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Sample records for lottery terminal vlt

  1. Effects of a Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Banner on Gambling: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy; Nicki, Richard; Otteson, Amy; Elliott, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a warning banner, informing patrons of the randomness of Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) outcomes, on gambling behaviour and beliefs were tested in a field setting using a mixed-model 2 x 3 design over a six-week period with 27 problem and 27 non-problem gamblers recruited from bars in a Canadian city with a population of 85,000.…

  2. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar.

  3. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T E X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains

  4. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1990-12-01

    This report is a manual for the valiant little terminal. Information covered in this report is as follow: an introduction to VLT; installation; starting up; text screen menus; graphics screen menus; introduction to VLT's scripting facility; quick reference section; and troubleshooting.

  5. Responsible gambling tools: pop-up messages and pauses on video lottery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Martin; Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge

    2006-09-01

    The authors examined the effect of messages and pauses, presented on video lottery terminal screens, on erroneous beliefs and persistence to play. At posttest, the strength of erroneous beliefs was lower for participants who received messages conveying information about randomness in gambling as compared to those who received pauses. Pauses also diminished the strength of erroneous beliefs, and there was no difference between the effects of pauses and messages on the number of games played. The authors discuss these results in terms of the use of messages and pauses on video lottery terminals as a strategy for promoting responsible gambling.

  6. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  7. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user`s manual. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga`s usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC`s purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  8. An analysis of the accessibility of video lottery terminals: the case of Montréal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herjean Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers and public health officials in Canada, the United States and Australia have for some time noted broader geographic accessibility to gambling establishments, above all in socioeconomically underprivileged communities. This increase in availability could lead to more and more gambling problems. This article focuses, in an ecological perspective, in particular on a spatial analysis of the geographic accessibility of sites possessing a VLT permit in the Montréal area, i.e. Montréal Island, the South Shore and Laval, from the standpoint of the development of an indicator of the vulnerability (socioeconomic components and demographic components to gambling of populations at the level of certain neighbourhood units (dissemination areas. With the recent development of geographic information systems (GIS, it is now possible to ascertain accessibility to services much more accurately, for example by taking into account the configuration of the road network. Results The findings of our analysis reveal widespread geographic accessibility to sites possessing a VLT permit in the downtown area and in pericentral districts. In some neighbourhood units, a site possessing a VLT permit may be within a three-minute walk. In the region studied overall, average walking time to a VLT site is nine minutes. Access to this type of service on foot is usually limited in the outskirts. However, a number of groups of sites possessing VLT permits are found along certain axial highways. According to local spatial self-correlation analyses, the findings suggest a significant link between walking accessibility to sites possessing VLT permits and the vulnerability of the communities. In a number of neighbourhood units with ready access to VLT's the populations display high vulnerability. Conclusion These findings reveal that accessibility to sites possessing a VLT permit is often linked to the vulnerability (socioeconomic and demographic

  9. Quantum lottery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On April Fools' Day, CERN Quantum Diaries blogger Pauline Gagnon held a giveaway of microscopic proportion. Up for grabs? Ten Higgs bosons, courtesy of CERN. Pauline announced the winners last week; let's see what they'll really be getting in the mail...   Custom-made Particle Zoo Higgs bosons were sent out to the winners. Read more about the prize in the Quantum Diaries post "Higgs boson lottery: when CERN plays April Fools' jokes".

  10. Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon

    2010-12-01

    Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  11. Three Arguments for Lotteries

    OpenAIRE

    STONE, PETER

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Philosophers and social scientists have offered a variety of arguments for making certain types of decisions by lot. This paper examines three such arguments. These arguments identify indeterminacy, fairness and incentive effects as the major reasons for using lotteries to make decisions. These arguments are central to Jon Elster?s study of lottery use, Solomonic judgments (1989), and so the paper focuses upon their treatment in this work. Upon closer examination, all three argum...

  12. Is Lottery Gambling Addictive?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Guryan; Melissa S. Kearney

    2010-01-01

    We present an empirical test for the addictiveness of lottery gambling. To distinguish state dependence from serial correlation, we exploit an exogenous shock to local market consumption of lottery gambling. We use the sale of a winning ticket in the zip code, the location of which is random conditional on sales, as an instrument for present consumption and test for a causal relationship between present and future consumption. This test of addiction is based on the definition of addiction com...

  13. Uncertainty: lotteries and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ávalos, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of uncertainty in a context where the risks assumed by the individual are measurable and manageable. We primarily use the definition of lottery to formulate the axioms of the individual's preferences, and its representation through the utility function von Neumann - Morgenstern. We study the expected utility theorem and its properties, the paradoxes of choice under uncertainty and finally the measures of risk aversion with monetary lotteries.

  14. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Five years at the service of Europe's astronomers VLT 5 Years One of the world's most advanced astronomical research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama desert, celebrates an important anniversary today. On April 1, 1999, and following almost one year of extensive tests and careful trimming of its numerous high-tech parts, the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), was "handed over" to the astronomers. Since that date, science operations with this marvellous research tool have been continuous and intensive. Kueyen (UT2) started normal operations exactly one year later. Yepun (UT4) was offered to the scientific community in June 2001, while Melipal (UT3) followed in August 2001 [1]. Ever since, all four VLT Unit Telescopes, with an ever-growing suite of highly specialised, extremely powerful astronomical instruments have been in full operation, 365 nights a year. And this with unequalled success, as demonstrated by a long list of important scientific results, including a substantial number of exciting discoveries that are now opening new horizons in astrophysics. Moreover, thanks to heroic and persistent efforts by the dedicated teams of ESO scientists and engineers, the "downtime" due to technical problems has been very small, about 3 per cent, a number that is unequalled among the world's large telescope facilities. In addition, the weather conditions at the Paranal site in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile are truly excellent - this is indeed one of the best locations for astronomical observations on the surface of the Earth - and the corresponding "weather downtime" has only been around 10 per cent. This has resulted in an unbelievably low value of total downtime, most likely a new world record for ground-based 8-10 m class telescopes. VLT strong points The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the world's largest and most advanced optical telescope. It comprises four 8.2-m reflecting Unit

  15. The silver linings of lottery play: motivation and subjective well-being of British lottery participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Burger (Martijn); M. Hendriks (Martijn); E. Pleeging; P.W. van der Zwan (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAlthough certain researchers have attributed widespread lottery play to irrational beliefs that people hold regarding the chances of winning the lottery, another explanation for the popularity of lottery gambling is that lottery players may experience positive emotions before the draw.

  16. The Lottery Is a Mathematics Powerball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vivian; Rubel, Laurie; Shookhoff, Lauren; Sullivan, Mathew; Williams, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The lottery has rich potential for mathematical explorations. It serves as a real-world context to explore concepts of permutations, combinations, sample space, and probability in terms of making sense of the lottery games. The lottery offers additional possibilities in terms of scaling, data analysis, and spatial analysis. Finally, by readily…

  17. The VLT Opening Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  18. Winning strategies: A case study of Oyo State Lottery, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated three common lottery strategies: random, low and high frequency strategies, usually employed by lottery players. The Oyo State Lottery, a type of lottery in Oyo State, Nigeria was used as a case study. For the three strategies, we considered whether the selection of numbers in Oyo State lottery ...

  19. Constructing a Model of Lottery Tax Incidence Measurement: Revisiting the Illinois Lottery Tax for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daberkow, Kevin S.; Lin, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a century of lottery scholarship has measured lottery tax incidence predominantly through either the Suits Index or regression analysis. The present study builds on historic lottery tax burden measurement to present a comprehensive set of tools to determine the tax incidence of individual games in addition to determining which lottery…

  20. Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shift......We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....

  1. Reduction of Compound Lotteries with Objective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    -stages compound lotteries, and their actuarially equivalent one-stage lotteries. We find violations of ROCL and that behavior is better characterized by a source-dependent version of the Rank-Dependent Utility model rather than Expected Utility Theory. Since we use the popular “1-in-K” random lottery incentive....... These results are supported by both structural estimation of latent preferences as well as non-parametric analysis of choice patterns. The random lottery incentive mechanism, used as payment protocol, itself induces an additional layer of “compounding” by design that might create confounds in tests of ROCL...

  2. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  3. Decision making over imprecise lotteries

    OpenAIRE

    Rébillé, Yann

    2005-01-01

    URL des Cahiers :http://mse.univ-paris1.fr/MSEFramCahier2005.htm; Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques 2005.89 - ISSN : 1624-0340; Since von Neuman and Morgenstern's (1944) contribution to game theory, the expected utility criterion has become the standard functional to evaluate risky prospects. Risky prospects are understood to be lotteries on a set of prizes. In which case a decision maker will receive a precise prize with a given probability. A wide interest on imprecise object ha...

  4. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  5. Funding the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with a Lottery Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    I propose the establishment of a SETI Lottery Bond to provide a continued source of funding for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The SETI Lottery Bond is a fixed rate perpetual bond with a lottery at maturity, where maturity occurs only upon discovery and confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Investors in the SETI Lottery Bond purchase shares that yield a fixed rate of interest that continues indefinitely until SETI succeeds---at which point a random subset of...

  6. VLT enclosures: design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneermann, Michael W.; Marchiori, Gianpietro; Dimichino, Francesco

    1997-03-01

    The VLT enclosures main functions are to protect the telescopes during operational as well as non-operational phases from any adverse weather conditions and to provide optimal conditions for observation. An adequate design of a ventilation and wind protection system is important for the performance of the enclosures with respect to the minimization of the corresponding seeing effects. The VLT enclosures are equipped with ventilation doors on the azimuth platform level, with louvers on the rotating part and with a windscreen at the observing slit. Extensive qualification tests of the louvers and windscreen mechanical assemblies have been performed during the enclosures development phase. This paper gives an overview over the general layout of the enclosures and the major subsystems, summarizes the main functional specifications and gives the main results and conclusions of the functional performance tests. Presently the first enclosure erection is nearing its completion and pre- commissioning of all systems will commence. The status of the site erection of the enclosures is presented and the planning for the next phases of the erection is presented.

  7. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  8. Investigating Probability with the NBA Draft Lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates an interesting application of probability in the world of sports. Considers the role of permutations in the lottery system used by the National Basketball Association (NBA) in the United States to determine the order in which nonplayoff teams select players from the college ranks. Presents a lesson on this topic in which students work…

  9. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitted on the origination cablecasting channel or channels any advertisement of or information concerning... of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to advertisements or lists of prizes or... ancillary to the primary business of that organization. (d) For the purposes of paragraph (c) lottery means...

  10. When feeling skillful impairs coordination in a lottery selection task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dorfman

    Full Text Available Choosing a major field of study to secure a good job after graduation is a tacit coordination problem that requires considering others' choices. We examine how feeling skillful, either induced (Experiment 1 or measured (Experiment 2, affects coordination in this type of task. In both experiments participants chose between two lotteries, one offering a larger prize than the other. Participants' entry into the chosen lottery was either related or unrelated to their skill, with the final prize allocated randomly to one of the entrants in each lottery. Importantly, across conditions skill was irrelevant to choosing between lotteries. Notwithstanding, when skill was related to determining lottery entrants, participants who felt highly skillful chose the high prize lottery excessively. Results further suggest that this stems from high confidence in self skill, rather than incorrect expectations regarding others.

  11. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  12. Ultralarge lotteries : Analyzing the Lottery Paradox using non-standard analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenmackers, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    A popular way to relate probabilistic information to binary rational beliefs is the Lockean Thesis, which is usually formalized in terms of thresholds. This approach seems far from satisfactory: the value of the thresholds is not well-specified and the Lottery Paradox shows that the model violates

  13. Multiple Eyes for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    First System of Deployable Multi-Integral Field Units Ready Summary The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory is being equipped with many state-of-the-art astronomical instruments that will allow observations in a large number of different modes and wavebands. Soon to come is the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , a project co-ordinated by ESO. It incorporates several complex components, now being constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. One of these, a true technological feat, is a unique system of 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) . They can be accurately positioned within a sky field-of-view measuring no less that 25 arcmin in diameter, i.e., almost as large as the full Moon . Each of the IFUs looks like an insect's eye and images a small sky area (3 x 2 arcsec 2 ) with a multiple microlens. From each IFU, 20 narrow light beams are sent via optical fibres to an advanced spectrograph. All 300 spectra are recorded simultaneously by a sensitive digital camera. A major advantage of this technique is that, contrary usual spectroscopic observations in which spectral information is obtained along a (one-dimensional) line on the sky, it now allows (two-dimensional) area spectroscopy . This will permit extremely efficient spectral observations of many celestial objects, including faint galaxies, providing detailed information about their internal structure and motions. Such studies will have an important impact on our understanding, e.g., of the early evolution of galaxies , the main building blocks in the Universe. The IFUs have been developed by a team of astronomers and engineers [2] at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon. All IFU components are now at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) where they are being checked and integrated into the instrument [3]. PR Photo 03a/02 : The GIRAFFE spectrograph in the ESO Assembly Hall (Garching, Germany) . PR Photo 03b/02

  14. On the disclosure of ticket sales in charitable lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damianov, Damian S.; Peeters, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We show that a policy of disclosing the ticket sales during a fundraising lottery raises total revenue when there are more than two bettors. The optimal timing of the disclosure is when about half of the players have purchased lottery tickets.

  15. 47 CFR 73.1211 - Broadcast of lottery information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, shall broadcast any advertisement of or information concerning any lottery... section shall not apply to an advertisement, list of prizes or other information concerning: (1) A lottery... and ancillary to the primary business of that organization. (18 U.S.C. 1307(a); 102 Stat. 3205). (d)(1...

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both

  17. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Building a Terabyte Archive at the ESO Headquarters The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the sum of many sophisticated parts. The site at Cerro Paranal in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile is one of the best locations for astronomical observations from the surface of the Earth. Each of the four 8.2-m telescopes is a technological marvel with self-adjusting optics placed in a gigantic mechanical structure of the utmost precision, continuously controlled by advanced soft- and hardware. A multitude of extremely complex instruments with sensitive detectors capture the faint light from distant objects in the Universe and record the digital data fast and efficiently as images and spectra, with a minimum of induced noise. And now the next crucial link in this chain is in place. A few nights ago, following an extended test period, the VLT Data Flow System began providing the astronomers with a steady stream of high-quality, calibrated image and spectral data, ready to be interpreted. The VLT project has entered into a new phase with a larger degree of automation. Indeed, the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU, with the FORS1 and ISAAC instruments, has now become a true astronomy machine . A smooth flow of data through the entire system ESO PR Photo 25a/99 ESO PR Photo 25a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 292 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 584 pix - 264k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2189 pix - 1.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25a/99 : Simplified flow diagramme for the VLT Data Flow System . It is a closed-loop software system which incorporates various subsystems that track the flow of data all the way from the submission of proposals to storage of the acquired data in the VLT Science Archive Facility. The DFS main components are: Program Handling, Observation Handling, Telescope Control System, Science Archive, Pipeline and Quality Control. Arrows indicate lines of feedback. Already from the start of this project more than ten years ago, the ESO Very Large Telescope was

  18. Do New Lottery Games Stimulate Retail Activity? Evidence from West Virginia Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Skidmore, Mark; Serkan Tosun, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of lottery sales and the introduction of new lottery games on the retail activity using panel data on all West Virginia counties over the 1987-2001 period. We find that the introduction of video lottery spurred retail activity in those counties that have been granted the authority to offer video lottery. Empirical analysis also suggests that there is a positive relationship between lottery sales and retail activity, and that generally the introduction of ne...

  19. The effects of Montessori education: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the causal effects of Montessori secondary education by exploiting admission lotteries in Dutch Montessori schools. Results from 308 to 625 students indicate that Montessori education provides an alternative way to attain similar outcomes. Montessori students obtain their

  20. 22 CFR 1203.735-210 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-210 Gambling..., in conducting a lottery or pool, in a game for money or property, or in selling or purchasing a...

  1. Winning Strategies: A Case Study of Oyo State Lottery, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Tickets, Lottery strategy, Winning numbers, Hypothesis testing, Historical ... Among all the games of ... different kinds of games are organized by ..... [1] Bradley, R.E. (2001), “Euler and the Genoese lottery”, [Online; ...

  2. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  3. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.' © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  4. Hospital charitable lotteries: taking a gamble on systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The presence of lotteries can be witnessed worldwide. Charitable lotteries are often portrayed as 'good works', and recently, hospitals have utilized them as a popular fundraising vehicle to raise necessary funds to help achieve organizational goals and objectives. Research indicates that lotteries contribute to gambling-related harms; however, research into charitable lotteries has been underdeveloped. Both the gambling and the health care industries are complex and evolving, consisting of many interacting stakeholders with often different and competing interests. This article seeks to present systems thinking as a conceptual framework to help fill the gap in understanding the use of gambling within hospitals and its possible benefits and unforeseen negative consequences. Addressing the gap in knowledge is important to help inform decision making aimed at reducing gambling-related harms. This article proposes how the school of systems thinking, specifically framing hospitals as complex adaptive systems and system dynamics modelling, can be utilized to understand the policy implications of the adoption of lotteries as a revenue source for hospitals. Hospitals have a duty to care, inform and protect. Hospital charitable lotteries have become big business; however, its incorporation into critical funding strategies needs to be carefully understood. Systems thinking theory and methodologies provide an integrated approach to examine this dynamic and evolving fundraising initiative. Findings from this article can inform the development of action strategies, including policy development at multiple levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Scientific planning for the VLT and VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Berger, J.-P.

    2016-07-01

    An observatory system like the VLT/I requires careful scientific planning for operations and future instruments. Currently the ESO optical/near-infrared facilities include four 8m telescopes, four (movable) 1.8m telescopes used exclusively for interferometry, two 4m telescopes and two survey telescopes. This system offers a large range of scientific capabilities and setting the corresponding priorities depends good community interactions. Coordinating the existing and planned instrumentation is an important aspect for strong scientific return. The current scientific priorities for the VLT and VLTI are pushing for the development of the highest angular resolution imaging and astrometry, integral field spectroscopy and multi-object spectroscopy. The ESO 4m telescopes on La Silla will be dedicated to time domain spectroscopy and exo-planet searches with highly specialized instruments. The next decade will also see a significant rise in the scientific importance of massive ground and space-based surveys. We discuss how future developments in astronomical research could shape the VLT/I evolution.

  6. Communities, self-causation and the natural lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, E H

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the various notions of community, and of the 'natural lottery' as well as investigating the role that 'self-causation' plays in communal obligations. In examining community, two opposing views are juxtaposed: (1) the view that community consists merely of persons united by duties of refraining from harm one to another, resulting in autonomy based justice which makes freedom an absolute condition of mortality; and (2) a broader view which sees the concept of community as entailing obligations of beneficence, resulting in beneficence based justice and which, therefore, sees freedom as a value to be cautiously traded with other values. In examining the 'natural lottery' in the light of community, the various consequences of viewing the lottery in various ways and the impact that our view of community has on these consequences, is explored. A third option, the option that the 'natural lottery' as the cause of illness and health is a shaky concept, is offered. Self-causation of illness and its linkage to concepts of community and of the 'natural lottery' is then briefly examined. It is concluded that (1) community implies a social contract which, in order to be conceived in the first place, necessitates more than a minimalist ethic: to come about, a degree of beneficence inspiring trust is presupposed; (2) conceiving community narrowly is neither what we ordinarily do when we think of the term nor, for that matter, workable in our world.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. ‘Let me dream on!’ Anticipatory emotions and preference for timing in lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Krawczyk, M.; van Winden, F.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze one of the explanations why people participate in lotteries. Our hypothesis stipulates that part of the value that a unit of money buys in lotteries is consumed before the actual resolution in the form of emotions such as hope. In other words, a person holding a lottery ticket may prefer

  8. 'Let me dream on!': anticipatory emotions and preference for timing in lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.; Krawczyk, M.; van Winden, F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze one of the explanations why people participate in lotteries. Our hypothesis stipulates that part of the value that a unit of money buys in lotteries is consumed before the actual resolution in the form of emotions such as hope. In other words, a person holding a lottery ticket may prefer

  9. The Allocation of Lottery Revenue to Education in Florida, California, Michigan, and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Pamela J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the public's misconception about lotteries' intended purpose and actual use. To avoid attacks on its legitimacy (and bloated bureaucratic structure), government is relying on lotteries as policy tools. Generating public funds through lotteries appears to meet education's needs while masking the relative drop in tax-based public finance.…

  10. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  11. Are your numbers up? The psychological appeal of lotteries

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    Playing on national lottery games is one of the most popular forms of gambling worldwide and they are also growing in popularity in their many online incarnations. But what is the psychological appeal of an activity where the odds of winning huge jackpot prizes are usually infinitesimal? For instance, the odds of winning the EuroMillions lottery are 76 million to one. I often joke that you would get better odds of Elvis Presley landing on the moon on the back of the Loch Ness Monster!

  12. Draft lottery effects on schooling, earnings and the next generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Markwardt, Kristoffer; Ehrenstein, Vera

    Do parents with more schooling have children with more schooling because of their schooling? To identify the effect on offspring schooling, we study fathers subject to a peacetime military draft lottery in Denmark, a lottery providing exogenous schooling variation. The father-offspring schooling...... correlation is 12 percent after controlling for father cognitive test scores and grandparent schooling. We find that father random assignment to nine months of military service reduces father’s schooling by nine months, implying a return to schooling of 4.9 percent and a reduction in father’s lifetime...

  13. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  14. Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http

  15. First Images from VLT Science Verification Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Two Weeks of Intensive Observations Successfully Concluded After a period of technical commissioning tests, the first 8.2-m telescope of the ESO VLT (UT1) has successfully performed an extensive series of "real science" observations , yielding nearly 100 hours of precious data. They concern all possible types of astronomical objects, from distant galaxies and quasars to pulsars, star clusters and solar system objects. This intensive Science Verification (SV) Programme took place as planned from August 17 to September 1, 1998, and was conducted by the ESO SV Team at the VLT Observatory on Paranal (Chile) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). The new giant telescope lived fully up to the high expectations and worked with spectacular efficiency and performance through the entire period. All data will be released by September 30 via the VLT archive and the web (with some access restrictions - see below). The Science Verification period Just before the beginning of the SV period, the 8.2-m primary mirror in its cell was temporarily removed in order to install the "M3 tower" with the tertiary mirror [1]. The reassembly began on August 15 and included re-installation at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT Test Camera that was also used for the "First Light" images in May 1998. After careful optical alignment and various system tests, the UT1 was handed over to the SV Team on August 17 at midnight local time. The first SV observations began immediately thereafter and the SV Team was active 24 hours a day throughout the two-week period. Video-conferences between Garching and Paranal took place every day at about noon Garching time (6 o'clock in the morning on Paranal). Then, while the Paranal observers were sleeping, data from the previous night were inspected and reduced in Garching, with feedback on what was best to do during the following night being emailed to Paranal several hours in advance of the beginning of the observations. The campaign ended in the

  16. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  17. The effects of Montessori education: evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Montessori education, even though many students in many countries are educated in Montessori classrooms. This study investigates the causal effects of Montessori secondary education by exploiting admission lotteries in Dutch Montessori schools. The results

  18. Advertising as a Reminder : Evidence from the Dutch State Lottery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Chen; Klein, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    We use high frequency data on TV and radio advertising together with data on online sales for lottery tickets to measure the short run effects of advertising. We find them to be strong and to last for up to about 4 hours. They are the bigger the less time there is until the draw. We develop the

  19. Did the Gamemakers Fix the Lottery in the Hunger Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…

  20. 15 CFR 0.735-17 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 0.735-17 Section 0.735-17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce EMPLOYEE... organizational support or for benefit or welfare funds for their own members) and similar agency-approved...

  1. The influence of lotteries on employees' workplace HIV testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of lotteries on employees' workplace HIV testing behaviour. ... The findings point to the importance of providing workers with an opportunity to openly discuss HIV testing thus allowing mitigation of HIV stigma and discrimination and permitting HIV testing to become socially sanctioned and seen as part of a ...

  2. Teaching Mathematics for Spatial Justice: An Investigation of the Lottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Laurie H.; Lim, Vivian Y.; Hall-Wieckert, Maren; Sullivan, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    This article explores integrating place-based education with critical mathematics toward teaching mathematics for spatial justice. "Local Lotto," a curricular module with associated digital tools, was designed to investigate the lottery as a critical spatial phenomenon and piloted in urban high schools. This article describes findings…

  3. Examining the gambling behaviors of Chinese online lottery gamblers: are they rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we explore a unique Chinese peer to peer (P2P) online lottery gambling data (n = 388,123) and examine the rationality of Chinese online lottery gamblers. We show that Chinese online lottery gamblers are irrational in the sense that they are significantly affected by the lottery winning history of others even though this winning history is shown to be merely an exogenous random shock. Specifically, in this Chinese P2P online lottery gambling game, some of the lottery gamblers (named the proposers) propose lottery packages first, and then, other lottery gamblers (named the followers) will follow by choosing among the different packages and deciding on how much to purchase. The past lottery winning return rate of each proposer is provided as public information and calculated as the ratio between her past winning money and wager. It is shown that this past return rate is merely a random shock because winning in the past cannot predict anything about the performance in the future. However, we find that Chinese online P2P lottery gamblers are significantly more likely to join a lottery package if it is proposed by proposers with higher return rates.

  4. VLT-MAD Observations of Trumpler 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochau, B.; Brandner, W.; Stolte, A.; Henning, T.; da Rio, N.; Gennaro, M.; Hormuth, F.; Marchetti, E.; Amico, P.

    We present H and KS observations of the young massive cluster Trumpler 14 obtained with the MCAO system VLT-MAD which provides homogeneous Strehl ratios over a large field of view. We derived maximum Strehl ratios of 9.8% and 12.6% with mean Strehl ratios of 6.0% and 5.9% with in H and K_S, respectively, revealing significant improvement of the spatial PSF stability compared to SCAO systems. We detected 2-3 times more sources than comparable seeing-limited observations, and comparison of the colour-magnitude diagram with isochrones reveals a very young cluster that originated in a starburst-like event 1 ± 0.5 Myr ago. We also tentatively detect hints for an older population of 3 Myr. The mass function between 0.25 Msun and 3.2 Msun appears as a broken power law with a change of the power law slope at m_c ˜ 0.53+0.12-0.10 Msun. Shallow power law slopes are found to be Gamma_{PD,PMS1} = ˜ 0.48 ± 0.11 above m_c and Gamma_{PD,PMS2} = 0.68 ± 0.30 below m_c.

  5. Framing effects in choices between multioutcome life-expectancy lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, L M; Chapman, G B; Elstein, A S

    1999-01-01

    To explore framing or editing effects and a method to debias framing in a clinical context. Clinical scenarios using multioutcome life-expectancy lotteries of equal value required choices between two supplementary drugs that either prolonged or shortened life from the 20-year beneficial effect of a baseline drug. The effects of these supplementary drugs were presented in two conditions, using a between-subjects design. In segregated editing (n = 116) the effects were presented separately from the effects of the baseline drug. In integrated editing (n = 100), effects of supplementary and baseline drugs were combined in the lottery presentation. Each subject responded to 30 problems. To explore one method of debiasing, another 100 subjects made choices after viewing both segregated and integrated editings of 20 problems (dual framing). Statistically significant preference reversals between segregated and integrated editing of pure lotteries occurred only when one framing placed outcomes in the gain domain, and the other framing placed them in the loss domain. When both editings resulted in gain-domain outcomes only, there was no framing effect. There was a related relationship of framing-effect shifts from losses to gains in mixed-lottery-choice problems. Responses to the dual framing condition did not consistently coincide with responses to either single framing. In some situations, dual framing eliminated or lessened framing effects. The results support two components of prospect theory, coding outcomes as gains or losses from a reference point, and an s-shaped utility function (concave in gain, convex in loss domains). Presenting both alternative editings of a complex situation prior to choice more fully informs the decision maker and may help to reduce framing effects. Given the extent to which preferences shift in response to alternative presentations, it is unclear which choice represents the subject's "true preferences."

  6. The influence of lotteries on employees' workplace HIV testing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Baasner-Weihs, Friederike

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to understand how lottery incentives influenced the HIV counselling and testing (HCT) behaviour and behaviour intention of shop-floor workers who participated in a workplace HCT campaign initiative in two companies in the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality, South Africa. A post-test only quasi-experimental approach was used. The data were first collected, using a self-administered cross-sectional survey instrument, among the control group (n = 88) followed by the experimental group (n = 110) after the advent of HIV testing and lotteries was announced. HIV testing behaviour data were collected on the days of the HIV testing events. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as guiding theory. Principal component analysis (PCA), t- and chi-square tests, and logistic regression were conducted to analyse the data. A significant increase in the mean scores of the experimental as compared to the control condition for the subjective norm's construct (t = -3.55, p < 0.001) and HIV testing behaviour intention (χ 2 = 12.35, p < 0.001) was measured following the announcement of lottery incentives. The constructs of TPB explained 40% of the variance in HCT behaviour intention (R 2 = 0.40). The strongest predictor of behaviour intention was the subjective norm (B = 0.435 and p < 0.001), followed by the attitudinal component (B = 0.323 and p = 0.040). The announcement of lotteries made shop-floor workers develop a stronger intention to participate in workplace HIV testing through anticipation of stronger social support and encouragement. It was not possible to link behaviour intention to behaviour due to missing data. The findings point to the importance of providing workers with an opportunity to openly discuss HIV testing thus allowing mitigation of HIV stigma and discrimination and permitting HIV testing to become socially sanctioned and seen as part of a collective effort.

  7. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.

  8. Stress Induces Contextual Blindness in Lotteries and Coordination Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Brocas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study how stress affects risk taking in three tasks: individual lotteries, Stag Hunt (coordination games, and Hawk-Dove (anti-coordination games. Both control and stressed subjects take more risks in all three tasks when the value of the safe option is decreased and in lotteries when the expected gain is increased. Also, subjects take longer to take decisions when stakes are high, when the safe option is less attractive and in the conceptually more difficult Hawk-Dove game. Stress (weakly increases reaction times in those cases. Finally, our main result is that the behavior of stressed subjects in lotteries, Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove are all highly predictive of each other (p-value < 0.001 for all three pairwise correlations. Such strong relationship is not present in our control group. Our results illustrate a “contextual blindness” caused by stress. The mathematical and behavioral tensions of Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove games are axiomatically different, and we should expect different behavior across these games, and also with respect to the individual task. A possible explanation for the highly significant connection across tasks in the stress condition is that stressed subjects habitually rely on one mechanism to make a decision in all contexts whereas unstressed subjects utilize a more cognitively flexible approach.

  9. Distributed Random Process for a Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Lottery

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, Stéphane; Riemann, Robert

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Most online lotteries today fail to ensure the verifiability of the random process and rely on a trusted third party. This issue has received little attention since the emergence of distributed protocols like Bitcoin that demonstrated the potential of protocols with no trusted third party. We argue that the security requirements of online lotteries are similar to those of online voting, and propose a novel distributed online lottery protocol that applies techniques dev...

  10. Lottery promotions at the point-of-sale in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinac, Lynn C; Cohen, Joanna E; Reynolds, Jennifer; Robinson, Daniel J; Lavack, Anne; Korn, David

    2011-06-01

    We documented the extent of point-of-sale (POS) lottery promotions in Ontario, Canada and the relationship between lottery promotions and store and city characteristics. This is the first quantitative study of POS lottery promotions. A total of 366 stores-independent and chain convenience stores, gas stations and grocery stores-were visited across 20 cities in Ontario. Data collectors unobtrusively observed the type of lottery promotions in each store and completed a data collection checklist. A lottery promotion index was created and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was conducted to examine the relationship between extent of lottery promotions and independent variables such as neighbourhood socioeconomic status and city prevalence of lottery ticket purchasing. POS lottery promotions were widespread across Ontario, with the highest level of promotion found in independent convenience stores. In the multivariable HLM model, none of the remaining independent variables remained statistically significant, except for store type. Lottery promotions are extensive at the POS in Ontario. These findings can help initiate discussions around the appropriateness and possible future regulation of this form of advertising.

  11. A Milestone for the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Less than one month after "First Light" for the fourth 8.2-m YEPUN telescope ( ESO PR 18/00 ), another special moment occurred at ESO's Paranal Observatory. This time, it was the first truly "underground" event, in the 168-metre long Interferometric Tunnel that has been dug beneath the platform at the top of the mountain. As one staff member remarked on this occasion, it was something like "the first scheduled trip of the Paranal metro"! With the successful integration of the first Delay Line on Monday, September 25th, 2000, ESO has accomplished another important step towards the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It will be followed by the integration of the second Delay Line by the end of November and the third is scheduled for February 2001; both are now in their final development phase in Europe. "VLTI First Light" is then expected to take place soon thereafter, by means of two small special telescopes ("siderostats"). The combination of the light beams from two of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes will happen in mid-2001. The VLTI Delay Lines The VLTI Delay Lines form essential parts of this very complicated optical system. They serve to ensure that the light beams from several telescopes arrive in phase at the common interferometric focus. Details about how they function may be found in ESO PR 04/98. In order to achieve the necessary performance, ESO has worked with two Dutch contractors, Fokker Space and TNO-TPD - Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research - Institute of Applied Physics , to arrive at a totally new Delay Line concept. Another Dutch participant in the VLTI project is the Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) , cf. ESO PR 14/00. The installation at Paranal The last twelve months have been very busy for the integration team, with much preparatory work at the VLTI buildings for the final installation of the Delay Line systems. The assembly of the translation mechanisms for the first two Delay Lines in the tunnel started in mid-2000. This included

  12. Ride Your Luck! A Field Experiment on Lottery-Based Incentives for Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fabbri (Marco); P.N. Barbieri (Paolo); M. Bigoni (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe designed a natural-field experiment in the context of local public transportation to test whether rewards in the form of lottery prizes coupled with traditional sanctions efficiently reduce free-riding. We organized a lottery in a medium-size Italian city the participation in which is

  13. How Not to Strike it Rich: Semantics, Pragmatics, and Semiotics of a Massachusetts Lottery Game Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the Massachusetts State Lottery Commission released for sale a new "instant lottery ticket" "scratch-and-play" game card named "Caesars [sic] Palace[R]" (played by scratching the surface of each card at designated spots to reveal hidden numbers or images). It offered ten grand prizes of $1,000,000 each and a…

  14. The own and social effects of an unexpected income shock: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, P.J.; Kooreman, P.; Soetevent, A.R.; Kapteyn, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the Dutch Postcode Lottery a postal code (19 households on average) is randomly selected weekly, and prizes - consisting of cash and a new BMW - are awarded to lottery participants living in that postal code. On average, this generates a temporary, unexpected income shock equal to about eight

  15. Lived Experiences of Diversity Visa Lottery Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tekleab Elos; Mendoza, Bernadette M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.; Richard, Veronica M.

    2012-01-01

    Every year approximately 50,000 people immigrate to the United States through the avenue referred to as the Diversity Visa (DV) Lottery. In this article, the authors present a literature review of immigration to the U.S. through the DV Lottery, reflect on their own immigration histories, and utilize phenomenology to investigate and describe…

  16. Jackpot? Gender Differences in the Effects of Lottery Wins on Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boertien, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, information on small to modest lottery wins from the British Household Panel Survey (N = 2,563) was used to investigate the effect of income on separation. The analysis demonstrated that money matters within relationships. Lottery wins temporarily reduced the odds of separation after men won. Men spent more on leisure and became…

  17. The science case of the CHEOPS planet finder for VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gratton, R.; Feldt, M.; Schmid, H.M.; Brandner, W.; Hippler, S.; Neuhauser, R.; Quirrenbach, A.; Desidera, S.; Turatto, M.; Stam, D.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The CHEOPS Planet Finder is one of the proposed second generation instruments for the VLT. Its purpose is to image and characterize giant extrasolar planets in different phases of their evolution: young, warm planets as well as old, cold ones. Imaging the last ones is the most challenging task

  18. Evolution of the VLT instrument control system toward industry standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Zins, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The VLT control system is a large distributed system consisting of Linux Workstations providing the high level coordination and interfaces to the users, and VME-based Local Control Units (LCU's) running the VxWorks real-time operating system with commercial and proprietary boards acting as the interface to the instrument functions. After more than 10 years of VLT operations, some of the applied technologies used by the astronomical instruments are being discontinued making it difficult to find adequate hardware for future projects. In order to deal with this obsolescence, the VLT Instrumentation Framework is being extended to adopt well established Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components connected through industry standard fieldbuses. This ensures a flexible state of the art hardware configuration for the next generation VLT instruments allowing the access to instrument devices via more compact and simpler control units like PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC's). It also makes it possible to control devices directly from the Instrument Workstation through a normal Ethernet connection. This paper outlines the requirements that motivated this work, as well as the architecture and the design of the framework extension. In addition, it describes the preliminary results on a use case which is a VLTI visitor instrument used as a pilot project to validate the concepts and the suitability of some COTS products like a PC-based PLCs, EtherCAT8 and OPC UA6 as solutions for instrument control.

  19. The design of the MOONS-VLT spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliva, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Gratton, R.; Lorenzetti, D.; Schipani, P.; Scuderi, S.; Vanzella, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Kaper, L.; Vanzi, L.; Baffa, C.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bruno, P.; Carbonaro, L.; Centrone, M.; Cresci, G.; De Caprio, V.; Del Vecchio, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Di Paola, A.; D'Alessio, F.; D'Alessandro, M.; D'Orsi, S.; Falcini, G.; Ferruzzi, D.; Fontana, A.; Foppiani, I.; Fumana, M.; Giani, E.; Leone, F.; Li Causi, G.; Lombini, M.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Marty, L.; Miglietta, L.; Munari, M.; Navarro, R.; Origlia, L.; Paioro, L.; Pedichini, F.; Pragt, J.; Randich, S.; Scodeggio, M.; Spano, P.; Speziali, R.; Stuik, R.; Tozzi, A.; Vitali, F.

    2012-01-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a multi-object spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will provide the ESO astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to serve a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies. The instrument foresees 1000

  20. The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Langer, N.; Brott, I.; Hunter, I.; Smartt, S.J.; Lennon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars was an ESO Large Programme to understand rotational mixing and stellar mass loss in different metallicity environments, in order to better constrain massive star evolution. We gathered high-quality spectra of over 800 stars in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic

  1. Where Lies the Harm in Lottery Gambling? A Portrait of Gambling Practices and Associated Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Jean-Michel; Kairouz, Sylvia; Monson, Eva; Eroukmanoff, Vincent

    2018-03-13

    Lotteries are one of the most prevalent forms of gambling and generate substantial state revenues. They are also argued to be one of the least harmful forms of gambling. This paper is one of the first to examine exclusive lottery gamblers and compares their gambling patterns and problems as well other associated risky behaviours to those who are not exclusive lottery gamblers. Data were derived from two large surveys conducted with representative adult samples in France (n = 15,635) and Québec (n = 23,896). Participants were separated into two groups: exclusive lottery gamblers (ELGs) and non-exclusive lottery gamblers. Using multivariate analysis, study results reveal that ELGs, who represent two thirds of gamblers, generally exhibit less intensive gambling patterns and are less likely to report other risky behaviours. However, harms associated with moderate risk and problem gambling are found to be concentrated in specific subpopulations for both groups, primarily males, older individuals, and those who report lower income and education level. Given widespread participation in lotteries and concentration of harm within specific subgroups, these findings point to the need for prevention efforts despite the lower levels of harm associated with lottery gambling.

  2. Physical activity after commitment lotteries: examining long-term results in a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Berkhout, Stef; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-02-26

    To overcome self-control difficulties, people can commit to their health goals by voluntarily accepting deadlines with consequences. In a commitment lottery, the winners are drawn from all participants, but can only claim their prize if they also attained their gym-attendance goals. In a 52-week, three-arm trial across six company gyms, we tested if commitment lotteries with behavioral economic underpinnings would promote physical activity among overweight adults. In previous work, we presented an effective 26-week intervention. In the present paper we analyzed maintenance of goal attainment at 52-week follow-up and the development of weight over time. We compared weight and goal attainment (gym attendance ≥ 2 per week) between three arms that-in the intervention period- consisted of (I) weekly short-term lotteries for 13 weeks; (II) the same short-term lotteries in combination with an additional long-term lottery after 26 weeks; and (III) a control arm without lottery-deadlines. After a successful 26-week intervention, goal attainment declined between weeks 27 and 52 in the long-term lottery arm, but remained higher than in the control group. Goal attainment did not differ between the short-term lottery arm and control arm. Weight declined slightly in all arms in the first 13 weeks of the trial and remained stable from there on. Commitment lotteries can support regular gym attendance up to 52 weeks, but more research is needed to achieve higher levels of maintenance and weight loss.

  3. Gambling-Related Attitudes and Behaviors in Adolescents Having Received Instant (Scratch) Lottery Tickets as Gifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Priya V.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Instant (scratch) lottery ticket gambling is popular among adolescents. Prior research has not determined whether adolescents’ gambling behavior and attitudes toward gambling are influenced by the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 2,002 Connecticut high school students with past-year gambling were analyzed using bivariate approaches and logistic regression analyses. Interactions between gambling-problem severity and lottery-gift status were examined in relation to multiple outcomes. Results Adolescents who received a scratch lottery ticket as a gift compared with those who did not were more likely to report features of problem gambling, buy scratch lottery tickets for themselves, and buy and receive other types of lottery tickets; they were also less likely to report parental disapproval of gambling and to see gambling prevention efforts as important. Later (≥15 years) age-at-gambling-onset was inversely linked to gambling-problem severity in the lottery gift group (odds ratio [OR] = .38) but not in the nongift group (OR = .91), yielding a significant severity by gift status interaction. Other academic, health, and gambling-related correlates of gambling-problem severity were similar in the gift and nongift groups. Conclusions For adolescents, the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts during childhood or adolescence was associated with risky/problematic gambling and with gambling-related attitudes, behaviors, and views suggesting greater gambling acceptability. The extent to which the receipt of scratch lottery tickets may promote gambling behaviors and the development of gambling problems warrants consideration. Education, prevention, and treatment strategies should incorporate findings relating to receipt of gambling products by underage individuals. PMID:23299004

  4. Right to Health, negate theories , Lottery and Minimum Decent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maria Barbosa Ramos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the theory that deny the right to health in order to highlight the fragility of arguments and demonstrate the ability to build a ethical justification for gua- ranteeing the right to health. Highlights the complexity of the right to health and the universality of their ownership, as well as discusses the identification of the right to health with the right to social assistance. It analyzes the theories of denial of the right to health from a proposal that presents libertarian. Noteworthy is the discussion on the relations proposed by this theory, between the right to health and the right to property, in order to justify the setting of a minimal state. We put in evidence the idea of  n atural and social lotteries, the duty of beneficence and the idea of   decent minimum, to introduce a reflec- tion on the health market.

  5. Erroneous verbalizations and risk taking at video lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Anne; Ladouceur, Robert

    2003-05-01

    This study examined the effect of erroneous perceptions verbalized by a game accomplice on participants' gambling. The sample consisted of 22 men and 10 women, aged 18 and older, who did not show excessive gambling problems, but who had played video lotteries at least once during the last 6 months. The participants were randomly assigned into one of three groups, where they gambled in the presence of an accomplice who verbalized three types of perceptions: (1) the accomplice emitted erroneous thoughts about gambling, (2) the accomplice verbalized adequate thoughts about gambling, or (3) the accomplice did not speak. Results showed that players exposed to an accomplice's erroneous verbalizations took significantly more risks than players in the other two groups. Erroneous perceptions appear to be easily transmissible and have impacts on gambling behaviour. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Transformational change in the SA gambling and lotteries sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Lill

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the transformation of the South African gaming and casino sub-sector after South Africa's democratic dispensation in 1994 and the National Gambling Act (33 of 1996. These developments introduced an adapt-or-die scenario to the gambling and lotteries sector leading to a total overhaul of strategy, structure, systems, processes, technology, work, culture, behaviour and mindset. More specifically, Sun International's gaming and casino division's response to transformational change was examined by tapping into, and reflecting on, the experiences of managers involved in day-to-day casino operations. Design: The conceptual framework of the research is based on transformation as a form of change where business principles and people management are highly integrated. Subsequently, a user-friendly tool called the "See-Saw model" was developed to measure transformational progress. The model was applied in six change management workshops for casino managers and, from this framework, transformational progress was interpreted. Findings: The results highlighted the magnitude of change in the gambling and lotteries sector. It appeared that this sector has evolved in 10 year cycles up to 2000, whereas the current level of competitiveness fuels the demand for innovation and change in less than two year cycles. The second significant finding revolved around employees' perception that Sun International's gaming and casinos division has performed well in terms of value innovation variables. Implications: The study confirmed that, in successful transformation, business innovation needs to be balanced by fairness principles. Moreover, that the threat-rigidity in leader and employee mindset has become a most challenging people management puzzle to position in securing sustainable competitive advantage. Originality: The value of the research lies in the development of a user-friendly, non-threatening strategic tool called the "see-saw model

  7. ESPRESSO: projecting a rocky exoplanet hunter for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Denis; Herreros, José-Miguel; Zerbi, Filippo; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.

    2010-07-01

    ESPRESSO is a high-resolution, highly stable spectrograph for the VLT. It will inherit and enhance most capabilities from HARPS and UVES, combining both stability and efficiency. The main science driver will be the detection and characterization of Earth-like planets, but many additional science cases will benefit from its highly stable spectroscopic observations. The facility will be installed at the combined Coudé focus of the VLT and may be linked with any of the four UT telescopes, enabling thus a great flexibility for the efficient use of telescope time. This particularity makes the interface with the VLT more complex than for an instrument fed by a single telescope. It impacts on the complexity of the relationship between the consortium providing the instrument and ESO, the customer. The targeted high RV accuracy requires very high performances in stability and resolution, which in turn require adequate technical solutions at several levels. This paper describes the instrument system and subsystems, enlightening the most valuable differences between ESPRESSO and it's predecessors, the details of the project, entering now the design phases, the ESPRESSO consortium, composed of Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swiss institutes, and the relationship between the consortium and ESO.

  8. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  9. Workshop “Science with the VLT in the ELT Era”

    CERN Document Server

    Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop ‘Science with the VLT in the ELT era’ was organised by ESO as a forum for the astronomical community to debate its expected future use of ESO’s Very Large Telescope ( and its VLTI interferometric mode) when other facilities such as ALMA, JWST and, hopefully, at least one extremely large 30-40m class telescope will be operating. VLT/I science highlights were presented, future science priorities argued, synergies between the VLT and the future facilities confirmed and specific new VLT/I instruments proposed.

  10. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  11. Demand response scheme based on lottery-like rebates

    KAUST Repository

    Schwartz, Galina A.; Tembine, Hamidou; Amin, Saurabh; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel mechanism for reducing volatility of residential demand for electricity. We construct a reward-based (rebate) mechanism that provides consumers with incentives to shift their demand to off-peak time. In contrast to most other mechanisms proposed in the literature, the key feature of our mechanism is its modest requirements on user preferences, i.e., it does not require exact knowledge of user responsiveness to rewards for shifting their demand from the peak to the off-peak time. Specifically, our mechanism utilizes a probabilistic reward structure for users who shift their demand to the off-peak time, and is robust to incomplete information about user demand and/or risk preferences. We approach the problem from the public good perspective, and demonstrate that the mechanism can be implemented via lottery-like schemes. Our mechanism permits to reduce the distribution losses, and thus improve efficiency of electricity distribution. Finally, the mechanism can be readily incorporated into the emerging demand response schemes (e.g., the time-of-day pricing, and critical peak pricing schemes), and has security and privacy-preserving properties.

  12. Demand response scheme based on lottery-like rebates

    KAUST Repository

    Schwartz, Galina A.

    2014-08-24

    In this paper, we develop a novel mechanism for reducing volatility of residential demand for electricity. We construct a reward-based (rebate) mechanism that provides consumers with incentives to shift their demand to off-peak time. In contrast to most other mechanisms proposed in the literature, the key feature of our mechanism is its modest requirements on user preferences, i.e., it does not require exact knowledge of user responsiveness to rewards for shifting their demand from the peak to the off-peak time. Specifically, our mechanism utilizes a probabilistic reward structure for users who shift their demand to the off-peak time, and is robust to incomplete information about user demand and/or risk preferences. We approach the problem from the public good perspective, and demonstrate that the mechanism can be implemented via lottery-like schemes. Our mechanism permits to reduce the distribution losses, and thus improve efficiency of electricity distribution. Finally, the mechanism can be readily incorporated into the emerging demand response schemes (e.g., the time-of-day pricing, and critical peak pricing schemes), and has security and privacy-preserving properties.

  13. VLT instruments: industrial solutions for non-scientific detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, P.; Knudstrup, J.; Lilley, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Mannetta, M.

    2014-07-01

    Recent improvements in industrial vision technology and products together with the increasing need for high performance, cost efficient technical detectors for astronomical instrumentation have led ESO with the contribution of INAF to evaluate this trend and elaborate ad-hoc solutions which are interoperable and compatible with the evolution of VLT standards. The ESPRESSO spectrograph shall be the first instrument deploying this technology. ESO's Technical CCD (hereafter TCCD) requirements are extensive and demanding. A lightweight, low maintenance, rugged and high performance TCCD camera product or family of products is required which can operate in the extreme environmental conditions present at ESO's observatories with minimum maintenance and minimal downtime. In addition the camera solution needs to be interchangeable between different technical roles e.g. slit viewing, pupil and field stabilization, with excellent performance characteristics under a wide range of observing conditions together with ease of use for the end user. Interoperability is enhanced by conformance to recognized electrical, mechanical and software standards. Technical requirements and evaluation criteria for the TCCD solution are discussed in more detail. A software architecture has been adopted which facilitates easy integration with TCCD's from different vendors. The communication with the devices is implemented by means of dedicated adapters allowing usage of the same core framework (business logic). The preference has been given to cameras with an Ethernet interface, using standard TCP/IP based communication. While the preferred protocol is the industrial standard GigE Vision, not all vendors supply cameras with this interface, hence proprietary socket-based protocols are also acceptable with the provision of a validated Linux compliant API. A fundamental requirement of the TCCD software is that it shall allow for a seamless integration with the existing VLT software framework

  14. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour. Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize. Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation. Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff. Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279. Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the

  15. [Forms of pathological gambling: empirical research on consumers behaviour of sport betting and lottery participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöntzke, Babett; Albrecht, Ulrike; Thalemann, Carolin; Grüsser, Sabine Miriam

    2004-08-01

    Gambling is one of the favourite leisure activities. 70-90 % of the grown-up population have gambled at least once in their life. Over the last few years, however, the variety of opportunities to gamble has changed. Decreasing numbers of casino visitors can be seen against an ever-increasing number of people using slot machines, and taking part in national lotteries and sport betting. Comprehensive empirical research regarding consumer behaviour and addiction potential involved in sport betting has been non-existent and only a few studies have dealt with lottery. In the present study, 108 subjects were questioned in Austrian betting offices. 33.3 % of the sample fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for pathological sport betting. Of the sport betting subjects who additionally play lottery, 22.92 % were diagnosed as being pathological lottery gamblers. Based on the criteria of substance addiction, the data demonstrate that sport betting and lottery have addiction potential and can therefore be seen as non-substance-related addiction.

  16. Understanding the Impact of Lottery Incentives on Web Survey Participation and Response Quality: A Leverage-Salience Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Lonn, Steven; Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative evidence is mixed regarding the effect of lottery incentives on survey participation; little is known about why this strategy sometimes works and other times fails. We examined two factors that can influence the effectiveness of lottery incentives as suggested by leverage-salience theory: emphasis of survey attributes in invitations and…

  17. Decision-making in state lotteries: half now or all of it later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Forest; Johnson, Matthew W; Bickel, Warren K

    2003-12-01

    Many state lotteries offer players a choice between receiving roughly half of the jackpot immediately and receiving the entire jackpot over 25 annual payments. This requires players to make a decision that involves uncertainty, delay, and large amounts of real money. Archival data on lottery players' jackpot payment decisions were collected from seven state and three multistate lotteries. Players' jackpot payment preferences were assessed at the time of ticket purchase and after winning a jackpot. Preference for the annuity payment option significantly decreased as jackpot size increased, both at the time of ticket purchase and after winning. Furthermore, a significant proportion of winners who selected the annuity payment option at ticket purchase switched to the cash payment option after winning, whereas no winners switched from the cash to the annuity option after winning. These findings suggest that real-world choices involving large sums of money may be subject to diminishing marginal utility and probability and delay discounting.

  18. Sociodemographic Correlates and Morbidity in Lottery Gamblers: Results from a Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Tang, Benjamin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the socio-demographic correlates, the association of mental and physical illness, and the prevalence of pathological gambling among three groups (1) those with lottery gambling only (2) those with lottery and other types of gambling and (3) those with other types of gambling only-such as playing cards, sports betting, horse racing, casino gambling etc. Data was used from a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological nationally representative survey of the resident (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) population in Singapore of 6616 Singaporean adults aged 18 years and older. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and relevant socio-demographic data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Lottery gambling was by far the most popular form of gambling in Singapore, with 83.5 % of those who had ever gambled indicating that they had participated in lottery gambling. Those who participated in lottery gambling alone were more likely to belong to the older age group (as compared to the 18-35 years age group), be of Indian ethnicity, have a secondary or vocational education, and earn a lower income as compared to the other two groups. Our findings that those with pure lottery gambling were significantly less likely to be pathological gamblers and had significantly lower odds of psychiatric and physical morbidity as compared to the other two groups are unique and need further research.

  19. Improving VAT Compliance in Romania by Implementing a New Tool – Tax Lottery Receipts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Ungureanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present and explain the newly implemented measure of organizing a Tax Lottery Receipts in Romania, in orderto combat tax evasion by raising awareness among consumers and make them responsible when purchasing any goods.The lottery proposes an approach to strengthen the fiscal voluntary conformation by stimulating financially those who promote respecting the law – asking for the fiscal receipt, and helpthe fiscal authorities this way in the fight against tax evasion, contrasting at the same time with punishing those who do not respect it – not issuing fiscal receipts.

  20. Software and control system for the VLT Survey Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipani, P; Marty, L; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Argomedo, J; Arcidiacono, C; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2013-01-01

    The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) has started the regular operations in 2011 after a successful commissioning at Cerro Paranal (Chile), the site which hosts the best facilities for optical astronomy operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). After a short description of the instrument, this paper mainly focuses on the telescope control software, which is in charge of the real-time control of the hardware and of the overall coordination of the operations, including pointing and tracking, active optics and presets. We describe the main features of the software implementation in the context of the ESO observatory standards, and the goals reached during the commissioning phase and in the first year of operations.

  1. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The REOSC Contract In 1989, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the European Organisation for Astronomy, awarded to REOSC, a subsidiary of the SFIM Group and located in Saint Pierre du Perray (France), a comprehensive contract for the polishing of four 8.2-metre diameter mirrors for the unit telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) project. These mirrors are the largest ever manufactured and polished. This contract comprises not only the polishing and high-precision optical testing of each giant mirror, but also the safe condition of transportation of the blanks which were manufactured by Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). In order to fulfill the contract, REOSC conceived, built and equipped a novel, high-tech workshop which would allow to polish and test the mirrors, each of which has a surface area of more than 50 square metres. First 8.2-Metre Mirror is Ready and within Specifications The REOSC polishing facility for giant mirrors was built in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. It is equipped with two machines: one for grinding and the other for polishing the mirrors, and both with 150-actuator systems that support the thin and flexible mirrors. All equipment is computer controlled. State-of-the-art interferometers probe the accuracy of the mirror surface as the polishing proceeds; they are installed at the top level of the facility in a 30-metre high tower, at the centre of the mirror's radius of curvature. The success of the work at REOSC is now evident by the fact that careful measurements of the first mirror earlier this month have shown that the final optical surface is correct to within 0.00005 millimetres. For illustration, this corresponds to an accuracy of only 1 millimetre deviation over a surface with a diameter of 165 kilometres (equivalent to the entire Paris area)! ESO Receives the First VLT Mirror After having been carefully placed in a special transport box designed by REOSC, the first mirror blank, weighing 23.5 tons and

  2. Lottery Funded Scholarships in Tennessee: Increased Access but Weak Retention for Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menifield, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Student retention and low graduation rates are the most significant problems associated with state provided student aid. Evidence suggests that the problems are chronic to certain populations in state colleges and universities. This research examines lottery scholarship data to determine those factors that affect scholarship retention and…

  3. Of a Village Bomoh and the Lottery: Content Schemata Influence on Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi, Amizura Hanadi Mohd.; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a study on the aspects of content schemata in second language reading, focusing on two contemporary short stories, i.e. "A Quid of Sirih, A Bowl of Water" and "The Lottery." The study explores the cognitive processes of one UiTM Perlis degree level student, reflecting on his L2 reading processes. The…

  4. The effects of medical school on health outcomes: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; de Wolf, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of attending medical school on health outcomes by exploiting that admission to medical school in the Netherlands is determined by a lottery. Among the applicants for medical school, people who attended medical school have on average 1.5 more years of completed

  5. Physical activity after commitment lotteries : examining long-term results in a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Berkhout, Stef; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.

    2018-01-01

    To overcome self-control difficulties, people can commit to their health goals by voluntarily accepting deadlines with consequences. In a commitment lottery, the winners are drawn from all participants, but can only claim their prize if they also attained their gym-attendance goals. In a 52-week,

  6. Physical activity after commitment lotteries: examining long-term results in a cluster randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Berkhout, Stef; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-01-01

    To overcome self-control difficulties, people can commit to their health goals by voluntarily accepting deadlines with consequences. In a commitment lottery, the winners are drawn from all participants, but can only claim their prize if they also attained their gym-attendance goals. In a 52-week,

  7. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Reinders, Jan J.; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in

  8. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Very Promising Start-Up of New Adaptive Optics Instrument at Paranal Summary A team of astronomers and engineers from French and German research institutes and ESO at the Paranal Observatory is celebrating the successful accomplishment of "First Light" for the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility . With this event, another important milestone for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project has been passed. Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with the Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, this drawback can be overcome and the telescope produces images that are at the theoretical limit, i.e., as sharp as if it were in space . Adaptive Optics works by means of a computer-controlled, flexible mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence in real time. The larger the main mirror of the telescope is, and the shorter the wavelength of the observed light, the sharper will be the images recorded. During a preceding four-week period of hard and concentrated work, the expert team assembled and installed this major astronomical instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope (UT4). On November 25, 2001, following careful adjustments of this complex apparatus, a steady stream of photons from a southern star bounced off the computer-controlled deformable mirror inside NAOS and proceeded to form in CONICA the sharpest image produced so far by one of the VLT telescopes. With a core angular diameter of only 0.07 arcsec, this image is near the theoretical limit possible for a telescope of this size and at the infrared wavelength used for this demonstration (the K-band at 2.2 µm). Subsequent tests reached the spectacular performance of 0.04 arcsec in the J-band (wavelength 1.2 µm). "I am proud of this impressive achievement", says ESO Director General Catherine Cesarsky. "It shows the true potential of European science and technology and it provides a fine

  9. Development of a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an open-path optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, S.; Manap, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes about a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an optical method. VLT rate plays an important role in order to determine the visibility of a medium. Current instrument to measure visibility has a gigantic set up, costly and mostly fails to function at low light condition environment. This research focuses on the development of a VLT measurement system using a simple experimental set-up and at a low cost. An open path optical technique is used to measure a few series of known-VLT thin film that act as sample of different visibilities. This measurement system is able to measure the light intensity of these thin films within the visible light region (535-540 nm) and the response time is less than 1s.

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of VLT glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of more general studies of soils from Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2, glasses from the 79001/2 core are being analyzed by a multidisciplinary approach including SEM/EDS and INAA. Efforts are currently focused on VLT (very low-Ti; TiO2 less than 1 wt%) mare glasses, which are common in 79001/2 and have also been found in other Apollo 17 soils. One of the primary objectives is to determine whether any or all of the Apollo 17 VLT glasses represent pristine volcanic compositions. In addition, the range of VLT glass compositions and possible relationships between the glasses and VLT lithic samples, for which some geochemical data have been obtained previously, is being defined.

  11. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  12. Optical calibration and test of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2013-12-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT (ESO) represents the state-of-art of the large-format deformable mirror technology with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on actuator co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the results of the optical characterization of the mirror unit with the ASSIST facility located at ESO-Garching and executed in a collaborative effort by ESO, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.). The main purposes of the tests are the optical characterization of the shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions. The results are used for the optical acceptance of the DSM and to allow the next test phase coupling the DSM with the wave-front sensor modules of the new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of ESO.

  13. Imaging Red Supergiants with VLT/SPHERE/ZIMPOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Emily

    2018-04-01

    In the red supergiant (RSG) phase of evolution massive stars show powerful stellar winds, which strongly influence the supernova (progenitor) properties and control the nature of the compact object that is left behind. Material that is lost in the stellar wind, together with that ejected in the final core collapse, contributes to the chemical enrichment of the local interstellar medium. The mass-loss properties of RSGs are however poorly constrained. Moreover, little is known about the wind driving mechanism. To provide better constraints on both mass-loss rates and physics, high angular resolution observations are needed to unveil the inner regions of the circumstellar environment, where the mass loss is triggered. Using the VLT-SPHERE/ZIMPOL adaptive optics imaging polarimeter, spatially resolved images of four nearby RSGs were obtained in four filters. From these data, we obtain information on geometrical structures in the inner wind, the onset radius and spatial distribution of dust grains, and dust properties such as grain size. As dust grains may play a role in initiating and/or driving the outflow, this could provide us with clues as to the wind driving mechanism.

  14. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  15. Design and protocol of the weight loss lottery- a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2016-07-01

    People often intend to exercise but find it difficult to attend their gyms on a regular basis. At times, people seek and accept deadlines with consequences to realize their own goals (i.e. commitment devices). The aim of our cluster randomized controlled trial is to test whether a lottery-based commitment device can promote regular gym attendance. The winners of the lottery always get feedback on the outcome but can only claim their prize if they attended their gyms on a regular basis. In this paper we present the design and baseline characteristics of a three-arm trial which is performed with 163 overweight participants in six in-company fitness centers in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lucky Stores, Gambling, and Addiction: Empirical Evidence from State Lottery Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Guryan; Melissa S. Kearney

    2005-01-01

    There is a large body of literature in both psychology and economics documenting mistaken perceptions of randomness. In this paper we demonstrate that people appear to believe that "lightning will strike twice" when it comes to lottery jackpots. First, we show that in the week following the sale of a winning ticket, retailers that sell a winning jackpot ticket experience relative increases in game-specific ticket sales of between 12 and 38 percent, with the sales response increasing in the si...

  17. Increasing the energy conservation awareness using the influential power of a lottery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amruta Vijay

    This thesis presents an influence maximization-driven approach to promoting energy conservation awareness, with the objective to generate a competitive environment for energy consumption supervision. As consumers are typically reluctant to invest their time and effort in the activities beyond their business, an incentive-based distribution strategy is proposed to encourage consumers to actively take part in energy conservation. The key idea of the thesis lies in leveraging the consumer instincts as a driving factor for spreading positive social influence, via a smart lottery program. In the proposed framework, saving energy automatically increases the consumers' chances of winning the lottery, thereby motivating them to save more, while the smart winner selection will maximize the word-of-mouth effect of the program. The thesis collects and organizes a large body of literature in support of the claim that the spread of awareness in a social network can play a key role in the emergence of energy conscious behavior. It also reports on the findings of a survey conducted to determine the present day consumer perspective toward energy conservation and the level of influence required to motivate them to conserve more energy. Finally, a mathematical model for smart lottery winner selection is presented, and insightful observations are made concerning the properties of optimal solutions to tractable, small problem instances.

  18. Segmentation in low-penetration and low-involvement categories: an application to lottery games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesalaga, Rodrigo; Marshall, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Market segmentation is accepted as a fundamental concept in marketing and several authors have recently proposed a segmentation model where personal and environmental variables intersect with each other to form motivating conditions that drive behavior and preferences. This model of segmentation has been applied to packaged goods. This paper extends this literature by proposing a segmentation model for low-penetration and low involvement (LP-LI) products. An application to the lottery games in Chile supports the proposed model. The results of the study show that in this type of products (LP-LI), the attitude towards the product category is the most important factor that distinguishes consumers from non consumers, and heavy users from light users, and consequently, a critical segmentation variable. In addition, a cluster analysis shows the existence of three segments: (1) the impulsive dreamers, who believe in chance, and in that lottery games can change their life, (2) the skeptical, that do not believe in chance, nor in that lottery games can change their life and (3) the willing, who value the benefits of playing.

  19. Selected medical students achieve better than lottery-admitted students during clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlings-Strop, Louise C; Themmen, Axel P N; Stijnen, Theo; Splinter, Ted A W

    2011-10-01

    A recent controlled study by our group showed that the dropout rate in the first 2 years of study of medical students selected for entry by the assessment of a combination of non-cognitive and cognitive abilities was 2.6 times lower than that of a control group of students admitted by lottery. The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of these two groups in the clinical phase. A prospective cohort study was performed to compare the performance of 389 medical students admitted by selection with that of 938 students admitted by weighted lottery between 2001 and 2004. Follow-up of these cohorts lasted 5.5-8.5 years. The main outcome measures were the mean grade obtained on the first five discipline-specific clerkships by all cohorts and the mean grade achieved on all 10 clerkships by the cohorts of 2001 and 2002. Selected students obtained a significantly higher mean grade during their first five clerkships than lottery-admitted students (mean ± standard error [SE] 7.95 ± 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.00 versus mean ± SE 7.84 ± 0.02, 95% CI 7.81-7.87; p students achieved a grade of ≥ 8.0 1.5 times more often than lottery-admitted students. An analysis of all mean grades awarded on 10 clerkships revealed the same results. Moreover, the longer follow-up period over the clerkships showed that the relative risk for dropout was twice as low in the selected student group as in the lottery-admitted student group. The selected group received significantly higher mean grades on their first five clerkships, which could not be attributed to factors other than the selection procedure. Although the risk for dropout before the clinical phase increased somewhat in both groups, the actual dropout rate proved to be twice as low in the selected group. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  20. Surface composition of Europa based on VLT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, N.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a global salty ocean under an 80-170 km thick outer layer consisting of an icy crust (Anderson et al. 1998). Meanwhile, the 10-50 My old surface, dated by cratering rates (Pappalardo et al. 1999) implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing that could result in tectonic activity (Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface could thus exhibit fingerprints of chemical species, as minerals characteristics of an ocean-mantle interaction and/or organics of exobiological interest, directly originating from the subglacial ocean. In order to re-investigate the composition of Europa's surface, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) and large signal noise ratio in comparison to previous observations are adequate to detect sharp absorptions in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. In addition, the spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s ( 35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Several icy and non-icy compounds were detected and mapped at <100 km resolution. They are unevenly distributed on the moon's surface. Amorphous and crystalline water ice are both present and, in spite of a particularly strong amorphization process likely engendered by the Io plasma torus, the crystalline form is found to be approximately twice as abundant as the amorphous ice based on the analysis of the 1.65 μm band. If the surface is dominated by small and mid-sized water ice grains (25-200 μm), crystalline water-ice grains exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in their distribution. The sulfuric acid hydrate distribution exhibits the typical "bullseye" feature on the trailing hemisphere. The presence of Mg-bearing chlorinated salts (chloride

  1. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex

  2. The cost-effectiveness of cash versus lottery incentives for a web-based, stated-preference community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Aleksandra; Cameron, David; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a randomized experiment to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of response incentives for a stated-preference survey of a general community population. The survey was administered using a mixed-mode approach, in which community members were invited to participate using a traditional mailed letter using contact information for a representative sample of the community; but individuals completed the survey via the web, which exploited the advantages of electronic capture. Individuals were randomized to four incentive groups: (a) no incentive, (b) prepaid cash incentive ($2), (c) a low lottery (10 prizes of $25) and (d) a high lottery (2 prizes of $250). Letters of invitation were mailed to 3,000 individuals. In total, 405 individuals (14.4%) contacted the website and 277 (9.8%) provided complete responses. The prepaid cash incentive generated the highest contact and response rates (23.3 and 17.3%, respectively), and no incentive generated the lowest (9.1 and 5.7%, respectively). The high lottery, however, was the most cost-effective incentive for obtaining completed surveys: compared with no incentive, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per completed survey for high lottery was $13.89; for prepaid cash, the ICER was $18.29. This finding suggests that the preferred response incentive for community-based, stated-preference surveys is a lottery with a small number of large prizes.

  3. Real and hypothetical endowment effects when exchanging lottery tickets: Is regret a better explanation than loss aversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Christoph; Kühberger, Anton; Gilhofer, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    The endowment effect is the finding that possession of an item adds to its value. We introduce a new procedure for testing this effect: participants are divided into two groups. Possession group participants inspect a numbered lottery ticket and know it is theirs, while inspection group participants only inspect a lottery ticket without being endowed with it. Subsequently participants choose between playing the lottery with this (possessed or inspected) ticket, or exchanging it for another one. Our procedure tests for the effect of endowment while controlling for the influence of transaction costs as well as for inspection effects and the influence of bargaining roles (buyer vs. seller), which often afflict experimentation with the endowment effect. In a real setting, tickets in possession were valued significantly higher than inspected tickets. Contrary to some findings in the literature participants also correctly predicted these valuation differences in a hypothetical situation, both for themselves as well as for others. Furthermore, our results suggest that regret rather than loss aversion may be the source of the endowment effect in an experimental setting using lottery tickets. Applying our procedure to a setting employing riskless objects in form of mugs revealed rather ambiguous results, thus emphasizing that the role of regret might be less prominent in non-lottery settings.

  4. The VLT/X-shooter GRB afterglow legacy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Lex; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Pugliese, Vanna; van Rest, Daan

    2017-11-01

    The Swift satellite allows us to use gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to peer through the hearts of star forming galaxies through cosmic time. Our open collaboration, representing most of the active European researchers in this field, builds a public legacy sample of GRB X-shooter spectroscopy while Swift continues to fly. To date, our spectroscopy of more than 100 GRB afterglows covers a redshift range from 0.059 to about 8 (Tanvir et al. 2009, Nature 461, 1254), with more than 20 robust afterglow-based metallicity measurements (over a redshift range from 1.7 to 5.9). With afterglow spectroscopy (throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-rays to the sub-mm) we can hence characterize the properties of star-forming galaxies over cosmic history in terms of redshift, metallicity, molecular content, ISM temperature, UV-flux density, etc.. These observations provide key information on the final evolution of the most massive stars collapsing into black holes, with the potential of probing the epoch of the formation of the first (very massive) stars. VLT/X-shooter (Vernet et al. 2011, A&A 536, A105) is in many ways the ideal GRB follow-up instrument and indeed GRB follow-up was one of the primary science cases behind the instrument design and implementation. Due to the wide wavelength coverage of X-shooter, in the same observation one can detect molecular H2 absorption near the atmospheric cut-off and many strong emission lines from the host galaxy in the near-infrared (e.g., Friis et al. 2015, MNRAS 451, 167). For example, we have measured a metallicity of 0.1 Z ⊙ for GRB 100219A at z = 4.67 (Thöne et al. 2013, MNRAS 428, 3590), 0.02 Z ⊙ for GRB 111008A at z = 4.99 (Sparre et al. 2014, ApJ 785, 150) and 0.05 Z ⊙ for GRB 130606A at z = 5.91 (Hartoog et al. 2015, A&A 580, 139). In the latter, the very high value of [Al/Fe]=2.40 +/- 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and may be a signature of a previous generation of massive (perhaps even the first) stars

  5. The lottery-panel task for bi-dimensional parameter-free elicitation of risk attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Gallego, Aurora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple task for eliciting attitudes toward risky choice, the Sabater-Grande and Georgantzís (SGG lottery-panel task, which consists in a series of lotteries constructed to compensate riskier options with higher risk-return trade-offs. Using Principal Component Analysis technique, we show that the SGG lotterypanel task is capable of capturing two dimensions of individual risky decision making: subjects’ average willingness to choose risky projects and their sensitivity towards variations in the return to risk. We report results from a large dataset obtained from the implementation of the SGG lottery-panel task and discuss regularities and the desirability of its bi-dimensionality both for describing behaviour under uncertainty and explaining behaviour in other contexts.

    En este trabajo proponemos una tarea sencilla que permite obtener la actitud frente a la toma de riesgo monetario, y que llamaremos tarea Sabater-Grande y Georgantzís (SGG de riesgo. Esta tarea consiste en una serie de loterías construidas para compensar las opciones de mayor riesgo con un mayor retorno. Utilizando la técnica de componentes principales, encontramos que la tarea SGG es capaz de capturar dos dimensiones de la toma de decisiones individuales: por un lado, la voluntad promedio de los sujetos de elegir proyectos arriesgados y, por otro, su sensibilidad hacia las variaciones en el retorno por riesgo. Presentamos los resultados de una gran muestra de datos obtenidos a partir de la implementación de la tarea SGG, y discutimos las regularidades y la conveniencia de su bidimensionalidad tanto para describir el comportamiento en condiciones de incertidumbre como para explicar el comportamiento humano en otros contextos.

  6. A Cognitive Model of the Effects of Linking Political Referenda to Salient Social Issues: A Lottery Will Fund Education, But Casinos Will Cause Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. A.; And Others

    Contrasting a party identification model with a rational decision making model, a cognitive model predicts voter intent on two referenda: (1) an amendment to permit a state lottery; and (2) an amendment to permit residents of each county to vote on whether to permit casino gambling. Supporters of the lottery amendment attempt to strongly link it…

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  8. Low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of GRBs 991216, 011211 and 021211

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, P.M.; Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Palazzi, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Pian, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Piro, L.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Jakobsson, P.; Watson, D.; O'Brien, P.T.; Ledoux, C.

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of the afterglow of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 991216, 011211 and 021211. Our spectrum of GRB 991216 is the only optical spectrum for this afterglow. It shows two probable absorption systems at z=0.80 and z=1.02, where the highest redshift most likely

  9. Performances of X-shooter, the new wide-band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.; Mason, E.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Finger, G.; Fischer, G.; Kerber, F.; Kern, L.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Mainieri, V.; Modigliani, A.; Patat, F.; Ramsay, S.; Santin, P.; Vidali, M.; Groot, P.; Guinouard, I.; Hammer, F.; Kaper, L.; Kjærgaard-Rasmussen, P.; Navarro, R.; Randich, S.; Zerbi, F.

    2010-01-01

    X-shooter is the first second-generation instrument newly commissioned a the VLT. It is a high efficiency single target intermediate resolution spectrograph covering the range 300 - 2500 nm in a single shot. We summarize the main characteristics of the instrument and present its performances as

  10. A VLT spectroscopic study of the ultracompact HII region G29.96-0.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Bik, A; Kaper, L; Tielens, AGGM; Hanson, MM

    A high quality, medium-resolution K-band spectrum has been obtained of the ultracompact H II region G29.96-0.02 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The slit was positioned along the symmetry axis of the cometary shaped nebula. Besides the spectrum of the embedded ionizing O star, the long-slit

  11. MOONS: a multi-object optical and near-infrared spectrograph for the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Evans, C.; Kaper, L.; Oliva, Ernesto; Vanzi, Leonardo; Abreu, Manuel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Babusiaux, Carine; Bauer, Franz E.; Best, Philip; Bezawada, Naidu; Bryson, Ian R.; Cabral, Alexandre; Caputi, Karina; Centrone, Mauro; Chemla, Fanny; Cimatti, Andrea; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Clementini, Gisella; Coelho, João.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dunlop, James S.; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fynbo, Johan; Garilli, Bianca; Glauser, Adrian M.; Guinouard, Isabelle; Hammer, Jean-François; Hastings, Peter R.; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Ivison, Rob J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Jarvis, Matt; Kauffman, G.; Lawrence, A.; Lee, D.; Li Causi, G.; Lilly, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; McLure, R.; Minniti, D.; Montgomery, D.; Muschielok, B.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Norberg, P.; Origlia, L.; Padilla, N.; Peacock, J.; Pedicini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Pragt, J.; Puech, M.; Randich, S.; Renzini, A.; Ryde, N.; Rodrigues, M.; Royer, F.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, A.; Schnetler, H.; Sobral, D.; Speziali, R.; Todd, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Torres, M.; Venema, L.; Vitali, F.; Wegner, M.; Wells, M.; Wild, V.; Wright, G.

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by

  12. Winning big but feeling no better? The effect of lottery prizes on physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apouey, Benedicte; Clark, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    We use British panel data to determine the exogenous impact of income on a number of individual health outcomes: general health status, mental health, physical health problems, and health behaviours (drinking and smoking). Lottery winnings allow us to make causal statements regarding the effect of income on health, as the amount won by winners is largely exogenous. Positive income shocks have no significant effect on self-assessed overall health, but a significant positive effect on mental health. This result seems paradoxical on two levels. First, there is a well-known gradient in health status in cross-sectional data, and second, general health should partly reflect mental health, so that we may expect both variables to move in the same direction. We propose a solution to the first apparent paradox by underlining the endogeneity of income. For the second, we show that lottery winnings are also associated with more smoking and social drinking. General health will reflect both mental health and the effect of these behaviours and so may not improve following a positive income shock. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Risky decisions in a lottery task are associated with an increase of cocaine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrei eWittwer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use disorder is associated with maladaptive decision-making behaviour, which strongly contributes to the harmful consequences of chronic drug use. Prior research has shown that cocaine users exhibit impaired neuropsychological test performances, particularly with regard to attention, learning, and memory but also in executive functions such as decision-making and impulse control. However, to what extent cocaine users show impaired decision-making under risk without feedback has not yet been investigated systematically. Therefore, to examine risk-taking behaviour, 31 chronic cocaine users and 26 stimulant-naïve healthy controls, who were part of the Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, performed the Randomized Lottery Task (RALT with winning lotteries consisting of an uncertain and a certain prospect. Results revealed that risky decisions were associated with male sex, increased cocaine use in the past year, higher cocaine concentrations in the hair, and younger age. In addition, higher levels of cocaine in the hair and cumulative lifetime consumption were associated with risky decisions, whereas potentially confounding factors including cognition and psychiatric symptoms had no significant effect. Taken together, our results indicate that cocaine users who increased their consumption over a period of one year show deficits in the processing of risky information accompanied with increased risk-taking. Future research should analyse whether risky decisions could potentially serve as a prognostic marker for cocaine use disorder.

  14. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries-conjoint analysis-which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  15. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: Its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBialek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship. However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal.The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries - conjoint analysis - which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 & 2, and they are more stable over time (Study 2 compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  16. The new VLT-DSM M2 unit: construction and electromechanical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    We present the design, construction and validation of the new M2 unit of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror. In the framework of the Adaptive Optics Facility program, ADS and Microgate designed a new secondary unit which replaces the current Dornier one. The M2 is composed by the mechanical structure, a new hexapod positioner and the Deformable Secondary Mirror unit.The DSM is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been fully integrated and, before starting the optical calibration, has completed the electromechanical characterization, focused on the dynamic performance. With respect to the previous units we introduced several improvements, both in hardware and control architecture that allowed achieving a significant enhancement of the system dynamics and reduction of power consumption.

  17. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  18. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David; Gibson, Neale; Evans, Thomas; Barstow, Joanna Katy; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a key to unlocking the secrets of close-in exoplanet atmospheres. Observations have started to unveil a vast diversity of irradiated giant planet atmospheres with clouds and hazes playing a definitive role across the entire mass and temperature regime. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a hand full of hot Jupiters, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These targets were selected for comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. This talk will discuss the first results from the programme, demonstrating excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and further reinforce the findings of clear, cloudy and hazy atmospheres. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in securing optical transmission spectra. These FORS2 observations are the first ground-based detections of clear, cloudy and hazy hot-Jupiter atmosphere with a simultaneous detections of Na, K, and H2 Rayleigh scattering. Our program demonstrates the large potential of the instrument for optical transmission spectroscopy, capable of obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground. Compared to HST, the larger aperture of VLT will allow for fainter targets to be observed and higher spectral resolution, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies. This is important for further exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres and is particularly complementary to the near- and mid-IR regime, to be covered by the upcoming James-Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and is readily applicable to less massive planets down to super-Earths.

  19. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  20. VLT: a sustainable solution to urban mobility, in João Pessoa-PB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Uiara Wasconcelos; Silva, Glaucia Wasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    The changes happen quickly in today's world, simultaneously interacting with technological advances in the sciences and new paradigms socio-political and economic, in search of a sustainable future and a present with emergency strategies for the preservation of humanity and the planet "Earth ". Currently, the mobility of people in the intra-urban space is being threatened by congestion, pollution resulting from the appreciation of the culture of personal transport and the precariousness of public transportation. In the city of João Pessoa (PB), the subject of this finding for these disorders. Workers suffer the consequences of daily stress takes to access home-work, difficulty in arriving at the right time to the workplace and adverse reactions caused by pollution. The VLT (Light Rail Vehicle) has been presented as a viable solution to the problems of public transport, with several experiments that can be seen as positive in the world. This work involves the implementation of a public transport system based on VLT Corridor along the Avenue Dom Pedro II, in João Pessoa (PB), aiming to acquire a good transport network for use of the population, reduce the number of vehicles on process, minimize pollution and optimize urban mobility.

  1. Final binary star results from the ESO VLT Lunar occultations program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Road, Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ivanov, V. D., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Ave. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-03-01

    We report on 13 subarcsecond binaries, detected by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). They are all first-time detections except for the visual binary HD 158122, which we resolved for the first time in the near-infrared. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 4.5-10.0, and companions in the range K = 6.8-11.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.4, with the largest being 4.6. The projected separations are in the range of 4-168 mas, with a median of 13 mas. We discuss and compare our results with the available literature. With this paper, we conclude the mining for binary star detections in the 1226 occultations recorded at the VLT with the ISAAC instrument. We expect that the majority of these binaries may be unresolvable by adaptive optics on current telescopes, and they might be challenging for long-baseline interferometry. However, they constitute an interesting sample for future larger telescopes and for astrometric missions such as GAIA.

  2. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  3. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  4. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  5. A high-resolution VLT/FLAMES study of individual stars in the centre of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K. A.; Spite, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; François, P.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time we show the detailed, late-stage, chemical evolution history of a small nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group. We present the results of a high-resolution (R similar to 20 000, lambda = 5340-5620; 6120-6701) FLAMES/GIRAFFE abundance study at ESO/VLT of 81

  6. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Kennedy, M.B.; Dufton, P.L.; Howarth, I.D.; Walborn, N.R.; Markova, N.; Clark, J.S.; de Mink, S.E.; de Koter, A.; Dunstall, P.R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; McEvoy, C.M.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.D.; Vink, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are

  7. X-shooter: UV-to-IR intermediate-resolution high-efficiency spectrograph for the ESO VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Odorico, S.; Andersen, M.I.; Conconi, P.; De Caprio, V.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dekker, H.; Downing, M.D.; Finger, G.; Groot, P.; Hanenburg, H.H.; Hammer, F.; Horville, D.; Hjorth, J.; Kaper, L.; Klougart, J.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Marteaud, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Rigal, F.; Santin, P.; Norup Soerensen, A.; Spano, P.; Venema, L.; Vola, P.; Zerbi, F.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    X-shooter is a single target spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. It covers in a single exposure the spectral range from the UV to the H band with a possible extension into part of the K band. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through the

  8. A tip / tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and

  9. Is the Modern American Death Penalty a Fatal Lottery? Texas as a Conservative Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Furman v. Georgia (1972, the Supreme Court was presented with data indicating that 15% to 20% of death-eligible defendants were actually sentenced to death. Based on such a negligible death sentence rate, some Justices concluded that the imposition of death was random and capricious—a fatal lottery. Later, the Court assumed in Gregg v. Georgia (1976 that guided discretion statutes would eliminate the constitutional infirmities identified in Furman: If state legislatures narrowed the pool of death-eligible defendants to the “worst of the worst” then most would be sentenced to death, eliminating numerical arbitrariness. However, recent research suggests that numerical arbitrariness remains, as the death sentence rate falls below the Furman threshold in California (11%, Connecticut (4%, and Colorado (less than 1%. The current research estimates the death sentence rate in Texas. Interestingly, Texas provides a conservative test. In contrast to most states, the Texas statute does not include broad aggravators that substantially enlarge the pool of death-eligible defendants and therefore depress the death sentence rate. Nonetheless, the death sentence rate in Texas during the period from 2006 to 2010 ranges from 3% to 6% (depending on assumptions made about the data. The same pattern holds true in the key counties that send the largest number of defendants to death row: Harris (Houston, Dallas (Dallas, Tarrant (Fort Worth and Arlington, and Bexar (San Antonio. Thus, the data suggest that Texas can be added to the list of states in which capital punishment is unconstitutional as administered. If the death sentence rate in Texas runs afoul of the Furman principle then the prognosis for other states is not encouraging.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT/SINFONI observations of MIPSGAL "bubbles" (Silva+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K. M.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Ingallinera, A.

    2018-04-01

    Data were acquired in service mode during UT 2014 May 23-June 7 using VLT/SINFONI observations. We used two of SINFONI's four gratings providing spectral resolutions R=3000 and 4000 in the H and K bands, respectively, with the field of view of 8" by 8" (without adaptive optics). The targets are 55 MIPSGAL "bubbles" (MBs) that have not been previously classified as PNe, whose central sources were unidentified at the time of the Period 93 Call for Proposals (UT 2013 October 01), and appeared to contain at least one potential central source detected in the near-IR images of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS, Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233) or the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS, Warren et al. 2007MNRAS.381.1400W). (5 data files).

  11. RADIAL VELOCITIES FROM VLT-KMOS SPECTRA OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6388

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Origlia, L.; Valenti, E.; Cirasuolo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new radial velocity measurements for 82 stars, members of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6388, obtained from ESO-VLT K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (KMOS) spectra acquired during the instrument Science Verification. The accuracy of the wavelength calibration is discussed and a number of tests of the KMOS response are presented. The cluster systemic velocity obtained (81.3 ± 1.5 km s –1 ) is in very good agreement with previous determinations. While a hint of ordered rotation is found between 9'' and 20'' from the cluster center, where the distribution of radial velocities is clearly bimodal, more data are needed before drawing any firm conclusions. The acquired sample of radial velocities has also been used to determine the cluster velocity dispersion (VD) profile between ∼9'' and 70'', supplementing previous measurements at r < 2'' and r > 60'' obtained with ESO-SINFONI and ESO-FLAMES spectroscopy, respectively. The new portion of the VD profile nicely matches the previous ones, better defining the knee of the distribution. The present work clearly shows the effectiveness of a deployable integral field unit in measuring the radial velocities of individual stars for determining the VD profile of Galactic GCs. It represents the pilot project for an ongoing large program with KMOS and FLAMES at the ESO-VLT, aimed at determining the next generation of VD and rotation profiles for a representative sample of GCs

  12. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted.

  13. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  14. Chandra and the VLT Jointly Investigate the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Summary Important scientific advances often happen when complementary investigational techniques are brought together . In the present case, X-ray and optical/infrared observations with some of the world's foremost telescopes have provided the crucial information needed to solve a 40-year old cosmological riddle. Very detailed observations of a small field in the southern sky have recently been carried out, with the space-based NASA Chandra X-Ray Observatory as well as with several ground-based ESO telescopes, including the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Together, they have provided the "deepest" combined view at X-ray and visual/infrared wavelengths ever obtained into the distant Universe. The concerted observational effort has already yielded significant scientific results. This is primarily due to the possibility to 'identify' most of the X-ray emitting objects detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory on ground-based optical/infrared images and then to determine their nature and distance by means of detailed (spectral) observations with the VLT . In particular, there is now little doubt that the so-called 'X-ray background' , a seemingly diffuse short-wave radiation first detected in 1962, in fact originates in a vast number of powerful black holes residing in active nuclei of distant galaxies . Moreover, the present investigation has permitted to identify and study in some detail a prime example of a hitherto little known type of object, a distant, so-called 'Type II Quasar' , in which the central black hole is deeply embedded in surrounding gas and dust. These achievements are just the beginning of a most fruitful collaboration between "space" and "ground". It is yet another impressive demonstration of the rapid progress of modern astrophysics, due to the recent emergence of a new generation of extremely powerful instruments. PR Photo 09a/01 : Images of a small part of the Chandra Deep Field South , obtained with ESO telescopes

  15. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  16. An atlas of L-T transition brown dwarfs with VLT/XShooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocco, F.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    In this contribution we present the first results from a large observing campaign we are carrying out using VLT/Xshooter to obtain spectra of a large sample (˜250 objects) of L-T transition brown dwarfs. Here we report the results based on the first ˜120 spectra already obtained. The large sample, and the wide spectral coverage (300-2480 nm) given by Xshooter, will allow us to do a new powerful analysis, at an unprecedent level. By fitting the absorption lines of a given element (e.g. Na) at different wavelengths we can test ultracool atmospheric models and draw for the first time a 3D picture of stellar atmospheres at temperatures down to 1000K. Determining the atmospheric parameters (e.g. temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) of a big sample of brown dwarfs, will allow us to understand the role of these parameters on the formation of their spectra. The large number of objects in our sample also will allow us to do a statistical significant test of the birth rate and initial mass function predictions for brown dwarfs. Determining the shape of the initial mass function for very low mass objects is a fundamental task to improve galaxy models, as recent studies tep{2010Natur.468..940V} have shown that low-mass objects dominate in massive elliptical galaxies.

  17. VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope no. 1 (as on September 7, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    ESO Press Photos 28-30/95; 13 September 1995 The construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) advances rapidly, both in Europe and in Chile. These three photos show some of the main mechanical parts of the first 8.2-metre telescope, as they presented themselves in Milan (Italy) on Thursday, September 7, 1995. Two versions of these photos, one smaller and one larger and with better image resolution, are accessible for convenient transfer over the networks. The mechanical structure of VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 is now in the process of being mounted at the Ansaldo Energia premises in Milan (Italy). The so-called main structure (i.e., telescope azimuth and altitude mechanical structure, including hydrostatic bearing system, direct drives and direct mounted encoding system) was designed and is being built by the Italian consortium AES, composed of Ansaldo Energia (Genova), SOIMI (Milan) and EIE (Venice). Already two months from now, in November 1995, the complete, enormous mechanical structures of this telescope will be moving on the azimuth hydrostatic bearing tracks, using the direct drive system designed and built by the PHASE Company (Genova, Italy). The thorough testing phase will start by the end of December 1995 or at the beginning of January 1996. ESO Press Photo 28/95 [54K] [248K] shows the lower part of the azimuth structure of the telescope (the fork) on the concrete pier on which the azimuth tracks (hydrostatic bearing journal) are mounted. The very high accuracy of this enormous structure (compare with the persons in the photo!) is illustrated by the fact that the "run-out" of the azimuth axis of the fork has been measured as only 80 microns (0.08 millimetres) on 90 degrees turning angle. This is a remarkable result, especially since the centering of the axis is done on a radial journal with a diameter of no less than 9 metres. When the fork is equipped with all auxiliary systems, it will weigh about 320 t, will be 18 metres long and 8 metres wide. It

  18. Spectral and atmospheric characterization of 51 Eridani b using VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, M.; Mollière, P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Cantalloube, F.; Cheetham, A. C.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Biller, B. A.; Wahhaj, Z.; Bouwman, J.; Brandner, W.; Melnick, D.; Carson, J.; Janson, M.; Henning, T.; Homeier, D.; Mordasini, C.; Langlois, M.; Quanz, S. P.; van Boekel, R.; Zurlo, A.; Schlieder, J. E.; Avenhaus, H.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonavita, M.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R.; Cudel, M.; Desidera, S.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Galicher, R.; Kopytova, T. G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Le Coroller, H.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Perrot, C.; Sevin, A.; Sissa, E.; Vigan, A.; Weber, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. 51 Eridani b is an exoplanet around a young (20 Myr) nearby (29.4 pc) F0-type star, which was recently discovered by direct imaging. It is one of the closest direct imaging planets in angular and physical separation ( 0.5'', 13 au) and is well suited for spectroscopic analysis using integral field spectrographs. Aims: We aim to refine the atmospheric properties of the known giant planet and to constrain the architecture of the system further by searching for additional companions. Methods: We used the extreme adaptive optics instrument SPHERE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain simultaneous dual-band imaging with IRDIS and integral field spectra with IFS, extending the spectral coverage of the planet to the complete Y- to H-band range and providing additional photometry in the K12-bands (2.11, 2.25 μm). The object is compared to other known cool and peculiar dwarfs. The posterior probability distributions for parameters of cloudy and clear atmospheric models are explored using MCMC. We verified our methods by determining atmospheric parameters for the two benchmark brown dwarfs Gl 570D and HD 3651B. We used archival VLT-NACO (L') Sparse Aperture Masking data to probe the innermost region for additional companions. Results: We present the first spectrophotometric measurements in the Y and K bands for the planet and revise its J-band flux to values 40% fainter than previous measurements. Cloudy models with uniform cloud coverage provide a good match to the data. We derive the temperature, radius, surface gravity, metallicity, and cloud sedimentation parameter fsed. We find that the atmosphere is highly super-solar ([Fe/H] = 1.0 ± 0.1 dex), and the low fsed = 1.26+0.36-0.29 value is indicative of a vertically extended, optically thick cloud cover with small sized particles. The model radius and surface gravity estimates suggest higher planetary masses of Mgravity = 9.1+4.9-3.3 MJ. The evolutionary model only provides a lower mass limit of > 2 MJ

  19. Geochemistry of HASP, VLT, and other glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2 (station 9, Van Serg Crater) is distinctive because of its extreme maturity, abundance, and variety of glass clasts. It contains mare glasses of both high Ti and very low Ti (VLT) compositions, and highland glasses of all compositions common in lunar regolith samples: highland basalt (feldspathic; Al2O3 greater than 23 wt percent), KREEP (Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O greater than 0.25 wt percent), and low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM; Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O less than 0.25 wt percent). It also contains rare specimens of high-alumina, silica-poor (HASP), and ultra Mg glasses. HASP glasses contain insufficient SiO2 to permit the calculation of a standard norm, and are thought to be the product of volatilization during impact melting. They have been studied by electron microprobe major-element analysis techniques but have not previously been analyzed for trace elements. The samples analyzed for this study were polished grain mounts of the 90-160 micron fraction of four sieved samples from the 79001/2 core (depth range 2.3-11.5 cm). A total of 80 glasses were analyzed by SEM/EDS and electron microprobe, and a subset of 33 of the glasses, representing a wide range of compositional types, was chosen for high-sensitivity INAA. A microdrilling device removed disks (mostly 50-100 micron diameter, weighing approx. 0.1-0.5 micro-g) for INAA. Preliminary data reported here are based only on short counts done within two weeks of irradiation.

  20. Evolution of galaxies clustering in the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneux, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The recent surveys of the Universe highlighted the presence of structures in the matter distribution, such as filaments and voids. To study the evolution of the galaxy spatial distribution, it is necessary to know their accurate position in a three dimensional space. This thesis took place within the framework of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). Its goal is to measure some 100000 redshifts to study the formation and evolution of the galaxies and large scale structures of the Universe up to z∼5. After having made a review of our knowledge of the galaxies distribution, then introduced the VVDS, I present the measurement and the evolution of the real-space two-point correlation function from the first epoch data of the VVDS, the largest sample of 10759 spectra ever acquired up to I_A_B = 24. I developed a whole set of programs made available to the VVDS consortium to easily measure the clustering length of galaxies in a given redshift range, with its associated errors, correcting the effects of the VVDS observing strategy. This tool enabled to measure the evolution of the real space correlation function of the global galaxies population up to z=2. I then extended this study dividing the full galaxies sample by spectral type and color. Finally, combining the GALEX data to the VVDS has allowed me to measure the clustering of an ultraviolet-selected sample of galaxies up to z∼1. This is the first time that such measurements are carried out on such a so long range of cosmic time. The results presented in this thesis are thus establishing a new reference in the field. (author) [fr

  1. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Jesen, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve...

  2. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, H.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve...

  3. 一种分布式互联网彩票安全策略%A distributed security strategy for internet lottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅颖

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed security strategy for internet lottery;it builds a distributed public ledger based on the blockchain technology to record all lottery transactions and provides the specific details of the strategy and the prototype architecture,analyzes the security characteristics of the strategy about anonymity,non-repudiation,tamper-resistant,transparency,which proves that the strategy can effectively solve the problems caused by the traditional centralization technology,that make operation is opaque,easy to be artificially controlled,lottery transactions in the entire process cannot be perceived by the user,so as to provide an effective solution for the construction of a secure internet lottery system.%提出了一种分布式互联网彩票安全策略,该策略基于区块链技术建立一个分布式公共账本,记录所有的彩票交易记录.详细阐述了该策略的具体细节和原型体系结构,并通过对该策略的匿名性、抗抵赖性、防篡改、透明性等安全特性进行分析,证明该策略能有效解决传统的基于中心化技术所导致运营不透明、容易被人为控制、彩票交易的整个流程中也不能被用户察觉等问题,为构建安全的互联网彩票系统提供有效的解决方案.

  4. An extensive VLT/X-shooter library of photospheric templates of pre-main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, C. F.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Stelzer, B.; Testi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Studies of the formation and evolution of young stars and their disks rely on knowledge of the stellar parameters of the young stars. The derivation of these parameters is commonly based on comparison with photospheric template spectra. Furthermore, chromospheric emission in young active stars impacts the measurement of mass accretion rates, a key quantity for studying disk evolution. Aims: Here we derive stellar properties of low-mass (M⋆≲ 2 M⊙) pre-main sequence stars without disks, which represent ideal photospheric templates for studies of young stars. We also use these spectra to constrain the impact of chromospheric emission on the measurements of mass accretion rates. The spectra are reduced, flux-calibrated, and corrected for telluric absorption, and are made available to the community. Methods: We derive the spectral type for our targets by analyzing the photospheric molecular features present in their VLT/X-shooter spectra by means of spectral indices and comparison of the relative strength of photospheric absorption features. We also measure effective temperature, gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity from our spectra by fitting them with synthetic spectra with the ROTFIT tool. The targets have negligible extinction (AVpresented in our previous publication. We perform synthetic photometry on the spectra to derive the typical colors of young stars in different filters. We measure the luminosity of the emission lines present in the spectra and estimate the noise due to chromospheric emission in the measurements of accretion luminosity in accreting stars. Results: We provide a calibration of the photospheric colors of young pre-main sequence stars as a function of their spectral type in a set of standard broad-band optical and near-infrared filters. The logarithm of the noise on the accretion luminosity normalized to the stellar luminosity is roughly constant and equal to -2.3 for targets with masses larger than 1 solar

  5. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Amendola, L. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Umetsu, K. [5 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Biviano, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, P. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Mu\\' nchen (Germany); Caminha, G.B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Frye, B. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mercurio, A., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: barbara.sartoris@gmail.com, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uniheidelberg.de [Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc≤ r≤ r{sub 200}=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r{sub 200})=1.01 {sub −0.28}{sup +0.31} at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic

  6. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-06-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With such an extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar haloes of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey, we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe, and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map, we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R ˜ 1000 arcsec (˜100 kpc).

  7. Bacteria-induced morphogenesis of Ulva intestinalis and Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta): a contribution to the lottery theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderiardakani, Fatemeh; Coates, Juliet C; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The green marine macroalgae of the class Ulvophyceae (Ulvophytes) are common algae distributed worldwide particularly in intertidal areas, which play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are potentially valuable resources for food, animal feed and fuel but can also cause massive nuisance blooms. Members of Ulvaceae, like many other seaweeds, harbour a rich diversity of epiphytic bacteria with functions related to host growth and morphological development. In the absence of appropriate bacterially derived signals, germ cells of the genus Ulva develop into 'atypical' colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells with abnormal cell walls. This paper examines the specificity of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulva, by cross-testing bacteria isolated from several Ulva species on two Ulva species, the emerging model system Ulva mutabilis and the prominent biofouler species Ulva intestinalis. We show that pairs of bacterial strains isolated from species other than U. mutabilis and U. intestinalis can fully rescue axenic plantlets generated either from U. mutabilis or U. intestinalis gametes. This laboratory-based study demonstrates that different compositions of microbial communities with similar functional characteristics can enable complete algal morphogenesis and thus supports the 'competitive lottery' theory for how symbiotic bacteria drive algal development. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reflections on the voluntary self-exclusion of gamblers and the law-suits against Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faregh, Neda; Leth-Steensen, Craig

    2009-06-01

    Legalized gambling in Canada is governed by Provincial legislation. In Ontario, the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation is responsible for all aspects of gambling in the Province. There have been a number of recent lawsuits against this Crown agency of the Government of Ontario by gamblers, most of which have been settled or otherwise resolved. A recent class-action lawsuit on behalf of thousands of Ontario gamblers against this agency raises a number of interesting questions regarding the issue of responsibility and liability. The questions surround the issue of self-exclusionary practices of gamblers who deem themselves in need of external intervention in order interesting questions regarding the issue of responsibility and liability. The questions surround the issue to abstain from further gambling. A contract is voluntarily signed by the self-excluding gamblers whereby their further attendance at gaming venues is prevented and could be punishable by law. Where the gaming venues have failed to enforce the terms of this contract, gamblers have continued to gamble at these establishments. The class-action lawsuit stems from the grievances of these self-excluded gamblers who were not turned away. Relevant psychological theories and recent findings pertaining to gambling are reviewed and questions relevant to these grievances are discussed in favor of government responsibility and liability toward gamblers.

  9. kosh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kpdt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kewr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kpga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kbkw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. ktcl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. pgwt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kpsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kbih Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. katy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. kdet Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. kdec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. paor Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. nstu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  3. khib Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. koth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kdug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. ktix Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kcod Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kslk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kgfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kguc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kmlu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kbff Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. ksmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kdro Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. ktpa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcre Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. klws Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kotm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. khqm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kabr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. klal Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kelp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kecg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. khbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. pkwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. ktvf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. paga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. khks Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kdsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kpsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kbgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. klrd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ksan Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. patk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kowb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. klru Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kjct Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. paaq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an alternative braking mechanism, possibly magnetic fields, is thus required to explain the present-day rotational properties of the O-type stars in 30 Dor. The presence of a sizeable population of fast rotators is compatible with recent population synthesis computations that

  9. The Panchromatic High-Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Local Group Star Clusters. I. General data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönebeck, Frederik; Puzia, Thomas H.; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Kuntschner, Harald; Lyubenova, Mariya; Perina, Sibilla

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our dataset contains spectroscopic observations of 29 globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way performed with VLT/X-shooter over eight full nights. To derive robust results instrument and pipeline systematics have to be well understood and properly modeled. We aim at a

  10. The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Bristow, Paul; Cumani, Claudio; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Grunhut, Jason; Haimerl, Andreas; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Hinterschuster, Renate; Ives, Derek J.; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Klein, Barbara; Lavaila, Alexis; Lizon, Jean Louis; Löwinger, Tom; Molina-Conde, Ignacio; Nicholson, Belinda; Marquart, Thomas; Oliva, Ernesto; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jérôme; Piskunov, Nikolai; Reiners, Ansgar; Seemann, Ulf; Stegmeier, Jörg; Stempels, Eric; Tordo, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) assisted CRIRES instrument is an IR (0.92 - 5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrograph was in operation from 2006 to 2014 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) observatory. CRIRES was a unique instrument, accessing a parameter space (wavelength range and spectral resolution) up to now largely uncharted. It consisted of a single-order spectrograph providing long-slit (40 arcsecond) spectroscopy with a resolving power up to R=100 000. However the setup was limited to a narrow, single-shot, spectral range of about 1/70 of the central wavelength, resulting in low observing efficiency for many scientific programmes requiring a broad spectral coverage. The CRIRES upgrade project, CRIRES+, transforms this VLT instrument into a cross-dispersed spectrograph to increase the simultaneously covered wavelength range by a factor of ten. A new and larger detector focal plane array of three Hawaii 2RG detectors with 5.3 μm cut-off wavelength will replace the existing detectors. For advanced wavelength calibration, custom-made absorption gas cells and an etalon system will be added. A spectro-polarimetric unit will allow the recording of circular and linear polarized spectra. This upgrade will be supported by dedicated data reduction software allowing the community to take full advantage of the new capabilities offered by CRIRES+. CRIRES+ has now entered its assembly and integration phase and will return with all new capabilities by the beginning of 2018 to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. This article will provide the reader with an update of the current status of the instrument as well as the remaining steps until final installation at the Paranal Observatory.

  11. Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD): Novel Use of Increased Transparency and a Weighted Lottery to Increase a Division's Academic Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Furnival, Ronald A; Zhang, Lei; Weber-Main, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Jacob, Abraham K

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate a dual incentive model combining positive peer pressure through increased transparency of peers' academic work with a weighted lottery where entries are earned based on degree of productivity. We developed a dual-incentive peer mentoring model, Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD), for faculty in the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. This model provided relative value-based incentives, with points assigned to different scholarly activities (eg. 1 point for abstract submission, 2 points for poster presentation, 3 points for oral presentation, etc.). These points translated into to lottery tickets for a semi-annual drawing for monetary prizes. Productivity was compared among faculty for P-QUAD year to the preintervention year. Fifteen (83%) of 18 eligible faculty members participated. Overall annual productivity per faculty member as measured by total P-QUAD score increased from a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) in the preintervention year to 4 (IQR 0-27) in the P-QUAD year (P = .051). Submissions and acceptances increased in all categories except posters which were unchanged. Annual abstract submissions per faculty member significantly increased from a median of 1 (IQR 0-2) to 2 (IQR 0-2; P = .047). Seventy-three percent (8 of 11) of post-survey respondents indicated that the financial incentive motivated them to submit academic work; 100% indicated that increased awareness of their peers' work was a motivator. The combination of increased awareness of peers' academic productivity and a weighted lottery financial incentive appears to be a useful model for stimulating academic productivity in early-career faculty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Survey of Purchase Behavior of Women Consumers in Sports Lottery%不同性别体育彩民购彩行为现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红宇; 吴艳萍; 刘炼; 史文文; 王斌

    2012-01-01

    采用问卷调查法、访谈法和数理统计法对全国10个省(市)体育彩民了解体育彩票途径、购彩金额、购买玩法等购彩行为现状及影响因素进行调查研究。结果表明:女性彩民在体育彩民总体中的比例较少;女性彩民了解体育彩票的途径主要为店前广告、网站和电视,通过网站了解彩票的比例显著低于男性彩民,而通过电视了解彩票的比例显著高于男性彩民;接近一半的女性彩民月购彩金额较少,且月购彩金额占月收入的比例和单次购彩金额均显著低于男性彩民;经常购买的玩法主要为数字型,且购买顶呱刮的比例显著高于男性彩民,购买竞彩的比例显著低于男性彩民;购买的原因主要为简单易懂,且选择比例显著高于男性彩民。近一半的女性彩民在有信心和特殊日期时增加购彩金额,在特殊日期时增加购彩金额的女性彩民比例显著高于男性彩民,而在号码走势明显时的比例显著低于男性彩民;家人购彩和家人对女性购彩的态度也是影响女性购彩的一个重要因素。最后,从不同女性群体的理想购彩场所,拓展与规范网站、手机购彩渠道,设计简单易懂且外观有吸引力的彩票上提出了一些营销建议。%Based on the questionnaire, interview and rnathematical analysis, a survey of purchase behavior of women consumers in sports lottery is been completed in China. The result shows that women consumers in sports lottery ac- counted the low ratio of the total. Women consumers in sports lottery behavior characteristics: women consumers in sports lottery understand lottery by the way of store advertising, websites and TV, and the ratio by websites is significandy lower than that of men consumers, but the ratio by TV is significantly higher than that of men consumers; Nearly half of women' s average monthly purchase amount is low, and the proportion of the average monthly purchase amount

  13. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  14. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  15. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  16. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  17. A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z ~ 2: GMASS — the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Jaron; Cimatti, Andrea; Daddi, Emanuele; Mignoli, Marco; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cassata, Paolo; Halliday, Claire; Zamorani, Gianni; Berta, Stefano; Brusa, Marcella; Dickinson, Mark; Franceschini, Alberto; Rodighiero, Guilia; Rosati, Piero; Renzini, Alvio

    2009-03-01

    We report on the motivation, sample selection and first results of our VLT FORS2 Large Programme (173.A-0687), which has obtained the longest targeted spectra of distant galaxies obtained so far with the VLT. These long exposures, up to 77 hours for objects included in three masks, were required to detect spectral features of extremely faint galaxies, such as absorption lines of passive galaxies at z > 1.4, a population that had previously escaped attention due to its faintness in the optical wavelength regime, but which represents a critical phase in the evolution of massive galaxies. The ultra-deep spectroscopy allowed us to estimate the stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2, to trace colour bimodality up to z = 2 and to characterise a galaxy cluster progenitor at z = 1.6. The approximately 200 spectra produced by GMASS constitute a lasting legacy, populating the “redshift desert” in GOODS-S.

  18. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  19. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  20. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  1. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  2. On Fair Lotteries

    OpenAIRE

    STONE, PETER

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED When James Watson and Francis Crick submitted to Nature their groundbreaking paper relating DNA structure to protein synthesis, they faced a choice. In what order were their names to be listed? Would it be ?Watson and Crick,? or ?Crick and Watson?? They resolved the matter by tossing a coin (Crick, 1988, p. 66)

  3. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  5. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  6. The Tarantula Nebula as a template for extragalactic star forming regions from VLT/MUSE and HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Castro, Norberto; Evans, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1-2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.

  7. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of ≈300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  8. Opto-mechanical design of a new cross dispersion unit for the CRIRES+ high resolution spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Klein, Barbara; Oliva, Ernesto; Löwinger, Tom; Anglada Escude, Guillem; Baade, Dietrich; Bristow, Paul; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Grunhut, Jason; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Ives, Derek; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Lockhart, Matt; Marquart, Thomas; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jerome; Piskunov, N.; Pozna, Eszter; Reiners, Ansgar; Smette, Alain; Smoker, Jonathan; Seemann, Ulf; Stempels, Eric; Valenti, Elena

    2014-07-01

    CRIRES is one of the few IR (0.92-5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrographs in operation at the VLT since 2006. Despite good performance it suffers a limitation that significantly hampers its ability: a small spectral coverage per exposure. The CRIRES upgrade (CRIRES+) proposes to transform CRIRES into a cross-dispersed spectrograph while maintaining the high resolution (100000) and increasing the wavelength coverage by a factor 10 compared to the current capabilities. A major part of the upgrade is the exchange of the actual cryogenic pre-disperser module by a new cross disperser unit. In addition to a completely new optical design, a number of important changes are required on key components and functions like the slit unit and detectors units. We will outline the design of these new units fitting inside a predefined and restricted space. The mechanical design of the new functions including a description and analysis will be presented. Finally we will present the strategy for the implementation of the changes.

  9. A Mini-BAL Outflow at 900 pc from the Central Source: VLT/X-shooter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinfeng; Arav, Nahum; Miller, Timothy; Benn, Chris

    2018-05-01

    We determine the physical conditions and location of the outflow material seen in the mini-BAL quasar SDSS J1111+1437 (z = 2.138). These results are based on the analysis of a high S/N, medium-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrum. The main outflow component spans the velocity range ‑1500 to ‑3000 km s‑1 and has detected absorption troughs from both high-ionization species: C IV, N V, O VI, Si IV, P V, and S IV; and low-ionization species: H I, C II, Mg II, Al II, Al III, Si II, and Si III. Measurements of these troughs allow us to derive an accurate photoionization solution for this absorption component: a hydrogen column density, {log}({N}{{H}})={21.47}-0.27+0.21 cm‑2 and ionization parameter, {log}({U}{{H}})=-{1.23}-0.25+0.20. Troughs produced from the ground and excited states of S IV combined with the derived {U}{{H}} value allow us to determine an electron number density of {log}({n}{{e}})={3.62}-0.11+0.09 cm‑3 and to obtain the distance of the ionized gas from the central source: R={880}-260+210 pc.

  10. A tip/tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.

    2011-09-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and performance testing of the FSM. The driving requirement for the FSM is its large stroke of +/-6.1 mrad, in combination with less than 1.5 μrad RMS absolute accuracy. The FSM design consists of a Zerodur mirror, bonded to a membrane spring and strut combination to allow only tip and tilt. Two spindle drives actuate the mirror, using a stiffness based transmission to increase resolution. Absolute accuracy is achieved with two differential inductive sensor pairs. A prototype of the FSM is realized to optimize the control configuration and measure its performance. Friction in the spindle drive is overcome by creating a local velocity control loop between the spindle drives and the shaft encoders. Accuracy is achieved by using a cascaded low bandwidth control loop with feedback from the inductive sensors. The pointing jitter and settling time of the FSM are measured with an autocollimator. The system performance meets the strict requirements, and is ready to be implemented in the first OTA.

  11. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  12. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  13. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  14. Modelling telluric line spectra in the optical and infrared with an application to VLT/X-Shooter spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, N.; Günther, H. M.; Schneider, P. C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Earth's atmosphere imprints a large number of telluric absorption and emission lines on astronomical spectra, especially in the near infrared, that need to be removed before analysing the affected wavelength regions. Aims: These lines are typically removed by comparison to A- or B-type stars used as telluric standards that themselves have strong hydrogen lines, which complicates the removal of telluric lines. We have developed a method to circumvent that problem. Methods: For our IDL software package tellrem we used a recent approach to model telluric absorption features with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). The broad wavelength coverage of the X-Shooter at VLT allows us to expand their technique by determining the abundances of the most important telluric molecules H2O, O2, CO2, and CH4 from sufficiently isolated line groups. For individual observations we construct a telluric absorption model for most of the spectral range that is used to remove the telluric absorption from the object spectrum. Results: We remove telluric absorption from both continuum regions and emission lines without systematic residuals for most of the processable spectral range; however, our method increases the statistical errors. The errors of the corrected spectrum typically increase by 10% for S/N ~ 10 and by a factor of two for high-quality data (S/N ~ 100), I.e. the method is accurate on the percent level. Conclusions: Modelling telluric absorption can be an alternative to the observation of standard stars for removing telluric contamination. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 085.C-0764(A) and 60.A-9022(C).The tellrem package is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A113

  15. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  16. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  17. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  18. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  19. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  20. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  1. Review paper. Terminal lucidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.

  2. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts. In the ongoing renaissance of transition metal-ligand multiple-bonding chemistry, there have been reports of M═E/M≡E interactions for the majority of the metallic elements of the periodic table, even some actinide metals. In stark contrast, the largest subgroup of the periodic table, rare-earth metals (Ln = Sc, Y, and lanthanides), have been excluded from this upsurge. Indeed, the synthesis of terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E multiple-bonding species lagged behind that of the transition metal and actinide congeners for decades. Although these species had been pursued since the discovery of a rare-earth metal bridging imide in 1991, such a terminal (nonpincer/bridging hapticities) Ln═E/Ln≡E bond species was not obtained until 2010. The scarcity is mainly attributed to the energy mismatch between the frontier orbitals of the metal and the ligand atoms. This renders the putative terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E bonds extremely reactive, thus resulting in the formation of aggregates and/or reaction with the ligand/environment, quenching the multiple-bond character. In 2010, the stalemate was broken by the isolation and structural characterization of the first rare-earth metal terminal imide-a scandium terminal imide-by our group. The double-bond character of the Sc═N bond was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Theoretical investigations revealed the presence

  3. Spotting high-z molecular absorbers using neutral carbon. Results from a complete spectroscopic survey with the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Zou, S.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Balashev, S.; López, S.

    2018-04-01

    While molecular quasar absorption systems provide unique probes of the physical and chemical properties of the gas as well as original constraints on fundamental physics and cosmology, their detection remains challenging. Here we present the results from a complete survey for molecular gas in thirty-nine absorption systems selected solely upon the detection of neutral carbon lines in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, without any prior knowledge of the atomic or molecular gas content. H2 is found in all twelve systems (including seven new detections) where the corresponding lines are covered by the instrument setups and measured to have logN(H2) ≳ 18, indicating a self-shielded regime. We also report seven CO detections (7/39) down to logN(CO) 13.5, including a new one, and put stringent constraints on N(CO) for the remaining 32 systems. N(CO) and N(C I) are found to be strongly correlated with N(CO)/N(C I) 1/10. This suggests that the C I-selected absorber population is probing gas deeper than the H I–H2 transition in which a substantial fraction of the total hydrogen in the cloud is in the form of H2. We conclude that targeting C I-bearing absorbers is a very efficient way to find high-metallicity molecular absorbers. However, probing the molecular content in lower-metallicity regimes as well as high-column-density neutral gas remains to be undertaken to unravel the processes of gas conversion in normal high-z galaxies. Based on observations and archival data from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) prog. IDs 060.A-9024, 072.A-0346, 278.A-5062, 080.A-0482, 080.A-0795, 081.A-0242, 081.A-0334, 082.A-0544, 082.A-0569, 083.A-0454, 084.A-0699, 086.A-0074 and 086.A-0643 using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) and X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), on Cerro Paranal, Chile.

  4. CLASH-VLT: constraints on f (R) gravity models with galaxy clusters using lensing and kinematic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: sartoris@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: girardi@oats.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2017-07-01

    We perform a maximum likelihood kinematic analysis of the two dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters MACS J1206.2-0847 at z =0.44 and RXC J2248.7-4431 at z =0.35 to determine the total mass profile in modified gravity models, using a modified version of the MAMPOSSt code of Mamon, Biviano and Bou and apos;e. Our work is based on the kinematic and lensing mass profiles derived using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (hereafter CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (hereafter CLASH-VLT). We assume a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW hereafter) profile in order to obtain a constraint on the fifth force interaction range λ for models in which the dependence of this parameter on the environment is negligible at the scale considered (i.e. λ= const ) and fixing the fifth force strength to the value predicted in f (R) gravity. We then use information from lensing analysis to put a prior on the other NFW free parameters. In the case of MACSJ 1206 the joint kinematic+lensing analysis leads to an upper limit on the effective interaction range λ≤1.61 mpc at Δχ{sup 2}=2.71 on the marginalized distribution. For RXJ 2248 instead a possible tension with the ΛCDM model appears when adding lensing information, with a lower limit λ≥0.14 mpc at Δχ{sup 2}=2.71. This is consequence of the slight difference between the lensing and kinematic data, appearing in GR for this cluster, that could in principle be explained in terms of modifications of gravity. We discuss the impact of systematics and the limits of our analysis as well as future improvements of the results obtained. This work has interesting implications in view of upcoming and future large imaging and spectroscopic surveys, that will deliver lensing and kinematic mass reconstruction for a large number of galaxy clusters.

  5. The VLT/MUSE view of the central galaxy in Abell 2052. Ionized gas swept by the expanding radio source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaverde, Barbara; Capetti, Alessandro; Marconi, Alessandro; Venturi, Giacomo

    2018-04-01

    We report observations of the radio galaxy 3C 317 (at z = 0.0345) located at the center of the Abell cluster A2052, obtained with the VLT/MUSE integral field spectrograph. The Chandra images of this cluster show cavities in the X-ray emitting gas, which were produced by the expansion of the radio lobes inflated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our exquisite MUSE data show with unprecedented detail the complex network of line emitting filaments enshrouding the northern X-ray cavity. We do not detect any emission lines from the southern cavity, with a luminosity asymmetry between the two regions higher than 75. The emission lines produced by the warm phase of the interstellar medium (WIM) enable us to obtain unique information on the properties of the emitting gas. We find dense gas (up to 270 cm-3) that makes up part of a global quasi spherical outflow that is driven by the radio source, and obtain a direct estimate of the expansion velocity of the cavities (265 km s-1). The emission lines diagnostic rules out ionization from the AGN or from star-forming regions, suggesting instead ionization from slow shocks or from cosmic rays. The striking asymmetric line emission observed between the two cavities contrasts with the less pronounced differences between the north and south sides in the hot gas; this represents a significant new ingredient for our understanding of the process of the exchange of energy between the relativistic plasma and the external medium. We conclude that the expanding radio lobes displace the hot tenuous phase of the interstellar medium (ISM), but also impact the colder and denser ISM phases. These results show the effects of the AGN on its host and the importance of radio mode feedback. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/A19

  6. The OmegaCAM 16K x 16K CCD detector system for the ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwert, Olaf; Baade, D.; Balestra, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Bortolussi, A.; Christen, F.; Cumani, C.; Deiries, S.; Downing, M.; Geimer, C.; Hess, G.; Hess, J.; Kuijken, K.; Lizon, J.; Muschielok, B.; Nicklas, H.; Reiss, R.; Reyes, J.; Silber, A.; Thillerup, J.; Valentijn, E.

    2006-06-01

    A 16K x 16K, 1 degree x 1 degree field, detector system was developed by ESO for the OmegaCAM instrument for use on the purpose built ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The focal plane consists of an 8 x 4 mosaic of 2K x 4K 15um pixel e2v CCDs and four 2K x 4K CCDs on the periphery for the opto-mechanical control of the telescope. The VST is a single instrument telescope. This placed stringent reliability requirements on the OmegaCAM detector system such as 10 years lifetime and maximum downtime of 1.5 %. Mounting at Cassegrain focus required a highly autonomous self-contained cooling system that could deliver 65 W of cooling power. Interface space for the detector head was severely limited by the way the instrument encloses the CCD cryostat. The detector system features several novel ideas tailored to meet these requirements and described in this paper: Key design drivers of the detector head were the easily separable but precisely aligned connections to the optical field flattener on the top and the cooling system at the bottom. Material selection, surface treatment, specialized coatings and in-situ plasma cleaning were crucial to prevent contamination of the detectors. Inside the cryostat, cryogenic and electrical connections were disentangled to keep the configuration modular, integration friendly and the detectors in a safe condition during all mounting steps. A compact unit for logging up to 125 Pt100 temperature sensors and associated thermal control loops was developed (ESO's new housekeeping unit PULPO 2), together with several new modular Pt100 packaging and mounting concepts. The electrical grouping of CCDs based on process parameters and test results is explained. Three ESO standardized FIERA CCD controllers in different configurations are used. Their synchronization mechanism for read-out is discussed in connection with the CCD grouping scheme, the shutter, and the integrated guiding and image analysis facility with four independent 2K x 4K CCDs. An

  7. Fingerprints of endogenous process on Europa through linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa harbors a very young surface dated, based on cratering rates, to 10-50 M.y (Zahnle et al. 1998, Pappalardo et al. 1999). This young age implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing, partially engendered by a global salty subsurface liquid ocean that could result in tectonic activity (Schmidt et al. 2011, Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and active plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface of Europa should contain important clues about the composition of this sub-surface briny ocean and about the potential presence of material of exobiological interest in it, thus reinforcing Europa as a major target of interest for upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE. To perform the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow mineral signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Until recently, a large majority of studies only proposed sulfate salts along with sulfuric acid hydrate and water-ice to be present on Europa's surface. However, recent works based on Europa's surface coloration in the visible wavelength range and NIR spectral analysis support the hypothesis of the predominance of chlorine salts instead of sulfate salts (Hand & Carlson 2015, Fischer et al. 2015). Our linear spectral modeling supports this new hypothesis insofar as the use of Mg-bearing chlorines improved the fits whatever the region. As expected, the distribution of sulfuric acid hydrate is correlated to the Iogenic sulfur ion implantation flux distribution (Hendrix et al

  8. New high-sensitivity, milliarcsecond resolution results from routine observations of lunar occultations at the ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Fors, O.; Chen, W.-P.; Mason, E.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Lunar occultations (LO) are a very efficient and powerful technique that achieves the best combination of high angular resolution and sensitivity possible today at near-infrared wavelengths. Given that the events are fixed in time, that the sources are occulted randomly, and that the telescope use is minimal, the technique is very well suited for service mode observations. Aims: We have established a program of routine LO observations at the VLT observatory, especially designed to take advantage of short breaks available in-between other programs. We have used the ISAAC instrument in burst mode, capable of producing continuous read-outs at millisecond rates on a suitable subwindow. Given the random nature of the source selection, our aim has been primarily the investigation of a large number of stellar sources at the highest angular resolution in order to detect new binaries. Serendipitous results such as resolved sources and detection of circumstellar components were also anticipated. Methods: We have recorded the signal from background stars for a few seconds, around the predicted time of occultation by the Moon's dark limb. At millisecond time resolution, a characteristic diffraction pattern can be observed. Patterns for two or more sources superimpose linearly, and this property is used for the detection of binary stars. The detailed analysis of the diffraction fringes can be used to measure specific properties such as the stellar angular size and the presence of extended light sources such as a circumstellar shell. Results: We present a list of 191 stars for which LO data could be recorded and analyzed. Results include the detection of 16 binary and 2 triple stars, all but one of which were previously unknown. The projected angular separations are as small as 4 milliarcsec and magnitude differences as high as Δ K = 5.8 mag. Additionally we derive accurate angular diameters for 2 stars and resolve circumstellar emission around another one, also all

  9. UVES/VLT high resolution spectroscopy of GRB 050730 afterglow: probing the features of the GRB environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elia, V.; Fiore, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Sbordone, L.; Stella, L.; Antonelli, L.A.; Fontana, A.; Giannini, T.; Guetta, D.; Israel, G.; Testa, V.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Vergani, S.D.; Ward, P.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Molinari, E.; Moretti, A.; Chincarini, G.; Melandri, A.; Norci, L.; Vergani, S.D.; Pellizza, L.; Filliatre, P.; Perna, R.; Lazzati, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this paper is to study the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) environment through the analysis of the optical absorption features due to the gas surrounding the GRB. Methods. To this purpose we analyze high resolution spectroscopic observations (R = 20000-45000, corresponding to 14 kms -1 at 4200 Angstroms and 6.6 kms -1 at 9000 Angstroms of the optical afterglow of GRB050730, obtained with UVES-VLT ∼ 4 h after the GRB trigger. Results. The spectrum shows that the ISM of the GRB host galaxy at z = 3.967 is complex, with at least five components contributing to the main absorption system. We detect strong CII*, SiII*, OI* and FeII* fine structure absorption lines associated to the second and third component. Conclusions. For the first three components we derive information on the relative distance from the site of the GRB explosion. Component 1, which has the longest wavelength, highest positive velocity shift, does not present any fine structure nor low ionization lines; it only shows very high ionization features, such as C IV and O VI, suggesting that this component is very close to the GRB site. From the analysis of low and high ionization lines and fine structure lines, we find evidences that the distance of component 2 from the site of the GRB explosion is 10-100 times smaller than that of component 3. We evaluated the mean metallicity of the z = 3.967 system obtaining values approximate to 10 -2 of the solar metallicity or less. However, this should not be taken as representative of the circum-burst medium, since the main contribution to the hydrogen column density comes from the outer regions of the galaxy while that of the other elements presumably comes from the ISM closer to the GRB site. Furthermore, difficulties in evaluating dust depletion correction can modify significantly these values. The mean [C/Fe] ratio agrees well with that expected by single star-formation event models. Interestingly the [C/Fe] of component 2 is smaller than that of

  10. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  11. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  12. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  13. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  14. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey . XXIV. Stellar properties of the O-type giants and supergiants in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Grin, N. J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; Puls, J.; Markova, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Castro, N.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; García, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; van Kempen, B.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The Tarantula region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the richest population of spatially resolved massive O-type stars known so far. This unmatched sample offers an opportunity to test models describing their main-sequence evolution and mass-loss properties. Aims: Using ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to determine stellar, photospheric and wind properties of 72 presumably single O-type giants, bright giants and supergiants and to confront them with predictions of stellar evolution and of line-driven mass-loss theories. Methods: We apply an automated method for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O stars combining the non-LTE stellar atmosphere model fastwind with the genetic fitting algorithm pikaia to determine the following stellar properties: effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, helium abundance, and projected rotational velocity. The latter has been constrained without taking into account the contribution from macro-turbulent motions to the line broadening. Results: We present empirical effective temperature versus spectral subtype calibrations at LMC-metallicity for giants and supergiants. The calibration for giants shows a +1kK offset compared to similar Galactic calibrations; a shift of the same magnitude has been reported for dwarfs. The supergiant calibrations, though only based on a handful of stars, do not seem to indicate such an offset. The presence of a strong upturn at spectral type O3 and earlier can also not be confirmed by our data. In the spectroscopic and classical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, our sample O stars are found to occupy the region predicted to be the core hydrogen-burning phase by state-of-the-art models. For stars initially more massive than approximately 60 M⊙, the giant phase already appears relatively early on in the evolution; the supergiant phase develops later. Bright giants, however, are not

  15. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  16. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  17. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  18. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  19. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  20. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  1. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  2. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  3. Second Announcement - ESO/ST-ECF Workshop on NICMOS and the VLT: A New Era of High-Resolution Near-Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy - May 26-27, 1998 - Hotel Baia di Nora, Pula, Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    ST-ECF and ESO are organising in collaboration with the NICMOS IDT and STScI a workshop on near infrared imaging from space and ground. The purpose of the workshop is to review what has been achieved with the Near Infrared and Multi Object Spectrograph (NICMOS) on board of HST, what can be achieved in the remaining lifetime of the instrument, and how NICMOS observations can be optimised taking into account the availability of IR imaging and spectroscopy on ESO's Very large Telescope (VLT) in the near future. The meeting will be held in May 1998, about one year after science observations started with NICMOS, and about half a year before the Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera (ISAAC) starts to operate on the VLT. Currently, it is expected that NICMOS will operate until the end of 1998.

  4. The Panchromatic High-Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Local Group Star Clusters. I. General data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönebeck, Frederik; Puzia, Thomas H.; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Kuntschner, Harald; Lyubenova, Mariya; Perina, Sibilla

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Our dataset contains spectroscopic observations of 29 globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way performed with VLT/X-shooter over eight full nights. To derive robust results instrument and pipeline systematics have to be well understood and properly modeled. We aim at a consistent data reduction procedure with an accurate understanding of the measurement accuracy limitations. Here we present detailed data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm. These are not restricted to our particular dataset, but are generally applicable to different kinds of X-shooter data without major limitation on the astronomical object of interest. Methods: ESO's X-shooter pipeline (v1.5.0) performs well and reliably for the wavelength calibration and the associated rectification procedure, yet we find several weaknesses in the reduction cascade that are addressed with additional calibration steps, such as bad pixel interpolation, flat fielding, and slit illumination corrections. Furthermore, the instrumental PSF is analytically modeled and used to reconstruct flux losses at slit transit. This also forms the basis for an optimal extraction of point sources out of the two-dimensional pipeline product. Regular observations of spectrophotometric standard stars obtained from the X-shooter archive allow us to detect instrumental variability, which needs to be understood if a reliable absolute flux calibration is desired. Results: A cascade of additional custom calibration steps is presented that allows for an absolute flux calibration uncertainty of ≲10% under virtually every observational setup, provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high. The optimal extraction increases the signal-to-noise ratio typically by a factor of 1.5, while simultaneously correcting for resulting flux losses. The wavelength calibration is found to be accurate to an uncertainty level of Δλ ≃ 0.02 Å. Conclusions: We find that most of the X

  5. CLASH-VLT: DISSECTING THE FRONTIER FIELDS GALAXY CLUSTER MACS J0416.1-2403 WITH ∼800 SPECTRA OF MEMBER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestra, I.; Sartoris, B.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Biviano, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Rosati, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Ettori, S.; Vanzella, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Ogrean, G. A.; Weeren, R. J. van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Medezinski, E.; Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Merten, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Tozzi, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Umetsu, K., E-mail: balestra@oats.inaf.it [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-06-01

    We present VIMOS-Very Large Telescope (VLT) spectroscopy of the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 ( z  = 0.397). Taken as part of the CLASH-VLT survey, the large spectroscopic campaign provided more than 4000 reliable redshifts over ∼600 arcmin{sup 2}, including ∼800 cluster member galaxies. The unprecedented sample of cluster members at this redshift allows us to perform a highly detailed dynamical and structural analysis of the cluster out to ∼2.2 r {sub 200} (∼4 Mpc). Our analysis of substructures reveals a complex system composed of a main massive cluster ( M {sub 200} ∼ 0.9 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ⊙} and σ{sub V,r200} ∼ 1000 km s{sup −1}) presenting two major features: (i) a bimodal velocity distribution, showing two central peaks separated by Δ V {sub rf} ∼ 1100 km s{sup −1} with comparable galaxy content and velocity dispersion, and (ii) a projected elongation of the main substructures along the NE–SW direction, with a prominent sub-clump ∼600 kpc SW of the center and an isolated BCG approximately halfway between the center and the SW clump. We also detect a low-mass structure at z  ∼ 0.390, ∼10′ south of the cluster center, projected at ∼3 Mpc, with a relative line-of-sight velocity of Δ V{sub rf} ∼ −1700 km s{sup −1}. The cluster mass profile that we obtain through our dynamical analysis deviates significantly from the “universal” NFW, being best fit by a Softened Isothermal Sphere model instead. The mass profile measured from the galaxy dynamics is found to be in relatively good agreement with those obtained from strong and weak lensing, as well as with that from the X-rays, despite the clearly unrelaxed nature of the cluster. Our results reveal an overall complex dynamical state of this massive cluster and support the hypothesis that the two main subclusters are being observed in a pre-collisional phase, in agreement with recent findings from radio and deep X-ray data. In this article, we

  6. MathWorks Simulink and C++ integration with the new VLT PLC-based standard development platform for instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Di Lieto, Nicola; Sandrock, Stefan; Popovic, Dan; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2014-07-01

    ESO is in the process of implementing a new development platform, based on PLCs, for upcoming VLT control systems (new instruments and refurbishing of existing systems to manage obsolescence issues). In this context, we have evaluated the integration and reuse of existing C++ libraries and Simulink models into the real-time environment of BECKHOFF Embedded PCs using the capabilities of the latest version of TwinCAT software and MathWorks Embedded Coder. While doing so the aim was to minimize the impact of the new platform by adopting fully tested solutions implemented in C++. This allows us to reuse the in house expertise, as well as extending the normal capabilities of the traditional PLC programming environments. We present the progress of this work and its application in two concrete cases: 1) field rotation compensation for instrument tracking devices like derotators, 2) the ESO standard axis controller (ESTAC), a generic model-based controller implemented in Simulink and used for the control of telescope main axes.

  7. BROAD BALMER WINGS IN BA HYPER/SUPERGIANTS DISTORTED BY DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS: FIVE EXAMPLES IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION FROM THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Sabbi, Elena, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  8. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  9. TRE ~ANGUAGE LOTTERY: PROMISES, PROMISES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dual children, about which expressions a certain child heard and registered and with what frequency at ... scientific theorizing, suggested the need for another model, allowing d simpler account of the phenotype or .... (1) generate base structures, which are mapped to abstract S-structures including trace by tranSformations,.

  10. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  11. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  12. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  13. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination. This commen......Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  14. The management of terminal delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a distressing and disturbing clinical event. Palliation of the symptoms by multi-component interventions can be effective. The goal of interventions is to raise the deliriant threshold by combined symptom relief, environmental, psychological and pharmacological interventions. Haloperidol remains the drug of choice for delirium. For intractable delirious symptoms at the end of life terminal sedation may be indicated.

  15. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  16. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  17. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  18. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  19. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the probl...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  20. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  1. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  2. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  3. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such ...

  4. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  5. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  6. Strategic technology alliance termination : an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing consensus that overall alliance termination rates are high. However, despite this track record of termination and despite unsurpassed growth rates of strategic technology alliances, little is known about the reasons for their termination. Typically strategic alliances have been

  7. 49 CFR 374.309 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal facilities. 374.309 Section 374.309... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.309 Terminal facilities. (a... attendants and be regularly patrolled. (b) Outside facilities. At terminals and stations that are closed when...

  8. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.40 Section 3.40... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal... animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters are...

  9. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.91 Section 3.91... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.91 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any persons subject to the... with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman...

  10. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.65 Section 3.65... Transportation Standards § 3.65 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility...

  11. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.18 Section 3.18... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.18 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any person subject to the... inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. (b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control...

  12. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1114 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1114 Termination. (a) Parental rights to a child may be terminated... rights if, following efforts to prevent or eliminate the need to remove the minor, it finds such efforts... alternatives: (1) If parental rights to a child are terminated, the children's court shall place the minor in a...

  14. VLT/SPHERE robust astrometry of the HR8799 planets at milliarcsecond-level accuracy. Orbital architecture analysis with PyAstrOFit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, O.; Absil, O.; Gómez González, C. A.; Milli, J.; Girard, J. H.; Mawet, D.; Pueyo, L.

    2017-02-01

    Context. HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on five consecutive nights during the SPHERE science verification in December 2014. Aims: We aim to take full advantage of the SPHERE capabilities to derive accurate astrometric measurements based on H-band images acquired with the Infra-Red Dual-band Imaging and Spectroscopy (IRDIS) subsystem, and to explore the ultimate astrometric performance of SPHERE in this observing mode. We also aim to present a detailed analysis of the orbital parameters for the four planets. Methods: We performed thorough post-processing of the IRDIS images with the Vortex Imaging Processing (VIP) package to derive a robust astrometric measurement for the four planets. This includes the identification and careful evaluation of the different contributions to the error budget, including systematic errors. Combining our astrometric measurements with the ones previously published in the literature, we constrain the orbital parameters of the four planets using PyAstrOFit, our new open-source python package dedicated to orbital fitting using Bayesian inference with Monte-Carlo Markov Chain sampling. Results: We report the astrometric positions for epoch 2014.93 with an accuracy down to 2.0 mas, mainly limited by the astrometric calibration of IRDIS. For each planet, we derive the posterior probability density functions for the six Keplerian elements and identify sets of highly probable orbits. For planet d, there is clear evidence for nonzero eccentricity (e 0.35), without completely excluding solutions with smaller eccentricities. The three other planets are consistent with circular orbits, although their probability distributions spread beyond e = 0.2, and show a peak at e ≃ 0.1 for planet e. The four planets have consistent inclinations of approximately 30° with respect to the sky

  15. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  16. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Lombardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M * /M ☉ ) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing

  17. RFA-based 589-nm guide star lasers for ESO VLT: a paradigm shift in performance, operational simplicity, reliability, and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenauer, Axel; Karpov, Vladimir; Wei, Daoping; Hager, Manfred; Ernstberger, Bernhard; Clements, Wallace R. L.; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.

    2012-07-01

    Large telescopes equipped with adaptive optics require 20-25W CW 589-nm sources with emission linewidths of ~5 MHz. These Guide Star (GS) lasers should also be highly reliable and simple to operate and maintain for many years at the top of a mountain facility. Under contract from ESO, industrial partners TOPTICA and MPBC are nearing completion of the development of GS lasers for the ESO VLT, with delivery of the first of four units scheduled for December 2012. We report on the design and performance of the fully-engineered Pre-Production Unit (PPU), including system reliability/availability analysis, the successfully-concluded qualification testing, long-term component and system level tests and long-term maintenance and support planning. The chosen approach is based on ESO's patented narrow-band Raman Fiber Amplifier (EFRA) technology. A master oscillator signal from a linearly-polarized TOPTICA 20-mW, 1178-nm CW diode laser, with stabilized emission frequency and controllable linewidth up to a few MHz, is amplified in an MPBC polarization-maintaining (PM) RFA pumped by a high-power 1120-nm PM fiber laser. With efficient stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression, an unprecedented 40W of narrow-band RFA output has been obtained. This is then mode-matched into a resonant-cavity doubler with a free-spectral-range matching the sodium D2a to D2b separation, allowing simultaneous generation of an additional frequency component (D2b line) to re-pump the sodium atom electronic population. With this technique, the return flux can be increased without having to resort to electro-optical modulators and without the risk of introducing optical wave front distortions. The demonstrated output powers with doubling efficiencies >80% at 589 nm easily exceed the 20W design goal and require less than 700 W of electrical power. In summary, the fiber-based guide star lasers provide excellent beam quality and are modular, turn-key, maintenance-free, reliable, efficient, and ruggedized

  18. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143, Trieste (Italy); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universitè Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Halkola, A., E-mail: grillo@dark-cosmology.dk; and others

    2015-02-10

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide

  19. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  20. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  1. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li-ya; Sun, Li-shan; Wang, Wu-hong; Xiong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish ...

  2. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  3. What is a "good enough" termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2009-06-01

    In Freud's technique papers, he failed to develop a systematic approach to termination. Much of the existing literature is based on psychoanalytic mythologies about the way patients are expected to end analysis. The models described in the literature are often starkly at odds with what one sees in clinical practice. A wish for idealized versions of termination underlies much of what has been written, and we need to shift to a conceptual model involving "good enough" termination. A number of different endings to psychoanalysis may, in the long run, lead to productive outcomes; these models are examined, as are various approaches to the dilemmas presented at the time of termination.

  4. VLT/X-Shooter spectroscopy of the afterglow of the Swift GRB 130606A. Chemical abundances and reionisation at z ~ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoog, O. E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goto, T.; Krühler, T.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Xu, D.; Møller, P.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Krogager, J.-K.; Kaper, L.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Sollerman, J.; Sparre, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Wiersema, K.; Datson, J.; Salinas, R.; Mikkelsen, K.; Aghanim, N.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The reionisation of the Universe is a process that is thought to have ended around z ~ 6, as inferred from spectroscopy of distant bright background sources, such as quasars (QSO) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Furthermore, spectroscopy of a GRB afterglow provides insight in its host galaxy, which is often too dim and distant to study otherwise. Aims: For the Swift GRB 130606A at z = 5.913 we have obtained a high S/N spectrum covering the full optical and near-IR wavelength region at intermediate spectral resolution with VLT/X-Shooter. We aim to measure the degree of ionisation of the intergalactic medium (IGM) between z = 5.02-5.84 and to study the chemical abundance pattern and dust content of its host galaxy. Methods: We estimated the UV continuum of the GRB afterglow using a power-law extrapolation, then measured the flux decrement due to absorption at Lyα,β, and γ wavelength regions. Furthermore, we fitted the shape of the red damping wing of Lyα. The hydrogen and metal absorption lines formed in the host galaxy were fitted with Voigt profiles to obtain column densities. We investigated whether ionisation corrections needed to be applied. Results: Our measurements of the Lyα-forest optical depth are consistent with previous measurements of QSOs, but have a much smaller uncertainty. The analysis of the red damping wing yields a neutral fraction xH i 5.6. GRBs are useful probes of the ionisation state of the IGM in the early Universe, but because of internal scatter we need a larger statistical sample to draw robust conclusions. The high [Si/Fe] in the host can be due to dust depletion, α-element enhancement, or a combination of both. The very high value of [ Al/Fe ] = 2.40 ± 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and is probably connected to the stellar population history. We estimate the host metallicity to be -1.7 Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the

  5. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  6. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  7. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  8. 9 CFR 3.117 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.117 Section 3... Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.117 Terminal facilities. Carriers and intermediate handlers... facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be...

  9. Bargaining in Mergers and Termination Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Rosenkranz, S.

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain termination fees for, both, the target and the acquirer, subject to parties’ bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, termination fees are offered by firms with outside options in exchange for a greater share of merger synergies.

  10. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids...

  11. 48 CFR 32.109 - Termination financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination financing. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.109 Termination financing. To encourage contractors to invest their own funds in performance despite the susceptibility of...

  12. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  13. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order...

  14. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated because there is a likelihood that the parolee will engage in conduct violating any criminal law... shall review the status of the parolee to determine the need for continued supervision. The Commission shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  15. 14 CFR 272.12 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.12 Termination. These provisions shall terminate on October 1, 1998, unless the program of essential air service to the Federated States of...

  16. 43 CFR 29.13 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Termination. Upon termination of operations of the Pipeline, the full disposition of all claims, and the... shall request that Congress provide for final disposition of the Fund. If Congress at any time establishes a comprehensive oil pollution liability fund which supersedes or repeals the Fund, the Fund assets...

  17. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  18. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  19. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  20. 7 CFR 983.89 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.89 Termination. (a) The Secretary may at any time..., That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at...

  1. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  2. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  3. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate by traditional methods without decreasing its strength significantly. Glass fiber products are especially sensitive to bend radius, and do not work very well with traditional 'sewn loop on pin' type connections. As with most composites, getting applied loads from a metallic structure into the webbing without stress concentrations is the key to a successful design. A potted end termination has been shown in some preliminary work to out-perform traditional termination methods. It was proposed to conduct a series of tensile tests on structural webbing or cord to determine the optimum potting geometry, and to then be able to estimate a weight and volume savings over traditional sewn-overa- pin connections. During the course of the investigation into potted end terminations for glass fiber webbing, a new and innovative connection was developed that has lower weight, reduced fabrication time, and superior thermal tolerance over the metallic end terminations that were to be optimized in the original proposal. This end termination essentially transitions the flexible glass fiber webbing into a rigid fiberglass termination, which can be bolted/fastened with traditional methods

  4. The Practice of Hospital Intranet Terminal Access Control Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Shi-tao; TANG Li-ming

    2016-01-01

    Along with the increasingly urgent management needs of intranet terminals in hospital, and large scaled deployment of terminal management system, terminal access control has become one of the standard functions of terminal management. This paper mainly aims at some simple research for the system construction of hospital intranet terminal access control.

  5. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following failings...

  6. 7 CFR 1469.25 - Contract violations and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... termination without delay. (c) If NRCS terminates a contract due to breach of contract, the participant will... terminates a contract due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily terminates the contract... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations and termination. 1469.25 Section...

  7. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  8. Termination of plastic-clad fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Optical waveguides are ideal in a nuclear weapon environment because of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. Of the fibers on today's market, plastic-clad silica (PCS) is the most radiation resistant and therfore the best choice. Because terminating PCS is complex, this paper attemps to address the major problems associated with these terminations including selecting the proper connector and optimizing the terminating procedures. The sources of losses in the connectors are summarized and typical loss values are given for four connectors which were tested

  9. Terminal location planning in intermodal transportation with Bayesian inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we consider the planning of terminal locations for intermodal transportation systems. For a given number of potential terminals and coexisted multiple service pairs, we find the set of appropriate terminals and their locations that p...

  10. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  11. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  12. Keerukas terminal valiti aasta betoonehitiseks / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2002-01-01

    Aasta Betoonehitise nimetuse võitis Muuga kuivpuisteainete terminal, projekteerija Randväli&Karema AS. Eriauhind arhitektuurse osa eest - Birgitta klooster Pirital. Eriauhind tellijale - büroohoone Tallinnas Toompuiestee 33. Eriauhind ehitajale - konteinerterminal Muugal, projekteerija AS Merin

  13. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate...

  14. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  15. 48 CFR 12.403 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guidance to the extent that part 49 does not conflict with this section and the language of the termination... required to comply with the cost accounting standards or the contract cost principles in part 31. The...

  16. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  17. 29 CFR 402.5 - Terminal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting labor organization through merger, consolidation or otherwise, shall file a report containing a... on Form LM-2 in connection with the terminal financial report required by § 403.5 of this chapter and...

  18. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  19. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  20. 77 FR 21981 - Maher Terminal, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... continues to agree with another marine terminal operator or common carrier to boycott and/or unreasonably... costs and other undue and unreasonable payments, economic considerations, restrictions on transfers and...

  1. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle

  2. Controlling S2 terminal using FS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuhe

    New S2FS software for controlling S2 terminal of Sheshan station has been developed. It works under Field System software. All S2 operation commands are incorporated in a station program. The interface of SWT computer and S2 terminal is RS232 interface. S2FS software is designed by using Shell and C language. It has been used in VSOP experiments.

  3. Intermodal terminals simulation for operation management

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarra, Alessandro; Impastato, Stefano; Ricci, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    A freight terminal is a key node in a transportation network and the transit time of containers through this terminal represents one of the most relevant bottlenecks in logistic chains. The system performance reduction and the corresponding increase of transit time are often due to the increase of the freight flow without a corresponding increase of stacking and handling capacity. For this purpose it was decided to approach the problem by a discrete event simulation model, in order to reprodu...

  4. Minimum Efficient Scale (MES) and preferred scale of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselimi, Evangelia N.; Notteboom, Theo E.; Pallis, Athanasios A.; Farrell, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The decision on the scale of a port terminal affects the terminals managerial, operational and competitive position in all the phases of its life. It also affects competition structures in the port in which the terminal is operating, and has a potential impact on other terminals. Port authorities and terminal operators need to know the scale of the terminal when engaging in concession agreements. In economic theory the scale of a plant/firm is typically defined in relation to the Mi...

  5. Terminal Gold-Oxo Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R.; Anderson, T.M.; Piccoli, P.M.B.; Schultz, A.J.; Koetzle, T.F.; Geletii, Y.V.; Slonkina, E.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hardcastle, K.I.; Fang, X.; Kirk, M.L.; Knottenbelt, S.; Kogerler, P.; Musaev, D.G.; Morokuma, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hill, C.L.; /Emory U. /Argonne /SLAC, SSRL /New Mexico U. /Iowa State U. /Toho U.

    2007-10-19

    In contradiction to current bonding paradigms, two terminal Au-oxo molecular complexes have been synthesized by reaction of AuCl{sub 3} with metal oxide-cluster ligands that model redox-active metal oxide surfaces. Use of K{sub 10}[{alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}] x 20H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}WO{sub 4} (forming the [A-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 9-} ligand in situ) produces K{sub 15}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 68}] x 25H{sub 2}O (1); use of K{sub 10}[P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 22H{sub 2}O (3) produces K{sub 7}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 27H{sub 2}O (2). Complex 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic Fddd, with a = 28.594(4) Angstroms, b = 31.866(4) Angstroms, c = 38.241(5) Angstroms, V = 34844(7) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 16 (final R = 0.0540), and complex 2 crystallizes in hexagonal P6(3)/mmc, with a = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, b = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, c = 19.7659(15) Angstroms, V = 4477.4(5) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 2 (final R = 0.0634). The polyanion unit in 1 is disorder-free. Very short ({approx}1.76 Angstroms) Au-oxo distances are established by both X-ray and 30 K neutron diffraction studies, and the latter confirms oxo and trans aqua (H2O) ligands on Au. Seven findings clarify that Au and not W is present in the Au-oxo position in 1 and 2. Five lines of evidence are consistent with the presence of d8 Au(III) centers that are stabilized by the flanking polytungstate ligands in both 1 and 2: redox titrations, electrochemical measurements, 17 K optical spectra, Au L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Au-oxo bond distances. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for crystalline 1 and 2 establish that both solids are diamagnetic, and {sup 31}P and {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy confirm that both remain diamagnetic in solution. Both complexes have been further characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and other techniques.

  6. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  7. Terminal addition in a cellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B

    2018-07-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  9. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  10. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of the following: (1...

  11. 42 CFR 423.509 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 423.509 Section 423... Contracts with Part D plan sponsors § 423.509 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the Part D plan sponsor meets any of the...

  12. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first...... example of a cationic terminal carbide complex, [RuC(Cl)(CH3CN)(PCy3)2]+, is described and characterized by NMR, MS, X-ray crystallography, and computational studies. The experimentally observed irregular variation of the carbide 13C chemical shift is shown to be accurately reproduced by DFT, which also...... demonstrates that details of the coordination geometry affect the carbide chemical shift equally as much as variations in the nature of the auxiliary ligands. Furthermore, the kinetics of formation of the sqaure pyramidal dicyano complex, trans-[RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2], from RuC has been examined and the reaction...

  13. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  14. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising...... combinations of nodes in which at least three nodes are located around a reference node in a configuration satisfying similarity criteria to an idealised star configuration, wherein an idealised star configuration comprises three nodes evenly angularly distributed around, and at the same distance from......, a reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...

  15. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal statistics of terminal dynamics before collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenner, Nicolas; Eule, Stephan; Wolf, Fred

    Recent biological developments have both drastically increased the precision as well as amount of generated data, allowing for a switching from pure mean value characterization of the process under consideration to an analysis of the whole ensemble, exploiting the stochastic nature of biology. We focus on the general class of non-equilibrium processes with distinguished terminal points as can be found in cell fate decision, check points or cognitive neuroscience. Aligning the data to a terminal point (e.g. represented as an absorbing boundary) allows to device a general methodology to characterize and reverse engineer the terminating history. Using a small noise approximation we derive mean variance and covariance of the aligned data for general finite time singularities.

  17. Automatic termination of a protective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Subcommittee 6 of NPEC is responsible for the development of IEEE Standard 603. The adequacy of requirements concerning control and termination of protective actions was raised during the balloting of IEEE Standard 603-1980. In essence, the concern dealt with the requirement for deliberate operator action to return the system to normal. It was questioned if control actions such as automatic termination of system operation were allowed. Changes in the standard were made to clarify that there was a distinction between control (including termination) and return to normal and also state that automatic control may be required. Additionally, an action item was identified in the forward of IEEE Standard 603-1980 to determine if any additional changes were needed. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of this additional work

  18. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  19. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  20. Hydrogen terminal solubility in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abrahan D.

    1999-01-01

    Terminal solubility temperature of hydrogen in zirconium and its alloys is an important parameter because hydrides precipitation embrittled these materials making them susceptible to the phenomenon known as retarded hydrogen cracking. This work continues the study presented in the 25 AATN Meeting. Within this framework, a study focused on determining these curves in recrystallized Zircaloy-4, using scanning differential calorimetric technique. Terminal solubility curves for Zircaloy-4 were constructed within a concentration range from 40 to 640 ppm in hydrogen weight and comparisons with results obtained by other authors were made. (author)