areas and (2) aggravation of climate change. Both are substantially responsible--separately or together--for most of the recent tragedies. These conclusions provide the answer to when the disasters will end: not soon. Unfortunately, disasters will almost surely increase. Whether natural disasters have increased in frequency over the region's long historical record may be debated and must be researched. This expected link is a challenge to assess due to the stochastic nature of disasters and their triggering events (e.g., earthquakes and extreme weather events). While Himalayan tectonism, rock mechanics, glaciation, and climate are fundamental causes of the disasters, so are human land uses. Encroaching development into ever-hazardous zones is a paramount cause of much human tragedy. Climate change is harder to pin down specifically as a cause of some of these disasters, because some disasters are linked to rare extreme weather events and mass movements, which may be statistically but not individually attributable in part to climate change. Nevertheless, evidence supports a major role of climate

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of fleshy pored mushrooms: Neoboletus luridiformis and Hortiboletus rubellus from western Himalayan range of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Khalid, N.; Dentinger, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fleshy pored mushrooms is the name given to boletes due to their porous hymenium and fleshy nature. These are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes found in all continents except Antarctica. These mushrooms are important economically due to their edibility and medicinal value. This research work highlights the diversity of boletes in Pakistan and their correct identification by using molecular phylogenetic techniques. Western Himalayan range (WHR) of Pakistan is considered as diversity rich area. During present investigation regarding diversity of boletes in these areas, two bolete taxa viz. Hortiboletus rubellus and Neoboletus luridiformis were found under conifers. These mushrooms were collected and analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically by using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA sequences, and compared with their allies. All description and comparison with related taxa is provided in detail. These boletes are first time analyzed using molecular method from Pakistan. (author)

  9. Fault Slip and GPS Velocities Across the Shan Plateau Define a Curved Southwestward Crustal Motion Around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuhua; Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Weldon, Ray; Feng, Lujia; Chan, Chung-Han; Liu-Zeng, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the 700 km wide system of active faults on the Shan Plateau, southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, is critical to understanding the geodynamics and seismic hazard of the large region that straddles neighboring China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. Here we evaluate the fault styles and slip rates over multi-timescales, reanalyze previously published short-term Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities, and evaluate slip-rate gradients to interpret the regional kinematics and geodynamics that drive the crustal motion. Relative to the Sunda plate, GPS velocities across the Shan Plateau define a broad arcuate tongue-like crustal motion with a progressively northwestward increase in sinistral shear over a distance of 700 km followed by a decrease over the final 100 km to the syntaxis. The cumulative GPS slip rate across the entire sinistral-slip fault system on the Shan Plateau is 12 mm/year. Our observations of the fault geometry, slip rates, and arcuate southwesterly directed tongue-like patterns of GPS velocities across the region suggest that the fault kinematics is characterized by a regional southwestward distributed shear across the Shan Plateau, compared to more block-like rotation and indentation north of the Red River fault. The fault geometry, kinematics, and regional GPS velocities are difficult to reconcile with regional bookshelf faulting between the Red River and Sagaing faults or localized lower crustal channel flows beneath this region. The crustal motion and fault kinematics can be driven by a combination of basal traction of a clockwise, southwestward asthenospheric flow around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and gravitation or shear-driven indentation from north of the Shan Plateau.

  10. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  11. Transforming the Lives of Mountain Women Through the Himalayan Nettle Value Chain: A Case Study From Darchula, Far West Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipy Adhikari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Naugad is a remote rural municipality in the mountains of far west Nepal with poor accessibility and limited economic opportunities, especially for women and marginalized communities. Promotion of the natural resource-based value chain for allo (the Himalayan nettle, Girardinia diversifolia was identified as an innovative livelihood strategy by the local community. Value chain development started in 2014. The project was designed to focus on women and include participation by the private sector. This paper analyzes the impact of the project, especially on women's lives, using primary and secondary data. A community-owned enterprise was established with private-sector support from the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation's Business Association of Home Based Workers (SABAH Nepal. The enterprise now has 82 members (69 of them women, with 150 households benefiting directly and indirectly. SABAH Nepal provided training in sustainable harvesting and processing techniques and promotes the products in high-end international markets. A buyback guarantee scheme provides security to local artisans. The quality and range of allo products have increased markedly, as has the share in benefits for local people. Skills training and visits to trade fairs have helped women build their capacity and take a leading role in the value chain process. The community-owned enterprise members have earned up to NPR 4000 per month from sewing, more than the local rate for day labor and sufficient to cover general household expenses. More than 25 women entrepreneurs have started microbusinesses related to allo. Allo has become an important economic asset, transforming the lives of mountain women in this village area. The approach has potential for scaling up across the subtropical to temperate areas of the Himalayan region in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

  12. Himalayan gneiss dome formation in the middle crust and exhumation by normal faulting: New geochronology of Gianbul dome, northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Forrest; Lee, Jeffrey; Hacker, Bradley; Bowman-Kamaha'o, Meilani; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A general lack of consensus about the origin of Himalayan gneiss domes hinders accurate thermomechanical modeling of the orogen. To test whether doming resulted from tectonic contraction (e.g., thrust duplex formation, antiformal bending above a thrust ramp, etc.), channel flow, or via the buoyant rise of anatectic melts, this study investigates the depth and timing of doming processes for Gianbul dome in the western Himalaya. The dome is composed of Greater Himalayan Sequence migmatite, Paleozoic orthogneiss, and metasedimentary rock cut by multiple generations of leucogranite dikes. These rocks record a major penetrative D2 deformational event characterized by a domed foliation and associated NE-SW–trending stretching lineation, and they are flanked by the top-down-to-the-SW (normal-sense) Khanjar shear zone and the top-down-to-the-NE (normal sense) Zanskar shear zone (the western equivalent of the South Tibetan detachment system). Monazite U/Th-Pb geochronology records (1) Paleozoic emplacement of the Kade orthogneiss and associated granite dikes; (2) prograde Barrovian metamorphism from 37 to 33 Ma; (3) doming driven by upper-crustal extension and positive buoyancy of decompression melts between 26 and 22 Ma; and (4) the injection of anatectic melts into the upper levels of the dome—neutralizing the effects of melt buoyancy and potentially adding strength to the host rock—by ca. 22.6 Ma on the southwestern flank and ca. 21 Ma on the northeastern flank. As shown by a northeastward decrease in 40Ar/39Ar muscovite dates from 22.4 to 20.2 Ma, ductile normal-sense displacement within the Zanskar shear zone ended by ca. 22 Ma, after which the Gianbul dome was exhumed as part of a rigid footwall block below the brittle Zanskar normal fault, tilting an estimated 5°–10°SW into its present orientation.

  13. Prospects of solar photovoltaic–micro-wind based hybrid power systems in western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Good prospects of PV–wind hybrid systems are found in western Himalayan Indian state. • A 6 kWp roof mounted PV–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur location is studied. • Optimum PV–wind hybrid system configurations are determined for 12 locations in the region. • Comparative analysis of hybrid systems is carried out using ANN, NASA and measured data. • Methodology can be used for assessing the potential of hybrid power systems worldwide. - Abstract: The western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh is known as the hydro-power state of India with associated social and environmental problems of large hydro power plants. The reduced water inflow in the rivers during extreme winters affects power generation in the state. Therefore solar and wind resources need to be utilized to supplement power generation requirements. With this objective the prospects of photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid systems are studied for 12 locations of the state. The NASA data, Artificial Neural Network predicted and ground measured data are used in the analysis of Hamirpur location whereas for remaining 11 locations estimated, NASA and Artificial Neural Network predicted data are used, as measured solar and wind data are not available for most of the locations in the state. Root Mean Square Error between three input data types are found to range from 0.08 to 1.89. The results show that ANN predicted data are close to measured/estimated data. A 6 kWp roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur with daily average energy demand of 5.2 kWh/day is studied. This system specifications are used to obtain optimum PV–micro wind based hybrid power system configurations for all locations. The optimum configuration for Hamirpur is found to be a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 8 kWp PV system whereas for other 11 locations a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 2–9 kWp PV systems are obtained. The

  14. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

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    Jatinder Kumar

    Full Text Available Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and nitric oxide (NO radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and

  15. The strong motion amplitudes from Himalayan earthquakes and a pilot study for the deterministic first order microzonation of Delhi City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Panza, G.F.; Gusev, A.A.; Vaccari, F.

    2001-09-01

    The interdependence among the strong-motion amplitude, earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance has been established (Parvez et al. 2001) for the Himalayan region using the dataset of six earthquakes, two from Western and four from Eastern Himalayas (M w =5.2-7.2) recorded by strong-motion networks in the Himalayas. The level of the peak strong motion amplitudes in the Eastern Himalayas is three fold larger than that in the Western Himalayas, in terms of both peak acceleration and peak velocities. In the present study, we include the strong motion data of Chamoli earthquake (M w =6.5) of 1999 from the western sub-region to see whether this event supports the regional effects and we find that the new result fits well with our earlier prediction in the Western Himalayas. The minimum estimates of peak acceleration for the epicentral zone of M w =7.5-8.5 events is A peak =0.25-0.4 g for the Western Himalayas and as large as A peak =1.0-1.6 g for the Eastern Himalayas. Similarly, the expected minimum epicentral values of V peak for M w =8 are 35 cm/s for Western and 112 cm/s for Eastern Himalayas. The presence of unusually high levels of epicentral amplitudes for the eastern subregion also agrees well with the macroseismic evidence (Parvez et al. 2001). Therefore, these results represent systematic regional effects, and may be considered as a basis for future regionalized seismic hazard assessment in the Himalayan region. Many metropolitan and big cities of India are situated in the severe hazard zone just south of the Himalayas. A detailed microzonation study of these sprawling urban centres is therefore urgently required for gaining a better understanding of ground motion and site effects in these cities. An example of the study of site effects and microzonation of a part of metropolitan Delhi is presented based on a detailed modelling along a NS cross sections from the Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar. Full synthetic strong motion waveforms have been

  16. Leaf area index retrieval using Hyperion EO-1 data-based vegetation indices in Himalayan forest system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Singh, Sarnam

    2016-04-01

    Present Study is being taken to retrieve Leaf Area Indexn(LAI) in Himalayan forest system using vegetation indices developed from Hyperion EO-1 hyperspectral data. Hemispherical photograph were captured in the month of March and April, 2012 at 40 locations, covering moist tropical Sal forest, subtropical Bauhinia and pine forest and temperate Oak forest and analysed using an open source GLA software. LAI in the study region was ranging in between 0.076 m2/m2 to 6.00 m2/m2. These LAI values were used to develop spectral models with the FLAASH corrected Hyperion measurements.Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used taking spectral reflectance values of all the possible combinations of 170 atmospherically corrected channels. The R2 was ranging from lowest 0.0 to highest 0.837 for the band combinations of spectral region 640 nm and 670 nm. The spectral model obtained was, spectral reflectance (y) = 0.02x LAI(x) - 0.0407.

  17. Mesozoic alkaline plutonism: Evidence for extensional phase in Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt in Central Alborz, north Iran

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    Roghieh Doroozi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kamarbon Jurassic alkaline basic intrusion crops out in Central Alborz, north Iran, along the northern margin of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The intrusion includes foid gabbros at the margins and foid monzodiorites towards the center. The foid monzodiorites are considered as the evolved melts after the fractional crystallization mostly of olivine and clinopyroxene from a foid gabbro parental magma. Based on mass balance calculation the evolution of the Kamarbon alkaline gabbro could be explained by 19.2% fractionation of clinopyroxene, 13.8% of olivine, 3% of plagioclase and 1.0% Ti-Magnetite, with 63% of residual liquid. REE inversion modeling indicates that the Kamarbon intrusion magma was generated by low degrees (<3% of partial melting from a garnet-bearing mantle source. In primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element diagrams, the Kamarbon rocks show enrichment in LILE elements (Ba, Rb, Sr and Th, HFSE elements (Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr and Hf and P and depletion in K, Y and HREE (Yb, Lu which are similar to patterns of HIMU-OIBs or intraplate alkaline magmas. According to the existence of extensional phases and occurrence of different rifting during late Triassic to middle Jurassic in Central Alborz, the formation of Kamarbon intrusion could be related to an intracontinental rifting.

  18. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with different land use systems of Arunachal Pradesh of Eastern Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, A; Nath, P C; Shukla, A K

    2015-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the main component of soil microbial population in most agroecosystems. They forms a close association with more than 80% of the plant species making immobilized mineral nutrients available to the plants in order to sustain normal growth and reproduction. In this study the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi has been examined in seven land use ecosystems of Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalayan region. A total of 24 species of AM fungi belonging to 4 genera viz., Glomus, Scutellospora, Aculospora and Gigaspora were isolated from the soil samples collected from different land use systems. Glomus was the dominant genera and Glomus occulatum was the most abundant species in all the seven land use systems. Total spore number was highly variable among all the land use systems. Species richness was recorded highest in natural forest that maintains a faster nutrient cycle with the highest diversity index. The Jhum fallow land and tea garden has the least number of AM fungal species due to high disturbance of fire and application of fungicides and inorganic fertilizer. Further the plant species composition, particularly the ground vegetation coverage and disturbance level affects the distribution of the AM fungal species. In our study it has been shown that AMF diversity is significantly affected by the land use practices practiced by the people. Hence, the AM fungi isolated from different land use system may be useful in improving the agriculture practices particularly the plantation crops in the region.

  19. Contrasting predictability of summer monsoon rainfall ISOs over the northeastern and western Himalayan region: an application of Hurst exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandipan

    2017-09-01

    Due to heterogeneous nonlinear forcing of complex geomorphological features, predictability of monsoon rainfall 10-90-day intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) over the complex terrain of northeastern and western Himalayan region (NEH and WH) remained poorly quantified. Using 72 and 61 number of station observations of monsoon rainfall ISOs of NEH and WH, respectively, this study attempts to investigate variation in the regional scale predictability of monsoon rainfall ISOs with respect to changing geomorphological features and monsoon rainfall characteristics. In view of the bimodal nonlinear dynamical structure of monsoon rainfall ISO, the fractal dynamical Hurst exponent-based predictability indices are estimated as an indicator of predictability for station observations of NEH and WH, and relationships with elevations, slopes, aspects, and average numbers of occurrences of long (short) spell of active (break) phases are investigated. Results show 10-90-day ISOs are anti-persistent throughout the IHR, although, predictability of 10-90-day ISOs is higher over the NEH region than WH. Predictabilities of ISOs are found to decrease with increasing elevation and slope for both NEH and WH regions. Predictabilities of ISOs over both regions are also found to increase linearly as the number of occurrences of monsoon rainfall ISO phases (active/break) increases.

  20. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garee Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  1. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, Fang; JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; JIN, Jie-Qiong; SUWANNAPOOM, Chatmongkon; LI, Cheng; Jens, V. VINDUM; Rafe, M. BROWN; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpine, Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpine form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis. PMID:26828029

  2. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  3. Nitrogen and carbon source-sink relationships in trees at the Himalayan treelines compared with lower elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mai-He; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Shi, Peili; Wang, San-Gen; Zhong, Yong-De; Liu, Xing-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Cai, Xiao-Hu; Shi, Zuo-Min

    2008-10-01

    No single hypothesis or theory has been widely accepted for explaining the functional mechanism of global alpine/arctic treeline formation. The present study tested whether the alpine treeline is determined by (1) the needle nitrogen content associated with photosynthesis (carbon gain); (2) a sufficient source-sink ratio of carbon; or (3) a sufficient C-N ratio. Nitrogen does not limit the growth and development of trees studied at the Himalayan treelines. Levels of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in trees were species-specific and site-dependent; therefore, the treeline cases studied did not show consistent evidence of source/carbon limitation or sink/growth limitation in treeline trees. However, results of the combined three treelines showed that the treeline trees may suffer from a winter carbon shortage. The source capacity and the sink capacity of a tree influence its tissue NSC concentrations and the carbon balance; therefore, we suggest that the persistence and development of treeline trees in a harsh alpine environment may require a minimum level of the total NSC concentration, a sufficiently high sugar:starch ratio, and a balanced carbon source-sink relationship.

  4. Capturing forest dependency in the central Himalayan region: Variations between Oak (Quercus spp.) and Pine (Pinus spp.) dominated forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anusheema; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Sachdeva, Kamna

    2018-05-01

    Our study explores the nexus between forests and local communities through participatory assessments and household surveys in the central Himalayan region. Forest dependency was compared among villages surrounded by oak-dominated forests (n = 8) and pine-dominated forests (n = 9). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate variations in the degree of dependency based on proximity to nearest forest type. Households near oak-dominated forests were more dependent on forests (83.8%) compared to households near pine-dominated forests (69.1%). Forest dependency is mainly subsistence-oriented for meeting basic household requirements. Livestock population, cultivated land per household, and non-usage of alternative fuels are the major explanatory drivers of forest dependency. Our findings can help decision and policy makers to establish nested governance mechanisms encouraging prioritized site-specific conservation options among forest-adjacent households. Additionally, income diversification with respect to alternate livelihood sources, institutional reforms, and infrastructure facilities can reduce forest dependency, thereby, allowing sustainable forest management.

  5. Genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region based on nucleotide sequences of the Waxy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul I; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-12-29

    Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.

  6. Landslide hazard assessment along a mountain highway in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) using remote sensing and computational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhouri P.; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-10-01

    Landslide hazard assessments using computational models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and frequency ratio (FR), were carried out covering one of the important mountain highways in the Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Landslide influencing factors were either calculated or extracted from spatial databases including recent remote sensing data of LANDSAT TM, CARTOSAT digital elevation model (DEM) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for rainfall data. ANN was implemented using the multi-layered feed forward architecture with different input, output and hidden layers. This model based on back propagation algorithm derived weights for all possible parameters of landslides and causative factors considered. The training sites for landslide prone and non-prone areas were identified and verified through details gathered from remote sensing and other sources. Frequency Ratio (FR) models are based on observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide related factor. FR model implementation proved useful for assessing the spatial relationships between landslide locations and factors contributing to its occurrence. Above computational models generated respective susceptibility maps of landslide hazard for the study area. This further allowed the simulation of landslide hazard maps on a medium scale using GIS platform and remote sensing data. Upon validation and accuracy checks, it was observed that both models produced good results with FR having some edge over ANN based mapping. Such statistical and functional models led to better understanding of relationships between the landslides and preparatory factors as well as ensuring lesser levels of subjectivity compared to qualitative approaches.

  7. Digitizing information for wider reach through 'him-Padap-Sanklan', an e-inventory of Himalayan flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'him-Padap-Sankalan' is a digital directory of floral resources of Himachal Pradesh H.P., a biologically rich state of the Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot. It provides information on nomenclature, taxonomic classification, local name(s, trade name(s and uses of 3348 plant species along with maps showing their distribution in H.P. The information housed in 'Him-Padap-Sankalan' has been compiled from published sources, primarily the Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Analysis. The Graphic User Interface of the 'him-Padap-Sankalan' has been prepared using ASP.Net having MS-Access database in the back end. The 'scientific names', 'trade names', 'local names', 'synonyms', 'genus' and 'species' are the various search modules of 'him-Padap-Sankalan', which can be accessed using an internet browser connected through local area network. Analysis of information reveals that of the 201 families, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Scrophularariaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae and Apiaceae are the ten dominat families in the state. 24 families and 18 genera are common to all the 12 districts of H.P. The maximum number of families, genera and species are in Shimla district and the least in Bilaspur district of H.P.

  8. Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the Lower Cenozoic sediments, NW Himalayan foreland basin: Clues for exhumation and denudation of the Himalaya during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Lal, N.; Suelmani, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Singh, S.; Kumar, R.

    2007-12-01

    Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the synorogenically-deposited Subathu-Dagshai-Kasauli-Lower Siwalik Formations of the Sub-Himalayan Lower Cenozoic foreland basin reflects progressive effects of the Himalayan tectonometamorphic events on the Proterozoic-Paleozoic source rock as a consequence of the India-Asia collision. The oldest transgressive marine Subathu Formation (57.0-41.5 Ma) contains a very dominant 302.4 ± 21.9 Ma old detrital zircon FT suite with a few determinable 520.0 Ma grains. This old suite was derived by mild erosion of the Zircon Partially Annealed Zone (ZPAZ) of 240-180 oC, which affected the Himalayan Proterozoic basement and its Tethyan sedimentary cover as a consequence of first imprint of the collision. In addition, 50.0 Ma old detrital zircons in this formation were derived possibly from the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone and the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith. Sudden source rock changes and unroofing are manifested in the overlying fluvial Dagshai (~30-20 Ma) and Kasauli (20-13 Ma) molassic sediments, which are characterised by dominant 30.0 and 25.0 Ma old youngest zircon FT peaks, respectively. A distinct unconformity spanning for about 10 Myr gets established between the Subathu-Dagshai formations on the basis of detrital- zircon FT ages. Molassic sedimentation since ~30 Ma coincides with the depletion of detritus from the suture zone, and the bulk derivation from the main Higher Himalayan source rock, which has undergone sequentially the UHP-HP-amphibolite facies metamorphism (53-40 Ma) in the extreme north and widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan tectonothermal events in the middle. Strength of the Pre-Himalayan Peaks (PHP) >50 Ma in these younger sediments gradually decreases with the intensification of the Himalayan thermal events till the end of the Kasauli sedimentation. Widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan metamorphic events (40.0-30.0 and 25.0-15.0 Ma) have almost remobilised the provenance and obliterated most of the

  9. A study of Guptkashi, Uttarakhand earthquake of 6 February 2017 ( M w 5.3) in the Himalayan arc and implications for ground motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinagesh, Davuluri; Singh, Shri Krishna; Suresh, Gaddale; Srinivas, Dakuri; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Suresh, Gudapati

    2018-05-01

    The 2017 Guptkashi earthquake occurred in a segment of the Himalayan arc with high potential for a strong earthquake in the near future. In this context, a careful analysis of the earthquake is important as it may shed light on source and ground motion characteristics during future earthquakes. Using the earthquake recording on a single broadband strong-motion seismograph installed at the epicenter, we estimate the earthquake's location (30.546° N, 79.063° E), depth ( H = 19 km), the seismic moment ( M 0 = 1.12×1017 Nm, M w 5.3), the focal mechanism ( φ = 280°, δ = 14°, λ = 84°), the source radius ( a = 1.3 km), and the static stress drop (Δ σ s 22 MPa). The event occurred just above the Main Himalayan Thrust. S-wave spectra of the earthquake at hard sites in the arc are well approximated (assuming ω -2 source model) by attenuation parameters Q( f) = 500 f 0.9, κ = 0.04 s, and f max = infinite, and a stress drop of Δ σ = 70 MPa. Observed and computed peak ground motions, using stochastic method along with parameters inferred from spectral analysis, agree well with each other. These attenuation parameters are also reasonable for the observed spectra and/or peak ground motion parameters in the arc at distances ≤ 200 km during five other earthquakes in the region (4.6 ≤ M w ≤ 6.9). The estimated stress drop of the six events ranges from 20 to 120 MPa. Our analysis suggests that attenuation parameters given above may be used for ground motion estimation at hard sites in the Himalayan arc via the stochastic method.

  10. What happens along the flank and corner of a continental indenter? Insights from the easternmost Himalayan orogen and constraints on the models of the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.; Zuza, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of continental collisions often focus on thrust belts oriented perpendicular to the plate-convergence direction and exclude belts that bound the flanks of a continental indenter despite being crucial to understanding the collisional process. Research of the Himalayan orogen, for example, has mostly centered on the east-trending thrust belt between the eastern and western syntaxes, resulting in inadequate examination of the north-trending Indo-Burma Ranges located along the eastern margin of India. To better understand the development of the entire Himalayan orogenic system, we conducted field mapping across the Northern Indo-Burma Range (NIBR), situated at the intersection of the eastern Himalaya and Indo-Burma Ranges. Our research shows that major lithologic units and thrust faults of the Himalaya extend to the NIBR, suggesting a shared geologic evolution. The structural framework of the NIBR consists of a southwest-directed thrust belt cored by a hinterland-dipping duplex, like the Himalaya. However, the Northern Indo-Burma orogen is distinct based on (1) the absence of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence and southern Gangdese batholith, (2) the absence of the South Tibetan detachment, (3) crustal shortening greater than 80%, (4) an incredibly narrow orogen width of 7-33 km, (5) exposure of an ophiolitic mélange complex as a klippe, (6) and right-slip shear along the active range-bounding thrust fault. Furthermore, lithospheric deformation along the flank and northeast corner of India is characterized by right-slip transpression partitioned between the thrust belt and right-slip faults. Such a regime is interpreted to accommodate both contraction and clockwise rotation of Tibetan lithosphere around India, consistent with existing continuum deformation and rotation models.

  11. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. This paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic Gujjars, Tharu and Bhoxa of Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. To record herbal preparations used by the studied indigenous communities in treatment of jaundice and discuss hepatoprotective properties of the recorded plants. The traditional knowledge of the studied indigenous communities on herbal preparations used for treating jaundice was collected through structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The interviews were conducted with 91 traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. More than 250 research papers reporting ethnomedicinal information on the hepatoprotective plants used by various communities from different parts of India were extensively reviewed. A total of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families and 38 genera were recorded to be used by the studied communities in 45 formulations as a remedy of jaundice. Bhoxa, nomadic Gujjars and Tharu communities used 15, 23 and 9 plants, respectively. To our knowledge eight plants reported in the present survey viz., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cissampelos pareira L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Ocimum americanum L., Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L. and Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported earlier as remedy of jaundice in India. Literature review revealed that a total of 214 (belonging to 181 genus and 78 families), 19 (belonging to 18 genus and 12 families) and 14 (belonging to 14 genus and 11 families) plant species are used as internal

  12. Timing of initiation and fault rates of the Yushu-Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Replumaz, Anne; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Zhang, Yuan-Ze; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Wang, Guo-Can; Bernet, Matthias; van der Beek, Peter; Pan, Jiawei; Metois, Marianne; Li, Haibing

    2017-04-01

    In eastern Tibet, the left-lateral strike-slip Yushu-Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system (YXX-FS) is 1400 km long, veering from N100° to N175° broadly following a small circle whose pole is located in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Several competing models are proposed to explain the geological evolution of eastern Tibet, and in particular of the YXX-FS: fault following slip-lines in a plastic media, book-shelf fault in a large right-lateral shear zone, or fault bounding a lower channel flow veering around the syntaxis. In this contribution we document the timing of onset of the YXX-FS, its propagation through time, its rate at various time-scales; and discuss how these relate to the deformation models. The YXX-FS comprises four segments from east (Tibetan Plateau) to west (Yunnan): Yushu-Ganzi, Xianshuihe, Anninghe, and Zemuhe-Xiaojiang. It is one of the most tectonically active intra-continental fault system in China along which more than 20 M>6.5 earthquakes occurred since 1700. Slip-rates of 3.5 to 30 mm/yr along the YXX-FS have been suggested by matching geological offsets of 60-100 km with initiation ages of 2 to 17 Ma. Late Quaternary rates deduced from morphological offsets, InSAR, paleoseismology and GPS also show a large range: between 3 and 20 mm/yr. The timing of initiation of the Yushu-Ganzi segment has been constrained at 12.6±1 Ma and its total offset to 76 - 90 km (Wang et al., 2009) yielding a rate of 6.6+0.8-0.7 mm/yr. By measuring the offsets of moraine crests and fan edges across the fault using LiDAR and kinematic GPS, and dating their surfaces using 10Be, we determined slip-rates of 7+1.1-1.0 mm/yr, 3 - 11.2 mm/yr and 8.5+0.8-0.7 mm/yr at three different sites. This suggests a constant rate of 6-8 mm/yr along the fault segment since 13Ma. The timing of initiation of the Xianshuihe segment was thought to be prior to 12.8±1.4 Ma (Roger et al., 1995), but new field studies and geochronological ages suggest that the fault initiated later. Using

  13. Low fidelity of CORDEX and their driving experiments indicates future climatic uncertainty over Himalayan watersheds of Indus basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Böhner, Jürgen; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of future water availability from the Himalayan watersheds of Indus Basin (Jhelum, Kabul and upper Indus basin—UIB) is a growing concern for safeguarding the sustainable socioeconomic wellbeing downstream. This requires, before all, robust climate change information from the present-day state-of-the-art climate models. However, the robustness of climate change projections highly depends upon the fidelity of climate modeling experiments. Hence, this study assesses the fidelity of seven dynamically refined (0.44° ) experiments, performed under the framework of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment for South Asia (CX-SA), and additionally, their six coarse-resolution driving datasets participating in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5). We assess fidelity in terms of reproducibility of the observed climatology of temperature and precipitation, and the seasonality of the latter for the historical period (1971-2005). Based on the model fidelity results, we further assess the robustness or uncertainty of the far future climate (2061-2095), as projected under the extreme-end warming scenario of the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. Our results show that the CX-SA and their driving CMIP5 experiments consistently feature low fidelity in terms of the chosen skill metrics, suggesting substantial cold (6-10 ° C) and wet (up to 80%) biases and underestimation of observed precipitation seasonality. Surprisingly, the CX-SA are unable to outperform their driving datasets. Further, the biases of CX-SA and of their driving CMIP5 datasets are higher in magnitude than their projected changes under RCP8.5—and hence under less extreme RCPs—by the end of 21st century, indicating uncertain future climates for the Indus Basin watersheds. Higher inter-dataset disagreements of both CMIP5 and CX-SA for their simulated historical precipitation and for its projected changes reinforce uncertain future wet/dry conditions

  14. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-01-01

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'

  15. Soil carbon stocks along an altitudinal gradient in different land-use categories in Lesser Himalayan foothills of Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, H.; Saeed, Y.; Abbasi, M. K.; Khaliq, A.

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration potential of soils plays an important role in mitigating the effect of climate change, because soils serve as sinks for atmospheric carbon. The present study was conducted to estimate the carbon stocks and their variation with altitudinal gradient in the Lesser Himalayan foothills of Kashmir. The carbon stocks were estimated in different land use categories, namely: closed canopy forests, open forests, disturbed forests, and agricultural lands within the altitudinal range from 900 to 2500 m. The soil carbon content was determined by the Walkley-Black titration method. The average soil carbon stock was found to be 2.59 kg m-2. The average soil carbon stocks in closed canopy forests, open forests, and disturbed forests were 3.39, 2.06, and 2.86 kg m-2, respectively. The average soil carbon stock in the agricultural soils was 2.03 kg m-2. The carbon stocks showed a significant decreasing trend with the altitudinal gradient with maximum values of 4.13 kg m-2 at 900-1200 m a.s.l. and minimum value of 1.55 kg m-2 at 2100-2400 m a.s.l. The agricultural soil showed the least carbon content values indicating negative impacts of soil plowing, overgrazing, and soil degradation. Lower carbon values at higher altitudes attest to the immature character of forest stands, as well as to degradation due to immense fuel wood extraction, timber extraction, and harsh climatic conditions. The study indicates that immediate attention is required for the conservation of rapidly declining carbon stocks in agricultural soils, as well as in the soils of higher altitudes.

  16. Assessment of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change and Forest Fragmentation in the Garhwal Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Batar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Garhwal Himalaya has experienced extensive deforestation and forest fragmentation, but data and documentation detailing this transformation of the Himalaya are limited. The aim of this study is to analyse the observed changes in land cover and forest fragmentation that occurred between 1976 and 2014 in the Garhwal Himalayan region in India. Three images from Landsat 2 Multispectral Scanner System (MSS, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM, and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI were used to extract the land cover maps. A cross-tabulation detection method in the geographic information system (GIS module was used to detect land cover changes during the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014. The landscape fragmentation tool LFT v2.0 was used to construct a forest fragmentation map and analyse the forest fragmentation pattern and change during the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014. The overall annual rate of change in the forest cover was observed to be 0.22% and 0.27% in the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014, respectively. The forest fragmentation analysis shows that a large core forest has decreased throughout the study period. The total area of forest patches also increased from 1976 to 2014, which are completely degraded forests. The results indicate that anthropogenic activities are the main causes of the loss of forest cover and forest fragmentation, but that natural factors also contributed. An increase in the area of scrub and barren land also contributed to the accumulation of wasteland or non-forest land in this region. Determining the trend and the rate of land cover conversion is necessary for development planners to establish a rational land use policy.

  17. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23 during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05 and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05 during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl, plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l, magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l, potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l and significantly lower (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl, globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml and T4 (6.0±0.27 μg/ml concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 μg/ml concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep.

  18. Malnutrition as a cause of mental retardation: A population-based study from Sub-Himalayan India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood. The research on childhood malnutrition and its relationship with cognitive functioning suggests that malnutrition alone does not cause mental retardation. Objective: To identify the relation between malnutrition and cognition among children from a Sub-Himalayan state in North India. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural, urban, and slum area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase, a door-to-door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for clinical examination to confirm mental retardation. Anthropometric assessment of all study children was done by measuring weight and height. The nutritional assessment was done by categorizing them according to Waterlow classification for malnutrition. Results: Out of the total 5300 children, 1.7% were diagnosed as mentally retarded. No positive association was reported with different types of malnutrition and mental retardation. A weakly positive association existed between nutritional status and mental retardation (correlation coefficient-0.04. Children who were both wasted and stunted had the highest risk (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval - 5.57, 2.29–10.36 of mental retardation as compared to normal. Conclusion: Malnutrition may be one of the causes but certainly not the only cause of mental retardation. Other causes may be contributing more significantly toward it.

  19. Exploring the physicochemical profile and the binding patterns of selected novel anticancer Himalayan plant derived active compounds with macromolecular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bahadur Gurung

    Full Text Available Plants are vital source of compounds offering plethora of therapeutic effects against various ailments without much side effects. Due to wide spread prevalence and drug resistance in cancer; there is an urgent need for discovery of new anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, selected novel anti-cancer plants derived compounds (cmpd1 to cmpd15 from Himalayan region were docked with defined molecular targets that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. The binding energies of best docked compounds ranged between −8.0 kcal/mol and −11.71 kcal/mol. Further analysis revealed critical hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between compounds and targets. The best docked compounds viz., cmpd15 against cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2, cmpd8 against CDK-6 and cmpd9 against Topoisomerase I and II showed higher binding affinities than the native co-crystal ligands. The root mean square deviation (RMSD and potential energy plot clearly indicates the stability of the complexes during 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulation. The Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA binding energy analysis revealed Van der Waals energy component which is the principal stabilizing energy for their interactions except CDK-2/cmpd15 complex. The polar solvation energy did not have favorable contribution to their stabilization. The binding energy decomposition analysis revealed per residue contribution for each docked complexes. Physicochemical profile studies showed that majority of the compounds conform to Lipinski's rule of five (ROF having low to high blood brain barrier (BBB penetration, human intestinal absorption, plasma binding protein inhibition and P glycoprotein inhibition. Keywords: ADMET, Anticancer, MM/PBSA, Molecular docking, Molecular dynamics simulation and plant derived compounds

  20. Observed changes in surface air temperature and precipitation in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region over the last 100-plus years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyzed the long-term changes in temperature and precipitation in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH region based on climate datasets LSAT-V1.1 and CGP1.0 recently developed by the China Meteorological Administration. The analysis results show that during 1901–2014 the annual mean surface air temperature over the whole HKH has undergone a significant increasing trend. We determined the change rates in the mean temperature, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature to be 0.104 °C per decade, 0.077 °C per decade, and 0.176 °C per decade, respectively. Most parts of the HKH have experienced a warming trend, with the largest increase occurring on the Tibetan Plateau (TP and south of Pakistan. The trend of precipitation for the whole HKH is characterized by a slight decrease during 1901–2014. During 1961–2013, however, the trend of the annual precipitation shows a statistically significant increase, with a rate of 5.28% per decade and has a more rapid increase since the mid-1980s. Most parts of northern India and the northern TP have experienced a strong increase in the number of precipitation days (daily rainfall ≥1 mm, whereas Southwest China and Myanmar have experienced a declining trend in precipitation days. Compared to the trends in precipitation days, the spatial pattern of trends in the precipitation intensity seems to be more closely related to the terrain, and the higher altitude areas have shown more significant upward trends in precipitation intensity during 1961–2013.

  1. Terrane-Scale Metastability in Subducted Himalayan Continental Crust as Revealed by Integrated Petrological and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Reuber, G. S.; White, R. W.; Kaus, B. J. P.; Weller, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Tso Morari massif, northwest India, is one of only two regions in the Himalayan Range that exposes subduction-related ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. The tectonic evolution of the massif is strongly debated, however, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism range between 2.4 GPa and 4.8 GPa. Such ambiguity hinders effective lithospheric-scale modeling of the early stages of the orogen's evolution. We present the results of integrated petrological and geodynamic modeling (Palin et al., 2017, EPSL) that provide new quantitative constraints on the prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path, and predict the parageneses that felsic and mafic components of the massif crust should have formed under equilibrium conditions. Our model shows that peak P-T conditions of 2.6-2.8 GPa and 600-620 °C, representative of subduction to 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), were reached just 3 Myr after the onset of collision. These P-T-t constraints correlate well with those reported for similar UHP eclogite in the along-strike Kaghan Valley, Pakistan, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of a 400-km long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. The extremely high pressures (up to 4.8 GPa) for peak metamorphism reported by some workers are likely to be unreliable due to thermobarometry having been performed on minerals that did not represent equilibrium assemblages. Furthermore, key high-P minerals predicted to form in subducted Tso Morari continental crust (e.g. jadeite, Mg-rich garnet) are absent from natural samples in the region, reflecting the widespread metastable preservation of lower-pressure protolith assemblages during subduction and exhumation. This result questions the reliability of geodynamic simulations of orogenesis that are commonly predicated on equilibrium metamorphism operating continuously throughout tectonic cycles.

  2. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Asam; Khalid, Perveiz; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Jouini, Mohammed Soufiane

    2014-10-01

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center.

  3. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2014-07-10

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  4. Characterizing anthropogenic impacts on two mid-altitude Himalayan lakes in the Western Himalaya: A look at shifts in water chemistry and phytoplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, T. S.; Tiwari, S.; Bhatt, J. P.; Pandit, M. K.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayan region is globally regarded for its natural mountain ecosystems but increased agricultural expansion and urbanization have resulted in greater nutrient loading in Himalayan water bodies causing widespread fish kills and shrinking lakes. Despite concerns for environmental degradation, lack of empirical investigations and quantitative data are major constraints in understanding these events. To determine the impact of human development on Himalayan lakes, we investigated Rewalsar, a spring-fed lake and Kareri a glacial-fed lake in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Rewalsar is surrounded by a rapidly growing town and agricultural fields while Kareri Lake is situated in a relatively remote area. Measurements were made in the spring periods of 2013 and 2016. Water samples were collected 1m below the lake surface and analyzed for major ions, nitrates, phosphates, DO, pH, temperature, turbidity, and TDS. Alagal samples were collected from each lake and species counted and identified using standard taxonomic literature. Statistical analysis was performed using PC-ORD. Results showed a significant change in water chemistry and phytoplankton communities with Rewalsar Lake showing an increase in pollutant tolerant algae over the sample period. Principle component analysis showed that the 2016 data from Kareri Lake had phytoplankton communities and chemical data resembling the urban lake of Rewalsar. Kareri Lake had the highest DO (10 mg/ml) while Rewalsar showed the lowest DO at 3 mg/ml in 2016, a decrease from 8 mg/ml in 2013. With a total oxygen demand (TOD) of 6.5 mg/ml in Rewalsar, the decreasing DO value is likely the cause of the increasing annual fish kills as reported by local governments. TDS measurements were highest in Rewalsar Lake compared to the TDS levels of Kareri, indicating a higher amount of surface runoff from the surrounding area in Rewalsar. Nitrate and phosphate levels also increased over this time period. Our multi-year investigation also

  5. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  6. Structure and tectonics of the Main Himalayan Thrust and associated faults from recent earthquake and seismic imaging studies using the NAMASTE array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, M. S.; Pant, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Sapkota, S. N.; Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The India-Eurasia collision zone presents a significant earthquake hazard, as demonstrated by the recent, devastating April 25, 2015 M=7.8 Gorkha earthquake and the following May 12, 2015 M=7.3 earthquake. Important questions remain, including distinguishing possible geometries of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the role of other regional faults, the crustal composition and role of fluids in faulting, and the details of the rupture process, including structural causes and locations of rupture segmentation both along-strike and down-dip. These recent earthquakes and their aftershocks provide a unique opportunity to learn more about this collision zone. In June 2015, funded by NSF, we deployed the Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake (NAMASTE) array of 46 seismic stations distributed across eastern and central Nepal, spanning the region with most of the aftershocks. This array remained in place for 11 months from June 2015 to May 2016. We combine new results from this aftershock network in Nepal with previous geophysical and geological studies across the Himalaya to derive a new understanding of the tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet in Nepal and surrounding countries. We focus on structure and composition of the Main Himalayan Thrust and compare this continent-continent subduction megathrust with megathrusts in other subduction zones.

  7. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of geoinformatics and Markov chain model: A case study on sub-Himalayan town Gangtok, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Arun; Mukherjee, Sandip; Khatua, Dipam; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mitra, Debasish; Ghosh, Tuhin

    2014-08-01

    In the Himalayan states of India, with increasing population and activities, large areas of forested land are being converted into other land-use features. There is a definite cause and effect relationship between changing practice for development and changes in land use. So, an estimation of land use dynamics and a futuristic trend pattern is essential. A combination of geospatial and statistical techniques were applied to assess the present and future land use/land cover scenario of Gangtok, the subHimalayan capital of Sikkim. Multi-temporal satellite imageries of the Landsat series were used to map the changes in land use of Gangtok from 1990 to 2010. Only three major land use classes (built-up area and bare land, step cultivated area, and forest) were considered as the most dynamic land use practices of Gangtok. The conventional supervised classification, and spectral indices-based thresholding using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) were applied along with the accuracy assessments. Markov modelling was applied for prediction of land use/land cover change and was validated. SAVI provides the most accurate estimate, i.e., the difference between predicted and actual data is minimal. Finally, a combination of Markov modelling and SAVI was used to predict the probable land-use scenario in Gangtok in 2020 AD, which indicted that more forest areas will be converted for step cultivation by the year 2020.

  8. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-SA experiments in simulating seasonal mean temperature over the Himalayan region for the present climate: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengker, T.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of an ensemble of five regional climate models (hereafter RCMs) under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments-South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) in simulating the key features of present day near surface mean air temperature (Tmean) climatology (1970-2005) over the Himalayan region is studied. The purpose of this paper is to understand the consistency in the performance of models across the ensemble, space and seasons. For this a number of statistical measures like trend, correlation, variance, probability distribution function etc. are applied to evaluate the performance of models against observation and simultaneously the underlying uncertainties between them for four different seasons. The most evident finding from the study is the presence of a large cold bias (-6 to -8 °C) which is systematically seen across all the models and across space and time over the Himalayan region. However, these RCMs with its fine resolution perform extremely well in capturing the spatial distribution of the temperature features as indicated by a consistently high spatial correlation (greater than 0.9) with the observation in all seasons. In spite of underestimation in simulated temperature and general intensification of cold bias with increasing elevation the models show a greater rate of warming than the observation throughout entire altitudinal stretch of study region. During winter, the simulated rate of warming gets even higher at high altitudes. Moreover, a seasonal response of model performance and its spatial variability to elevation is found.

  9. Exploration of the diversity and associated health benefits of traditional pickles from the Himalayan and adjacent hilly regions of Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rakhi; Roy, Swarnendu

    2018-05-01

    The Himalayas have provided shelter to the various communities for thousands of years and have remained the cradle for the origin of diverse cultures and traditions. The Himalayan belt is rich in biodiversity and have ushered mankind with numerous gifts for survival and existence. The art of pickling is believed to have developed independently among the different communities of this region. In this region, the main meal is supplemented with pickles or achar that not only adds flavour, but also enhances the value of the meal and often comes with inherent health benefits. The prime objective of this article was to enlist the diverse pickles that are being prepared and consumed by the different tribes and communities, and at the same time analyse the science behind pickle preparation and health benefits and concerns associated with pickles. We have enlisted about hundred monotypic pickles, that are prepared from single fruit or vegetable; but sometimes fungi such as Agaricus and ferns like Diplazium and Pteridium have also been used. Also, fish and meat pickles are common mostly in the Eastern Himalayan region. Traditional pickles constitute the medicinal values of the ingredients and other beneficial properties conferred by the associated microorganisms.

  10. Accessing the capability of TRMM 3B42 V7 to simulate streamflow during extreme rain events: Case study for a Himalayan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    The paper examines the quality of Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 V7 precipitation product to simulate the streamflow using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for various rainfall intensities over the Himalayan region. The SWAT model has been set up for Gandak River Basin with 41 sub-basins and 420 HRUs. Five stream gauge locations are used to simulate the streamflow for a time span of 10 years (2000-2010). Daily streamflow for the simulation period is collected from Central Water Commission (CWC), India and Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Nepal. The simulation results are found good in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) {>}0.65, coefficient of determination (R2) {>}0.67 and Percentage Bias (PBIAS){}124.4 mm/d). The PBIAS and RSR show that TRMM simulated streamflow is suitable for moderate to heavy rainfall intensities. However, it does not perform well for light- and extremely-heavy rainfall intensities. The finding of the present work is useful for the problems related to water resources management, irrigation planning and hazard analysis over the Himalayan regions.

  11. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over the Himalayan region during present climate: part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of regional climate simulations to evaluate the ability of 11 Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment in South Asia experiments (CORDEX-South Asia) along with their ensemble to produce precipitation from June to September (JJAS) over the Himalayan region have been carried out. These suite of 11 combinations come from 6 regional climate models (RCMs) driven with 10 initial and boundary conditions from different global climate models and are collectively referred here as 11 CORDEX South Asia experiments. All the RCMs use a similar domain and are having similar spatial resolution of 0.44° ( 50 km). The set of experiments are considered to study precipitation sensitivity associated with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over the study region. This effort is made as ISM plays a vital role in summertime precipitation over the Himalayan region which acts as driver for the sustenance of habitat, population, crop, glacier, hydrology etc. In addition, so far the summer monsoon precipitation climatology over the Himalayan region has not been studied with the help of CORDEX data. Thus this study is initiated to evaluate the ability of the experiments and their ensemble in reproducing the characteristics of summer monsoon precipitation over Himalayan region, for the present climate (1970-2005). The precipitation climatology, annual precipitation cycles and interannual variabilities from each simulation have been assessed against the gridded observational dataset: Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources for the given time period. Further, after the selection of the better performing experiment the frequency distribution of precipitation was also studied. In this study, an approach has also been made to study the degree of agreement among individual experiments as a way to quantify the uncertainty among them. The experiments though show a wide variation among themselves and individually over

  12. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  13. Downscale climate change scenarios over the Western Himalayan region of India using multi-generation CMIP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra K.; Akhter, Javed

    2017-04-01

    Assessing climate change information over the Western Himalayan Region (WHR) of India is crucial but challenging task due to its limited numbers of station data containing huge missing values. The issues of missing values of station data were replaced the Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 22 numbers of rain gauge stations having continuous data during 1901-2005 and 16 numbers stations having continuous temperature data during 1969-2009 were considered as " reference stations for assessing rainfall and temperature trends in addition to evaluation of the GCMs available in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 3 (CMIP3) and phase 5 (CMIP5) over WRH. Station data indicates that the winter warming is higher and rapid (1.05oC) than other seasons and less warming in the post monsoon season in the last 41 years. Area averaged using 22 station data indicates that monsoon and winter rainfall has decreased by -5 mm and -320 mm during 1901-2000 while pre-monsoon and post monsoon showed an increasing trends of 21 mm and 13 mm respectively. Present study is constructed the downscaled climate change information at station locations (22 and 16 stations for rainfall and temperature respectively) over the WHR from the GCMs commonly available in the IPCC's different generations assessment reports namely 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th thereafter known as SAR, TAR, AR4 and AR5 respectively. Once the downscaled results are obtained for each generation model outputs, then a comparison of studies is carried out from the results of each generation. Finally an overall model improvement index (OMII) is developed using the downscaling results which is used to investigate the model improvement across generations as well as the improvement of downscaling results obtained from the empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods. In general, the results indicate that there is a gradual improvement of GCMs simulations as well as downscaling results across generation

  14. Yews (Taxus) along the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region: exploring the ethnopharmacological relevance among communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ram C; Gao, Lian-Ming; Möller, Michael; Baral, Sushim R; Uprety, Yadav; Liu, Jie; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-05-02

    Three species of yews Taxus contorta Griff., Taxus mairei (Lemée & Lév.) S.Y. Hu ex T.S. Liu and Taxus wallichiana Zucc. distributed in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region have been commercially exploited in recent decades to extract an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug 'Taxol'. Additionally, indigenous people of this region are using yews for several other purposes including gastro-intestinal disorders, respiratory problems, skeletal system disorders, and as edible fruit, fodder, fish poison, traditional veterinary medicine, among others. The study was designed to document and evaluate knowledge concerning uses of yews among indigenous communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins. Ethnobotanical knowledge from 10 major ethnic/caste groups of Mongol and Caucasian origins in the Nepal Himalayas was documented in 2010 and 2011 from 27 sites covering the extant distribution range of the three species of Taxus. A total of 72 key informants (60 men, 12 women), recommended by the majority of people in informal group discussions at each study site, were interviewed to collect information on the importance of yews. This study reports multidimensional uses of yews commonly practiced by different indigenous communities of Nepal and compared those with published uses along the HKH region. The key informants cited a total 45 uses under 21 categories. A greater use diversity and high consensus value for use types were recorded for medicinal uses (gastro-intestinal ailments, cough and cold, skeleto-muscular system problem and others medicinal importance) followed by fruit consumption, household tools, agriculture implements and timber. A decline of yew populations and associated traditional knowledge among the younger generations of indigenous people was found. The present study shows a strong agreement of ethnobotanical knowledge on yews between communities of Mongols and Caucasian origins. Our findings further revealed the potential for additional therapeutic applications in

  15. Cellulosic ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing by a novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from a Himalayan hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Mathur, Anshu S; Tuli, Deepak K; Gupta, Ravi P; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium as a suitable host for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been proposed as an economically suited platform for the production of second-generation biofuels. To recognize the overall objective of CBP, fermentation using co-culture of different cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting thermophilic anaerobic bacteria has been widely studied as an approach to achieving improved ethanol production. We assessed monoculture and co-culture fermentation of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium for ethanol production from real substrates under controlled conditions. In this study, Clostridium sp. DBT-IOC-C19, a cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the cellulolytic enrichment cultures obtained from a Himalayan hot spring. Strain DBT-IOC-C19 exhibited a broad substrate spectrum and presented single-step conversion of various cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates to ethanol, acetate, and lactate with ethanol being the major fermentation product. Additionally, the effect of varying cellulose concentrations on the fermentation performance of the strain was studied, indicating a maximum cellulose utilization ability of 10 g L -1 cellulose. Avicel degradation kinetics of the strain DBT-IOC-C19 displayed 94.6% degradation at 5 g L -1 and 82.74% degradation at 10 g L -1 avicel concentration within 96 h of fermentation. In a comparative study with Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313, the ethanol and total product concentrations were higher by the newly isolated strain on pretreated rice straw at an equivalent substrate loading. Three different co-culture combinations were used on various substrates that presented two-fold yield improvement than the monoculture during batch fermentation. This study demonstrated the direct fermentation ability of the novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria on various cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol without the aid of any exogenous enzymes

  16. Active folding of fluvial terraces across a `blind' Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and four yield multiple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and depth profiles terrigenous cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Murree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggests rock uplift rates across the Suruin-Mastargh anticline range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rates across the Suruin-Mastargh anticline range between 3.8-5.4 mm/yr since 53 ka. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that the Riasi fault accounts for the remainder 60% of the convergence not taken up by the Suruin-Mastargh anticline. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled

  17. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  18. Using exhumation histories to constrain Main Himalayan Thrust geometry and seismic hazard in the western Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Himalaya of western Nepal present a challenge to conventional understanding of the geometry and behavior of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), a major seismogenic structure which accommodates 2 cm/yr of Indo-Asian convergence. Slip along a steeper ramp in the MHT drives long-term uplift of the Greater Himalaya along >1000 km of the central range front, resulting in a conspicuous physiographic transition known as PT2. This physiographic break is seemingly absent in western Nepal, which suggests a structural geometry and/or kinematic history distinct from areas along strike. This anomaly must be investigated to clarify how seismic hazard may differ from better-understood areas along strike. The importance of this work is heightened by the recent and catastrophic Gorkha earthquake in 2015. We present a suite of 7 relief transects comprising a mix of apatite and zircon U-Th/He and muscovite Ar-Ar cooling ages. These transects were collected across the more gradual mountain front in western Nepal in an effort to clarify where uplift and exhumation have been focused over the past 10 Ma. We invert these cooling ages using the thermo-kinematic model Pecube in order to constrain exhumation histories that best fit the measured cooling ages. Results confirm that MHT geometry and kinematic history in western Nepal are far more complex than in better-studied areas along strike. Exhumation rates in the along-strike projection of PT2 are slow ( 0.1-0.2 km/Myr) compared with rates 50 km toward the hinterland ( 1.0-1.5 km/Myr), suggesting that exhumation has been more rapid in this more northerly position for the past several Ma. Although a range of kinematic scenarios could explain the anomalous cooling histories, it is likely that a recently active midcrustal ramp in the MHT sits beneath this more northerly position. If the 2015 Gorkha earthquake initiated near the up-dip end of the MHT ramp in central Nepal, it is conceivable that similarly hazardous earthquakes could trigger

  19. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  1. Changes in the Mountain Cryosphere and Potential Risks to Downstream Communities: Insights from the Indian Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Huggel, Christian; Linsbauer, Andreas; Mal, Suraj; Singh Rana, Ranbir; Singh Randhawa, Surjeet; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Singh Samant, Sher; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mountain environments around the world are often considered to be amongst the most sensitive to the impacts of climate change. For people living in mountain communities, there are clear challenges to be faced as their livelihoods and subsistence are directly dependent on their surrounding natural environment. But what of the wider implications for societies and large urban settlements living downstream - why should they care about the climate-driven changes occurring potentially hundreds of kilometers away in the snow and ice capped mountains? In this contribution we address this question, drawing on studies and experiences gained within joint Indo-Swiss research collaborations focused on the Indian Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. With the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change currently embarking on the scoping of their 6th Assessment Cycle, which includes a planned Special Report on Oceans and the Cryosphere, this contribution provides a timely reminder of the importance of mountain regions, and potential far-reaching consequences of changes in the mountain cryosphere. Our studies highlight several key themes which link the mountain environment to the lowland populated areas, including the role of the mountain cryosphere as a water source, far-reaching hazards and disasters that can originate from mountain regions, the role of mountains in providing essential ecosystem services, the economic importance of tourism in mountain regions, and the importance of transportation routes which pass through mountain environments. These themes are intricately linked, as for example demonstrated during the 2013 Uttarakhand flood disaster where many of the approximately 6000 fatalities were tourists visiting high mountain pilgrimage sites. As a consequence of the disaster, tourists stayed away during subsequent seasons with significant economic impacts felt across the State. In Himachal Pradesh, a key national transportation corridor is the Rohtang pass

  2. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  3. The Great Himalayan Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Thapa, Manish

    The aim of this paper is to explore the rivalry between India and China and how it impacts Nepal in geo-strategic and geo-political terms both theoretically, conceptually and empirically. The foreign policy rivalry between India and China appears not only to influence investment and trade decisions...

  4. Chamera: A Himalayan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havercroft, P.E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The 540 MW Chamera hydroelectric project is located on the Ravi River in the foothills of the Himalayas 500 km north of Delhi. The Chamera Constructors Consortium is made up of a joint venture of SNC Inc., Acres International, Marine Industries Limited and General Electric Canada. The consortium provides engineering, procurement, and construction management services, and supplies turbines and gates, generators and associated electrical equipment. The experience of the consortium in dealing with the Indian Government is detailed. A multi-envelope bidding system was used, with the lowest cost, technically acceptable bid receiving the contract. Misunderstandings can arise due to different perceptions of the bidding process between Canadian companies and the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) of the Indian government, with NHPC taking a more formal approach in contractual dealings. Export paperwork was frequently in error leading to delays in passage of goods through Indian customs. With the liberalization of the Indian trade laws there is a potential for Canada to supply a significant quantity of equipment for India's planned 38,000 MW of hydroelectric expansion. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Ground-Penetrating Radar Investigations along Hajipur Fault: Himalayan Frontal Thrust—Attempt to Identify Near Subsurface Displacement, NW Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed N. Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area falls in the mesoseismal zone of 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw 7.8. To identify appropriate trenching site for paleoseismic investigation and to understand the faulting geometry, ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey was conducted across a Hajipur Fault (HF2 scarp, a branching out fault of Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT in a foot hill zone of NW Himalaya. Several 2D and 3D profiles were collected using 200 MHz antenna with SIR 3000 unit. A 2D GPR profile collected across the HF2 scarp revealed prominent hyperbolas and discontinuous-warped reflections, suggesting a metal pipe and a zone of deformation along a low-angle thrust fault, respectively. The 3D profile revealed remarkable variation in dip of the fault plane and pattern of deformation along the strike of the fault.

  6. Invasion establishment and habitat suitability of Chromolaena odorata (L. King and Robinson over time and space in the western Himalayan forests of India

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    Gautam Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability assessment of the invasive species Chromolaena odorata (L. King and Robinson from Himalayan forests reveals some interesting findings and conclusions. At different study sites, 29 of 72 species were exotic and invasive and comprised 21 genera and eight families. Indigenous species accounted for 59% of the total species and comprised 26 genera and 11 families. Perennials outnumbered the annuals in all study sites. Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara L. were the only invasive species that were common to all sites with high importance value index values. The present work reveals that sites with high biotic pressure, maximum temperature variation, open forest canopy, and free from herbivory are the most suitable habitat for the growth of C. odorata. An elevated level of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, soil organic matter, and nitrogen and acidic soil in all invaded sites are possible reasons for further invasion of C. odorata.

  7. The dynamics of the species into collections of the North American and the Himalayan hills in Alpinarium of Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical gardens' collections of living plants are valuable not only because of their exhibitions, but also because of the data accumulated during introductions of new plants. Inventory allows to collect valuable material about introduction of different types of plants (species and taxa. Analysis of the available information allows to select and recommend advanced species (genus complex for the needs of urbane floristics; the perennial herbaceous plants of mountain areas come in the first place. A new list of advanced ornamental and household plants is introduced in the article. The recommended plants can be used for urban gardening and various groundscape works, and for creation of seed orchards in the neighboring regions. The study of introduction results helps not only to determine the advanced species (and taxa, but to understand which spices will not be able to survive a long time in the new conditions (mainly because of the climate, for example in the North-West of Russia. Over the past 60 years, around 385 plants of 61 families has been introduced at the North American and Himalayan rock gardens of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden. In the 60s of the 20th century, the exposition of these rock gardens had nearly 130 species from 51 families, 20 years later – 254 plants of 55 families. In the beginning of the 21st century, there were 249 taxa of the 52 families. Since 2010, the Alpinarium had to undergo a major reconstruction following the restoration and addition of the collection. As of 2015, the exposition of the North American and Himalayan rock gardens has 200 species of 54 families.

  8. Along-Strike Differences of the Main Himalayan Thrust and Deformation within the Indian Crust: Insights from Seismicity and Seismic Velocities in Bhutan and its Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Singer, J.; Hetényi, G.; Kissling, E. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismicity of Bhutan is characterized by the apparent lack of great earthquakes and a significantly lower activity compared to most other parts of the Himalayan arc. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this anomalously low activity and to relate it with possible along-strike differences in the structure of the orogenic belt, a temporary network with up to 38 broadband seismometers was installed in Bhutan between January 2013 and November 2014. In this work we present a catalog of local and regional earthquakes detected and located with the GANSSER network complemented by regional stations in India, Bangladesh, and China. State-of-the-art data analysis and earthquake location procedures were applied to derive a high-precision earthquake catalog of Bhutan and surrounding regions. Focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor inversions and first-motion polarities complement the earthquake catalog. In the vicinity of the Shumar-Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, seismicity forms a moderately dipping structure at about 12 km depth, which we associate with the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). North of 27.6°N the dip of the structure steepens, which can be interpreted as a ramp along the MHT. In West Bhutan seismicity occurs at depths of 20 to 40 km and receiver function images indicate that seismicity occurs in the underthrusting Indian crust rather than on the MHT. The highest seismic activity is clustered along the Goalpara Lineament, a dextral NE-SW striking shear zone in southwest Bhutan, which appears to connect to the western edge of the Shillong Plateau in the foreland. Focal depths indicate that this shear zone is located at depths of 20-30 km and therefore in the underthrusting Indian crust. Preliminary results of a 3D local earthquake tomography show substantial differences in the uppermost crust between east and west Bhutan. Consistent with our receiver function images, the results also indicate a thinning of the crustal root towards eastern Bhutan.

  9. Constraining metamorphic rates through allanite and monazite petrochronology: a case study from the Miyar Valley (High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna

    2014-05-01

    Dating metamorphic rocks raises specific issues because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over millions or tens of millions of years so that metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". Therefore, an accurate interpretation of radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in LREE-accessory phases like monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages are collectively interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. As a consequence, to correctly interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is essential to accurately determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A meticulous account of the chemical and textural evolution of monazite and allanite along a well constrained prograde pelitic sequence of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (Miyar Valley; e.g. Robyr et al., 2002; 2006; 2014) reveals that: (1) the occurrence of the first metamorphic allanite coincides with the biotite-in isograd and (2) the formation of the first metamorphic monazite occurs at the staurolite-in isograd. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite porphyroblasts indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. Thermobarometry results show that the metamorphic allanites are appeared in the 400-420 °C, while the signature of the first metamorphic monazite is found at ~ 600 °C with staurolite-in isograd. Allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages thus constrain the timing when the rocks reached the ~ 420 °C and ~ 600 °C isotherms respectively. In situ LA-ICPMS dating of coexisting allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet

  10. Transverse tectonic structural elements across Himalayan mountain front, eastern Arunachal Himalaya, India: Implication of superposed landform development on analysis of neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Luirei, Khayingshing; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Imsong, Watinaro

    2017-04-01

    Structural and morphotectonic signatures in conjunction with the geomorphic indices are synthesised to trace the role of transverse tectonic features in shaping the landforms developed along the frontal part of the eastern Arunachal sub-Himalaya. Mountain front sinuosity (Smf) index values close to one are indicative of the active nature of the mountain front all along the eastern Arunachal Himalaya, which can be directly attributed to the regional uplift along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). However, the mountain front is significantly sinusoidal around junctions between HFT/MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) and active transverse faults. The high values of stream length gradient (SL) and stream steepness (Ks) indices together with field evidence of fault scarps, offset of terraces, and deflection of streams are markers of neotectonic uplift along the thrusts and transverse faults. This reactivation of transverse faults has given rise to extensional basins leading to widening of the river courses, providing favourable sites for deposition of recent sediments. Tectonic interactions of these transverse faults with the Himalayan longitudinal thrusts (MBT/HFT) have segmented the mountain front marked with varying sinuosity. The net result is that a variety of tectonic landforms recognized along the mountain front can be tracked to the complex interactions among the transverse and longitudinal tectonic elements. Some distinctive examples are: in the eastern extremity of NE Himalaya across the Dibang River valley, the NW-SE trending mountain front is attenuated by the active Mishmi Thrust that has thrust the Mishmi crystalline complex directly over the alluvium of the Brahmaputra plains. The junction of the folded HFT and Mishmi Thrust shows a zone of brecciated and pulverized rocks along which transverse axial planar fracture cleavages exhibit neotectonic activities in a transverse fault zone coinciding with the Dibang River course. Similarly, the transverse faults cut the

  11. Impact of land-use and climatic changes on hydrology of the Himalayan Basin: A case study of the Kosi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Keshav Prasad

    1997-10-01

    Land-use and climatic changes are of major concern in the Himalayan region because of their potential impacts on a predominantly agriculture-based economy and a regional hydrology dominated by strong seasonality. Such concerns are not limited to any particular basin but exist throughout the region including the downstream plain areas. As a representative basin of the Himalayas, we studied the Kosi basin (54,000 km2) located in the mountainous area of the central Himalayan region. We analyzed climatic and hydrologic information to assess the impacts of existing and potential future land-use and climatic changes over the basin. The assessment of anthropogenic inputs showed that the population grew at a compound growth rate of about one percent per annum over the basin during the last four decades. The comparison of land-use data based on the surveys made in the 1960s, and the surveys of 1978-79 did not reveal noticeable trends in land-use change. Analysis of meteorological and hydrological trends using parametric and nonparametric statistics for monthly data from 1947 to 1993 showed some increasing tendency for temperature and precipitation. Statistical tests of hydrological trends indicated an overall decrease of discharge along mainstem Kosi River and its major tributaries. The decreasing trends of streamflow were more significant during low-flow months. Statistical analysis of homogeneity showed that the climatological as well as the hydrological trends were more localized in nature lacking distinct basinwide significance. Statistical analysis of annual sediment time series, available for a single station on the Kosi River did not reveal a significant trend. We used water balance, statistical correlation, and distributed deterministic modeling approaches to analyze the hydrological sensitivity of the basin to possible land-use and climatic changes. The results indicated a stronger influence of basin characteristics compared to climatic characteristics on flow

  12. An analysis of the daily precipitation variability in the Himalayan orogen using a statistical parameterisation and its potential in driving landscape evolution models with stochastic climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Eric; Braun, Jean

    2015-04-01

    A current challenge in landscape evolution modelling is to integrate realistic precipitation patterns and behaviour into longterm fluvial erosion models. The effect of precipitation on fluvial erosion can be subtle as well as nonlinear, implying that changes in climate (e.g. precipitation magnitude or storminess) may have unexpected outcomes in terms of erosion rates. For example Tucker and Bras (2000) show theoretically that changes in the variability of precipitation (storminess) alone can influence erosion rate across a landscape. To complicate the situation further, topography, ultimately driven by tectonic uplift but shaped by erosion, has a major influence on the distribution and style of precipitation. Therefore, in order to untangle the coupling between climate, erosion and tectonics in an actively uplifting orogen where fluvial erosion is dominant it is important to understand how the 'rain dial' used in a landscape evolution model (LEM) corresponds to real precipitation patterns. One issue with the parameterisation of rainfall for use in an LEM is the difference between the timescales for precipitation (≤ 1 year) and landscape evolution (> 103 years). As a result, precipitation patterns must be upscaled before being integrated into a model. The relevant question then becomes: What is the most appropriate measure of precipitation on a millennial timescale? Previous work (Tucker and Bras, 2000; Lague, 2005) has shown that precipitation can be properly upscaled by taking into account its variable nature, along with its average magnitude. This captures the relative size and frequency of extreme events, ensuring a more accurate characterisation of the integrated effects of precipitation on erosion over long periods of time. In light of this work, we present a statistical parameterisation that accurately models the mean and daily variability of ground based (APHRODITE) and remotely sensed (TRMM) precipitation data in the Himalayan orogen with only a few

  13. Linking bedrock exhumation, fluvial terraces, and geomorphic indices to constrain deformation rates at multiple timescales across the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no major emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study combines bedrock exhumation, folded fluvial terraces, long-river profiles and river incision (specific stream power) analyses across the deformation front. At the core of the frontal fold, Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages of detrital grains from the Siwalik foreland sediments indicate significant resetting. AHe data and thermal modeling reveal rapid cooling and exhumation initiated ca. 4 Ma for the deformation front, at least 3 Ma earlier than is indicated from previously available data. Exhumation rates over the last 1 m.y. and 4 m.y. range from 0.5 - 2.4 mm/yr, and 0.5 - 1 mm/yr, respectively. Four fluvial terraces yield multiple OSL and depth profiles Be10 TCN ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles, calculated specific stream power values, bedrock dip data, and stratigraphic thickness indicate a deformation pattern controlled by a duplex structure emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and foreland strata into a detachment-like fold. Dated terraces across the frontal fold yield rock uplift and shortening rates that range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr, and 3.8-5.4 mm/yr, respectively, since 53 ka. Similarly, a balanced cross section yields a long-term shortening rate of 5mm mm/yr since 4 Ma. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that shortening occurs roughly at an equal rate between folding at

  14. Study of the Genetic Diversity of the Ornamental Fish Badis badis (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 in the Terai Region of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf chameleon fish or Badis badis, a lesser known ornamental freshwater fish, has recently been included in the Indian threatened category of fish list. There are insufficient studies with regard to the assessment of genetic background of this ichthyofauna, especially in the western sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India, popularly known as the Terai. The present study is the first attempt to investigate the present status of the genetic background of this species in the Mahananda and Balason rivers, major streams of this region. Twenty-one selective RAPD primers generated 53 and 60 polymorphic fragments in the Mahananda and Balason populations, respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci, Nei’s genetic diversity (H, and Shannon’s index (H′ were 0.4416, 0.1654±0.2023, and 0.2450±0.2907, respectively, in Mahananda river population and were 0.5041, 0.1983±0.2126, and 0.2901±0.3037, respectively, in Balason river population. Inbreeding coefficient and degree of gene differentiation were also calculated. The H and H′ were found to be 0.1601±0.1944 and 0.2363±0.2782, respectively, in overall Mahananda-Balason river system. Our study revealed considerable lack of genetic variation among the individuals of Badis badis. The genetic data obtained from the present study lend support to the view that there is a scope of stock improvement for this ichthyofauna.

  15. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches.

  16. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

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    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  17. Reduced hypoxic ventilatory response with preserved blood oxygenation in yoga trainees and Himalayan Buddhist monks at altitude: evidence of a different adaptive strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Passino, Claudio; Spadacini, Giammario; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Arcaini, Luca; Malcovati, Luca; Bandinelli, Gabriele; Schneider, Annette; Keyl, Cornelius; Feil, Paul; Greene, Richard E; Bernasconi, Carlo

    2007-03-01

    Yoga induces long-term changes in respiratory function and control. We tested whether it represents a successful strategy for high-altitude adaptation. We compared ventilatory, cardiovascular and hematological parameters in: 12 Caucasian yoga trainees and 12 control sea-level residents, at baseline and after 2-week exposure to high altitude (Pyramid Laboratory, Nepal, 5,050 m), 38 active lifestyle high-altitude natives (Sherpas) and 13 contemplative lifestyle high-altitude natives with practice of yoga-like respiratory exercises (Buddhist monks) studied at 5,050 m. At baseline, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), red blood cell count and hematocrit were lower in Caucasian yoga trainees than in controls. After 14 days at altitude, yoga trainees showed similar oxygen saturation, blood pressure, RR interval compared to controls, but lower HVR (-0.44 +/- 0.08 vs. -0.98 +/- 0.21 l/min/m/%SaO(2), P monks was lower than in Sherpas (-0.23 +/- 0.05 vs. -0.63 +/- 0.09 l/min/m/%SaO(2), P monks as compared to Sherpas. In conclusion, Caucasian subjects practicing yoga maintain a satisfactory oxygen transport at high altitude, with minimal increase in ventilation and with reduced hematological changes, resembling Himalayan natives. Respiratory adaptations induced by the practice of yoga may represent an efficient strategy to cope with altitude-induced hypoxia.

  18. Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment of forests in the Indian Western Himalayan region: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Sujata Upgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment at state and regional levels is necessary to develop adaptation strategies for forests in the biogeographically vital Himalayan region. The present study assesses forest ecosystem vulnerability to climate change across Himachal Pradesh and presents the priority districts for vulnerability reduction under ‘current climate’ and ‘future climate’ scenarios. Vulnerability of forests under ‘current climate’ scenario is assessed by adopting indicator-based approach, while the vulnerability under ‘future climate’ scenario is assessed using climate and vegetation impact models. Based on the vulnerability index estimated to present the vulnerability of forests under current and projected climate change impacts representing climate driven vulnerability, five districts – Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Mandi and Shimla are identified as priority forest districts for adaptation planning. Identifying vulnerable forest districts and forests will help policy makers and forest managers to prioritize resource allocation and forest management interventions, to restore health and productivity of forests and to build long-term resilience to climate change.

  19. Pre-Himalayan tectono-magmatic imprints in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Subhrangsu K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mandal, Nibir; Bose, Santanu; Pande, Kanchan

    2017-09-01

    The Lower Lesser Himalayan Sequence (L-LHS) in Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) displays intensely deformed, low-grade meta-sedimentary rocks, frequently intervened by granite intrusives of varied scales. The principal motivation of our present study is to constrain the timing of this granitic event. Using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, we dated muscovite from pegmatites emplaced along the earliest fabric in the low grade Daling phyllite, and obtained ∼1850 Ma Ar-Ar muscovite cooling age, which is broadly coeval with crystallization ages of Lingtse granite protolith (e.g., 1800-1850 Ma U-Pb zircon ages) reported from the L-LHS. We present here field observations to show the imprints (tectonic fabrics) of multiple ductile deformation episodes in the LHS terrain. The earliest penetrative fabric, axial planar to N-S trending reclined folds, suggest a regional tectonic event in the DSH prior to the active phase of Indo-Asia collision. Based on the age of granitic bodies and their structural correlation with the earliest fabric, we propose that the L-LHS as a distinct convergent tectono-magmatic belt, delineating the northern margin of Indian craton in the framework of the ∼1850 Ma Columbia supercontinent assembly.

  20. Burial of thermally perturbed Lesser Himalayan mid-crust: Evidence from petrochemistry and P-T estimation of the western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna; Bhowmik, Santanu Kumar; Dasgupta, Somnath; Pant, Naresh Chandra

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we establish a dual prograde P-T path of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) rocks from the western Arunachal Himalaya (WAH). The investigated metagranites, garnet- and kyanite-zone metapelites of the LHS are part of an inverted metamorphic sequence (IMS) that is exposed on the footwall side of the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Integrated petrographic, mineral chemistry, geothermobarometric (conventional and isopleth intersection methods) and P-T pseudosection modeling studies reveal a near isobaric (at P ~ 8-9 kbar) peak Barrovian metamorphism with increase in TMax from ~ 560 °C in the metagranite through ~ 590-600 °C in the lower and middle garnet-zone to ~ 600-630 °C in the upper garnet- and kyanite-zone rocks. The metamorphic sequence of the LHS additionally records a pre-Barrovian near isobaric thermal gradient in the mid crust (at ~ 6 kbar) from ~ 515 °C (in the middle garnet zone) to ~ 560-580 °C (in the upper garnet- and kyanite zone, adjoining the Main Central Thrust). Further burial (along steep dP/dT gradient) to a uniform depth corresponding to ~ 8-9 kbar and prograde heating of the differentially heated LHS rocks led to the formation of near isobaric metamorphic field gradient in the Barrovian metamorphic zones of the WAH. A combined critical taper and channel flow model is presented to explain the inverted metamorphic zonation of the rocks of the WAH.

  1. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Douglas I.; Thompson, Sarah; Gulley, Jason; Mertes, Jordan; Luckman, Adrian; Nicholson, Lindsey

    2017-09-01

    We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1) a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2) supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3) sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4) perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5) englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6) a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake) dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  2. Geomorphic effectiveness of a long profile shape and the role of inherent geological controls in the Himalayan hinterland area of the Ganga River basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam; Jain, Vikrant

    2018-03-01

    Long profiles of rivers provide a platform to analyse interaction between geological and geomorphic processes operating at different time scales. Identification of an appropriate model for river long profile becomes important in order to establish a quantitative relationship between the profile shape, its geomorphic effectiveness, and inherent geological characteristics. This work highlights the variability in the long profile shape of the Ganga River and its major tributaries, its impact on stream power distribution pattern, and role of the geological controls on it. Long profile shapes are represented by the sum of two exponential functions through the curve fitting method. We have shown that coefficients of river long profile equations are governed by the geological characteristics of subbasins. These equations further define the spatial distribution pattern of stream power and help to understand stream power variability in different geological terrains. Spatial distribution of stream power in different geological terrains successfully explains spatial variability in geomorphic processes within the Himalayan hinterland area. In general, the stream power peaks of larger rivers lie in the Higher Himalaya, and rivers in the eastern hinterland area are characterised by the highest magnitude of stream power.

  3. Foliar and soil nutrient distribution in conifer forests of moist temperate areas of himalayan and hindukush region of pakistan: a multivariate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.; Khan, Z.I.; Ashfaq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Foliar nutrient concentration for the dominant conifer species (Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara) of moist temperate areas of Himalayan and Hindukush region of Pakistan was evaluated. Soils samples and conifer needles were collected from forests at 41 sites in the study area. Six macro and seven micronutrients were analyzed for both soils and tissue. The mean nutrient levels and variability for each species was evaluated. The gradients in tissue nutrients were exposed by means of correspondence analysis (CA) and canonical correspondence (CCA), for each species. The first CA axis of Pinus wallichiana data was significantly correlated with soil N, P and K (p<0.05). The second CA axis was correlated with P, B and Ca, while the third was correlated with K and Mg (p<0.05). The first CA axis of Abies pindrow was not correlated with any soil nutrients, but the second axis showed correlation with soil Ca (p<0.05) and the third with S, Fe and N (p at the most 0.05). Cedrus deodara CA axes were not markedly correlated with soil nutrients. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) exposed the correlation structure between tissue nutrient and soil nutrient matrices with similar results thereby supporting the results of CA. (author)

  4. Electrons at low altitudes: a difficult background problem for soft x-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, F.D.; Grader, R.J.; Toor, A.; Buginyon, G.A.; Hill, R.W.

    1973-01-01

    Quasti-trapped and precipitating electrons have been observed with rocket-borne x-ray astronomy detectors in the altitude range 150 to 500 km. Because the flights occurred at low magnetic latitudes the electrons were unexpected. Data from many flights are combined to derive altitude dependence, an average electron spectrum, and variation with solar activity. Development of electron-rejecting collimators is discussed, and laboratory and flight data on these collimators are presented. (U.S.)

  5. Engineering properties of high and low altitude rice varieties from Kashmir valley at different processing levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of engineering properties such as gravimetrical properties (1,000 grain mass, bulk density, true density, and porosity, dimensional properties (length, width, thickness, aspect ratio, surface area, geometric mean diameter, and sphericity, frictional properties (angle of repose and coefficient of friction, and aerodynamic properties (drag coefficient and terminal velocity are necessary parameters related to machine design for different agricultural process operations such as handling, harvesting, threshing, cleaning, conveying, sorting, drying, processing, and storage. India is a vast country and contributes 20% of the total world’s rice production with cultivars ranging from the scented long grain ones to the sticky short grains. The Kashmir valley cultivates mainly short–medium bold varieties as temperate conditions in the valley are not suitable for the cultivation of long grain scented basmati rice. The most steps in cultivation and postharvest processing are manual and the aim of this work is to emphasize which variety sustains the processing steps to produce high yield quality rice for strengthening the economic conditions of the people.

  6. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Low Altitude Operation on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a Stirling engine powered airship for the near surface exploration of Venus was evaluated. The heat source for the Stirling engine was limited to 10 general purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. The baseline airship utilized hydrogen as the lifting gas and the electronics and payload were enclosed in a cooled insulated pressure vessel to maintain the internal temperature at 320 K and 1 Bar pressure. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the Venus surface based on the available thermal power. The atmospheric conditions on Venus were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Venus surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the internal temperature of the payload chamber and the flight altitude. In addition other lifting methods were evaluated such as an evacuated chamber, heated atmospheric gas and augmented heated lifting gas. However none of these methods proved viable.

  7. Rotorcraft Low Altitude CNS (Communications, Navigation and Surveillance) Benefit/Cost Analysis, Rotorcraft Operations Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    inventory of rotorcraft activity by mission and location. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement Helicopter Helicopter Missions This document is available...helicopter is used to transport skiers /hikers to remote, normally inaccessible places. This mission is performed in rural or wilderness areas at altitudes...their applicability to the CNS benefit/cost analysis. Because of the uncertainty in the knowledge of the characteristics of both current and future

  8. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  9. Validation of vision-based obstacle detection algorithms for low-altitude helicopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suorsa, Raymond; Sridhar, Banavar

    1991-01-01

    A validation facility being used at the NASA Ames Research Center is described which is aimed at testing vision based obstacle detection and range estimation algorithms suitable for low level helicopter flight. The facility is capable of processing hundreds of frames of calibrated multicamera 6 degree-of-freedom motion image sequencies, generating calibrated multicamera laboratory images using convenient window-based software, and viewing range estimation results from different algorithms along with truth data using powerful window-based visualization software.

  10. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on the S81-1 mission from May to November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a FWHM of 13 deg. The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is about 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger solar maximum conditions of 10.7-cm radiation in 1982.

  11. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons (∼ 1 MeV) in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May-November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 13 0 . The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is q ∼ 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger (∼ 1.2 times) solar maximum conditions of 10.7 cm radiation in 1982. (author)

  12. Planetary science. Low-altitude magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER reveal Mercury's ancient crustal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L; Phillips, Roger J; Purucker, Michael E; Anderson, Brian J; Byrne, Paul K; Denevi, Brett W; Feinberg, Joshua M; Hauck, Steven A; Head, James W; Korth, Haje; James, Peter B; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Philpott, Lydia C; Siegler, Matthew A; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Solomon, Sean C

    2015-05-22

    Magnetized rocks can record the history of the magnetic field of a planet, a key constraint for understanding its evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft at altitudes below 150 kilometers, we have detected remanent magnetization in Mercury's crust. We infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7 to 3.9 billion years. Our findings indicate that a global magnetic field driven by dynamo processes in the fluid outer core operated early in Mercury's history. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust inferred from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The effect of high- to low-altitude adaptation on the multifocal electroretinogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal electrophysiology assessed by multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Eight healthy residents of the greater La Paz area in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were...

  14. Effects of Low-Altitude Aircraft Overflights on Domestic Turkey Poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-30

    density rearing systems, too much heat, nutritional and mineral deficiencies, and irritation from parasites. If birds pick on one another or scratch...influence of flight noise on mortality and productivity in broiler chickens and in hen behavior," Inaugural Dissertation for Animal Hygiene at the...and were housed in two 2 x 6 m covered chicken wire pens at the experimental site (see Figure 2-4). Originally, they were to have been acclimatized

  15. COMPARISON OF LIVE HIGH: TRAIN LOW ALTITUDE AND INTERMITTENT HYPOXIC EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E. Humberstone-Gough

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live High:Train Low (LHTL altitude training is a popular ergogenic aid amongst athletes. An alternative hypoxia protocol, acute (60-90 min daily Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE, has shown potential for improving athletic performance. The aim of this study was to compare directly the effects of LHTL and IHE on the running and blood characteristics of elite triathletes. Changes in total haemoglobin mass (Hbmass, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, velocity at VO2max (vVO2max, time to exhaustion (TTE, running economy, maximal blood lactate concentration ([La] and 3 mM [La] running speed were compared following 17 days of LHTL (240 h of hypoxia, IHE (10.2 h of hypoxia or Placebo treatment in 24 Australian National Team triathletes (7 female, 17 male. There was a clear 3.2 ± 4.8% (mean ± 90% confidence limits increase in Hbmass following LHTL compared with Placebo, whereas the corresponding change of -1.4 ± 4.5% in IHE was unclear. Following LHTL, running economy was 2.8 ± 4.4% improved compared to IHE and 3mM [La] running speed was 4.4 ± 4.5% improved compared to Placebo. After IHE, there were no beneficial changes in running economy or 3mM [La] running speed compared to Placebo. There were no clear changes in VO2max, vVO2max and TTE following either method of hypoxia. The clear difference in Hbmass response between LHTL and IHE indicated that the dose of hypoxia in IHE was insufficient to induce accelerated erythropoiesis. Improved running economy and 3mM [La] running speed following LHTL suggested that this method of hypoxic exposure may enhance performance at submaximal running speeds. Overall, there was no evidence to support the use of IHE in elite triathletes

  16. An Analysis of Helicopter Pilot Scan Techniques While Flying at Low Altitudes and High Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Speed IFR Instrument Flight Rules IM Instrument Display to Map IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions IO Instrument Display to Out-of-the-Window...thesis. My deepest thanks go to Professors Quinn Kennedy and Ji-Hyun Yang for allowing me to run down to San Diego with their precious equipment to try...support concerning TOFT-2. A large “thank you” to CDR Jeff “Angry” Nolan, Chief Staff for the Helicopter Sea Combat Wing Pacific for tolerating my

  17. LOW-ALTITUDE RECONNECTION INFLOW-OUTFLOW OBSERVATIONS DURING A 2010 NOVEMBER 3 SOLAR ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Sabrina L.; Holman, Gordon; Su, Yang [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seaton, Daniel B. [Royal Observatory of Belgium-SIDC, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations using several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of the inflowing motion-an observation in line with standard magnetic reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range from {approx}150 to 690 km s{sup -1} with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfven speeds, we estimate the Alfvenic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the fast, high-temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI thermal light curve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs are measured to be {approx}10{sup 2} km s{sup -1} with outflow speeds ranging from {approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}-indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could possibly either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within the loops-presumably exiting the reconnection site.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Owens, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation for a Cisco Internet of Things (IoT) Systems Engineering Virtual Training (SEVT) event. The presentation provides an overview of the UTM concept, architecture, flight test events, and lessons learned. Networking hardware used in support of flight tests is also described.

  19. Splenic infarction at low altitude in a child with hemoglobin S-C disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C S; Wyly, B; Buchanan, I; Fajman, W A

    1988-08-01

    We describe a 15-year-old black boy with hemoglobin S-C disease living in Atlanta (altitude 1,034 ft), with no prior history of aircraft or mountain travel, who developed splenic infarction. The clinical picture was characterized by severe left upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever, splenomegaly, and hematologic and scintigraphic evidence of functional asplenia. The diagnosis was suggested by liver/spleen scintigraphy and further confirmed by ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) of the spleen. Treatment consisted of analgesics, intravenous fluids, and short-term antibiotic therapy. The child recovered without sequelae.

  20. On the variability of I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å in low altitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Llewellyn

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available An auroral electron excitation model, combined with simple equilibrium neutral and ion chemistry models, is used to investigate the optical emission processes and height profiles of I(5577 Å and I(7620 Å in the 90 to 100 km altitude region. It is shown that the apparent discrepancies between ground-based and rocket-borne auroral observations of the I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å ratio are due to the extreme height variation of this intensity ratio in the 90 to 100 km region.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora

  1. Low Altitude Near-the-Horizon Propagation: A Comparison Between RPO and M-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    scaling based on the assumption that a single mode contributes to the complete field strength (Ref. 31, output from M-Layer [Ref. 4, 5] in the over-the...PE. The parabolic equation approximation to the Maxwell wave equations is developed under the optical assumption that the operating frequency is so...profile data are specified (an array) capm zim profile data (modified index of refraction; an array) (a) RPO: from I to n/evs; M-Layer from 0 to nzlayr

  2. Ultra-low altitude and low spraying technology research with UAV in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application has characteristics of low-volume, small droplet, and possibility of drift. To control rice planthopper, leaf roller and blast, the research aimed at screening agrichemicals and determining the feasibility of using high concentration of conventional dosage for aerial application....

  3. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  4. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  5. The numerical study of the compressible rising of nuclear fireball at low altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zheng Yi; Cheng Xianyou

    2010-01-01

    To study the evolution of nuclear fireball during the phase of compressible rising, the pressure and density were computed with numerical method. It can be concluded that the distribution of parameters of fireball changed during its rising the pressure in the upper part of fireball increased while the one of lower part decreased. the dilute area lied in the middle of fireball initially moved upward, on the other hand, the gradient of density in the upper and side part increased and is contrary to the changing of density beneath the fireball. The computational results of density agreed with experimental shadow graphs very well. (authors)

  6. Geohazard reconnaissance mapping for potential rock boulder fall using low altitude UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan Kumar, N.; Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Cheang, William

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for evaluation of risk immediately with photos and 3-dimensional digital element. Aerial photography using UAV ready to give a powerful technique for potential rock boulder fall recognition. High-resolution outputs from this method give the chance to evaluate the site for potential rock boulder falls spatially. The utilization of UAV to capture the aerial photos is a quick, reliable, and cost-effective technique contrasted with terrestrial laser scanning method. Reconnaissance of potential rock boulder susceptible to fall is very crucial during the geotechnical investigation. This process is essential in the view of the rock fall hazards nearby site before the beginning of any preliminary work. Photogrammetric applications have empowered the automated way to deal with identification of rock boulder susceptible to fall by recognizing the location, size, and position. A developing examination of the utilization of digital photogrammetry gives numerous many benefits for civil engineering application. These advancements have made important contributions to our capabilities to create the geohazard map on potential rock boulder fall.

  7. Dynamics modeling and control of a transport aircraft for ultra-low altitude airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear aircraft model with heavy cargo moving inside is derived by using the separation body method, which can describe the influence of the moving cargo on the aircraft attitude and altitude accurately. Furthermore, the nonlinear system is decoupled and linearized through the input–output feedback linearization method. On this basis, an iterative quasi-sliding mode (SM flight controller for speed and pitch angle control is proposed. At the first-level SM, a global dynamic switching function is introduced thus eliminating the reaching phase of the sliding motion. At the second-level SM, a nonlinear function with the property of “smaller errors correspond to bigger gains and bigger errors correspond to saturated gains” is designed to form an integral sliding manifold, and the overcompensation of the integral term to big errors is weakened. Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the controller with strong robustness can reject both constant and time-varying model uncertainties. The performance of the proposed control strategy is verified in a maximum load airdrop mission.

  8. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  9. Propagation of equatorial noise to low altitudes: Decoupling from the magnetosonic mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Němec, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 13 (2016), s. 6694-6704 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves * polarization and propagation analysis * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069582/full

  10. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (T-284); Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... area navigation (RNAV) route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area, is being withdrawn. As a result of Houston Area Air Traffic System (HAATS) Project, Phase 3C, program actions, the route is pending...

  11. Periglacial microclimate in low-altitude scree slopes supports relict biodiversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Zacharda, M.; Němcová, L.; Šmilauer, P.; Nekola, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 46, 35-36 (2012), s. 2145-2157 ISSN 0022-2933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : periglacial microclimate * habitat islands * arthropods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2012

  12. Signatures of electric fields from high and low altitude particle distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizera, P.F.; Fennell, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of high altitude (<1.3 R/sub e/) ions and electrons at auroral energies are used to provide evidence of parallel electric field acceleration over the dusk to midnight auroral regions for both the north and south hemispheres. The data, taken on August 12, 1976 by charged particle spectrometers on the S3-3 satellite, show evidence of potential differences of approx.2 kV below and approx.1 kV above a satellite altitude of 7300 km

  13. Low-altitude outbreaks of human fascioliasis related with summer rainfall in Gilan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following human fascioliasis outbreaks in 1988 and 1999 in Gilan province, northern Iran, efforts are now made to shed light on the seasonal pattern of fascioliasis transmission in this endemic area, taking into account snail host populations, climatic conditions and human cases. Populations of the intermediate host snail (Lymnaea spp. peak in May and November, while there is a fourfold increase in the rate of human fascioliasis in February compared to that of September. Transmission is likely to occur mainly in late autumn and sporadically in late spring. Rainfall, seasonally analysed in periods of 3 years, indicates that accumulated summer rainfall may be related with the 1988 and 1999 human fascioliasis outbreaks. Although a more detailed picture, based on the analysis of further abiotic and biotic factors influencing fascioliasis transmission in this area, is required to substantiate this hypothesis, our results serve as the first step of a geographical information system project concerning the epidemiological study of fascioliasis in Iran. This local-scale study concerning the effects of climate change and natural disasters on the spread of fascioliasis aims to facilitate the understanding of what goes on at the regional scale in this respect.

  14. Low-altitude outbreaks of human fascioliasis related with summer rainfall in Gilan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam; Majid Habibi-Nokhandam; Màrius V. Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    Following human fascioliasis outbreaks in 1988 and 1999 in Gilan province, northern Iran, efforts are now made to shed light on the seasonal pattern of fascioliasis transmission in this endemic area, taking into account snail host populations, climatic conditions and human cases. Populations of the intermediate host snail (Lymnaea spp.) peak in May and November, while there is a fourfold increase in the rate of human fascioliasis in February compared to that of September. Transmission is like...

  15. Low-altitude outbreaks of human fascioliasis related with summer rainfall in Gilan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahi-Moghaddam, Abdoreza; Habibi-Nokhandam, Majid; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2011-11-01

    Following human fascioliasis outbreaks in 1988 and 1999 in Gilan province, northern Iran, efforts are now made to shed light on the seasonal pattern of fascioliasis transmission in this endemic area, taking into account snail host populations, climatic conditions and human cases. Populations of the intermediate host snail (Lymnaea spp.) peak in May and November, while there is a fourfold increase in the rate of human fascioliasis in February compared to that of September. Transmission is likely to occur mainly in late autumn and sporadically in late spring. Rainfall, seasonally analysed in periods of 3 years, indicates that accumulated summer rainfall may be related with the 1988 and 1999 human fascioliasis outbreaks. Although a more detailed picture, based on the analysis of further abiotic and biotic factors influencing fascioliasis transmission in this area, is required to substantiate this hypothesis, our results serve as the first step of a geographical information system project concerning the epidemiological study of fascioliasis in Iran. This local-scale study concerning the effects of climate change and natural disasters on the spread of fascioliasis aims to facilitate the understanding of what goes on at the regional scale in this respect.

  16. LOW-ALTITUDE RECONNECTION INFLOW-OUTFLOW OBSERVATIONS DURING A 2010 NOVEMBER 3 SOLAR ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Sabrina L.; Holman, Gordon; Su, Yang; Reeves, Katharine K.; Seaton, Daniel B.; McKenzie, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations using several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of the inflowing motion—an observation in line with standard magnetic reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range from ∼150 to 690 km s –1 with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfvén speeds, we estimate the Alfvénic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the fast, high-temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI thermal light curve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs are measured to be ∼10 2 km s –1 with outflow speeds ranging from ∼10 2 to 10 3 km s –1 —indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could possibly either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within the loops—presumably exiting the reconnection site.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  18. Low-altitude overhead imagery acquisition pre- and post-NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W.L. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Shines, J.E.; Hawley, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-31

    We have successfully acquired all the planned overhead imagery (OHI) of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). The data set is very large and complete. Image mosaics of the area around the NPE Ground Zero (GZ) were taken at 37 12.6948N by 116 12 35.496W on top of Rainier Mesa in Areas 12 at NTS. The data were taken from a total of eight overflights on six different days. Preliminary analysis of the thermal infrared, 8-12.5-micron scanner band, taken before and after the NPE, shows some low-emission effects in virgin soil after the NPE. These effects could be due to the acceleration of the surface caused by NPE. Preliminary analysis of the visible high-resolution color RC-30 photography shows the senescence of oak leaves in an areas of 2 km around GZ. Several other groups also independently observed this phenomenon when they returned to the mesa on Friday morning, 48 hours after the NPE. Detailed study of the photography and the scanner data will be necessary to map the actual aerial extent of the senescence. If the effect is proven to be limited to the area around GZ, then we will have supporting evidence that we have actually observed shock-induced premature senescence of oak leaves. Such overhead imagery could be used to help reduce the search area during an on-site inspection as part of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty verification activities.

  19. Effect of cover crops and nitrogen rates on sprinkler irrigated wheat in low altitude cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Traete Sabundjian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A produção de trigo no cerrado brasileiro enfrenta grandes desafios, principalmente por não ser a região tradicionalmente tritícola e pela ocorrência de inverno quente e seco. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual das culturas antecessoras, milho e Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germ & Evrard, em cultivo exclusivo e em consórcio entre ambas, na presença e ausência da inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense e adubação nitrogenada (N em cobertura, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade do trigo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Selvíria, MS, em 2011/12. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, disposto em esquema fatorial 8x4, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de restos culturais (associações de milho, Urochloa ruziziensis e Azospirillum brasilense e doses de N (0, 30, 60 e 90 kg ha-1 em cobertura, no trigo. Realizaram-se as seguintes avaliações: cobertura vegetal residual (quantidade, características agronômicas, componentes de produção e produtividade da cultura do trigo. As culturas antecessoras apresentaram efeitos positivos na produtividade do trigo cultivado em sucessão, sendo o consórcio de milho e Urochloa ruziziensis, com ou sem inoculação excelente opção de manejo; o incremento da dose de N, em cobertura, até 90 kg ha- 1 aumenta a produtividade de grãos de trigo irrigado, dependendo da cultura antecessora.

  20. Nighttime Convection, Temperature Inversions, and Diurnal Variations at Low Altitudes in the Martian Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Haberle, R. M.; Spiga, A.; Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Haeusler, B.

    2014-07-01

    We are using radio occultation measurements and numerical simulations to explore the atmospheric structure and diurnal variations in the lowest few scale heights of the martian atmosphere, with emphasis on nighttime convective layers.

  1. Atmospheric Structure and Diurnal Variations at Low Altitudes in the Martian Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Spiga, A.; Lewis, S.; Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Asmar, S.; Häusler, B.

    2013-10-01

    We are using radio occultation measurements from Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Global Surveyor to characterize the diurnal cycle in the lowest scale height above the surface. We focus on northern spring and summer, using observations from 4 Martian years at local times of 4-5 and 15-17 h. We supplement the observations with results obtained from large-eddy simulations and through data assimilation by the UK spectral version of the LMD Mars Global Circulation Model. We previously investigated the depth of the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) and its variations with surface elevation and surface properties. We are now examining unusual aspects of the temperature structure observed at night. Most important, predawn profiles in the Tharsis region contain an unexpected layer of neutral static stability at pressures of 200-300 Pa with a depth of 4-5 km. The mixed layer is bounded above by a midlevel temperature inversion and below by another strong inversion adjacent to the surface. The narrow temperature minimum at the base of the midlevel inversion suggests the presence of a water ice cloud layer, with the further implication that radiative cooling at cloud level can induce convective activity at lower altitudes. Conversely, nighttime profiles in Amazonis show no sign of a midlevel inversion or a detached mixed layer. These regional variations in the nighttime temperature structure appear to arise in part from large-scale variations in topography, which have several notable effects. First, the CBL is much deeper in the Tharsis region than in Amazonis, owing to a roughly 6-km difference in surface elevation. Second, large-eddy simulations show that daytime convection is not only deeper above Tharsis but also considerably more intense than it is in Amazonis. Finally, the daytime surface temperatures are comparable in the two regions, so that Tharsis acts as an elevated heat source throughout the CBL. These topographic effects are expected to enhance the vertical mixing of water vapor above elevated terrain, which might lead to the formation and regional confinement of nighttime clouds.

  2. On the variability of I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å in low altitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Llewellyn

    Full Text Available An auroral electron excitation model, combined with simple equilibrium neutral and ion chemistry models, is used to investigate the optical emission processes and height profiles of I(5577 Å and I(7620 Å in the 90 to 100 km altitude region. It is shown that the apparent discrepancies between ground-based and rocket-borne auroral observations of the I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å ratio are due to the extreme height variation of this intensity ratio in the 90 to 100 km region.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora

  3. EMIC waves observed by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER during the November 2004 magnetic storm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Menietti, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 7 (2015), s. 5455-5464 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12231 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100421206 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : DEMETER * EMIC waves * geomagnetic storm Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020233/full

  4. Energy Expenditures of Caribou Responding to Low-Altitude Jet Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    collared female caribou of the Delta Herd , 5 controls and 5 treatments (i.e., overflown), carried animal noise monitors and were overflown in April... Porcupine Caribou Model (CARIBOU), predicted that, for the sound exposures of the field study, changes in energy expenditure, forage intake, energy balance...and consequent pregnancy rate were small. Although we project no significant decrease in fecundity and thus, herd productivity in response to the

  5. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  6. Structural diversity, its components and regenerating capacity of lesser Himalayan forests vegetation of Nikyal valley District Kotli (A.K), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Arshad, Muhammad; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-09-01

    To report the patterns of species diversity, and regenerating capacity in the forest of Nikyal valley in relation to environmental variables and underlying anthropogenic influence. A study area was selected in a traditionally managed mountain woody pasture during July 2012 to June 2013. The area was sampled by quadrat method. The quadrats were laid down at regular intervals of 150 m. The size of quadrats was kept 10×10, 5×5 and 1×1 m(2) for trees, shrubs and herbs respectively. Density, frequency and cover were recorded. Importance value index of each plant species was calculated and plant communities were named after the plant species having the highest IV. Then diversity, its components and regenerating capacity were calculated with their formulas. Shannon's diversity ranged from 2.75 to 3.31, Simpson's diversity, 0.90 to 0.95; Menhinick's diversity, 0.83 to 1.19; evenness, 0.41 to 0.65; species richness, 4.89 to 6.08 and maturity index, 30 to 44 species distribution pattern. Diversity values were similar to the other Himalayan forests. Pinus roxburghaii was the only regenerating species whereas the remaining four tree species including Qurecus dilatata regenerate up to 100 cm; they are at extreme risk of elimination due to anthropogenic factors. Nikyal valley is under severe deforestation pressure for fuel and timber value. There is an urgent need to promote the ethics among the people that improvement and conservation of natural resources are critical for land and soil management. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Current status of the traditional watermills of the Himalayan region and the need of technical improvements for increasing their energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashisht, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical solutions for evaluating the traditional-watermill’s efficiency are derived. ► Blade surface modification from flat to circular-paraboloid increases efficiency by 7.51%. ► Water-jet angle alters the geometric dimensions of the blade due to abrasion. ► Replacement of chute with circular pipe increases the power generation by 0.366 kW. -- Abstract: Traditional watermills of the Himalayan region are centuries old water-power driven small-scale industry which is serving mountain inhabitants till date. But, day by day it is becoming tough for this eco-friendly technology to keep pace with modern technologies; hence its future is dubious now. Various organizations throughout the world are trying to rejuvenate and re-popularize this environment-friendly technology for multipurpose use. However, instead of improving its existing design, stress is being given to increase the adoptability of new-design watermill. In spite of all efforts, the new-design watermill has not shown any sharp impact on its adoptability rate. Certainly, there are issues which are not considered while implementing line of action. Before commencing the study, thorough discussions on the issues affecting the watermills’ existence in the region were made with the remotely residing watermill owners. Complete study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the issues that are deciding the fate of watermills’ existence in the region are discussed. Keeping all discussed-issues in mind, design of various components of an in-operation watermill is reviewed and modifications are proposed for increasing its efficiency. For the purpose, analytical expressions for evaluating watermill efficiency are also derived.

  8. Three-year observations of halocarbons at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) on the Himalayan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, M.; Giostra, U.; Arduini, J.; Furlani, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Laj, P.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring programme for halogenated climate-altering gases has been established in the frame of the SHARE EV-K2-CNR project at the Nepal Climate Laboratory - Pyramid in the Himalayan range at the altitude of 5079 m a.s.l. The site is very well located to provide important insights on changes in atmospheric composition in a region that is of great significance for emissions of both anthropogenic and biogenic halogenated compounds. Measurements are performed since March 2006, with grab samples collected on a weekly basis. The first three years of data have been analysed. After the identification of the atmospheric background values for fourteen halocarbons, the frequency of occurrence of pollution events have been compared with the same kind of analysis for data collected at other global background stations. The analysis showed the fully halogenated species, whose production and consumption are regulated under the Montreal Protocol, show a significant occurrence of "above the baseline" values, as a consequence of their current use in the developing countries surrounding the region, meanwhile the hydrogenated gases, more recently introduced into the market, show less frequent spikes. Atmospheric concentration trends have been calculated as well, and they showed a fast increase, ranging from 5.7 to 12.6%, of all the hydrogenated species, and a clear decrease of methyl chloroform (-17.7%). The comparison with time series from other stations has also allowed to derive Meridional gradients, which are absent for long living well mixed species, while for the more reactive species, the gradient increases inversely with respect to their atmospheric lifetime. The effect of long range transport and of local events on the atmospheric composition at the station has been analysed as well, allowing the identification of relevant source regions the Northern half of the Indian sub-continent. Also, at finer spatial scales, a smaller, local contribution of forest fires from the

  9. Sunphotometry of the 2006-2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Verza, G. P.; Marinoni, A.; Barnaba, F.

    2010-11-01

    In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l.) at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006-March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this year to originate mainly in the west Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Ghandi College (60 m a.s.l.), in the Indo-Gangetic basin. As for Ghandi College, and in agreement with the in situ ground observations at the Pyramid, the fine mode aerosol optical depth maximizes during winter and minimizes in the monsoon season. Conversely, total optical depth maximizes during the monsoon due to the occurrence of elevated, coarse particle layers. Possible origins of these particles are wind erosion from the surrounding peaks and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing is then expected to be hampered by the presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede an effective, continuous measurement of anthropogenic aerosol radiative properties from sky radiance inversions and/or ground measurements alone. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols were rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6-0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006), the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm) are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcing. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reasons for continuous monitoring.

  10. Sunphotometry of the 2006–2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gobbi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l. at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006–March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this year to originate mainly in the west Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Ghandi College (60 m a.s.l., in the Indo-Gangetic basin. As for Ghandi College, and in agreement with the in situ ground observations at the Pyramid, the fine mode aerosol optical depth maximizes during winter and minimizes in the monsoon season. Conversely, total optical depth maximizes during the monsoon due to the occurrence of elevated, coarse particle layers. Possible origins of these particles are wind erosion from the surrounding peaks and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing is then expected to be hampered by the presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede an effective, continuous measurement of anthropogenic aerosol radiative properties from sky radiance inversions and/or ground measurements alone. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols were rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6–0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006, the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcing. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reasons for continuous monitoring.

  11. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

    2013-08-01

    A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The Σ-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea.

  13. Solid waste management in Indian Himalayan tourists' treks: a case study in and around the Valley of Flowers and Hemkund Sahib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniyal, Jagdish C.; Jain, Arun P.; Shannigrahi, Ardhendu S.

    2003-01-01

    Solid waste generation in sensitive tourist areas of the Indian Himalayan region is approaching that of some metro cities of the country. The present study showed ∼288 g waste generation visitor -1 day -1 compared with the nation-wide average of 350 g capita -1 day -1 . About 29 metric tonnes (MT) solid waste is generated along a distance of about 19-km trek (a stretch of land or distance between two or more places covered by a walk) during a 4-month tourist season every year. Treks and trek stalls are the two major places where the visitors generate solid waste. Waste estimated from stalls accounted for about 51% by weight of the total waste generation in the trekking region. The native villagers generally construct stalls every year to meet the requirement of visitors going to Valley of Flowers (VOF) and Hemkund Sahib. The average annual results of 2 years (or equivalent to the average of one, 4-month tourist season for the region) showed non-biodegradable waste (NBW) to be 96.3% by weight whereas biodegradable waste (BW) amounted to merely 3.7%. From management point of view of the government, 96% NBW could easily be reused and recycled. Nevertheless, the need is to manage this waste by bringing it from the trekking areas to the road head (Govind Ghat) first and then to transport it to adjacent recycling centers. Cold drink glass bottles (68%), plastic (26%) and metal (2%) were the major items contributing to non-biodegradable waste. The remaining organic waste could be used as feedstock for composting. A well coordinated effort of public participation is necessary at all the levels for managing waste. There is a need to educate the visitors to instill in them the habit of considering discarded waste as potentially valuable and manageable

  14. Conceptual Structures of Copulas and Locative-Existential Verbs in Tibetan and Himalayan Languages%藏语与喜马拉雅语言中存在类动词的概念结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成龙

    2014-01-01

    文章从认知语言学、语言人类学和认知心理学的角度讨论藏语的系词(yin 与 red)“是”和处所/存在动词(yod、dug、yog.red)“在、有”的功能分布,并且与喜马拉雅语言的存在类动词进行了比较。通过亲属语言之间跨语言的比较,了解存在类动词之间概念的关联性。探索存在类动词在这些语言中概念结构的相似性和差异性。%In this paper,we describe and analyze functional distribution of copulas yin,red and locative-existential verbs yod,dug,yog.red in varieties of Tibetan,in the meantime,we compare Tibetan copulas and locative-existential verbs with those of Himalayan languages.We finally provide similarities and differences of conceptual structures of copulas and locative-existential verbs between Tibetan and Himalayan languages in terms of cognitive linguistics,linguistic anthropology and cogni-tive psychology.

  15. Problem Lah! Learning to Tell the Story of Continuous Assessment and Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Tamera

    2014-01-01

    To succeed organizations rely on the purposeful application of the management functions, planning, organizing, leading and controlling, i.e., assessment. Assessment involves the collection and analysis of service and performance data to inform planning, organizing and leading-- opening the door to a culture of assessment and continuous improvement. Like other organizations responding to ever challenging economies and ever changing customer expectations, libraries are examining continuous impr...

  16. MEDEX2015: Greater Sea-Level Fitness Is Associated with Lower Sense of Effort During Himalayan Trekking Without Worse Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Gabriella M K; Macdonald, Jamie H; Smith, Matthew; Jackson, Anna R; Callender, Nigel; Newcombe, Hannah K; Storey, Heather M; Willis, Sebastian; van den Beukel, Jojanneke; Woodward, Jonathan; Pollard, James; Wood, Benjamin; Newton, Victoria; Virian, Jana; Haswell, Owen; Oliver, Samuel J

    2017-06-01

    Rossetti, Gabriella M.K., Jamie H. Macdonald, Matthew Smith, Anna R. Jackson, Nigel Callender, Hannah K. Newcombe, Heather M. Storey, Sebastian Willis, Jojanneke van den Beukel, Jonathan Woodward, James Pollard, Benjamin Wood, Victoria Newton, Jana Virian, Owen Haswell, and Samuel J. Oliver. MEDEX2015: Greater sea-level fitness is associated with lower sense of effort during Himalayan trekking without worse acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18:152-162, 2017.-This study examined the complex relationships of fitness and hypoxic sensitivity with submaximal exercise responses and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at altitude. Determining these relationships is necessary before fitness or hypoxic sensitivity tests can be recommended to appraise individuals' readiness for altitude. Forty-four trekkers (26 men; 18 women; 20-67 years) completed a loaded walking test and a fitness questionnaire in normoxia to measure and estimate sea-level maximal aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]O 2max ]), respectively. Participants also completed a hypoxic exercise test to determine hypoxic sensitivity (cardiac, ventilatory, and arterial oxygen saturation responses to acute hypoxia, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] = 0.112). One month later, all participants completed a 3-week trek to 5085 m with the same ascent profile. On ascent to 5085 m, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE ascent ), fatigue by Brunel Mood Scale, and AMS were recorded daily. At 5085 m, RPE during a fixed workload step test (RPE fixed ) and step rate during perceptually regulated exercise (STEP RPE35 ) were recorded. Greater sea-level [Formula: see text]O 2max was associated with, and predicted, lower sense of effort (RPE ascent ; r = -0.43; p sea-level fitness reported less effort during simulated and actual trekking activities, had better mood (less fatigue), and chose a higher step rate during perceptually regulated exercise, but did not suffer from worse AMS

  17. High-pressure anatectic paragneisses from the Namche Barwa, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Textural evidence for partial melting, phase equilibria modeling and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, C.; Indares, A.; Hébert, R.

    2011-05-01

    Rare kyanite-bearing anatectic paragneisses are found as boudins within sillimanite-bearing paragneisses of the core of the Namche Barwa Antiform, Tibet. In the present study, we document an occurrence from the NW side of the Yarlung Zangbo River. These rocks mainly consist of the assemblage garnet + K-feldspar + kyanite ± biotite + quartz + rutile ± plagioclase with kyanite locally pseudomorphed by sillimanite. The documented textures are consistent with the rocks having undergone biotite-dehydration melting in the kyanite stability field, under high-P granulite facies conditions, and having experienced melt extraction. However textures related to melt crystallization are ubiquitous both in polymineralic inclusions in garnet and in the matrix, suggesting that a melt fraction had remained in these rocks. Phase equilibria modelling was undertaken in the NCKFMASTHO system with THERMOCALC. P-T pseudosections built with the bulk compositions of one aluminous and one sub-aluminous paragneiss samples predict a biotite-kyanite-garnet-quartz-plagioclase-K-feldspar-liquid-rutile ± ilmenite field, in which biotite-dehydration melting occurs, located in the P-T range of ~ 800-875 °C and ~ 10-17 kbar. In addition, the topologies of these pseudosections are consistent with substantial melt loss during prograde metamorphism. A second set of P-T pseudosections with melt-reintegrated model bulk compositions were thus constructed to evaluate the effect of melt loss. The integration of textural information, precise mineral modes, mineral chemistry, and phase equilibria modelling allowed to constrain a P-T path where the rocks are buried to lower crustal depths at peak P-T conditions higher than 14 kbar and 825 °C, possibly in the order of 15-16 kbar and 850 °C, followed by decompression and cooling to P-T conditions of around 9 kbar and 810 °C, under which the remaining melt was solidified. The implications for granite production at the NBA and for Himalayan tectonic models

  18. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granet, M.

    2007-06-01

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  19. Secondary Inorganic Aerosols over an Urban Location in North-Western Himalayan Region: Seasonal Variation in Composition and Formation Process(es)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, D.; Tandon, A.

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative photo-chemical transformation of precursor gases, mainly of anthropogenic origin, produces secondary aerosols. Secondary inorganic aerosols constitute a significant fraction of total aerosol load over urban locations especially high altitude in wet-temperate climatic set-up. Towns situated in North-Western Himalayan region (NWHR) with sizable population and attractive tourist destinations have been facing ever increasing problem of gaseous and particulate air pollution from exponential increase in vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic emissions. The present study has been planned to investigate the seasonal variations in atmospheric processes responsible for the formation of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA) and to estimate contribution of SIA to PM­10 load over an Urban location, Dharamshala, in Dhauladhar region of NWHR. Twenty four hourly PM10 aerosol samples were collected, on quartz micro fibre filters in Dharamshala (1350 amsl) on weekly basis for complete one year time-period (February 2015 - January 2016). These samples were analyzed for Water Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSII) using Ion-Chromatographic System. On annual basis, SO42- ions contributed maximum (52%) followed by NO3- (13%) and NH4+ (12%) to WSII. Based upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA), dominant sources contributing to PM10 associated WSII were identified as: Fossil-Fuel and Bio-mass burning, Vehicular (mainly diesel) emissions and gaseous emissions from the microbial degradation of dead bio-mass. Throughout the year, significantly high proportion of SO42- and considerable thermodynamic stability of (NH4)2SO2 at ambient temperatures, made it the major contributor to SIA over NH4NO3 and NH4Cl. On seasonal basis, maximum contribution of SIA to PM10 was observed in monsoon followed by the winter season. Low ambient temperature in winter season favoured formation of NH4NO3 with significant contribution to SIA. It could be concluded that observed variability in the composition and

  20. Variability in the growth and nodulation of soybean in response to elevation and soil properties in the himalayan region of kashmir-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, N.; Abbasi, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the variability of soybean nodulation and growth in relation to elevation and soil properties across the slopping uplands of the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan in order to find efficient native N2 fixing bacteria adapted to local soil and climatic characteristics. Soils from twenty two different sites with variable altitude were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics including the quantitative estimation of rhizobium population through most probable number (MPN) technique. Soybean cultivar William-82 was grown in these soils under greenhouse condition for determining the nodulation potential (number and mass) and plant growth characteristics. Morphology of the nodules were observed through optical and transmission electron microscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Biplot graph were used to jointly interpret the relationship between variables and soils (treatments). Soil altitude ranged from 855 m to 3000 m while organic matter content varied between 0.8% to 3.5% and pH from 6.0 to 8.1. The indigenous rhizobia population varied between 5.0 x104 to 8.0 x106 CFU g-1 showing the existence of a substantial rhizobial population in these soils. The number of nodules per plant varied from 7 to 40 (CV 38%) suggesting site/location as an important factor contributing towards rhizobia population and impacting root nodulation. The electron microscopy of green plant nodules showed densely populated bacteria in these cells and nodule tissue cells were completely infected with bacteria. The growth characteristics of soybean i.e. shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight varied among the sites but in general a vigorous and healthy plant growth was observed reflecting N assimilation from native soils. Results showed a substantial variability between sites and this is likely to be due to inter/intra species diversity, as well as

  1. Importance of age in outcome of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in open access endoscopy: a profile of patients in Sub-Himalayan region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sharma

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oesophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy (OGD is done in patients received by either open access system or the conventional system. The presenting complaints and OGD findings may differ among patients with age < 45 yrs and those who are more than 45 yrs old. The referral diagnosis, age, sex, and environmental factors have important implications on the chances of finding and objective abnormality on endoscopy in a patient. This study was aimed to evaluate to evaluate the profile of 1186 patients divided into younger (<45 yrs and older age (45 or > 45 yrs groups presenting for oesophago gastroduodenoscopy through open access referral system in sub-Himalayan region of North India. This is a retrospective study carried out on patients who underwent the OGD from Jan, 2004-Dec, 2004. The study was conducted in Indira Gandhi Medical College situated at a moderate altitude in North India. All patients presenting in Medical College during the study period for OGD were taken into study. The patients were divided into two groups based on age; less than 45 yrs and 45 yrs or more than 45 yrs. Their presenting complaint, age, sex, and OGD findings were recorded. The profile was compared between the two groups. A total of 1186 patients underwent OGD; the females were 451(38% and males were 735(62%; 616(52% were < 45 yrs old and 570(48% of the patients were 45 yrs or older. In the group I 431(70% had a normal endoscopy and 185(30% showed abnormal endoscopic findings. In group II 302(53% had a normal endoscopy, and 268(47% had abnormal findings on endoscopy. Gastric ulcers, mass lesion/new growth were more common in elderly group, Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD was more common in younger group. The presenting complaints were similar in both groups. It is concluded that for the same presenting diagnosis the yield of OGD was more in patients > 45 yrs old. The positivity rate increased from 30% in < 45 yrs to 47% in the elderly cohort. So, all people >45 yrs

  2. What can the Cretaceous-to-present latitude history of the Lhasa terrane tell us about plate-scale deformation in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Huang, W.

    2013-12-01

    collision of the Tibetan Himalayan microcontinent can account for the large amount of post-50 Ma convergence that is partitioned into Greater India. We suggest that Cordilleran-style tectonics were more important in constructing the Tibetan Plateau than previous thought, wherein substantial crustal thickening of the plateau occurred at subtropical latitudes above an oceanic subduction zone in the absence of a continent-continent collision, sensu stricto. Although our Lhasa APWP is constructed from only a handful paleomagnetic studies, these data were processed in a framework consistent with an empirical and modeling-based understanding of geomagnetic field behavior and detrital magnetization processes. By contrast, the majority of volcanic-based paleomagnetic poles used in recent reviews of paleomagnetic data from Asia do not average paleosecular variation and therefore cannot be used ';as-is' or used as a baseline against which to compare detrital paleomagnetic records.

  3. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  4. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Benn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1 a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2 supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3 sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4 perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5 englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6 a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  5. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: A case study combining Viking, DMSP, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watermann, J.; Delabeaujardiere, O.; Lummerzheim, D.; Woch, J.; Newell, P.T.; Potemra, T.A.; Rich, F.J.; Shapshak, M.

    1992-01-01

    A case study involving data from three satellites and a ground-based radar are presented. Focus is on a detailed discussion of observations of the dynamic cusp made on 24 Sep. 1986 in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere and interior magnetosphere. The relevant data from space-borne and ground-based sensors is presented. They include in-situ particle and field measurements from the DMSP-F7 and Viking spacecraft and Sondrestrom radar observations of the ionosphere. These data are augmented by observations of the IMF and the solar wind plasma. The observations are compared with predictions about the ionospheric response to the observed particle precipitation, obtained from an auroral model. It is shown that observations and model calculations fit well and provide a picture of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp in an invariant latitude versus local time frame. The combination of Viking, Sondrestrom radar, and IMP-8 data suggests that an ionospheric signature of the dynamic cusp was observed. Its spatial variation over time which appeared closely related to the southward component of the IMF was monitored

  6. Cassini MIMI Close-Up of Saturn Energetic Particles: Low Altitude Trapped Radiation, Auroral Ion Acceleration, and Interchange Flow Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Kollmann, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present observations from the final orbits of the Cassini Mission at Saturn by the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI). Crossing inside the D-Ring at the equator and just above Saturn's atmosphere, these orbits covered regions never visited previously in the mission. Highlights include the confirmation of an inner radiation belt analogous to the inner radiation belt at Earth by the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System (LEMMS), with surprising twists—Saturn's D-ring material appears to be a source for these particles. Details will be presented in another session. The Grand Finale orbits also afforded a close-up view of the auroral ion acceleration regions by the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA). Ionospheric ions at the base of auroral field lines are accelerated perpendicular to the magnetic field to 10's and 100's of keV, and charge exchange with exospheric neutrals to be emitted as energetic neutral atoms and images by INCA. We show that this acceleration region lies at about 0.1 Rs. Another feature seen previously in the mission but imaged with greater resolution is a flow channel associated with interchange motion in the middle magnetosphere. We show this feature to extend over several Saturn radii in the radial direction, and over about 2 Saturn radii azimuthally. Additional data have been received since the writing of this abstract and before Cassini's plunge into the atmosphere on September 15, so additional features may be presented.

  7. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Assessment. SAC Low-Altitude Flight Operations at the Airburst Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and Housing Fort Carson, Colorado (719) 579-2022 Bill Giordano Department of Planning and Zoning Fremont County, Colorado (719) 275-7510 Anita...Originator. Melissa Mooney Person Contacted: Melvin Nail, Manager Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge Subject- Request for species lists I called...I CONTACT REPORT Date of Contact- December 1, 1989 0 Originator. Melissa Mooney Person Contacted: Dave Kuntz Colorado Natural Areas Progiam

  8. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among Andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A.; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. Results The final dataset consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0–499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500–1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500–2,999, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (P<0.001, for both interactions) on the association with obesity and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. PMID:26935008

  9. Investigation of the Crust of the Pannonian Basin, Hungary Using Low-Altitude CHAMP Horizontal Gradient Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Kis, Karoly I.; Puszta, Sandor; Wittmann, Geza; Kim, Hyung Rae; Toronyi, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Pannonian Basin is a deep intra-continental basin that formed as part of the Alpine orogeny. It is some 600 by 500 km in area and centered on Hungary. This area was chosen since it has one of the thinnest continental crusts in Europe and is the region of complex tectonic structures. In order to study the nature of the crustal basement we used the long-wavelength magnetic anomalies acquired by the CHAMP satellite. The SWARM constellation, scheduled to be launched next year, will have two lower altitude satellites flying abreast, with a separation of between ca. 150 to 200 km. to record the horizontal magnetic gradient. Since the CHAMP satellite has been in orbit for eight years and has obtained an extensive range of data, both vertically and horizontally there is a large enough data base to compute the horizontal magnetic gradients over the Pannonian Basin region using these many CHAMP orbits. We recomputed a satellite magnetic anomaly map, using the spherical-cap method of Haines (1985), the technique of Alsdorf et al. (1994) and from spherical harmonic coefficients of MF6 (Maus et aI., 2008) employing the latest and lowest altitude CHAMP data. We then computed the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradients (Kis and Puszta, 2006) in order to determine how these component data will improve our interpretation and to preview what the SW ARM mission will reveal with reference to the horizontal gradient anomalies. The gradient amplitude of an 1000 km northeast-southwest profile through our horizontal component anomaly map varied from 0 to 0.025 nT/km with twin positive anomalies (0.025 and 0.023 nT/km) separated by a sharp anomaly negative at o nT/km. Horizontal gradient indicate major magnetization boundaries in the crust (Dole and Jordan, 1978 and Cordell and Grauch, 1985). Our gradient anomaly was modeled with a twodimensional body and the anomaly, of some 200 km, correlates with a 200 km area of crustal thinning in the southwestern Pannonian Basin.

  10. No Change in Running Mechanics With Live High-Train Low Altitude Training in Elite Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickford, Abigail S L; Wilhite, Daniel P; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    Investigations into ventilatory, metabolic, and hematological changes with altitude training have been completed; however, there is a lack of research exploring potential gait-kinematic changes after altitude training, despite a common complaint of athletes being a lack of leg "turnover" on return from altitude training. To determine if select kinematic variables changed in a group of elite distance runners after 4 wk of altitude training. Six elite male distance runners completed a 28-d altitude-training intervention in Flagstaff, AZ (2150 m), following a modified "live high-train low" model, wherein higherintensity runs were performed at lower altitudes (945-1150 m) and low-intensity sessions were completed at higher altitudes (1950-2850 m). Gait parameters were measured 2-9 d before departure to altitude and 1 to 2 d after returning to sea level at running speeds of 300-360 m/min. No differences were found in ground-contact time, swing time, or stride length or frequency after altitude training (P > .05). Running mechanics are not affected by chronic altitude training in elite distance runners. The data suggest that either chronic training at altitude truly has no effect on running mechanics or completing the live high-train low model of altitude training, where higher-velocity workouts are completed at lower elevations, mitigates any negative mechanical adaptations that may be associated with chronic training at slower speeds.

  11. Increases in .VO2max with "live high-train low" altitude training: role of ventilatory acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Daniel P; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Laymon, Abigail S; Chapman, Robert F

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the percentage of the increase in whole body maximal oxygen consumption (.VO(2max)) that is accounted for by increased respiratory muscle oxygen uptake after altitude training. Six elite male distance runners (.VO(2max) = 70.6 ± 4.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and one elite female distance runner (.VO(2max)) = 64.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a 28-day "live high-train low" training intervention (living elevation, 2,150 m). Before and after altitude training, subjects ran at three submaximal speeds, and during a separate session, performed a graded exercise test to exhaustion. A regression equation derived from published data was used to estimate respiratory muscle .VO(2) (.VO(2RM)) using our ventilation (.VE) values. .VO(2RM) was also estimated retrospectively from a larger group of distance runners (n = 22). .VO(2max) significantly (p altitude (196 ± 59 ml min(-1)), while (.VE) at .VO(2max) also significantly (p altitude (201 ± 36 ml min(-1)), along with a 10.8 ± 2.1 l min(-1) increase in (.VE), thus requiring an estimated 27 % of Δ .VO(2max) Our data suggest that a substantial portion of the improvement in .VO(2max) with chronic altitude training goes to fuel the respiratory muscles as opposed to the musculature which directly contributes to locomotion. Consequently, the time-course of decay in ventilatory acclimatization following return to sea-level may have an impact on competitive performance.

  12. Ten days of simulated live high:train low altitude training increases Hbmass in elite water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Sally A; Polglaze, Ted; McFadden, Greg; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Water polo requires high aerobic power to meet the demands of match play. Live high:train low (LHTL) may enhance aerobic capacity at sea level. Before the Olympics, the Australian women's water polo team utilised LHTL in an attempt to enhance aerobic fitness. Over 6 months, 11 players completed three normobaric LHTL exposures (block 1:11 days at 3000 m; block 2+3:9 days at 2500 m, 11 days normoxia, 10 days at 2800 m). Haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured through carbon monoxide-rebreathing. Before each block, the relationship between Hbmass and water polo-specific aerobic fitness was investigated using the Multistage Shuttle Swim Test (MSST). Effect size statistics were adopted with likely, highly likely and almost certainly results being >75%, >95%, >99%, respectively. A Pearson product moment correlation was used to characterise the association between pooled data of Hbmass and MSST. Hbmass (mean ± SD, pre 721 ± 66 g) likely increased after block 1 and almost certainly after block 2+3 (% change; 90% confidence limits: block 1: 3.7%; 1.3-6.2%, block 2+3: 4.5%; 3.8-5.1%) and the net effect was almost certainly higher after block 2+3 than before block 1 (pre) by 8.5%; 7.3-9.7%. There was a very large correlation between Hbmass (g/kg) and MSST score (r=0.73). LHTL exposures of <2 weeks induced approximately 4% increase in Hbmass of water polo players. Extra Hbmass may increase aerobic power, but since match performance is nuanced by many factors it is impossible to ascertain whether the increased Hbmass contributed to Australia's Bronze medal.

  13. Tidal Flooding and Vegetation Patterns in a Salt Marsh Tidal Creek Imaged by Low-altitude Balloon Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Madsen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Inundation of marsh surfaces by tidal creek flooding has implications for the headward erosion of salt marsh creeks, effect of rising sea levels, biological zonation, and marsh ecosystem services. The hydroperiod; as the frequency, duration, depth and flux of water across the marsh surface; is a key factor in salt marsh ecology, but remains poorly understood due to lack of data at spatial scales relevant to tracking the spatial movement of water across the marsh. This study examines how hydroperiod, drainage networks, and tidal creek geomorphology on the vegetation at Crab Haul Creek. Crab Haul Creek is the farthest landward tidal basin in North Inlet, a bar-built estuary in South Carolina. This study measures the hydroperiod in the headwaters Crab Haul Creek with normal and near-IR photos from a helium balloon Helikite at 75-100 m altitude. Photos provide detail necessary to resolve the waterline and delineate the hydroperiod during half tidal cycles by capturing the waterline hourly from the headwaters to a piezometer transect 260 meters north. The Helikite is an ideal instrument for local investigations of surface hydrology due to its maneuverability, low cost, ability to remain aloft for extended time over a fixed point, and ability to capture high-resolution images. Photographs taken from aircraft do not provide the detail necessary to determine the waterline on the marsh surface. The near-IR images make the waterline more distinct by increasing the difference between wet and dry ground. In the headwaters of Crab Haul Creek, individual crab burrows are detected by automated image classification and the number of crab burrows and their spatial density is tracked from January-August. Crab burrows are associated with the unvegetated region at the creek head, and we relate their change over time to the propagation of the creek farther into the tidal basin. Plant zonation is influenced by the hydroperiod, but also may be affected by salinity, water table depth, and soil water content. These other factors are all directly affected by the hydroperiod, creating a complex system of feedbacks. Inundation frequencies show a pronounced relationship to zonation. Creek bank height and the hydroperiod have a curvilinear relationship at low bank heights such that small decreases in creek bank height can result in large increases in inundation frequency. Biological zonation is not simply a result of bank height and inundation frequency, other contributing factors include species competition, adaptability, and groundwater flow. Vegetation patterns delineated by a ground-based GPS survey and image classification from the aerial photos show that not all changes in eco-zonation are a direct function of elevation. Some asymmetry across the creek is observed in plant habitat, and eliminating topography (and thereby tidal inundation) as a factor, we attribute the remaining variability to groundwater flow.

  14. Very low frequency radio events with a reduced intensity observed by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záhlava, J.; Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kolmašová, Ivana; Parrot, M.; Rodger, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2015), s. 9781-9794 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100421206 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetosphere * DEMETER * VLF radio events Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021607/full

  15. F-16 Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared System for Night (LANTIRN) and the Night Close Air Support (CAS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    physical reference can be a natural feature, river bend, distinctly shaped wooded area, or lake. Artificial references such as colored smoke or...fluorescent ground panels can also be placed instead of, or as an aid to recognition of the natural feature.ដ> But, artificial references that are effective...Government Printin-gOffice, 1959. Central Intelligence Agenc7. National Intellignece Survey, East Germany, Section 23, Weather and Climate. Washington

  16. Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Racinais, S; Bilsborough, J; Hocking, J; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Bourdon, P C; Voss, S; Livingston, S; Christian, R; Périard, J; Cordy, J; Coutts, A J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season ‘live high-train low in the heat’ training camp in elite football players. Methods Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32±1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23±1°C, 9.3 h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3 h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14±1 h/day, FiO2 15.2–14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500–3000 m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23±1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were measured at similar times and 4 weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na+)sweat) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C). Results Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (−1%; −9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; −1.8, 5.6) and (Na+)sweat (−29%; −37, −19) were observed in both groups, while Hbmass only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hbmass (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; −5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM. Conclusions The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising ‘conditioning cocktail’ in team sports. PMID:24282209

  17. Analysis of fine ELF wave structures observed poleward from the ionospheric trough by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Nĕmec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 3 (2014), s. 2052-2060 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : trough * EMIC * substorm Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019557/abstract

  18. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A; Elashoff, Robert M; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-04-01

    To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. The Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. The final data set consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0 and 499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500-1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500-2,999 m, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (P association with obesity and abdominal obesity. Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. A multi-panel direction-sensitive gamma-ray detector for low-altitude radiological searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, E.M.; Farsoni, A.T.

    2016-11-11

    A lightweight, low-cost multi-panel direction-sensitive radiation detector prototype has been developed at Oregon State University that is designed to be mounted on a small unmanned aerial system to autonomously search for radiation sources while flying close to the ground. The detection system comprises sixteen BGO-SiPM detector panels with an adjustable view angle, and signal outputs are processed in parallel in an FPGA. The minimum detectable activity was calculated to be 1.3 μCi of {sup 137}Cs at 1 m in under 60 s. The counting response of the detector panels were characterized and found to have 4.7% relative standard deviation, indicating good uniformity in overall design and assembly. The detector was also able to estimate the direction of a 12.3 μCi {sup 137}Cs source 100 cm from the device center with 2.3° accuracy in a 95% confidence width of 10.8° in 60 s.

  20. ÇEVRESEL GÜVENLİK YAKLAŞIMININ SİLAHLI KUVVETLERE ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık AK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Soğuk Savaş döneminde askeri güvenliği temel alan bir güvenlik ortamının olması ve rakip devletlerin askeri güç unsurunu ana tehdit sayması, konvansiyonel muharebe eden orduların varlığını sürekli desteklemiştir. Ancak tek güvenlik tehdidinin askeri güç kabul edilmediği son yıllardaki gelişmeler, silahlı kuvvetlerin çevre gibi çeşitlenen güvenlik yaklaşımlarına uyum sağlamasını zorunlu kılmıştır. Bu kapsamda çalışmamız; çevresel güvenlik yaklaşımının silahlı kuvvetlerde hangi alanlarda etkili olabileceğine odaklanmış, bu konunun önümüzdeki dönemde kurumsal açıdan ihtiyaç duyulabilecek yapısal değişikliklerin belirlenmesinde fayda sağlayacağı değerlendirilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Çevresel Güvenlik, Askeri Güvenlik, Ulusal Güvenlik, Silahlı Kuvvetler. ABSTRACT: The security environment based on military security during the Cold War and the main threats thought military power elements by rival states supported presence of conventional armies combated massive way continuously. But developments in recent years military force has not been acceptable the only security threat, the armed forces has been obliged to adapt to the diverse security approaches, such as environment. In this context, our study is focused in what areas in the armed forces environmental security approach can be effective, thereof it is evaluated to provide benefits to be identified institutional aspects of the structural changes that might be needed in the coming period. Keywords: Environmental Security, Military Security, National Security, Armed Forces.

  1. Peripheral and Integral Membrane Binding of Peptides Characterized by Time-Dependent Fluorescence Shifts: Focus on Antimicrobial Peptide LAH4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Olžyńska, Agnieszka; Olšinová, Marie; Cebecauer, Marek; Marquette, A.; Bechinger, B.; Hof, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 21 (2014), s. 6171-6179 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SOLID-STATE NMR * CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY * LIPID-BILAYERS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.457, year: 2014

  2. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

  3. International Center for Himalayan Biodiversity (ICHB): Conserving Himalayan Biodiversity--A Global Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Bhandari

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity is a global endowment of nature. Conservation of biodiversity includes all species of plants, animals and other organisms, the range of genetic stocks within each species, and ecosystem diversity. Food, many types of medicine and industrial products are provided by the biological resources that are the basis of life on Earth. The value of the Earth’s...

  4. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: a case study utilizing Viking, DMSP-F7, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Watermann

    Full Text Available Coincident multi-instrument magnetospheric and ionospheric observations have made it possible to determine the position of the ionospheric footprint of the magnetospheric cusp and to monitor its evolution over time. The data used include charged particle and magnetic field measurements from the Earth-orbiting Viking and DMSP-F7 satellites, electric field measurements from Viking, interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from IMP-8, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionospheric plasma density, temperature, and convection. Viking detected cusp precipitation poleward of 75.5° invariant latitude. The ionospheric response to the observed electron precipitation was simulated using an auroral model. It predicts enhanced plasma density and elevated electron temperature in the upper E- and F-regions. Sondrestrom radar observations are in agreement with the predictions. The radar detected a cusp signature on each of five consecutive antenna elevation scans covering 1.2 h local time. The cusp appeared to be about 2° invariant latitude wide, and its ionospheric footprint shifted equatorward by nearly 2° during this time, possibly influenced by an overall decrease in the IMF Bz component. The radar plasma drift data and the Viking magnetic and electric field data suggest that the cusp was associated with a continuous, rather than a patchy, merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field.

  5. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the magnetopause, which prevents the lowest energy electrons from entering the magnetosphere, is reduced when and where the boundary-normal magnetic field is enhanced and that the observed polar cap patches are produced by the consequent enhanced precipitation of the lowest energy electrons, making them and the low energy electron precipitation fossil remnants of the magnetopause reconnection rate pulses.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (polar cap phenomena; solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; magnetosphere – ionosphere interactions

  6. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the magnetopause, which prevents the lowest energy electrons from entering the magnetosphere, is reduced when and where the boundary-normal magnetic field is enhanced and that the observed polar cap patches are produced by the consequent enhanced precipitation of the lowest energy electrons, making them and the low energy electron precipitation fossil remnants of the magnetopause reconnection rate pulses.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (polar cap phenomena; solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; magnetosphere – ionosphere interactions

  7. Validation of a blood marker for plasma volume in endurance athletes during a live-high train-low altitude training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Vuong, Victor L; Tee, Nicolin; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2018-02-19

    Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d -1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude. A full blood count was performed on the whole blood sample. Serum was analysed for transferrin, albumin, calcium, creatinine, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. The PV blood test (consisting of the serum markers, [Hb] and platelets) was applied to the ABP adaptive model and new reference predictions were calculated for [Hb] and the OFF-score, thereby reducing the PV variance component. The PV correction refined the ABP reference predictions. The number of atypical passport findings (ATPFs) for [Hb] was reduced from 7 of 5 subjects to 6 of 3 subjects. The OFF-score ATPFs increased with the PV correction (from 9 to 13, 99% specificity); most likely the result of more specific reference limit predictions combined with the altitude-induced increase in red cell production. Importantly, all abnormal biomarker values were identified by a low confidence value. Although the multifaceted, individual physiological response to altitude confounded some results, the PV model appears capable of reducing the impact of PV fluctuations on [Hb]. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Efficacy of Residence at Moderate Versus Low Altitude on Reducing Acute Mountain Sickness in Men Following Rapid Ascent to 4300 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    reduced AMS after rapid ascent to high altitude. Key Words: acute mountain sickness, hypobaric hypoxia, acclimatization, fluid balance, ventilatory...response to hypoxia Introduction Altitude acclimatization refers to a series of phys-iologic responses to prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in low...Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. 2Center for Aerospace and Hyperbaric Medicine

  9. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basnet, T. B.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Bhattarai, B. P.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), č. článku e0150498. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : species richness * elevational gradient * habitat heterogeneity * insectivorous birds * forest birds * vegetation structure * protected areas * lowland Nepal * communities * patterns Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  10. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basnet, T. B.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Bhattarai, B. P.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-19, č. článku e0150498. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bird diversity * steep slopes * altitude Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  11. 76 FR 5068 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Routes (T-281, T-283, T-285, T-286, and T-288...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...., long. 98[deg]18'40'' W.) T-286 Rapid City, SD to Grand Island, NE [New] Rapid City, SD (RAP...., long. 99[deg]52'17'' W.) Grand Island, NE (GRI)...... VORTAC (Lat. 40[deg]59'03'' N., long. 98[deg]18... INFORMATION: History On August 5, 2010, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed...

  12. Low-altitude photographic transects of the Arctic Network of National Park Units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    During July 16–18, 2013, low-level photography flights were conducted (with a Cessna 185 with floats and a Cessna 206 with tundra tires) over the five administrative units of the National Park Service Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Kobuk Valley National Park, and Noatak National Preserve) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Alaska, to provide images of current conditions and prevalence of land-cover types as a baseline for measuring future change, and to complement the existing grid-based sample photography of the region. Total flight time was 17 hours, 46 minutes, and total flight distance was 2,590 kilometers, at a mean altitude of about 300 meters above ground level. A total of 19,167 photographs were taken from five digital camera systems: 1. A Drift® HD-170 (focal length 5.00 mm);

  13. Are low altitude alpine tundra ecosystems under threat? A case study from the Parc National de la Gaspésie, Québec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumais, Catherine; Ropars, Pascale; Denis, Marie-Pier; Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2007 IPCC report, the alpine tundra ecosystems found on low mountains of the northern hemisphere are amongst the most threatened by climate change. A treeline advance or a significant erect shrub expansion could result in increased competition for the arctic-alpine species usually found on mountaintops and eventually lead to their local extinction. The objectives of our study were to identify recent changes in the cover and growth of erect woody vegetation in the alpine tundra of Mont de la Passe, in the Parc National de la Gaspésie (Québec, Canada). The comparison of two orthorectified aerial photos revealed no significant shift of the treeline between 1975 and 2004. During the same period however, shrub species cover increased from 20.2% to 30.4% in the lower alpine zone. Dendrochronological analyses conducted on Betula glandulosa Michx. sampled at three different positions along an altitudinal gradient (low, intermediate and high alpine zone) revealed that the climatic determinants of B. glandulosa radial growth become more complex with increasing altitude. In the lower alpine zone, B. glandulosa radial growth is only significantly associated positively to July temperature. In the intermediate alpine zone, radial growth is associated positively to July temperature but negatively to March temperature. In the high alpine zone, radial growth is positively associated to January, July and August temperature but negatively to March temperature. The positive association between summer temperatures and radial growth suggests that B. glandulosa could potentially benefit from warmer temperatures, a phenomenon that could lead to an increase in its cover over the next few decades. Although alpine tundra vegetation is not threatened in the short-term in the Parc National de la Gaspésie, erect shrub cover, especially B. glandulosa, could likely increase in the near future, threatening the local arctic-alpine flora. (letter)

  14. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Lockwood, M.; Alcayde, D.

    2001-01-01

    On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Greenland between 13:00 and 14:00 UT During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of th...

  15. Use of 137Cs as a tracer of low-altitude transport of re-suspended aeroso from the African continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Karlsson, L.; Alonso-Perez, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Lopez-Perez, M.; Cuevas, E.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are known sources of dust particles, which, upon certain meteorological conditions, may be transported over long distances (e.g. Goudie and Middleton, 2001). The island of Tenerife is situated approximately 200 km off the coast of Morocco. It is often affected by atmospheric dust intrusions from the African Continent produced by the suspension of aerosol particulate. These atmospheric events produce important increments of PM 10 matter concentrations in the air above the island. In this study, we have analysed the time series of 137 Cs and PM 10 matter recorded in Tenerife, during 2000-2006, at the marine boundary layer (MBL) to test the possible usefulness of the mentioned radiotracers as markers of dust intrusions of African origin. The analysis was supported with results obtained from the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.0 dispersion model and the DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model) model (author)(tk)

  16. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition standing biomass into live and dead pools, in a change detection context.

  17. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Opgenoorth

    Full Text Available On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Green-land between 13:00 and 14:00 UT. During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern occurred after 13:20 UT, most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Söndre Strömfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing for the first and quite unexpected encounter of the cusp by the Cluster spacecraft. Our findings illustrate the large amplitude of cusp dynamics even in response to moderate solar wind forcing. The global ground-based data proves to be an invaluable tool to monitor the dynamics and width of the affected magnetospheric regions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric cusp, ionosphere, reconnection, convection flow-channel, Cluster, ground-based observations

  18. Pheno-Copter: A Low-Altitude, Autonomous Remote-Sensing Robotic Helicopter for High-Throughput Field-Based Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Chapman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding trials are extensive (100s to 1000s of plots and are difficult and expensive to monitor by conventional means, especially where measurements are time-sensitive. For example, in a land-based measure of canopy temperature (hand-held infrared thermometer at two to 10 plots per minute, the atmospheric conditions may change greatly during the time of measurement. Such sensors measure small spot samples (2 to 50 cm2, whereas image-based methods allow the sampling of entire plots (2 to 30 m2. A higher aerial position allows the rapid measurement of large numbers of plots if the altitude is low (10 to 40 m and the flight control is sufficiently precise to collect high-resolution images. This paper outlines the implementation of a customized robotic helicopter (gas-powered, 1.78-m rotor diameter with autonomous flight control and software to plan flights over experiments that were 0.5 to 3 ha in area and, then, to extract, straighten and characterize multiple experimental field plots from images taken by three cameras. With a capacity to carry 1.5 kg for 30 min or 1.1 kg for 60 min, the system successfully completed >150 flights for a total duration of 40 h. Example applications presented here are estimations of the variation in: ground cover in sorghum (early season; canopy temperature in sugarcane (mid-season; and three-dimensional measures of crop lodging in wheat (late season. Together with this hardware platform, improved software to automate the production of ortho-mosaics and digital elevation models and to extract plot data would further benefit the development of high-throughput field-based phenotyping systems.

  19. Statistical analysis of VLF radio emissions triggered by power line harmonic radiation and observed by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 7 (2014), s. 5744-5754 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : man-made waves * ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020139/abstract

  20. Low-Altitude Long-Endurance Solar Unmanned Plane for Forest Fire Prevention: Application to the Natural Park of Serra do Xures (spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jorge, H.; Bueno, M.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2017-08-01

    Unamnned aerial systems (UAS) show great potential in operations related to surveillance. These systems can be successfully applied to the prevention of forest fires, especially those caused by human intervention. The present works focuses on a study of the operational possibilities of the unmanned system "AtlantikSolar" developed by the ETH Zurich for the prevention of forest fires in the Spanish natural park of Serra do Xurés, an area of 20,920 ha with height variations between 300 m and 1,500 m. The operation evaluation of AtlantikSolar is based on the use of Flir Tau 2 LWIR camera as imaging payload which could detect illegal activities in the forest, such as bonfires, uncontrolled burning or pyromaniacs. Flight surveillance is planned for an altitude of 100 m to obey the legal limit of the Spanish UAS regulation. This altitude produces a swath width of 346.4 m and pixel resolution between 1.5 and 1.8 pixels/m. Operation is planned to adapt altitude to the change on the topography and obtain a constant ground resolution. Operational speed is selected to 52 km/h. The UAS trajectory is adapted to the limits of the natural park and the border between Spain and Portugal. Matlab code is developed for mission planning. The complete surveillance of the natural park requires a total time of 15.6 hours for a distance of 811.6 km.

  1. Winter microclimatic regime of low-altitude scree slopes and its relation to topography: case study from the Ceske Stredohori Mts. (N Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raška, P.; Kirchner, Karel; Raška, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2011), s. 235-246 ISSN 0391-9838 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : scree * microclimate * thermal regime * topography * Česke Středohoří Mts Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.468, year: 2011 http://lsru.geography.ujep.cz/documents/raskaetal_2011b.pdf

  2. LOW-ALTITUDE LONG-ENDURANCE SOLAR UNMANNED PLANE FOR FOREST FIRE PREVENTION: APPLICATION TO THE NATURAL PARK OF SERRA DO XURES (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. González-Jorge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Unamnned aerial systems (UAS show great potential in operations related to surveillance. These systems can be successfully applied to the prevention of forest fires, especially those caused by human intervention. The present works focuses on a study of the operational possibilities of the unmanned system “AtlantikSolar” developed by the ETH Zurich for the prevention of forest fires in the Spanish natural park of Serra do Xurés, an area of 20,920 ha with height variations between 300 m and 1,500 m. The operation evaluation of AtlantikSolar is based on the use of Flir Tau 2 LWIR camera as imaging payload which could detect illegal activities in the forest, such as bonfires, uncontrolled burning or pyromaniacs. Flight surveillance is planned for an altitude of 100 m to obey the legal limit of the Spanish UAS regulation. This altitude produces a swath width of 346.4 m and pixel resolution between 1.5 and 1.8 pixels/m. Operation is planned to adapt altitude to the change on the topography and obtain a constant ground resolution. Operational speed is selected to 52 km/h. The UAS trajectory is adapted to the limits of the natural park and the border between Spain and Portugal. Matlab code is developed for mission planning. The complete surveillance of the natural park requires a total time of 15.6 hours for a distance of 811.6 km.

  3. Phase transition type change in order-order and order-disorder transformations of LaH2+c-like superstoichiometric dihydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratishvili, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transformations in metal-hydrogen systems associated with the ordering processes in the subsystem of interstitial hydrogen atoms are considered. It is shown that in a particular class of superstoichiometric rare-earth dihydrides, where the ordering subsystem is characterized by two long-range-order parameters η 1 , η 2 and the energy parameter p 0 (1) (p) ≤ c ≤ c 0 (2) (p), it becomes discontinuous outside of this region. Dependence of critical concentrations c 0 (1) and c 0 (2) upon the energy parameter p is deduced. It is shown, as well, that there exists a second sequence of critical concentrations, c 1 (1) (p) and c 1 (2) (p), denoting the boundaries between the regions of continuous and discontinuous order-disorder transformations. (orig.)

  4. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series; Constantes de temps des processus d'erosion et d'alteration dans le systeme himalayen: approche geochimique elementaire et isotopique par les series de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, M

    2007-06-15

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  5. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To help the people of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal adapt, this project will develop robust evidence to inform climate change adaptation policies and practices. ... -promote decision-makers' use of knowledge and adaptation practices at various scales to reduce vulnerabilities and build livelihood resilience; and

  6. Himalayan origin and evolution of Myricaria (Tamaricaeae) in the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Hong-Hu Meng; Hong-Xiang Zhang; Byalt V. Vyacheslav; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2014-01-01

    The Tamaricaceae contains about eighty species [1] and four genera: Tamarix, Myricaria, Reumuria, and Hololachna [2]. This family, and Frankeniaceae, are defined as the salt-gland anatomical lineage [3]. Myricaria consists of about twelve - thirteen species [4-7] and occurs in Northern Temperate zone of Eurasia, mainly along the Asian mountains. There are eight species...

  7. Natural Hazards Education in the Himalayan Region of Ladakh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel; Tostevin, Rosalie

    2015-04-01

    Here we present a review of a geohazards education and engagement project in the Indian region of Ladakh. Located in the Indian Himalaya, Ladakh is home to historically-disadvantaged and endangered indigenous groups. It is also an area of extreme topography, climate and vulnerability, with a growing tourist industry. This combination of factors makes it an important region to improve geohazards understanding and observe the complex interactions between nature, society, and culture. This project: (i) delivered a geoscience education programme, in conjunction with a range of local and international partners, to multiple schools in the region; (ii) utilised interactive demonstrations to teach students about the key physical dynamics of landslides and earthquakes; and (iii) integrated aspects of physical and social science within the teaching, to give students a holistic understanding of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction. In total three programmes were delivered, to a range of different ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. This presentation will particularly highlight (i) the importance of delivering material in a culturally appropriate way, (ii) challenges regarding the sustainability of delivering high quality geoscience education projects, and (iii) ways in which geoscience education outreach can be mainstreamed into overseas research visits.

  8. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  9. The hymenopterous pollinators of Himalayan foot hills of Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... flowers (Bohart, 1972). Pollinators ... and crops. The inadequacies have arisen from habitat fragmentation ... Pollen colour. Availability ... due to its geographical importance. ... of pollinators varies with the topographic change. ..... G.F.J. Eagles & S.D. Price (Eds). ... pollinator in Vegetable Seed Production.

  10. Ethnicity and Democracy in the Eastern Himalayan Borderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    This book presents a close look at the growth, success, and proliferation of ethnic politics on the peripheries of modern South Asia, built around a case study of the Nepal ethnic group that lives in the borderlands of Sikkim, Darjeeling, and east Nepal. Grounded in historical and ethnographic re...... research, it critically examines the relationship between culture and politics in a geographical space that is home to a diverse range of ethnic identities, showing how new modes of political representation, cultural activism, and everyday politics have emerged from the region....

  11. Effect of rainfall on cropping pattern in mid Himalayan region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of effect of rainfall during the last 20 years is needed to evaluate cropping pattern in the rain-fed region. In this study, trends in annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall of district of Himachal Pradesh in India over the past 20 years were examined. The annual rainfall varies from 863.3 to 1470.0 mm. During the ...

  12. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% ...

  13. Glacier Melting Increases the Solute Concentrations of Himalayan Glacial Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Rogora, Michela; Balestrini, Raffaella; Lami, Andrea; Tartari, Gabriele A; Thakuri, Sudeep; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-09-06

    Over the past two decades, we observed a substantial rise in ionic content that was mainly determined by the sulfate concentration at 20 remote high elevation lakes located in central southern Himalaya. At LCN9, which was monitored on an annual basis for the last 20 years, the sulfate concentrations increased over 4-fold. Among the main causes, we exclude a change in the composition of wet atmospheric deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes. Glacier retreat likely was the main factor responsible for the observed increase of sulfate concentrations. We attribute this chemical changes mainly to the sulfide oxidation processes that occur in subglacial environments. Moreover, we observe that the weakened monsoon of the past two decades has only partially contributed to the lakes enrichment through runoff waters that are more concentrated in solutes or lowering the water table, resulting in more rock exposed to air and enhanced mineral oxidation.

  14. Modelling catchment hydrological responses in a Himalayan Lake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water extent of the lake barely covers 11.5 km2. (Badar and Romshoo ... Recent developments of decision support systems based on GIS and distributed hydrological models .... flow of the methodology is given in figure 2. 3.1.1 Model structure ...

  15. European Bulletin of Himalayan Research (EBHR) Number 14, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany; (CNRS) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France; (SOAS) School of Oriental and African Studies, UK

    1998-01-01

    Graham Clarke : An Appreciation by Ben Campbell; Innovations in Traditional Crafts by Nager and Hunza; In the 20th Century by Jurgen Wasim Frembgen; Work and Nutrition in High Asia by Hiltrud Herbers; The Restoration of Baltit fort by Stefano Bianca; Seasonal Migration in Western Nepal by Satya Shrestha; On Francis Buchanan Hamilton's Account of the Kingdom of Nepal by Marie Lecomte-Tilouine; Credit Systems and Urban Development in Nepal by Michael Muhlich; Ladakh Studies, 8th Colloquium, Moe...

  16. Yarsagumba Fungus: Health Problems in the Himalayan Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Pranawa; Pandit, Bidur; Phuyal, Pratibha; Zafren, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus. They had paid high prices for permits, hoping to recoup the cost and make a profit by selling specimens of Yarsagumba, but the fungus seemed scarce in 2016, resulting in a bleak economic forecast. Most collectors were living in austere conditions, walking long hours to the collection areas early in the morning and returning in the late afternoon. Most were subsisting on 1 daily meal. Health problems, including acute mountain sickness as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, were common. Yarsagumba has become harder to find in recent years, increasing hardships and risk of injury. Medical care was almost nonexistent. As abundance decreases and demand increases, there is increasing pressure on collectors to find Yarsagumba. The collectors are an economically disadvantaged population who live in austere conditions at high altitude with poor shelter and sanitation, strenuous work, and limited availability of food. Health care resources are very limited. There are significant risks of illness, injury, and death. Targeted efforts by government entities and nongovernmental organizations might be beneficial in meeting the health needs. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinematics of the LHD is in the process of being worked out .... also played a major role in the deformation process as evident from .... mation occurred at shallow crustal levels within ..... deep structure of the outer and Lesser Himalaya, Jumoan.

  18. Forecasting the heavy rainfall during Himalayan flooding—June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anumeha Dube

    2014-08-01

    Verification of the synoptic features in forecasts of the two models suggests that NCUM accurately captures the circulation features as compared to T574. Further verification of this event is carried out based on the contiguous rain area (CRA technique. CRA verification is used in computing the total mean square error (MSE which is based on displacement, volume and pattern errors. This verification technique also, confirms the better skill of NCUM over T574 in terms of forecast peak rainfall amounts, volume and average rain rate, lower MSE and root mean square error (RMSE as well as having higher hit rates and lower misses and false alarm rates for different rainfall thresholds from Day 1 to Day 5 forecasts.

  19. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  20. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi

    2016-06-01

    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  1. Earthquake source characteristics along the arcuate Himalayan belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A positive correlation between plate and stress obliquities is established for this dif- fuse plate boundary. ..... plane of maximum shear stress related to the prin- cipal compressive stress at 85 ..... carry out the present work. References. Ahnert F ...

  2. High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted,UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana Jague, Emilien; Goulding, Keith; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    for monitoring SOC contents in agricultural soils. Remote sensing methods based on multi-spectral images may help map SOC variation in surface soils. Recently, the costs of both Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and multi-spectral cameras have dropped dramatically, opening up the possibility for more widespread...... use of these tools for SOC mapping. Long-term field experiments with distinct SOC contents in adjacent plots, provide a very useful resource for systematically testing remote sensing approaches for measuring SOC. This study focusses on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted (UK). The Broadbalk......Soil organic C (SOC) contents in arable landscapes change as a function of management, climate and topography (Johnston et al, 2009). Traditional methods to measure soil C stocks are labour intensive, time consuming and expensive. Consequently, there is a need for developing low-cost methods...

  3. Improved method to retrieve low altitude atmospheric refractivity profiles from radar clutter%雷达杂波反演低空大气折射率剖面的改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 吴振森; 赵振维; 王红光

    2010-01-01

    提出一种基于多目标函数优化的低空大气折射率剖面反演的改进算法.以表面波导的两段两参数线性模型对大气折射率剖面建模,对反演中的不同电磁波频率时的目标函数特性进行分析.结果显示目标函数存在多个局部极值,且不同的频率其目标函数特性明显不同.以C波段(6 GHz)和X波段(10 GHz)接收到的雷达海杂波为例,用NSGAⅡ算法进行多目标函数优化反演,并与基于单目标函数优化反演的遗传算法(genetic algoritm, GA)进行统计分析.结果显示,多目标优化反演算法能获得具有更高的精度和稳定性的低空大气折射率.

  4. Mevlânâ’da İlahî Sıfatlar The Divine Attributes in Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna TUNAGÖZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study Mawlânâ Jalâl al-Dîn al-Rûmî’s (d.A.H.672/A.D.1273 approach to the divine attributes, who is a poet andthinker has an important place in sufistic circles and Anatolian Islamicculture, by comparison with the Theologians’ views. It is expected thatQur'ân which calls for believing in God, speaks of His existence, and of topics related to His existence. Even though Qur'ân gives prominencefor divine names and puts the theoretical details aside, God’s attributestake place in its field of interest. Muslim theologians detailed thosereligious texts and systematized rationally with Greek Philosophy’ssupport. Muslim mystics, including Mawlânâ, reduce the obtainableknowledge about God to vision and inspiration, that is religiousexperience, exposed by the spiritual purity. This methodical differenceconstitutes essence of separation between the two schools. As is known,Sunni theology’s concept of divine attribute is an antithesis ofMu’tazilite theology seeing God’s essence the same of His attributes.Sunni thesis can be summarized in such a way that God has attributesveritably and those attributes neither are identical with His essence, norare they different from it. Mawlânâ’s views on the divine attributes, asthe subject of our article, are clearly compatible with the Sunni Islamictheology. The thinker attributing “the essential (nafsî, negative,positive, actual and textual” attributes to God presents his ideas mostlywithin the poems unsystematically but never goes into theoreticaldetails. But Mawlânâ’s agreement with the theologians expresses theonly one side of his concept of attributes. For Mawlânâ makes hisselection for the sufistic thought at the points that the sufistic thoughtdiffers from the theological thoughts, especially on being andknowledge, and reflects it to all the practical and theoreticalconclusions he drew. Bu makalede tasavvufî çevrelerde ve Anadolu İslâm kültüründeönemli bir konuma sahip olan sûfî şair ve düşünür Mevlânâ Celâleddîner-Rûmî’nin (ö. H.672/M.1273 ilâhî sıfat anlayışı, kelâmcılarıngörüşleriyle kıyaslanarak incelenmiştir. Allah’a inanılmasını isteyenKur'an’ın, Allah’ın varlığından ve O’nun varlığı ile ilgili konulardanbahsetmesi beklenecek bir durumdur. Her ne kadar ilâhî isimleri önplana çıkarıp teorik detayları bir kenara bıraksa da, Tanrı’nın nitelikleriKur'an’ın ilgi sahası içerisinde yer alır. Kelâmcılar bu nasları Yunanfelsefesinin desteğiyle rasyonel olarak ayrıntılama ve sistemleştirmeyoluna gitmişlerdir. Aralarında Mevlânâ da olmak üzere sûfîler ise Tanrıhakkında elde edilebilecek bilgiyi ruhsal arınmanın ortaya koyduğukeşfe, ilhama, yani dinî tecrübeye indirgerler. Her iki ekolün arasındakiayrılığın özünü de bu metot farklılığı oluşturmaktadır. Bilindiği üzere,Sünnî kelâmın ilâhî sıfat anlayışı, zatla sıfatları aynı gören Mu’tezilîkelâmın antitezidir. Sünnî tez, Allah’ın sıfatlara hakiki anlamda sahipolması, bu sıfatların da O’nun zatının ne aynı ne de gayrı olduğuşeklinde özetlenebilir. Çalışmamızın konusu olan Mevlânâ’nın ilâhîsıfatlara ilişkin görüşleri, bariz biçimde Sünnî kelâm ile uyumludur.Allah’a “nefsî, selbî, subûtî, fiilî ve haberî” sıfatlar izafe eden düşünür,bu görüşlerini daha çok şiirler içerisinde sistemsiz biçimde vermekte veteorik detaylara girmemektedir. Fakat Sünnî kelâmcılarla olanmutabakat, Mevlânâ’nın sıfat anlayışının sadece bir yönünü ifade eder.Çünkü Mevlânâ, en başta “varlık ve bilgi” anlayışları olmak üzere,tasavvufî düşünce ile kelâmî düşüncenin ayrıştığı noktalarda, tercihinitasavvufî paradigmadan yana kullanmakta ve bunu ürettiği tüm pratikve teorik sonuçlara yansıtmaktadır.

  5. Al-Mar’ah fi al-Qur’ân ‘Inda Ibn ‘Asyûr fi Tafsîrih (Dirâsah ad-Dilâlah al-Qur’âniyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mahfuz Munawar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Al-Mar’ah in the Qur’an was one of the main discussions among Muslim scholars and mufassirin, either seen from the position level or the role of their life. There are various studies about Al-Mar’ah in the Qur’an, also the term that is used for the context of mar’ah, including imro’ah and nisa’. Centuries ago, a large number of orientalist placed the Qur’an as the main study, which had never been separated from Jewish analogy. In fact, the most Muslims had been incited by their digression of thought. So, the prominent Muslim scholar and the contemporary mufassir, namely Ibnu’Asyur tried to straighten the anconformity assumption of orientalist in accordance to the Divine Revalation of God and Islamic teaching. Ibnu ‘Asyur’s thought about “imro’ah and nisa” according to the semantic Qur’an study based on dalil naqly and aqly on his tafsir. Thus, the interpretation is very oriented to the study of language depth. The term "imroah and an-nisa" according to the interpretation described by Ibnu 'Asyur has a different meaning between them. The term "imroah" has a more specific meaning than "an-nisa", also devoted to the two writing styles, ta' ta'nits or ta 'maftuhah ( which is more oriented to have the meaning "wife" or idzofah on the name of her husband which is written afterwards, and the writing with ta 'marbuthoh ( is used for 4 types of mar'ah they are barren women, old women, widow, and unmarried women. While for term "an-nisa" is a plural form of "imroah" which is dissaproved from the ashlu-l-kalimah, on the meaning women or adult female. The term “an-nisa” is a general word which has no purpose into specific meaning, but has a variety of meanings such as wives, mothers, women menstruated, and others according to the context of the sentence in the verses.

  6. Characterization of linoleate 10-hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and novel antifungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH. However, the effect of this conversion on cellularmembrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, L. plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH. Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of 10-lah. Compared with the L. plantarum 10-lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roquefortii and Aspergillus niger.

  7. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Basannagari

    Full Text Available Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m. At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills, reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  8. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  9. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here are consistent with a Pleistocene age for the structure. Subsidence of its foreland has created the seasonal inland sea in Sylhet and influences avulsions of the Brahmaputra. The 1897 M8.0 earthquake caused maximum intensities on the western part of the Shillong massif, suggesting a rupture of the western Dauki fault, leaving the eastern portion as a possible gap.

  10. Spatial and temporal variation in rainfall erosivity in a Himalayan watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Noordwijk, van M.; Xu, J.; Lu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change can modify rainfall patterns, leading to more extremes with associated erosion events. Rainfall erosivity, or the R-factor based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), indicates the potential water erosion risk and it plays an important role in water and soil

  11. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Devetter

    Full Text Available High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities. In this study, we disentangle the impact of elevation and soil chemistry on diversity and distribution of rotifers, nematodes and tardigrades and their most frequent feeding strategies (microbial filter-feeders, bacterivores, fungivores, root-fungal feeders, omnivores along two contrasting altitudinal gradients in Indian NW Himalaya (Zanskar transect from 3805 to 4714 m a.s.l. and southwestern Tibet (Tso Moriri transect from 4477 to 6176 m a.s.l., using a combination of multivariate analysis, variation partitioning and generalized additive models. Zanskar transect had higher precipitation, soil moisture, organic matter and available nutrients than dry Tso Moriri transect. In total, 40 species of nematodes, 19 rotifers and 1 tardigrade were discovered. Species richness and total abundance of rotifers and nematodes showed mid-elevation peaks in both investigated transects. The optimum for rotifers was found at higher elevation than for nematodes. Diversity and distribution of soil microfauna was best explained by soil nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. More fertile soils hosted more diverse and abundant faunal communities. In Tso Moriri, bacterivores represented 60% of all nematodes, fungivores 35%, root-fungal feeders 1% and omnivores 3%. For Zanskar the respective proportions were 21%, 13%, 56% and 9%. Elevational optima of different feeding strategies occurred in Zanskar in one elevation zone (4400-4500 m, while in Tso Moriri each feeding strategy had their unique optima with fungivores at 5300 m (steppes, bacterivores at 5500 m (alpine grassland, filter-feeders at 5600 m and predators and omnivores above 5700 m (subnival zone. Our results shed light on the diversity of microfauna in the high-elevation cold deserts and disentangle the role of different ecological filters in structuring microfaunal communities in the rapidly-warming Himalayas.

  12. Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Kang, Shichang; Singh Mahata, Khadak; Naja, Manish; Zhang, Qianggong; Panday, Arnico Kumar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-09-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. We present here results from measurements of ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (PM, BC, CO, O3) in Lumbini, first of its kind for Lumbini, conducted during an intensive measurement period of 3 months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The main objective of this work is to understand and document the level of air pollution, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini. The hourly average concentrations during the entire measurement campaign ranged as follows: BC was 0.3-30.0 µg m-3, PM1 was 3.6-197.6 µg m-3, PM2. 5 was 6.1-272.2 µg m-3, PM10 was 10.5-604.0 µg m-3, O3 was 1.0-118.1 ppbv and CO was 125.0-1430.0 ppbv. These levels are comparable to other very heavily polluted sites in South Asia. Higher fraction of coarse-mode PM was found as compared to other nearby sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The ΔBC / ΔCO ratio obtained in Lumbini indicated considerable contributions of emissions from both residential and transportation sectors. The 24 h average PM2. 5 and PM10 concentrations exceeded the WHO guideline very frequently (94 and 85 % of the sampled period, respectively), which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. These air pollutants exhibited clear diurnal cycles with high values in the morning and evening. During the study period, the worst air pollution episodes were mainly due to agro-residue burning and regional forest fires combined with meteorological conditions conducive of pollution transport to Lumbini. Fossil fuel combustion also contributed significantly, accounting for more than half of the ambient BC concentration according to aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained in Lumbini. WRF-STEM, a regional chemical transport model, was used to simulate the meteorology and the concentrations of pollutants to understand the pollutant transport pathways. The model estimated values were ˜ 1. 5 to 5 times lower than the observed concentrations for CO and PM10, respectively. Model-simulated regionally tagged CO tracers showed that the majority of CO came from the upwind region of Ganges Valley. Model performance needs significant improvement in simulating aerosols in the region. Given the high air pollution level, there is a clear and urgent need for setting up a network of long-term air quality monitoring stations in the greater Lumbini region.

  13. Evaluation of nutraceutical and antinutritional properties in barnyard and finger millet varieties grown in Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Priyankar; Dubey, Ashutosh; Verma, A K

    2016-06-01

    Five elite varieties of barnyard (Echinochloa frumentacea) and finger (Eleusine coracana) growing at northwestern Himalaya were investigated for nutraceutical and antinutritional properties. Barnyard millet contained higher amount of crude fiber, total dietary fiber, tryptophan content, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol compared to the finger millet whereas the finger millet contains higher amount of methionine and ascorbic acid as compared to the barnyard millet. The secondary metabolites of biological functions were analyzed and found that barnyard millet contained the higher amount of polyphenols, tannins and ortho-dihydroxy phenol content compared to finger millet. Among antinutitional compounds barnyard millet contained lower phytic acid content compare to finger millet whereas no significant difference in trypsin inhibition activity of barnyard millet and finger millet varieties were found. Barnyard millet contained higher acid phosphatase, α-galactosidase and α-amylase inhibitor activity compared to finger millet. Finger millet seeds contained about 10-13 folds higher calcium content and double amount of manganese content in comparison to barnyard millet seeds. Present study suggests that barnyard millet varieties studied under present investigation were found nutritionally superior compared to finger millet varieties.

  14. Evaluation of nutraceutical and antinutritional properties in barnyard and finger millet varieties grown in Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Panwar, Priyankar; Dubey, Ashutosh; Verma, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Five elite varieties of barnyard (Echinochloafrumentacea) and finger (Eleusine coracana) growing at northwestern Himalaya were investigated for nutraceutical and antinutritional properties. Barnyard millet contained higher amount of crude fiber, total dietary fiber, tryptophan content, total carotenoids, ��-tocopherol compared to the finger millet whereas the finger millet contains higher amount of methionine and ascorbic acid as compared to the barnyard millet. The secondary metabolites of b...

  15. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Juan-Juan Xue; Stewart C. Sanderson; Peter W. Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for...

  16. Impact of land use change on soil carbon loss of the Sikkim Himalayan piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pawel; Ploskonka, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use on soil carbon were studied at the outlet of the Tista River from the Sikkim Himalayas over the last 150 years. Analysis of topographic maps and satellite images indicates that the land reforms related to location of tea gardens in the piedmont caused rapid deforestation of terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth after 1930 initiated the replacement of floodplain forest by rice cultivation. Both processes changed soil carbon content and intensified fluvial activity expressed through terrace erosion. The replacement of natural forest by tea cultivation reduced the soil carbon content within terraces from 1.95 kg to 1.77 kg (in 1 m of topsoil) respectively. The replacement of natural forest by rice reduced the soil carbon content within floodplains from 0.42 kg to 0.23 kg (in 1 m topsoil) respectively. Much more dangerous, was terrace erosion leading to permanent removal of sediment including soil. The total loss of soil carbon in a 1 m thick soil layer due to conversion of 5 km2 forest to tea cultivation was about 900 t between 1930 and 2010. While the total soil carbon removed due to 1.8 km2 terrace erosion reached 3510 t in the same period. Result is the outcome of research project 2012/05/B/ST10/00309 of the National Science Centre (Poland).

  17. Gaining forests but losing ground: A GIS evaluation in a Himalayan watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hans; Brown, Sandra; Schmidt, Margaret; Shah, Pravakar; Shrestha, Bubhan; Nakarmi, Gopal; Subba, Khagendra; Wymann, Susanne

    1994-01-01

    GIS overlay techniques were used to provide a quantitative historic documentation of deforestation and land-use dynamics in the Middle Mountains of Nepal between 1947 and 1990. Deforestation was most critical in the 1960s, but active afforestation programs in the 1980s have reversed the process. In spite of these trends, the degradation problem is more complex. The GIS evaluation showed that 86% of the recently afforested land is now under pine plantations located primarily at lower elevations and moderately steep slopes. In contrast, rainfed agricultural expansion is most pronounced on acidic soils and steeper, upper elevation sites, suggesting marginalization of agriculture. Agricultural expansion coupled with major losses of grazing land to pine forests are the key processes pointing towards major animal feed deficits. An alternative animal feed source is suggested through GIS using a topographically based microclimatic classification to generate a tree-planting map where the optimum ecological conditions for selective native fodder tree species are identified.

  18. Comparing and optimizing land use classification in a Himalayan area using parametric and non parametric approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Sameer Saran,; Raju, P.L.N.; Amit, Bharti

    2007-01-01

    Supervised classification is one of important tasks in remote sensing image interpretation, in which the image pixels are classified to various predefined land use/land cover classes based on the spectral reflectance values in different bands. In reality some classes may have very close spectral

  19. [The impact of population growth on Tamba Kosi, a Himalayan valley in Nepal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliat, S

    1994-01-01

    Two several-month-long stays in the isolated Tamba Kosi valley in Nepal in 1983 and 1986 allowed an assessment of the importance of changes in rural societies. In about 50 years, the oldest inhabitants of some villages have seen the number of houses quadruple. In the absence of reliable statistical data, the inhabitants say that the Tamba Kosi valley population has doubled in the last 25 years. This population growth exacerbates the multiethnic fight for good land (i.e., ground of modest slope, hot, and humid). Many people have emigrated, which has somewhat eased problems relative to population growth. Soil degradation, which is becoming more and more acute, drives the inhabitants to cut down trees and clear the land for cultivation of new plots. These new plots are running up against steep slopes and high altitude. Most families have barely two hectares, which must suffice to feed 5-6 people on average. This fuels intensification of agricultural production, resulting in low efficacy. Livestock mutilate forests with their hooves and teeth. The marked increase in the variety of livestock accelerates this destruction. Three types of building materials are used in this high valley: thatch, shingles (fir tree), and bamboo matting. The disappearance of wild grasses used to make thatch roofs and people moving to higher and higher altitudes resulted in use of shingles to make roofs. Buildings made of shingles, which demanded changes in construction techniques, changed the conception of homes. They became the preferred building type, which increased the demand for fir trees and deforestation. This lead to a demand for roofing material made of bamboo matting and another change in construction techniques. The retreat of the forest and disappearance of the most wanted plant species are the most spectacular impacts of population growth. This environmental degradation exacerbates erosion at all bioclimatic altitudes.

  20. Comparative assessment of runoff characteristics under different land use patterns within a Himalayan watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S. C.; Sharma, E.

    1998-10-01

    Large quantities of sediments leave the Himalaya through its rivers. These rivers are charged with sediments depending on the types of land use in the watersheds. Land use/cover change and hydrology was studied in a watershed in the Sikkim Himalaya. The land use change from forest and agroforestry to open agriculture has increased by 11% from 1988 to 1992. During the same period substantial areas of dense mixed forests have been converted to open mixed and degraded forests as a result of high pressure on natural resources. Stream flow was highest in the rainy season and lowest in summer season in all the streams and all the three years (1994-1997) of the study. The water quality of streams from different microwatersheds varied significantly between seasons and streams. Sediment and nutrient loss was estimated in microwatersheds and soil loss from the total watershed ranged from 4·18 to 8·82 t ha-1 yr-1 during the three-year period of study. The annual total nitrogen loss estimated at the watershed outlet was at a rate of 33 kg ha-1, organic carbon 267 kg ha-1 and total phosphorus 5 kg ha-1. This study suggests that the upland microwatersheds can be hydroecologically sustainable only if good forest cover and dense forests with large cardamom-based agroforestry are maintained.