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Sample records for loss measurements induced

  1. Preservation of beam loss induced quenches, beam lifetime and beam loss measurements with the HERAp beam-loss-monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenburg, Kay

    1994-06-01

    The beam-loss-monitors (BLMs) in the HERA-proton-ring (HERAp) must fulfill the following requirements: They have to measure losses sensitive and fast enough to prevent the superconducting magnets from beam loss induced quenching; the dynamic range of the monitors must exceed several decades in order to measure losses during beam lifetimes of hundreds of hours as well as the much stronger losses that may quench superconducting magnets; they have to be insensitive to the synchrotron radiation of the adjacent electron-ring (HERAe); and their radiation hardness must allow a monitor-lifetime of a few years of HERA operation. These requirements are well satisfied by the HERAp-BLM-System.

  2. Sound Pressure Levels Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas V., III

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing noise-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and compares sound levels with the criteria set by the…

  3. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America Information For… Media Policy Makers Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing plays ... sounds over an extended period. Preventing Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by exposure to loud sound ...

  4. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  5. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chadi Saifan; Daniel Glass; Iskandar Barakat; Suzanne El-Sayegh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiomet...

  6. 'Popper'-induced vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilis, Matthew; Thompson, Julia; Atik, Alp; Lusthaus, Jed; Jankelowitz, Stacey

    2013-05-01

    Amyl nitrite 'poppers' are recreational drugs, which are a potent source of nitric oxide. The use of 'poppers' can cause psychoactive stimulation, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia and involuntary muscle relaxation. Their use is becoming increasingly common around the world, including approximately 60% of Australia's male homosexual community. We report the first case of 'popper'-induced vision loss in Australasia.

  7. Inducible models of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Casey R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-12-11

    Bone is an essential organ that not only confers structural stability to the organism, but also serves as a reservoir for hematopoietic elements and is thought to affect systemic homeostasis through the release of endocrine factors as well as calcium. The loss of bone mass due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption leads to increased fragility that can result in devastating fractures. Further understanding of the effects of environmental stimuli on the development of bone disease in humans is needed, and they can be studied using animal models. Here, we present established and novel methods for the induction of bone loss in mice, including manipulation of diet and environment, administration of drugs, irradiation, and surgically induced hormone deficiency. All of these models are directly related to human cases, and thus, can be used to investigate the causes of bone loss resulting from these interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Saifan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient—who was restated on methadone—did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  9. Methadone induced sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifan, Chadi; Glass, Daniel; Barakat, Iskandar; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient-who was restated on methadone-did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  10. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley, R. Andre, R.E. Bell, D.S. Darrow, C.W. Domier, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, K.C. Lee, F.M. Levinton, D. Liu, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., J.E. Menard, H. Park, D. Stutman, A.L. Roquemore, K. Tritz, H. Yuh and the NSTX Team

    2007-11-15

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ~ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvénic (f ~ 20 – 150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvénic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  11. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  12. Communicating Earthquake Preparedness: The Influence of Induced Mood, Perceived Risk, and Gain or Loss Frames on Homeowners' Attitudes Toward General Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Michèle; Stauffacher, Michael; Matthes, Jörg; Wiemer, Stefan

    2017-08-11

    Despite global efforts to reduce seismic risk, actual preparedness levels remain universally low. Although earthquake-resistant building design is the most efficient way to decrease potential losses, its application is not a legal requirement across all earthquake-prone countries and even if, often not strictly enforced. Risk communication encouraging homeowners to take precautionary measures is therefore an important means to enhance a country's earthquake resilience. Our study illustrates that specific interactions of mood, perceived risk, and frame type significantly affect homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The interdependencies of the variables mood, risk information, and frame type were tested in an experimental 2 × 2 × 2 design (N = 156). Only in combination and not on their own, these variables effectively influence attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The control variables gender, "trait anxiety" index, and alteration of perceived risk adjust the effect. Overall, the group with the strongest attitudes toward general precautionary actions for earthquakes are homeowners with induced negative mood who process high-risk information and gain-framed messages. However, the conditions comprising induced negative mood, low-risk information and loss-frame and induced positive mood, low-risk information and gain-framed messages both also significantly influence homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. These results mostly confirm previous findings in the field of health communication. For practitioners, our study emphasizes that carefully compiled communication measures are a powerful means to encourage precautionary attitudes among homeowners, especially for those with an elevated perceived risk. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani When ...

  14. Beam Loss Diagnostics Based on Pressure Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weinrich, U

    2003-01-01

    The GSI is operating a heavy ion synchrotron, which is currently undergoing an upgrade towards higher beam intensities. It was discovered that beam losses induce a significant pressure increase in the vacuum system. In order to detect the time constants of the pressure increase and decrease, fast total pressure measurements were put into operation. With the recently installed partial pressure diagnostics it is also possible to follow up which types of molecules are released. The presentation will focus on the different techniques applied as well as on some measurement results. The potential and difficulties of this diagnostic tool will also be discussed.

  15. Macrobending Loss Measurements of G.657 Fiber with Suppression of Ripple Effect Induced by Whispering Gallery Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Linyin; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2016-02-01

    During the macrobending loss performance tests of ITU-T G.657 fiber under small bending radius, the test results show big differencesin many tests for the same test samples and conditions. Research shows that the main reason for the difference is Whispering gallery modes phenomenon in small bending radius [1]. The inappropriate test conditions can affect the accuracy of macrobending loss test results. In the test of product validation and field application, single wavelength light source and optical power meter were often used. How to judge whether there is effect existing and how to remove the Whispering gallery modes influence in the testing process has become the key to correctly test macrobending loss by light source and optical power meter. This paper introduces the method of eliminating Whispering gallery modes effect during the macrobending test under small bending radius by single wavelength light source and optical power meter.

  16. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...

  17. Measurements and modeling of Alfven eigenmode induced fast ion transport and loss in DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanZeeland, M. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R. K.; Munoz, M. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; White, R. B.; Akaslompolo, S.; Austin, M. E.; Boom, J. E.; Classen, I.G.J.; da Graca, S.; Geiger, B.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Luhmann, N.; Maraschek, M.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.; Sharapov, S.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Tobias, B. J.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). These modes are studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete c

  18. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children: Preventing the Silent Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Hal Martin; Judith Sobel; Susan E. Griest; Linda Howarth; SHI Yongbing

    2006-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss and related tinnitus are often unrecognized problems, especially in non-occupational settings. Research indicates that increasing numbers of children and adolescents have or are acquiring noise induced hearing losses. Noise induced hearing loss can almost completely be prevented with simple precautionary measures. Educational programs rarely exist outside of those mandated in occupational settings.Health Communication theory can be applied to hearing health for developing effective loss prevention programs.Dangerous Decibels(R) is one example of an effective multi-disciplinary effort to develop and disseminated prevention strategies.

  19. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  20. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kıvrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks.

  1. Overview of LHC Beam Loss Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Fadakis, E; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Kruk, G; Kurfuerst, C; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M; Zamantzas, C; Grishin, V; Griesmayer, E

    2011-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring system provides measurements with an update rate of 1 Hz and high time resolution data by event triggering. These informations are used for the initiation of beam aborts, fixed displays and the off line analysis. The analysis of fast and localized loss events resulted in the determination of its rate, duration, peak amplitudes, its scaling with intensity, number of bunches and beam energy. The calibration of the secondary shower beam loss signal in respect to the needed beam energy deposition to quench the magnet coil is addressed at 450GeV and 3.5T eV . The adjustment of collimators is checked my measuring the loss pattern and its variation in the collimation regions of the LHC. Loss pattern changes during a fill allow the observation of non typical fill parameters.

  2. Measurement of AC losses in different former materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Træholt, Chresten; Kühle, Anders Van Der Aa

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting cable may be based on a centrally located cylindrical support, a so-called former. If electrically conductive, the former can contribute to the AC losses through eddy current losses caused by unbalanced axial and tangential magnetic fields. With these measurements...... we aim at investigating the eddy current losses of commonly used former materials. A one layer cable conductor was wound on a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRFP) former. By inserting a variety of materials into this, it was possible to measure the eddy current losses of each of the former...... candidates separately; for example copper tubes, stainless steel braid, copper braid, corrugated stainless steel tubes, etc. The measured data are compared with the predictions of a theoretical model. Our results show that in most cases, the losses induced by eddy currents in the former are negligible...

  3. Exercise and diet induced weight loss improves measures of oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in adults with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, R. Scott; Warner, Shana O.; Ying LIU; Hinton, Pamela S.; Sun, Grace Y.; Cox, Richard H.; Stump, Craig S.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Thomas, Tom R.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) increase the risk for coronary heart disease; however, much of this risk is not attributable to traditional risk factors. We sought to determine whether weight loss associated with supervised aerobic exercise beneficially alters biomarkers of oxidative stress and whether these alterations are associated with improvements in measures of insulin resistance. Twenty-five sedentary and overweight to obese [body mass index (BMI) = 33.0 ± 0.8 kg/m2] individuals, w...

  4. Pannexin 1 deficiency can induce hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Yan; Liang, Chun; Chen, Jin

    Gap junctions play a critical role in hearing. Connexin gap junction gene mutations can induce a high incidence of hearing loss. Pannexin (Panx) gene also encodes gap junction proteins in vertebrates. Panx1 is a predominant pannexin isoform and has extensive expression in the cochlea. Here, we report that deletion of Panx1 in the cochlea could produce a progressive hearing loss. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording showed that hearing loss was moderate to severe and severe at high-frequencies. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), which reflects the activity of active cochlear mechanics that can amply acoustic stimulation to enhance hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity, was also reduced. We further found that Panx1 deficiency could activate Caspase-3 cell apoptotic pathway in the cochlea to cause hair cells and other types of cells degeneration. These data indicate that like connexins Panx1 deficiency can also induce hearing loss. These data also suggest that pannexins play important rather than redundant roles in the cochlea and hearing.

  5. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  6. The Prevention of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Harrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our acoustic environment is filled with amplified sound sources (e.g., MP3 players, video game stations, and sports/entertainment venues. There is serious concern and also some controversy about the risks of acoustic trauma in children. This overview provides some basic information on the physiological mechanisms that lead to noise induced hearing loss, a survey of various studies that, on balance, indicates that there is cause for concern, and finally a discussion on measures that can help to prevent noise induced hearing loss in children. This paper is designed for public health and other healthcare professions (ENT, audiologists, family doctors, and pediatricians who should understand the risks of noise induced hearing loss and its prevention.

  7. The prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert V

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, our acoustic environment is filled with amplified sound sources (e.g., MP3 players, video game stations, and sports/entertainment venues). There is serious concern and also some controversy about the risks of acoustic trauma in children. This overview provides some basic information on the physiological mechanisms that lead to noise induced hearing loss, a survey of various studies that, on balance, indicates that there is cause for concern, and finally a discussion on measures that can help to prevent noise induced hearing loss in children. This paper is designed for public health and other healthcare professions (ENT, audiologists, family doctors, and pediatricians) who should understand the risks of noise induced hearing loss and its prevention.

  8. Diclofenac induced sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhanukumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A few cases of mild to moderate, gradual and reversible sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL with prolonged doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported. We present a case of sudden irreversible SNHL in a 60-year-old female after taking a single dose of diclofenac. The patient was a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and was on regular treatment. We postulate that the patient's hearing loss was the result of diclofenac's ototoxic effects which may have been potentiated as a result of her long standing diabetes, hypertension and old age. Accordingly, we recommend the cautious use of diclofenac in patients with underlying diseases where diclofenac induced ototoxicity could potentially result in adverse otologic consequences.

  9. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter

    2007-01-01

    of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different...... administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2...

  10. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...... in female mice, showing a clear gender difference. However, when stressed by OVX, the female bgn knockout (KO) mice were resistant to the OVX-induced trabecular bone loss. The wt mice showed a decrease in trabecular bone mineral density by pQCT measurements, a decrease in trabecular bone volume (BV...... (OPG) and RANKL revealed increased levels of OPG and decreased levels of RANKL in the bgn KO mice compared with wt mice. In conclusion, the bgn deficiency protects against increased trabecular bone turnover and bone loss in response to estrogen depletion, supporting the concept that bgn has dual roles...

  11. Leupeptin reduces impulse noise induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriel Haim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to continuous and impulse noise can induce a hearing loss. Leupeptin is an inhibitor of the calpains, a family of calcium-activated proteases which promote cell death. The objective of this study is to assess whether Leupeptin could reduce the hearing loss resulting from rifle impulse noise. Methods A polyethelene tube was implanted into middle ear cavities of eight fat sand rats (16 ears. Following determination of auditory nerve brainstem evoked response (ABR threshold in each ear, the animals were exposed to the noise of 10 M16 rifle shots. Immediately after the exposure, saline was then applied to one (control ear and non-toxic concentrations of leupeptin determined in the first phase of the study were applied to the other ear, for four consecutive days. Results Eight days after the exposure, the threshold shift (ABR in the control ears was significantly greater (44 dB than in the leupeptin ears (27 dB. Conclusion Leupeptin applied to the middle ear cavity can reduce the hearing loss resulting from exposure to impulse noise.

  12. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ``collective`` alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed.

  13. The pathogenesis of Noise Induced Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abbas Mir Vakili

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available NIHL occurs when too much sound intensity is transmitted into and through the auditory system and can be occur following a shot gun or the exposure to a moderately intense sound for a long period of time. NIHL caused by acoustic trauma refers to permanent cochlear damage from a one-time exposure to excessive sound pressure. This form of NIHL commonly results from exposure to high-intensity sounds such as explosions, gunfire, a large drum hit loudly and firecrackers. Meanwhile the sound intensity, duration of exposure and personal hearing thresholds as the effective factors in the amount of noise induced hearing loss should not be overlooked.  Since numerous investigations have been performed about intense sudden sound we will discuss it in detail in the current article.

  14. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  15. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段艳敏; 王亮; 胡立群; 毛松涛; 许平; 陈开云; 林士耀; 钟国强; 张继宗; 张凌

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (〈0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  16. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing Past Issues / ... about the research. What sparked your interest in hearing loss? From my earliest days in school, I always ...

  17. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  18. Towards a Molecular Understanding of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0500 TITLE: Towards a Molecular Understanding of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronna...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Towards a Molecular Understanding of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0500 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...investigation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Permanent threshold shift, Temporary threshold shift, Noise induced hearing loss , Ribotag, RNA-seq, hair cell, supporting cell

  19. Reducing disorder-induced losses for slow light photonic crystal waveguides through Bloch mode engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Nishan; Combrié, Sylvian; Colman, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We present theory and measurements ofdisorder-induced losses for low loss 1.5 mmlong slow light photonic crystal waveguides. A recent class of dispersion engineered waveguides increases the bandwidth of slow light and shows lower propagation losses for the same group index. Our theory and experim...

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Dugo, L.; Genovese, T.; Paola, R. Di; Ruggeri, Z.; Vegeto, E.; Caputi, A.P.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Puzzolo, D.; Maggi, A.

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that bone loss may be attributed to osteoclast recruitment induced by mediators of inflammation. In different experimental paradigms we have recently demonstrated that estrogen exhibits antiinflammatory activity by preventing the induction of inducible nitric

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Dugo, L.; Genovese, T.; Paola, R. Di; Ruggeri, Z.; Vegeto, E.; Caputi, A.P.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Puzzolo, D.; Maggi, A.

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that bone loss may be attributed to osteoclast recruitment induced by mediators of inflammation. In different experimental paradigms we have recently demonstrated that estrogen exhibits antiinflammatory activity by preventing the induction of inducible nitric oxid

  2. A case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2011-10-01

    The reasons behind sudden sensorineural hearing loss are mostly unknown, but viral infections, blood disorders, ototoxicity, noise trauma, autoimmune disease, acoustic tumor, and even mental stress may be related to the disease. In cases of hearing loss as a result of psychogenic factors, early diagnosis and adequate treatment under collaboration with the psychiatric department are crucial, since failure to take appropriate measures may result in permanent sequela. We report a case, with a review of the literature, of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

  3. Loss tangent measurements on unirradiated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Goulding, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Unirradiated room temperature loss tangent for sapphire and several commercial grades of polycrystalline alumina are complied for frequencies between 10{sup 5} and 4x10{sup 11} Hz. Sapphire exhibits significantly lower values for the loss tangent at frequencies up to 10{sup 11} Hz. The loss tangents of 3 different grades of Wesgo alumina (AL300, AL995, AL998) and 2 different grades of Coors alumina (AD94, AD995) have typical values near {approx}10{sup -4} at a frequency of 10{sup 8} Hz. On the other hand, the loss tangent of Vitox alumina exhibits a large loss peak tan d{approx} 5x10{sup -3} at this frequency.

  4. Chikungunya virus induced sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavana, Kranti; Tyagi, Isha; Kapila, Rajeev Kumar

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the association of Chikungunya virus and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. In the case report described we had a case which developed sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss following chikungunya fever. A 15-year-old female presented to us with the complains of unilateral sudden onset of hearing loss following an episode of fever, arthralgia and rashes 1 month ago. At the time of these symptoms there were many cases of chikungunya fever in the city, three being in her locality. Clinically Chikungunya fever was suspected and a positive serological test further confirmed our diagnosis. The hearing loss could thus be attributed to Chikungunya virus. Viruses have always been implicated in causing sudden sensorineural hearing loss but Chikungunya virus as a cause has not been documented earlier making this case report a unique one.

  5. Superlens induced loss-insensitive optical force

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Xiaohan; Chan, C T

    2016-01-01

    A slab with relative permittivity $\\epsilon = - 1 + i\\delta$ and permeability $\\mu = - 1 + i\\delta $ has a critical distance away from the slab where a small particle will either be cloaked or imaged depending on whether it is located inside or outside that critical distance. We find that the optical force acting on a small cylinder under plane wave illumination reaches a maximum value at this critical distance. Contrary to the usual observation that superlens systems should be highly loss-sensitive, this maximum optical force remains a constant when loss is changed within a certain range. For a fixed particle-slab distance, increasing loss can even amplify the optical force acting on the small cylinder, contrary to the usual belief that loss compromises the response of supenlens.

  6. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  7. Diclofenac induced sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    M Bhanukumar; Vineetha Bharathan Menon; Justin Kurian; Madhan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    A few cases of mild to moderate, gradual and reversible sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with prolonged doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported. We present a case of sudden irreversible SNHL in a 60-year-old female after taking a single dose of diclofenac. The patient was a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and was on regular treatment. We postulate that the patient's hearing loss was the result of diclofenac's ototoxic effects which may have been poten...

  8. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways.

  9. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  10. Highway Capacity Loss Induced by Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rainfall on capacity reduction on highways has been investigated. Traffic data was generated for both wet and dry conditions. The data analysis showed that the highway section studied was operating in free flow region. A 2.7% capacity loss was obtained for the road. It is argued that no traffic instability could arise from this situation if the state of traffic remains in the free flow regime. However, in the event of the coincidence of fixed bottlenecks and rainfall, instabilities arising from that could lead to further capacity loss.

  11. Hair loss induced by lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Belda, Alberto; Rosique-Robles, Dolores; Casterá, Elvira; Abad, Javier; Amorós-Quiles, Isabel

    2007-08-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian woman with uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) consisting of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Because her therapeutic response was inadequate, the HAART regimen was changed to abacavir, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir. Three months after this therapy was started, the patient developed progressive and notable hair loss. Her hair became fair and thin, and her appearance deteriorated considerably. Hair loss due to HAART was diagnosed. Lopinavir-ritonavir was stopped, and efavirenz was substituted; abacavir and lamivudine were continued. After 4 weeks, her hair growth substantially improved, as evidenced by rapid growth of new hair. Her general condition also improved. No relapse was observed with the new HAART regimen, and the patient's hair loss completely reversed in 8 weeks. Alopecia is a possible adverse event in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir. Our patient's severe and generalized alopecia was temporally related to the initiation and discontinuation of lopinavir-ritonavir. On the basis of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, the adverse reaction was considered probable. Although generalized hair loss due to lopinavir-ritonavir is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction of this widely used drug. If alopecia is severe or particularly distressing to the patient, the offending drug should be discontinued, and therapy with another HIV drug should be started.

  12. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  13. Protective effect of propofol on noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian; Duan, Na; Wang, Qiang; Jing, Gui-Xia; Xiao, Ying

    2017-02-15

    Iatrogenic noise produced by mastoid or craniotomy drills may cause hearing damage, which is induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction of cochlear blood flow (CoBF). This study investigated whether propofol could reduce noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a guinea pig model. Sixty-four male pigmented guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups: control, noise, propofol and propofol+noise. Propofol was infused intravenously for 20min prior to noise exposure with a loading dose of 5mg·kg(-1) for 5min and a maintenance infusion of 20mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) for 135min. For noise exposure, an octave band noise at a 124dB sound pressure level (SPL) was administered to animals for 2h. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CoBF were monitored continuously. Auditory function was measured by the level of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) before and at 1h, 72h and 240h after noise exposure. Cochlear levels of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2α) were measured immediately after the termination of noise exposure. Cochlear silver nitrate staining and outer hair cell (OHC) counting were performed after the final functional test. Noise exposure caused decreases in the CoBF and DPOAE amplitudes, over-generation of 8-iso-PGF2α and the loss of OHCs. Pre-treatment with propofol significantly increased the CoBF and DPOAE amplitudes, decreased 8-iso-PGF2α and the loss of OHCs. Propofol exerted protective effects against NIHL in this animal model by suppressing a lipid peroxidation reaction and improving CoBF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PARKA II-A Bottom Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-29

    obvious %ngle dependance between 15 to 85 degraes and, appear to be only slightly dependent of frequency; showing an approximate 2 db difference in mean... dependance . between 15 to 85 degrees and indicates a slight frequency dependance of 2 db over the frequency rang3e. The major reflected energy is from the...the low CONFIDENTIAL 10 NUSL Tech Memo 2211-023-70 CONFIDENTIAL sound v Locity sediment, resulting in significant angular dependance of bottom Loss at

  15. Minocycline protection of neomycin induced hearing loss in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alan M; Vujanovic, Irena; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This animal study was designed to determine if minocycline ameliorates cochlear damage is caused by intratympanic injection of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Baseline auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured in gerbils that received 40 mM intratympanic neomycin either with 0, 1.2, or 1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal minocycline. Four weeks later auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured and compared to the baseline measurements. Minocycline treatments of 1.2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg resulted in significantly lower threshold increases compared to 0 mg/kg, indicating protection of hearing loss between 6 kHz and 19 kHz. Cochleae were processed for histology and sectioned to allow quantification of the spiral ganglion neurons and histological evaluation of organ of Corti. Significant reduction of spiral ganglion neuron density was demonstrated in animals that did not receive minocycline, indicating that those receiving minocycline demonstrated enhanced survival of spiral ganglion neurons, enhanced survival of sensory hairs cells and spiral ganglion neurons, and reduced hearing threshold elevation correlates with minocycline treatment demonstrating that neomycin induced hearing loss can be reduced by the simultaneous application of minocycline.

  16. Leptin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burguera, B; Hofbauer, L C; Thomas, T; Gori, F; Evans, G L; Khosla, S; Riggs, B L; Turner, R T

    2001-01-01

    .... Serum leptin levels are strongly and directly related to fat body mass. We report here the effects of leptin administration compared with estrogen therapy on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats...

  17. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, J. J.

    1981-11-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  18. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  19. Noise-induced hearing loss and hearing aids requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, C; Garzaro, M; Nadalin, J; Pecorari, G; Boggero, R; Argentero, P.; Albera, R.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective disturbances, due to hearing loss, are auditory disability and handicap which can be evaluated with a questionnaire. The present study refers to a population of industrial workers affected by noise-induced hearing loss. Aim of the study is to identify the minimal level of hearing loss over which the patient felt changes in his quality of life, and the average auditory threshold at which the patient considered the application of a hearing aid useful or necessary. The sample comprise...

  20. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  1. Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, B; Rotter, S; Yilmaz, H; Liertzer, M; Monifi, F; Bender, C M; Nori, F; Yang, L

    2014-01-01

    Controlling and reversing the effects of loss are major challenges in optical systems. For lasers losses need to be overcome by a sufficient amount of gain to reach the lasing threshold. We show how to turn losses into gain by steering the parameters of a system to the vicinity of an exceptional point (EP), which occurs when the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenstates of a system coalesce. In our system of coupled microresonators, EPs are manifested as the loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing. Below a critical value, adding loss annihilates an existing Raman laser. Beyond this critical threshold, lasing recovers despite the increasing loss, in stark contrast to what would be expected from conventional laser theory. Our results exemplify the counterintuitive features of EPs and present an innovative method for reversing the effect of loss.

  2. Characterization of Detectors for Beam Loss Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panniello, M; Finocchiaro, P; Mallows, S; Welsch, C P

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a good candidate for use as beam loss detectors in an accelerator due to their insensitivity to magnetic fields, compactness and relatively low voltage working regime. Furthermore, when used in large numbers, they are significantly cheaper to be mass-produced than more conventional detectors, such as Ionization Chambers. To be able to evaluate the application potential of SiPMs in an accelerator, it is necessary to quantify their fundamental parameters as light detectors, as well as in combination with an optical fiber used for signal generation. In this contribution an experimental and analytical study to determine the time resolution, light sensitivity and dynamic range of a Cherenkov light detector, based on SiPMs, is presented.

  3. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  4. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  5. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  6. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  7. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  8. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The apparatus will be used to make measurements on conductors which must operate in fields up to 7.0 T and rates of field change up to 15 T/s. The magnet for this facility is wound of uninsulated, 15 strand Rutherford cable in which the strand is a 0.812 mm diameter, fully mixed matrix, Cu plus CuNi, multifilament NbTi conductor. The coil is wound in a bath cooled configuration with an overall current density of 7.8 kA/cm/sup 2/. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  9. Ultrasonic airborne insertion loss measurements at normal incidence (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jayrin; Anderson, Brian E

    2010-12-01

    Transmission loss and insertion loss measurements of building materials at audible frequencies are commonly made using plane wave tubes or as a panel between reverberant rooms. These measurements provide information for noise isolation control in architectural acoustics and in product development. Airborne ultrasonic sound transmission through common building materials has not been fully explored. Technologies and products that utilize ultrasonic frequencies are becoming increasingly more common, hence the need to conduct such measurements. This letter presents preliminary measurements of the ultrasonic insertion loss levels for common building materials over a frequency range of 28-90 kHz using continuous-wave excitation.

  10. Measurement of AC loss of superconductors by vaporizing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro; Fujisaki, Reishi; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the development of superconducting pulse conductors for next period nuclear fusion reactors has been carried out. For these conductors, the rated current of 46 kA and the rated magnetic field of 13T are demanded. When the pulse excitation of superconductors is carried out, AC loss arises, and the temperature of the superconductors rises, and when it exceeds a certain value, the superconducting state cannot be maintained. Therefore, the AC loss of pulse conductors must be limited to a low value. It is difficult to evaluate the AC loss of superconductors by calculation, therefore, it is evaluated by actual measurement. There are magnetizing method and vaporizing method for measuring the AC loss. This time, the equipment for measuring the AC loss of 40 kA class superconductors by vaporizing method which measures the helium gas quantity vaporizing at the time of AC loss occurrence was designed and manufactured for the first time. The method of measuring the AC loss, the structure of the measuring equipment, the helium gas recovering part and the measuring part, the countermeasures for preventing helium gas leakage, the resistance heater for calibration, and the results of measurement are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2016-06-28

    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices.

  12. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  13. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  14. Differential effects of pannexins on noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Julia M; Kelly, John J; Barr, Kevin; Schormans, Ashley L; Laird, Dale W; Allman, Brian L

    2016-12-15

    Hearing loss, including noise-induced hearing loss, is highly prevalent and severely hinders an individual's quality of life, yet many of the mechanisms that cause hearing loss are unknown. The pannexin (Panx) channel proteins, Panx1 and Panx3, are regionally expressed in many cell types along the auditory pathway, and mice lacking Panx1 in specific cells of the inner ear exhibit hearing loss, suggesting a vital role for Panxs in hearing. We proposed that Panx1 and/or Panx3 null mice would exhibit severe hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. Using the auditory brainstem response, we surprisingly found that Panx1(-/-) and Panx3(-/-) mice did not harbor hearing or cochlear nerve deficits. Furthermore, while Panx1(-/-) mice displayed no protection against loud noise-induced hearing loss, Panx3(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced 16- and 24-kHz hearing recovery 7 days after a loud noise exposure (NE; 12 kHz tone, 115 dB sound pressure level, 1 h). Interestingly, Cx26, Cx30, Cx43, and Panx2 were up-regulated in Panx3(-/-) mice compared with wild-type and/or Panx1(-/-) mice, and assessment of the auditory tract revealed morphological changes in the middle ear bones of Panx3(-/-) mice. It is unclear if these changes alone are sufficient to provide protection against loud noise-induced hearing loss. Contrary to what we expected, these data suggest that Panx1 and Panx3 are not essential for baseline hearing in mice tested, but the therapeutic targeting of Panx3 may prove protective against mid-high-frequency hearing loss caused by loud NE.

  15. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  16. Protection against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by tranilast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tien Van; Ke, Ke; Sul, Ok-Joo; Park, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Cho, Yeon-Soo; Chung, Hun-Taeg; Choi, Hye-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Tranilast (N-(3',4'-dimethoxycinnamonyl) anthranilic acid) has been shown to be therapeutically effective, exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects via acting on macrophage. We hypothesized that Tranilast may protect against oxidative stress-induced bone loss via action in osteoclasts (OCs) that shares precursors with macrophage. To elucidate the role of Tranilast, ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo and OC differentiation in vitro were evaluated by µCT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, respectively. Oral administration of Tranilast protected against OVX-induced bone loss with decreased serum level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mice. Tranilast inhibited OC formation in vitro. Decreased osteoclastogenesis by Tranilast was due to a defect of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling, at least partly via decreased activation of nuclear factor-κB and reduced induction and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (or NFAT2). Tranilast also decreased RANKL-induced a long lasting ROS level as well as TGF-β to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Reduced ROS caused by Tranilast was due to the induction of ROS scavenging enzymes (peroxiredoxin 1, heme oxygenase-1, and glutathione peroxidase 1) as well as impaired ROS generation. Our data suggests the therapeutic potential of Tranilast for amelioration of bone loss and oxidative stress due to loss of ovarian function.

  17. Protection against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by tranilast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Van Phan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tranilast (N-(3',4'-dimethoxycinnamonyl anthranilic acid has been shown to be therapeutically effective, exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects via acting on macrophage. We hypothesized that Tranilast may protect against oxidative stress-induced bone loss via action in osteoclasts (OCs that shares precursors with macrophage. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the role of Tranilast, ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in vivo and OC differentiation in vitro were evaluated by µCT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, respectively. Oral administration of Tranilast protected against OVX-induced bone loss with decreased serum level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in mice. Tranilast inhibited OC formation in vitro. Decreased osteoclastogenesis by Tranilast was due to a defect of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL signaling, at least partly via decreased activation of nuclear factor-κB and reduced induction and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (or NFAT2. Tranilast also decreased RANKL-induced a long lasting ROS level as well as TGF-β to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Reduced ROS caused by Tranilast was due to the induction of ROS scavenging enzymes (peroxiredoxin 1, heme oxygenase-1, and glutathione peroxidase 1 as well as impaired ROS generation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggests the therapeutic potential of Tranilast for amelioration of bone loss and oxidative stress due to loss of ovarian function.

  18. Welding-fume-induced transmission loss in tapered optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji-Haeng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method for sensing welding fumes in real time. This method is based on the results of nanoparticle-induced optical-fiber loss experiments that show that the losses are determined by the nanoparticle density and the taper waist. The tapered fiber is obtained by applying heat radiated from hot quartz, and monitoring is done in real time. First, the durability of the tapered fiber during the welding process is proven. Then, the loss is categorized by using the sizes of welding fume particles. The sensitivity to welding fumes increases with increasing size of the particles; consequently, the dimension of the taper waist decreases.

  19. Toluene-induced hearing loss in acivicin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Grossman, Stephane; Ferrari, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Toluene can be considered an ototoxic chemical compound in the rat. Outer hair cells are particularly sensitive to this aromatic organic solvent or to one of its metabolites. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible role played by cysteine S-conjugates in the ototoxic process in Long-Evans rats. To this end, renal and hepatic metabolism of toluene was modified by treatment with acivicin, an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT). First, the efficacy of the acivicin treatment was established from a dose-response investigation in which urinary gamma-GT was measured daily in rats exposed to 1750 ppm toluene, 6 h per day for five days. A twice weekly 5 mg/kg dose was reduced urinary gamma-GT by 70-78%. In a subacute experiment, rats were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for four consecutive weeks, in which the efficacy of the acivicin treatment was monitored by quantifying the urinary end product of the conjugate pathway: benzyl mercapturic acid (BMA). A 38.5% decrease in BMA was measured at the end of the exposure period. Hearing impairment was evaluated using auditory (inferior colliculus) evoked potentials and completed with conventional histological approaches. The toluene-exposed and the acivicin-treated rats exposed to toluene both had a 7-dB permanent auditory threshold shift at 16-20 kHz. Hair cell loss was not dependent on acivicin treatment. Therefore, the partial inhibition of gamma-GT did not modify the toluene ototoxicity, suggesting that toluene-induced hearing loss is not strongly mediated by the production of cysteine S-conjugates. However, the data do not rule out the possibility that these metabolites may play a minor role.

  20. Measurement of TeV muon energy loss in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakumoto, W.K.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Kim, B.J. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)); Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schellman, H.; Schumm, B.A. (Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Bachmann, K.T.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H. (Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)); Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.O.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.; Rapidis, P.A.; Yovanovitch, D. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)); Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

    1992-05-01

    We measure the energy loss of high-energy muons (up to 1 TeV) from cosmic-ray muons incident on the iron-scintillator calorimeter of the Chicago-Columbia-Fermilab-Rochester Collaboration (Lab E) neutrino detector at Fermilab. Measurements of the differential energy loss spectra in Fe and the average {ital dE}/{ital dx} energy loss in Fe are presented as functions of muon energy and are compared against calculations. There is reasonable agreement between the measurements and calculations except in the region of small energy losses (under a few GeV) for 1-TeV muons, where the measurement is about 30% lower than the calculation. This level of agreement with theory implies that reliable simulations of the performance of muon detectors for future TeV colliders can be done.

  1. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    OpenAIRE

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation. This paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental setup. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle

  2. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiat...... radiation. The paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental set-up. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle...

  3. Noise-induced hearing loss milestones: Past and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the 2003 Mine Health and Safety Summit, the milestones for elimination of Noise-induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) in the mining industry were agreed on. The first milestone, December 2008, has passed and the next one in 2013 is looming. The study...

  4. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...

  5. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  6. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  7. Mars atmospheric losses induced by the solar wind: Comparison of observations with models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisberg, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    With new results from Mars-Express on plasma environment of Mars and two new Mars satellites the study Martian atmospheric losses receives new attention. Paper summarizes experimental results concentrating on configuration of Martian magnetosphere and the measurements of planetary ion escape induced by the solar wind. Several plasma populations constituting solar wind induced mass loss have been identified and studied: pick-up ions in shocked solar wind flow and induced (accretion) tail, ions accelerated in the tail current sheet, and outflow of ionospheric ions. Measured ion flux values and calculations of the total escape rate including solar cycle variations are summarized. Several types of simulation of the solar wind with Mars are considered and results of representative models are given and compared with experimental results. These computer models allowed one to much better understand solar wind-Mars interaction. However, there is significant difference between total loss rates obtained from simulation and ones from measurements on the spacecraft. Both measurements and simulation provide significant flux values that are considered as an important factor of mass loss during cosmogonic time of the planet. The origin of each solar wind induced loss component and its contribution to total amount are discussed and compared with relevant computer models. Future progress in experiments and simulation is briefly discussed.

  8. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  9. Cilostazol attenuates ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ke

    Full Text Available Cilostazol has been reported to alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by increased intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP levels, which is also associated with osteoclast (OC differentiation. We hypothesized that bone loss might be attenuated via an action on OC by cilostazol.To test this idea, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in mice and on OC differentiation in vitro, using μCT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, respectively. Cilostazol prevented from OVX-induced bone loss and decreased oxidative stress in vivo. It also decreased the number and activity of OC in vitro. The effect of cilostazol on reactive oxygen species (ROS occurred via protein kinase A (PKA and cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1, two major effectors of cAMP. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase using siRNA of p47phox attenuated the inhibitory effect of cilostazol on OC formation, suggesting that decreased OC formation by cilostazol was partly due to impaired ROS generation. Cilostazol enhanced phosphorylation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFAT2 at PKA phosphorylation sites, preventing its nuclear translocation to result in reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced NFAT2 expression and decreased binding of nuclear factor-κB-DNA, finally leading to reduced levels of two transcription factors required for OC differentiation.Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of cilostazol for attenuating bone loss and oxidative stress caused by loss of ovarian function.

  10. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanliang Huang; Xiaoxia Jiang; Sizuo Li

    2000-12-01

    The method for the measurement of the pure mechanical wear loss for 321 stainless steel, 1045 steel and pure iron in the study of the synergy between corrosion and wear was studied. The methods studied included the measurement in distilled water, by cathodic protection and by adding inhibitor KI, and all were compared with the wear loss in air. The experiment showed that the pure mechanical wear losses and friction coefficients obtained by the three methods were close to each other and can be used to calculate the various wear components in the study of the interaction of corrosion and wear, but the measurements in distilled water for pure iron and 1045 steel are not recommended due to their corrosion.

  11. Modified Fabry-Perot interferometric method for waveguide loss measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Sareh; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2008-12-10

    An extension to the Fabry-Perot interferometric method is demonstrated to calculate the optical loss and the reflectivity for optical waveguides simultaneously. The method uses an excitation of the waveguide with a broadband amplified spontaneous emission source (a superluminescent diode in our case) and curve fitting to account for the change of input power, thereby simplifying the measurement procedure. The use of a broadband source as opposed to tunable lasers allows for simultaneous measurements over multiple wavelengths and decreased sensitivity to reflections in the cavity. Further, waveguides of different lengths are measured to calculate the optical loss and the reflectivity simultaneously. It is shown that, if the value for reflectivity is assumed, there could be a large error in the measurement of loss especially for short waveguides. Optical loss for ridge waveguides is measured and compared by using a tunable laser as the input source. The method can be used for a generic case where it is suspected that the input power changes during the measurement.

  12. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J; Rider, Patrick; Devita, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight loss causes mass-driven and behavioral adaptations in the kinematics and kinetics of obese gait. Gait analyses were performed at three time points over ∼1 yr in initially morbidly obese (mass: 125.7 kg; body mass index: 43.2 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy adults. Ten obese adults lost 27.1% ± 5.1 (34.0 ± 9.4 kg) weight by the first follow-up at 7.0 mo (±0.7) and 6.5 ± 4.2% (8.2 ± 6.0 kg) more by the second follow-up at 12.8 mo (±0.9), with a total weight loss of 33.6 ± 8.1% (42.2 ± 14.1 kg; P = 0.001). Subjects walked at a self-selected and a standard 1.5 m/s speed at the three time points and were also compared with an age- and gender-matched comparison group at the second follow-up. Weight loss increased swing time, stride length, gait speed, hip range of motion, maximal knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion. Weight loss of 27% led to 3.9% increase in gait speed. An additional 6.5% weight loss led to an additional 7.3% increase in gait speed. Sagittal plane normalized knee torque increased and absolute ankle and frontal plane knee torques decreased after weight loss. We conclude that large weight loss produced mechanical plasticity by modifying ankle and knee torques and gait behavior. There may be a weight loss threshold of 30 kg limiting changes in gait kinematics. Implications for exercise prescription are also discussed.

  13. Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

    2006-01-01

    The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect.

  14. Beam Loss Patterns at the LHC Collimators Measurements & Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, Till Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detects particle losses of circulating beams and initiates an emergency extraction of the beam in case that the BLM thresholds are exceeded. This protection is required as energy deposition in the accelerator equipment due to secondary shower particles can reach critical levels; causing damage to the beam-line components and quenches of superconducting magnets. Robust and movable beam line elements, so-called collimators, are the aperture limitations of the LHC. Consequently, they are exposed to the excess of lost beam particles and their showers. Proton loss patterns at LHC collimators have to be determined to interpret the signal of the BLM detectors and to set adequate BLM thresholds for the protection of collimators and other equipment in case of unacceptably increased loss rates. The first part of this work investigates the agreement of BLM detector measurements with simulations for an LHC-like collimation setup. The setup consists ...

  15. Sonar-induced temporary hearing loss in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, T Aran; Nachtigall, Paul E; Vlachos, Stephanie

    2009-08-23

    There is increasing concern that human-produced ocean noise is adversely affecting marine mammals, as several recent cetacean mass strandings may have been caused by animals' interactions with naval 'mid-frequency' sonar. However, it has yet to be empirically demonstrated how sonar could induce these strandings or cause physiological effects. In controlled experimental studies, we show that mid-frequency sonar can induce temporary hearing loss in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Mild-behavioural alterations were also associated with the exposures. The auditory effects were induced only by repeated exposures to intense sonar pings with total sound exposure levels of 214 dB re: 1 microPa(2) s. Data support an increasing energy model to predict temporary noise-induced hearing loss and indicate that odontocete noise exposure effects bear trends similar to terrestrial mammals. Thus, sonar can induce physiological and behavioural effects in at least one species of odontocete; however, exposures must be of prolonged, high sound exposures levels to generate these effects.

  16. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    used an array of countermeasures (Antioxidant diets and injections) to prevent the radiation-induced bone loss, although these did not prevent bone loss, analysis is ongoing to determine if these countermeasure protected radiation-induced damage to other tissues.

  17. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  18. Applied photometry, radiometry, and measurements of optical losses

    CERN Document Server

    Bukshtab, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses reviews and analyzes physical concepts of radiation transfer, providing quantitative foundation for the means of measurements of optical losses, which affect propagation and distribution of light waves in various media and in diverse optical systems and components. The comprehensive analysis of advanced methodologies for low-loss detection is outlined in comparison with the classic photometric and radiometric observations, having a broad range of techniques examined and summarized: from interferometric and calorimetric, resonator and polarization, phase-shift and ring-down decay, wavelength and frequency modulation to pulse separation and resonant, acousto-optic and emissive - subsequently compared to direct and balancing methods for studying free-space and polarization optics, fibers and waveguides. The material is focused on applying optical methods and procedures for evaluation of transparent, reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and aggregat...

  19. Hearing Loss and Disability Exit: Measurement Issues and Coping Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Christensen, Vibeke; V. Rasmussen, Martin; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    Using unique representative data containing self-reported functional and clinically measured hearing ability for the Danish population aged 50-64, we estimate the effect of hearing loss on receipt of disability benefits accounting for potential endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification...

  20. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in...

  1. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  2. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  3. Racetrack resonator as a loss measurement platform for photonic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew T S; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-11-02

    This work represents the first complete analysis of the use of a racetrack resonator to measure the insertion loss of efficient, compact photonic components. Beginning with an in-depth analysis of potential error sources and a discussion of the calibration procedure, the technique is used to estimate the insertion loss of waveguide width tapers of varying geometry with a resulting 95% confidence interval of 0.007 dB. The work concludes with a performance comparison of the analyzed tapers with results presented for four taper profiles and three taper lengths.

  4. Black Holes, Information Loss and the Measurement Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Okon, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often presented as an unavoidable consequence of well-established physics. However, in order for a genuine paradox to ensue, not-trivial assumptions about, e.g., quantum effects on spacetime, are necessary. In this work we will be explicit about these additional, speculative assumptions required. We will also sketch a map of the available routes to tackle the issue, highlighting the, often overlooked, commitments demanded of each alternative. In particular, we will display the strong link between black holes, the issue of information loss and the measurement problem.

  5. ICRH induced particle losses in Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustin, J. M.; Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Pfefferlé, D.; Geiger, J.

    2016-07-01

    Fast ions in W7-X will be produced either by neutral beam injection (NBI) or by ion-cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH). The latter presents the advantage of depositing power locally and does not suffer from core accessibility issues (Drevlak et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 073002). This work assesses the possibility of using ICRH as a fast ion source in W7-X relevant conditions. The SCENIC package is used to resolve the full wave propagation and absorption in a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. The source of the ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) wave is modelled in this work by an antenna formulation allowing its localisation in both the poloidal and toroidal directions. The actual antenna dimension and localization is therefore approximated with good agreement. The local wave deposition breaks the five-fold periodicity of W7-X. It appears that generation of fast ions is hindered by high collisionality and significant particle losses. The particle trapping mechanism induced by ICRH is found to enhance drift induced losses caused by the finite orbit width of trapped particles. The inclusion of a neoclassically resolved radial electric field is also investigated and shows a significant reduction of particle losses.

  6. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  7. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, Maria; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E; Black, Eric D; Libbrecht, Kenneth G; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-dop ed Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measure ment methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  8. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia: advice and support for hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen

    This article provides insight into the growth cycle of a hair follicle and the potential impact chemotherapy agents can have on this process, which often results in hair loss (alopecia). It explores the psychological consequences of chemotherapy-induced alopecia for an individual as a result of the perceptions of others as well as an individual's perception of his or her self-image. Despite the development of various forms of scalp cooling, chemotherapy-induced alopecia remains a major side effect for patients receiving chemotherapy; however, there have been improvements in wig provision and changing public opinion relating to baldness. Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia affects both males and females and all age groups, this article focuses on the potential impact for patients receiving chemotherapy as a form of treatment for breast cancer. As professionals we need to understand the social significance of hair in relation to a person's outward presentation and social interactions, along with the possible psychological implications of a person losing his or her bodily hair, and not just the head hair. We must aim to minimize the distress alopecia can cause by: ensuring we provide patients with up-to-date verbal and written information to enable them to prepare for losing their hair; helping them to preserve their self-image and minimize the psychological consequences of hair loss while receiving chemotherapy; and preparing them for their hair re-growth following completion of chemotherapy.

  9. Measurement of loss of DT fusion products using scintillator detectors in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Marsala, R.J.; Palladino, R.W.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Tuszewski, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A poloidal array of MeV ion loss probes previously used to measure DD fusion product loss has been upgraded to measure the loss of alpha particles from DT plasmas in TFTR. The following improvements to the system have been made in preparation for the use of tritium in TFTR: (1) relocation of detectors to a neutronshielded enclosure in the basement to reduce neutron-induced background signals; (2) replacement of ZnS:Cu (P31) scintillators in the probes with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}0{sub 12}:Ce(P46) variety to minimize damage and assure linearity at the fluxes anticipated from DT plasmas; and (3) shielding of the fiber optic bundles which carry the fight from the probes to the detectors to reduce neutron- and gamma-induced light within them. In addition to the above preparations, the probes have been absolutely calibrated for alpha particles by using the Van de Graaf accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Alpha particle losses from DT plasmas have been observed, and losses at the detector 901 below the midplane are consistent with first orbit loss.

  10. "PARAMETERS AFFECTING NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS IN INDUSTRY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Parvizpour

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a study conducted in three different industries on 84.4 on their employees to determine the effect of over all noise intensity, length of employment and rest periods among them. It was found that the mentioned factors have direct effect on the induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. High noise level and long period of employment adversely affect the hearing ability while the breaks taken during daily working hours have prevented the expected defect.

  11. Scintillator-based fast ion loss measurements in the EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. F.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Lin, S. Y.; Hu, L. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm. This paper will describe the details of FILD diagnostic on EAST and describe preliminary measurements during NBI and ICRH heating.

  12. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  13. Mass-loss induced instabilities in fast rotating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lignières, F; Mangeney, A

    2000-01-01

    To explain the origin of Herbig Ae/Be stars activity, it has been recently proposed that strong mass-losses trigger rotational instabilities in the envelope of fast rotating stars. The kinetic energy transferred to turbulent motions would then be the energy source of the active phenomena observed in the outer atmosphere of Herbig Ae/Be stars (Vigneron et al. 1990; Lignieres et al. 1996). In this paper, we present a one-dimensional model of angular momentum transport which allows to estimate the degree of differential rotation induced by mass-loss. Gradients of angular velocity are very close to - 2 Ømega / R mass-loss, this process occurs in a short time scale as compared to other processes of angular momentum transport. Application of existing stability criteria indicates that rotational instabilities should develop for fast rotating star. Thus, in fast rotating stars with strong winds, shear instabilities are expected to develop and to generate subphotospheric turbulent motions. Albeit very simple, this mo...

  14. First experience with the new Coupling Loss Induced Quench system

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Dudarev, A V; Kirby, G; Sperin, K A; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A new protection system called Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ) was recently, developed and tested at CERN. This method provokes a fast change in the magnet transport current by means of a capacitive discharge. The resulting change in the local magnetic field induces inter-filament and inter-strand coupling losses which heat up the superconductor and eventually initiate a quench in a large fraction of the coil winding pack. The method is extensively tested on a Nb-Ti single-wire test solenoid magnet in the CERN Cryogenic Laboratory in order to assess its performance, optimize its operating parameters, and study new electrical configurations. Each parameter is thoroughly analyzed and its impact on the quench effi...

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss: new animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kevin W; Eberl, Daniel F

    2014-10-01

    This article presents research findings from two invertebrate model systems with potential to advance both the understanding of noise-induced hearing loss mechanisms and the development of putative therapies to reduce human noise damage. Work on sea anemone hair bundles, which resemble auditory hair cells, has revealed secretions that exhibit astonishing healing properties not only for damaged hair bundles, but also for vertebrate lateral line neuromasts. We present progress on identifying functional components of the secretions, and their mechanisms of repair. The second model, the Johnston's organ in Drosophila, is also genetically homologous to hair cells and shows noise-induced hearing loss similar to vertebrates. Drosophila offers genetic and molecular insight into noise sensitivity and pathways that can be manipulated to reduce stress and damage from noise. Using the comparative approach is a productive avenue to understanding basic mechanisms, in this case cellular responses to noise trauma. Expanding study of these systems may accelerate identification of strategies to reduce or prevent noise damage in the human ear.

  16. Cochlear Synaptopathy and Noise-Induced Hidden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on animal models have shown that noise exposure that does not lead to permanent threshold shift (PTS can cause considerable damage around the synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs and type-I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs. Disruption of these synapses not only disables the innervated ANFs but also results in the slow degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons if the synapses are not reestablished. Such a loss of ANFs should result in signal coding deficits, which are exacerbated by the bias of the damage toward synapses connecting low-spontaneous-rate (SR ANFs, which are known to be vital for signal coding in noisy background. As there is no PTS, these functional deficits cannot be detected using routine audiological evaluations and may be unknown to subjects who have them. Such functional deficits in hearing without changes in sensitivity are generally called “noise-induced hidden hearing loss (NIHHL.” Here, we provide a brief review to address several critical issues related to NIHHL: (1 the mechanism of noise induced synaptic damage, (2 reversibility of the synaptic damage, (3 the functional deficits as the nature of NIHHL in animal studies, (4 evidence of NIHHL in human subjects, and (5 peripheral and central contribution of NIHHL.

  17. Toluene-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Beydon, Dominique; Rieger, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Ferrari, Luc; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2009-10-01

    Toluene is a high-production industrial solvent, which can disrupt the auditory system in rats. However, toluene-induced hearing loss is species dependent. For instance, despite long-lasting exposures to high concentrations of aromatic solvent, no study has yet succeeded in causing convincing hearing loss in the guinea pig. This latter species can be characterized by two metabolic particularities: a high amount of hepatic cytochrome P-450s (P-450s) and a high concentration of glutathione in the cochlea. It is therefore likely that the efficiency of both the hepatic and cochlear metabolisms plays a key role in the innocuousness of the hearing of guinea pigs to exposure to solvent. The present study was carried out to test the auditory resistance to toluene in glutathione-depleted guinea pigs whose the P-450 activity was partly inhibited. To this end, animals on a low-protein diet received a general P-450 inhibitor, namely SKF525-A. Meanwhile, they were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for 4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day. Auditory function was tested by electrocochleography and completed by histological analyses. For the first time, a significant toluene-induced hearing loss was provoked in the P-450-inhibited guinea pigs. However, the ototoxic process caused by the solvent exposure was different from that observed in the rat. Only the stria vascularis and the spiral fibers were disrupted in the apical coil of the cochlea. The protective mechanisms developed by guinea pigs are discussed in the present publication.

  18. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  19. Effectiveness of LANAP over time as measured by tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilt, Lloyd V

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP) as measured by tooth loss, comparing data to published studies using conventional surgical treatment modalities for the primary treatment of Types III and IV periodontitis. Retrospective data from 107 patients presenting with Types III and IV periodontitis were gathered and evaluated. All patients received LANAP periodontal therapy as their primary surgical treatment according to the FDA-cleared LANAP protocol. The patients averaged 6.2 years post-treatment. The data were compared to several published studies for outcome classification and tooth loss over time. The effectiveness of LANAP as a primary treatment method for Types III and IV periodontitis compares very favorably with conventional surgical treatment modalities concerning tooth loss and stability over time, need for surgical retreatment, and outcome classification. Dentistry continues to develop less invasive means of providing patient care without sacrificing results. Less invasive treatment of periodontitis, with reduced postoperative morbidity yet equal results in tooth retention over time is an important goal. LANAP treatment for moderate and advanced periodontitis provides a less invasive treatment alternative for the dentist and patient to consider as a part of informed consent.

  20. Hearing Loss and Disability Exit: Measurement Issues and Coping Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Christensen, Vibeke; V. Rasmussen, Martin; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    Using unique representative data containing self-reported functional and clinically measured hearing ability for the Danish population aged 50-64, we estimate the effect of hearing loss on receipt of disability benefits accounting for potential endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification...... strategy involves simultaneous estimation of labor supply, functional hearing and coping strategies i.e. using assistive devices at work or informing one’s employer about the problem. We find that functional hearing disability significantly increases the likelihood of receiving disability benefits for both...

  1. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  2. Calorimetric apparatus for alternating current loss measurements on high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, N.; Hörnfeldt, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in electric power components requires the knowledge of their alternating current (ac) losses. Methods are therefore needed to characterize the conductors with respect to their ac losses under applicationlike conditions. In this article we describe a calorimetric setup for ac loss measurements on long length high-temperature superconductors carrying ac transport currents in ac external magnetic fields at variable temperatures. The variable temperature is achieved by a thermal connection between the sample and a cooling machine. Current in copper coils generates the magnetic field parallel to the plane of the tape and perpendicular to the transport current. This current can be induced in the coil-formed sample. Two slightly different methods are used to determine the ac losses, one in which the temperature rise of the sample, caused by the ac losses, is compared to the temperature rise caused by a reference heater and another in which the increase in power dissipation of the sample is compensated for by a reduction of the power dissipation in the heater. Typical results of the ac loss measurements are presented.

  3. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  4. Error Analysis of High Frequency Core Loss Measurement for Low-Permeability Low-Loss Magnetic Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    in magnetic cores is B-H loop measurement where two windings are placed on the core under test. However, this method is highly vulnerable to phase shift error, especially for low-permeability, low-loss cores. Due to soft saturation and very low core loss, low-permeability low-loss magnetic cores are favorable....... The analysis has been validated by experimental measurements for relatively low-loss magnetic cores with different permeability values.......Magnetic components significantly contribute to the dissipated loss in power electronic converters. Measuring the true value of dissipated power in these components is highly desirable, since it can be used to verify the optimum design of these components. The common approach for measuring the loss...

  5. Building penetration loss measurements for DAB signals at 211 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A.

    Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is being considered as a future method of transmitting radio programs to the public. Some of the advantages of DAB over conventional Frequency Modulation (FM) include its resistance to multipath and its ruggedness in the presence of interference. Because of these qualities it is ideally suited for reception by mobile and portable receivers. It is proposed that a DAB service will be planned to be effective for use by fixed, portable, and mobile receivers. But many problems have to be overcome, to allow accurate planning of suitable transmitter sites and powers, if the desired coverage is to be obtained economically. This Report gives the results of one aspect of this work, namely the signal level received within a building compared to the level received outside. This is generally termed building penetration loss. Several different frequency bands are being considered for DAB transmission in the UK. The work reported concentrates on one of the proposed bands: Band III. The two broad aims of the work were: (1) by measuring the field strength both inside and outside buildings, determine a Building Penetration Loss figure; and (2) using first generation prototype Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (COFDM) equipment, find the relationship between field strength and some particular values of Bit Error Ratio (BER). A mean building penetration loss of approximately 8 dB was measured for the whole of the ground floor of brick-built houses. Using first generation prototype DAB transmitting and receiving equipment, in the absence of interference, a field strength of the order of 39 dB (microV/m) will provide the receiver with an adequate signal. Further work is essential to quantify the lower limit of felt strength in which a trial specification receiver will work. There is a potential saving of up to 5 dB on transmitter powers, depending on the particular levels of ambient man-made noise.

  6. Effects of Dietary Induced Weight Loss on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Overweight and Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Hoogstrate, Mira; Duiverman, Eric J.; Thio, Boony J.

    2014-01-01

    RationalePrevious studies showed that obesity in asthmatic children is associated with more severe exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), compared with non-obese asthmatic children. This study investigates the effect of weight loss on EIB in overweight and obese asthmatic children. MethodsIn th

  7. Effect of induced diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone loss after 30 days of ligature-induced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Débora Aline Silva; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Pepato, Maria Teresa; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Gonçalves, Andréa; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Pires, Juliana Rico

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have shown that diabetics are more susceptible to the development of severe periodontal disease. Currently, the use of animal models can be considered a feasible alternative in radiographic assessments of these two pathologies. The purpose of this radiographic study was to evaluate the effect of induced diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone loss after 30 days of ligature-induced periodontal disease. Sixty-four Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four experimental groups. Diabetes was induced in Groups II and IV, while periodontal disease was induced in Groups III and IV; Group I was used as control. In order to perform the radiographic assessment of the specimens, the rats were killed on the 3rd and 30th days of the study. Radiographic measurements were assessed with ANOVA and Tukey's test to determine statistically significant differences (p diabetic group with periodontal disease (Group IV) featured statistically significant greater bone loss when compared to the other groups. These results suggested that the alveolar bone loss resulting from the periodontal disease installation is greater when associated to the diabetes mellitus.

  8. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women is a tremendous social, clinical and economic burden. However, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor CB1 play critical roles in multiple early pregnancy events in both animals and humans. Since our previous studies demonstrated that loss of CB1 defers the normal implantation window in mice, we surmised that CB1 deficiency would influence parturition events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on the onset of parturition. We observed that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy length and parturition failure in mice missing Ptgs1 were corrected by introducing CB1 deficiency into Ptgs1 null mice. In addition, loss of CB1 resulted in aberrant secretions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone during late gestation. The pathophysiological significance of this altered corticotrophin-releasing hormone-driven endocrine activity in the absence of CB1 was evident from our subsequent findings that a selective corticotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist was able to restore the normal parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by

  9. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    to optimize the energy performance. This paper presents a method for measuring the heat loss by utilizing a U-value meter. The U-value meter measures the heat transfer in the unit W/Km2 and has been used in several projects to upgrade the energy performance in temperate regions. The U-value meter was also...... and mechanical ventilation in the “warm countries” contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to make measurements of the heat losses at different places on a building facade, in order...

  10. A comparison of different murine models for cytomegalovirus-induced sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Patel, Rusha; Ren, Chongyu; Taggart, Michael G; Firpo, Matthew A; Schleiss, Mark R; Park, Albert H

    2013-11-01

    To compare three different inoculation techniques for the development of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a mouse model. A prospective experimental animal study. BALB/c mice underwent inoculation using green fluorescent protein-expressing mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV-GFP) via transtympanic (TT), intraperitoneal (IP), or intracranial (IC) routes. Control mice received an equal volume of saline. Hearing thresholds were measured using both distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and evoked auditory brainstem response studies (ABR). Cochleas were harvested for histological examination and cytocochleogram. No mice in the TT or IP groups showed significant hearing loss. All infected mice in the IC group showed significantly elevated ABR and DPOAE thresholds at 4 weeks of age. Ten mice (55%) had profound hearing loss (≥80 dB) at 4 weeks of age, while the other eight mice (45%) initially showed moderate hearing loss (≤20 dB), which progressed to profound hearing loss by 6 to 8 weeks. Asymmetric hearing loss was seen in 40% of the mice. Temporal bone histology showed diffuse loss of outer hair cells (OHC). Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled virus was abundant in the spiral ganglion and adjacent to the scala tympani at the basal region of the cochlea at 7 days postinjection, and devoid of GFP labeling by 14 days postinfection. Intracerebral injection of mCMV preferentially causes mCMV-mediated hearing loss relative to IP or TT injections. These results are consistent with the hearing loss reported in human congenital infection and may have implications for understanding the pathophysiology of CMV-mediated labyrinthitis. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. An Experimental Study of Pile-Supported OWC-Type Breakwaters: Energy Extraction and Vortex-Induced Energy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wave energy converters with breakwaters is a promising concept for wave energy utilization. On the basis of fulfilling the wave protection demands, pile-supported Oscillating Water Column (OWC-type breakwaters can also meet the local needs of electricity far from the lands. In the present study, the wave energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were analyzed based on a two-point measurement method. The importance of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss on the wave energy dissipation of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were experimentally investigated. It was found that the trends of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss were generally correlated. The effects of the pneumatic damping induced by top opening affected the vortex-induced energy loss more than the energy extraction. Results showed that a larger pneumatic damping was preferable for the purpose of increasing energy extraction, whereas for a smaller pneumatic damping the vortex-induced energy loss was more important to the energy dissipation. With increasing draft, the energy extraction decreased, but the vortex-induced energy loss complementally contributed to the total energy dissipation and made the energy dissipation at the same level as that for a shallower draft.

  12. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  13. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in auto part factory workers in welding units in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriopas, Apiradee; Chapman, Robert S; Sutammasa, Saravudh; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2017-01-24

    Most workers in auto part factories in Thailand are usually exposed to excessive noise in their workplace. This study aimed to assess the level of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and investigate risk factors causing hearing loss in auto part factory workers in the welding units in Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred eighty subjects were recruited from 356 workers in the welding unit of three factories. Sixty eligible subjects in each factory were selected by systemic random sampling. The subjects were interviewed using a face-to-face questionnaire. Noise exposure levels and audiograms were measured by a noise dosimeter and an audiometer, respectively. The findings confirmed that noise exposure levels of 86-90 dB (A) and exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the risk of hearing loss in either ear. A noise exposure level exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the prevalence of hearing loss in both ears. Regarding, a 10-pack-year smoking history increased the prevalence of hearing loss in either ear or both ears. In addition, subjects with employment duration exceeding 10 years significantly developed hearing loss in either ear. The engineering control or personal control by wearing hearing protection device should be used to decrease noise exposure levels lower than 85 dB (A) for 8 h. Moreover, if the exposure level reaches 85 dB (A) for 8 h, the employer needs to implement a hearing conservation program in the workplace.

  14. Simulation with Ideal Switch Models Combined with Measured Loss Data Provides a Good Estimate of Power Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StigMunk-Nielsen; Lucian; N; Tutelea; Ulrik; Jager

    2007-01-01

    Ideally, converter losses should be determined without using an excessive amount of simulation time. State-of-the-art power semiconductor models provide good accuracy,unfortunately they often require a very long simulation time. This paper describes how to estimate power losses from simulation using ideal switches combined with measured power loss data. The semiconductor behavior is put into a look-up table,which replaces the advanced semiconductor models and shortens the simulation time.To extract switching and conduction losses, a converter is simulated and the semiconductor power losses are estimated. Measurement results on a laboratory converter are compared with the estimated losses and a good agreement is shown. Using the ideal switch simulation and the post processing power estimation program,a ten to twenty fold increase in simulation speed is obtained,compared to simulations using advanced models of semiconductors.

  15. Oxidative stress in oocytes during midprophase induces premature loss of cohesion and chromosome segregation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adrienne T; Das, Thomas M; Panzera, Lauren C; Bickel, Sharon E

    2016-11-01

    In humans, errors in meiotic chromosome segregation that produce aneuploid gametes increase dramatically as women age, a phenomenon termed the "maternal age effect." During meiosis, cohesion between sister chromatids keeps recombinant homologs physically attached and premature loss of cohesion can lead to missegregation of homologs during meiosis I. A growing body of evidence suggests that meiotic cohesion deteriorates as oocytes age and contributes to the maternal age effect. One hallmark of aging cells is an increase in oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, increased oxidative damage in older oocytes may be one of the factors that leads to premature loss of cohesion and segregation errors. To test this hypothesis, we used an RNAi strategy to induce oxidative stress in Drosophila oocytes and measured the fidelity of chromosome segregation during meiosis. Knockdown of either the cytoplasmic or mitochondrial ROS scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) caused a significant increase in segregation errors, and heterozygosity for an smc1 deletion enhanced this phenotype. FISH analysis indicated that SOD knockdown moderately increased the percentage of oocytes with arm cohesion defects. Consistent with premature loss of arm cohesion and destabilization of chiasmata, the frequency at which recombinant homologs missegregate during meiosis I is significantly greater in SOD knockdown oocytes than in controls. Together these results provide an in vivo demonstration that oxidative stress during meiotic prophase induces chromosome segregation errors and support the model that accelerated loss of cohesion in aging human oocytes is caused, at least in part, by oxidative damage.

  16. Regional atmospheric cooling and wetting effect of permafrost thaw-induced boreal forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Wischnewski, Karoline; Kljun, Natascha; Chasmer, Laura E; Quinton, William L; Detto, Matteo; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    In the sporadic permafrost zone of North America, thaw-induced boreal forest loss is leading to permafrost-free wetland expansion. These land cover changes alter landscape-scale surface properties with potentially large, however, still unknown impacts on regional climates. In this study, we combine nested eddy covariance flux tower measurements with satellite remote sensing to characterize the impacts of boreal forest loss on albedo, eco-physiological and aerodynamic surface properties, and turbulent energy fluxes of a lowland boreal forest region in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Planetary boundary layer modelling is used to estimate the potential forest loss impact on regional air temperature and atmospheric moisture. We show that thaw-induced conversion of forests to wetlands increases albedo: and bulk surface conductance for water vapour and decreases aerodynamic surface temperature. At the same time, heat transfer efficiency is reduced. These shifts in land surface properties increase latent at the expense of sensible heat fluxes, thus, drastically reducing Bowen ratios. Due to the lower albedo of forests and their masking effect of highly reflective snow, available energy is lower in wetlands, especially in late winter. Modelling results demonstrate that a conversion of a present-day boreal forest-wetland to a hypothetical homogeneous wetland landscape could induce a near-surface cooling effect on regional air temperatures of up to 3-4 °C in late winter and 1-2 °C in summer. An atmospheric wetting effect in summer is indicated by a maximum increase in water vapour mixing ratios of 2 mmol mol(-1) . At the same time, maximum boundary layer heights are reduced by about a third of the original height. In fall, simulated air temperature and atmospheric moisture between the two scenarios do not differ. Therefore, permafrost thaw-induced boreal forest loss may modify regional precipitation patterns and slow down regional warming trends. © 2016 John Wiley

  17. Measurement of the permittivity and loss of high-loss materials using a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, A.P.; Blackburn, J.F.; Lees, K.; Clarke, R.N. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (United Kingdom); Hodgetts, T.E. [Consultant to NPL (United Kingdom); Hanham, S.M.; Klein, N. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper improvements to a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NSMM) are presented that allow the loss of high loss dielectric materials to be measured accurately at microwave frequencies. This is demonstrated by measuring polar liquids (loss tangent tanδ≈1) for which traceable data is available. The instrument described uses a wire probe that is electromagnetically coupled to a resonant cavity. An optical beam deflection system is incorporated within the instrument to allow contact mode between samples and the probe tip to be obtained. Liquids are contained in a measurement cell with a window of ultrathin glass. The calibration process for the microscope, which is based on image-charge electrostatic models, has been adapted to use the Laplacian ‘complex frequency’. Measurements of the loss tangent of polar liquids that are consistent with reference data were obtained following calibration against single-crystal specimens that have very low loss. - Highlights: • Design of a microwave microscope with resolution on the micron scale. • Improved theory for obtaining permittivity and loss tangent of high loss materials. • Polar reference liquids are used as test samples. • Traceable measurements with accuracy approximately ±10% in ε′ and ±20% in tan δ.

  18. Tanshinone prevents cancellous bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao CUI; Tie WU; Yu-yu LIU; Yi-feng DENG; Chun-mei AI; Huai-qing CHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the skeletal effects of total tanshinone in ovariectomized rats by analyzing cancellous bone histomorphometry of fourth lumbar vertebrae (LV4) and proximal tibial metaphyses (PTM). METHODS: Fourmonth-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were sham-operated and treated with vehicle or ovariectomized and treated with either vehicle, total tanshinone (200 mg.kg-1.d-1, equivalent to 35 μg.kg-1.d-1 of tanshinone II A and 16 mg.kg-1.d-1 of gery for 10 weeks. Double in vivo fiuorochrome labeling was administered to all rats. The undecalcified longitudinal LV4 and PTM sections were cut and stained with Goldner's Trichrome (4-μm thickness) or unstained (8-μm thickness) for the bone histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: A significant decrease in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant increase in osteoclast surface (OCS/BS) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) were found in both LV and PTM of vehicle-treated OVX rats compared with sham controls.Tanshinone completely prevented the decreases in BV/TV and Tb.N and the increase in OCS/BS in the LV4, and partially prevented the decreases in BV/TV and Tb.N in the PTM of OVX rats. In addition, tanshinone increased trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) whereas it did not alter MS/BS. Moreover, tanshinone had no effect on uterine weight and body weight of OVX rats. Estrogen treatment increased BV/TV and Tb.N and decreased OCS/BS, but, also markedly decreased MS/BS and increased uterine weight in OVX rats. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that the adequate supply of tanshinone prevented OVX-induced cancellous bone loss in rats through inhibition of elevated bone resorption.

  19. Interspecies collision-induced losses in a dual species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Altaf, Adeel; Lorenz, John; Elliott, D. S.; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we report the measurement of collision-induced loss rate coefficients βLi, Rb and βRb, Li, and also discuss means to significantly suppress such collision-induced losses. We first describe our dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) that allows us to simultaneously trap ≥5 × 108 7Li atoms loaded from a Zeeman slower and ≥2 × 108 85Rb atoms loaded from a dispenser. We observe strong interspecies collision-induced losses in the MOTs which dramatically reduce the maximum atom number achievable in the MOTs. We measure the trap loss rate coefficients βLi, Rb and βRb, Li, and, from a study of their dependence on the MOT parameters, determine the cause for the losses observed. Our results provide valuable insights into ultracold collisions between 7Li and 85Rb, guide our efforts to suppress collision-induced losses, and also pave the way for the production of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules.

  20. Interspecies collision-induced losses in a dual species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Lorenz, John; Elliott, D S; Chen, Yong P

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the measurement of collision-induced loss coefficients \\beta_{Li,Rb} and \\beta_{Rb,Li}, and also discuss means to significantly suppress such collision induced losses. We first describe our dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) that allows us to simultaneously trap > 5x10^8 7Li atoms loaded from a Zeeman slower and > 2x10^8 85Rb atoms loaded from a dispenser. We observe strong interspecies collision-induced losses in the MOTs which dramatically reduce the maximum atom number achievable in the MOTs. We measure the trap loss rate coefficients \\beta_{Li,Rb} and \\beta_{Rb,Li}, and, from a study of their dependence on the MOT parameters, determine the cause for the losses observed. Our results provide valuable insights into ultracold collisions between 7Li and 85Rb, guide our efforts to suppress collision induced losses, and also pave the way for the production of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules.

  1. Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum private queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Qian, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Quantum private queries (QPQ) is an important cryptography protocol aiming to protect both the user’s and database’s privacy when the database is queried privately. Recently, a variety of practical QPQ protocols based on quantum key distribution (QKD) have been proposed. However, for QKD-based QPQ the user’s imperfect detectors can be subjected to some detector- side-channel attacks launched by the dishonest owner of the database. Here, we present a simple example that shows how the detector-blinding attack can damage the security of QKD-based QPQ completely. To remove all the known and unknown detector side channels, we propose a solution of measurement-device-independent QPQ (MDI-QPQ) with single- photon sources. The security of the proposed protocol has been analyzed under some typical attacks. Moreover, we prove that its security is completely loss independent. The results show that practical QPQ will remain the same degree of privacy as before even with seriously uncharacterized detectors.

  2. Characteristics of wind-induced loss of solid precipitation derived from a Norwegian field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen-Øverleir, Asgeir; Wolff, Mareile; Isaksen, Ketil; Ødemark, Karianne; Reitan, Trond; Brækkan, Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Solid precipitation measurements are known to be plagued by under-catch in windy conditions. Adjustment techniques, either based on a dynamic relationship between under-catch and measured determinants or static corrections, are then typically invoked. Such adjustment procedures, especially if the adjustment algorithm is unfit, introduce notable uncertainties that impact hydrological modelling in snow-dominated regions. In 2010, a test-site was established at a mountain plateau in Haukeli, Telemark, Southern Norway. Precipitation data of automatic gauges were compared with a precipitation gauge located in a Double Fence Inter-comparison Reference (DFIR) wind shield construction that served as the reference. A large number of sensors were additionally monitoring supportive meteorological parameters. The study presented in this poster considers data from three winters that were used to study and determine the wind-induced loss of solid precipitation. A general model framework was proposed, and Bayesian methods were used to objectively choose the most plausible sub-model to describe the loss ratio - wind speed - temperature relationship from the Haukeli data. The derived adjustment function is continuous and accounts for measurements of all types of winter precipitation (from rain to dry snow). The analysis shows a non-linear relationship between the loss ratio and wind speed during significant precipitation events, and there is a clear temperature dependency, believed to be mostly related to the precipitation type. The data also displayed a distinctive scatter that is believed to be an artefact mainly caused by neglecting the varying aerodynamic characteristics of the precipitation particles (for a given temperature) as a determinant. The adjustment formula allowed for the first time to derive an adjustment function with a data-tested validity beyond 8-9 m/s and proved a stabilisation of the wind-induced precipitation loss for higher wind speeds. Preliminary tests of

  3. Loss aversion under prospect theory: A parameter-free measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); H. Bleichrodt (Han); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the uti

  4. Loss Aversion under Prospect Theory: a Parameter-Free Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the uti

  5. Loss Aversion under Prospect Theory: a Parameter-Free Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  6. Loss aversion under prospect theory: A parameter-free measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); H. Bleichrodt (Han); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  7. Economic Impact of Hearing Loss and Reduction of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Swinburn, Tracy K.; Hammer, Monica S.; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hearing loss (HL) is pervasive and debilitating, and noise-induced HL is preventable by reducing environmental noise. Lack of economic analyses of HL impacts means that prevention and treatment remain a low priority for public health and environmental investment. Method: This article estimates the costs of HL on productivity by building…

  8. Economic Impact of Hearing Loss and Reduction of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Swinburn, Tracy K.; Hammer, Monica S.; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hearing loss (HL) is pervasive and debilitating, and noise-induced HL is preventable by reducing environmental noise. Lack of economic analyses of HL impacts means that prevention and treatment remain a low priority for public health and environmental investment. Method: This article estimates the costs of HL on productivity by building…

  9. The Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss During Simulated Dives in Canadian Forces Hyperbaric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The risk of noise-induced hearing loss during simulated dives in Canadian Forces hyperbaric facilities Sharon M...2012-084 October 2012 The risk of noise-induced hearing loss during simulated dives in Canadian Forces hyperbaric ...transferred into the dive chamber of a hyperbaric facility. The mechanism is audible and sufficiently high in level in adjacent areas to warrant the

  10. Non-Hermiticity-Induced Wave Confinement and Guiding in Loss-Gain-Loss Three-Layer Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savoia, Silvio; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Following up on previous studies on parity-time-symmetric gain-loss bi-layers, and inspired by formal analogies with plasmonic waveguides, we study non-Hermiticity-induced wave confinement and guiding phenomena that can occur in loss-gain-loss three-layers. By revisiting previous well-established "gain-guiding" concepts, we investigate analytically and numerically the dispersion and confinement properties of guided modes that can be supported by this type of structures, by assuming realistic dispersion models and parameters for the material constituents. As key outcomes, we identify certain modes with specific polarization and symmetry that exhibit particularly desirable characteristics, in terms of quasi-real propagation constant and sub-wavelength confinement. Moreover, we elucidate the effects of material dispersion and parameters, and highlight the potential advantages by comparison with the previously studied gain-loss bi-layer configurations. Our results provide additional perspectives on light control ...

  11. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  12. CLIQ – Coupling-Loss Induced Quench System for Protecting Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Ravaioli, E; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed Coupling-Loss-Induced Quench (CLIQ) protection system is a new method for initiating a fast and voluminous transition to the normal state for protecting high energy density superconducting magnets. Upon quench detection, CLIQ is triggered to generate an oscillating current in the magnet coil by means of a capacitive discharge. This in turn introduces a high coupling loss in the superconductor which provokes a quick transition to the normal state of the coil windings. The system is now implemented for the protection of a two meter long superconducting quadrupole magnet and characterized in the CERN magnet test facility. Various CLIQ configurations with different current injection points are tested and the results compared to similar transients lately measured with a not optimized configuration. Test results convincingly show that the newly tested design allows for a more global quench initiation and thus a faster discharge of the magnet energy. Moreover, the performance of CLIQ for reduc...

  13. Diet-Induced Obesity and Its Differential Impact on Periodontal Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluke, M; Gold, T; Kiefhaber, K; Al-Sahli, A; Celenti, R; Jiang, H; Cremers, S; Van Dyke, T; Schulze-Späte, U

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and impaired bone homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of specific elevated fatty acid (FA) levels on alveolar bone loss in a Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced model of periodontal disease and to analyze underlying cellular mechanisms in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts in mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided in groups and subjected to a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high-fat diet (HFD) (20% of calories from FA) or a normal caloric diet (C group) (10% of calories from FA) for 16 wk. Starting at week 10, mice were infected orally with P. gingivalis (W50) or placebo to induce alveolar bone loss. Animals were sacrificed, and percentage fat, serum inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), and bone metabolism (osteocalcin [OC], carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks [CTX], and N-terminal propeptides of type I procollagen [P1NP]) markers were measured. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cultured in the presence of elevated PA or OA levels and exposed to P. gingivalis. Animals on FA-enriched diets weighed significantly more compared with animals on a normal caloric diet (P diet rather than weight gain and obesity alone modulates bone metabolism and can therefore influence alveolar bone loss.

  14. Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss in construction workers being assessed for hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ronald A; Sauvé, John T; Jiang, Depeng

    2010-01-01

    Construction workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) but often have no periodic audiometric testing. The participants were construction workers assessed for Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) at the Occupational Health Clinic, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Audiometry was offered and 169 of the 191 workers assessed for HAVS agreed to have the audiometric test. The objective was to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in these 169 workers and to determine the effect on hearing of duration of work in construction (as a proxy for noise exposure) and the severity of vibration white finger (VWF) which previous studies have suggested is a marker for increased individual susceptibility for NIHL. VWF was measured by the Stockholm vascular scale. All participants were men, median age of 57 (range: 28-75), median number of years worked in construction of 35 (range: 4-52). All of the Spearman rank correlations between years worked in construction and the hearing levels at each audiometric frequency were statistically significant (p construction increased. Multivariate linear regression indicated that VWF also had a statistically significant effect on hearing loss for all audiometric frequencies combined after controlling for years worked in construction. Improved prevention of hearing loss in construction workers is needed.

  16. [Reduction of dielectric properties of rat gastrocnemius induced by loss of weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiynan; Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Lin; Ma, Qing

    2009-10-01

    In this experimental study, the AC impedance of isolated gastrocnemius was measured with an impendance analyzer of Agilent 4294A, and the effect of simulated weightlessness on the dielectric properties of the cells in isolated rat sural muscle was investigated by analyzing the dielectric numerical characters with the use of dielectric spectroscopy, the Cole-Cole plots, the spectrum of loss factor and loss tangent, as well as the spectrum of conductivity imaginary part. The results demonstrated that 10 weeks' simulated weightlessness caused some changes; for example, both permittivity at low frequency (epsilonL) and permittivity increment (deltaepsilon) were reduced, and conductivity at high frequency (kappa(h)) was also reduced; at the same time, conductivity increment (deltakappa) was reduced, too. The first characteristic frequency (f(C1)) decreased, while the second characteristic frequency(f(C2)) increased. All of the peak of loss factor, the peak of loss tangent, and the maximum of conductivity imaginary part were reduced. These data indicated that the reduction of dielectric properties of skeletal muscles was induced by weightlessness.

  17. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  18. The effect of temperature on eccentric contraction-induced isometric force loss in isolated perfused rat medial gastrocnemius muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasaghi Gharamaleki B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The typical features of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS and prolonged loss of muscle strength. It has been shown that passive warmth is effective in reducing muscle injury. Due to the interaction of different systems in vivo, we used isolated perfused medial gastrocnemius skeletal muscle to study the direct effect of temperature on the eccentric contraction-induced force loss. "nMethods: After femoral artery cannulation of a rat, the left medial gastrocnemius muscle was separated and then the entire lower limb was transferred into a prewarmed (35oC chamber. With the chamber temperature at 31, 35 and 39oC before and during eccentric contraction. Isometric force loss was measured after 15 eccentric contractions (N=7-9. "nResults: Maximum contraction force reduction has been used as an index for eccentric contraction-induced force loss. In this study eccentric contraction caused a significant reduction in maximum isometric tension (p<0.01, but no significant difference was seen in isometric force loss at 31oC and 39oC compared with that at 35oC. "nConclusions: Our results suggest that temperature changes before or during eccentric contractions have no effect on eccentric contraction-induced force loss. "nKeywords: Isolated perfused muscle, skeletal muscle, eccentric contractions, isometric force, gastrocnemius muscle, temperature.

  19. Research in Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0031 TITLE: Research in Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) PRINCIPAL...Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). An oral antioxidant that could prevent permanent NIHL could allow more military personnel to be redeployed, to...1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Research in Prevention and Treatment of Noise Induced 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  1. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  2. Measurement of the permittivity and loss of high-loss materials using a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A P; Blackburn, J F; Lees, K; Clarke, R N; Hodgetts, T E; Hanham, S M; Klein, N

    2016-02-01

    In this paper improvements to a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NSMM) are presented that allow the loss of high loss dielectric materials to be measured accurately at microwave frequencies. This is demonstrated by measuring polar liquids (loss tangent tanδ≈1) for which traceable data is available. The instrument described uses a wire probe that is electromagnetically coupled to a resonant cavity. An optical beam deflection system is incorporated within the instrument to allow contact mode between samples and the probe tip to be obtained. Liquids are contained in a measurement cell with a window of ultrathin glass. The calibration process for the microscope, which is based on image-charge electrostatic models, has been adapted to use the Laplacian 'complex frequency'. Measurements of the loss tangent of polar liquids that are consistent with reference data were obtained following calibration against single-crystal specimens that have very low loss. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Method of Measurement of Capacitance and Dielectric Loss Factor Using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Roj Jerzy; Cichy Adam

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring has been described. It is based on a quasi-balanced method for the capacitance measurement. These AC circuits allow to measure only one component of the impedance. However, after analyzing a quasi-balanced circuit's processing equation, it is possible to derive a novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring. Dielectric loss factor can be calculated after detuning the circuit from its quasi-equilibrium state. There are two possible ways of...

  4. Atom-loss-induced quantum optical bi-stability switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Bao-Jun; Cui Fu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a system composed of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate and an optical cavity with the two sides coupled dispersively.By adopting discrete-mode approximation for the condensate,taking atom loss as a necessary part of the model to analyze the evolution of the system,while using trial and errormethod to find out steady states of the system as a reference,numerical simulation demonstrates that with a constant pump,atom loss will trigger a quantum optical bi-stability switch,which predicts a new interesting phenomenon for experiments to verify.

  5. On Decomposable Measures Induced by Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that for a given normalized compact metric space it can induce a σ-max-superdecomposable measure, by constructing a Hausdorff pseudometric on its power set. We also prove that the restriction of this set function to the algebra of all measurable sets is a σ-max-decomposable measure. Finally we conclude this paper with two open problems.

  6. Measurement of mean excitation energy by energy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuChang-Shi

    1997-01-01

    The mean excitation energy(MEE) for Al,Ti,Fe,Cu and Ta has been determined experimentally by the Landan equation,which describes the most probable energy loss of electrons in the incidence direction,and the results are consistent with the values given in the literature,THese provide a quick,easy and accurate evaluation method for the experimental MEE.

  7. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss t...

  8. Protective Effects of Vildagliptin against Pioglitazone-Induced Bone Loss in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yu, Seung Hee; Lee, Sihoon; Kim, Yeun Sun; Park, Ie Byung; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) have several benefits in many systems in addition to glycemic control. In a previous study, we reported that exendin-4 might increase bone mineral density (BMD) by decreasing the expression of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes in a T2DM animal model. In this study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on TZD-induced bone loss in a T2DM animal model. We randomly divided 12-week-old male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats into four groups; control, vildagliptin, pioglitazone, and vildagliptin and pioglitazone combination. Animals in each group received the respective treatments for 5 weeks. We performed an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) before and after treatment. BMD and the trabecular micro-architecture were measured by DEXA and micro CT, respectively, at the end of the treatment. The circulating levels of active GLP-1, bone turnover markers, and sclerostin were assayed. Vildagliptin treatment significantly increased BMD and trabecular bone volume. The combination therapy restored BMD, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular bone thickness that were decreased by pioglitazone. The levels of the bone formation marker, osteocalcin, decreased and that of the bone resorption marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b increased in the pioglitazone group. These biomarkers were ameliorated and the pioglitazone-induced increase in sclerostin level was lowered to control values by the addition of vildagliptin. In conclusion, our results indicate that orally administered vildagliptin demonstrated a protective effect on pioglitazone-induced bone loss in a type 2 diabetic rat model. PMID:27997588

  9. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  10. Cellular and deafness mechanisms underlying connexin mutation induced hearing loss – A common hereditary deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Wingard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss due to mutations in the connexin gene family which encodes gap junctional proteins is a common form of hereditary deafness. In particular, connexin 26 (Cx26, GJB2 mutations are responsible for ~50% of nonsyndromic hearing loss, which is the highest incidence of genetic disease. In the clinic, Cx26 mutations cause various auditory phenotypes ranging from profound congenital deafness at birth to mild, progressive hearing loss in late childhood. Recent experiments demonstrate that congenital deafness mainly results from cochlear developmental disorders rather than hair cell degeneration and endocochlear potential (EP reduction, while late-onset hearing loss results from reduction of active cochlear amplification, even though cochlear hair cells have no connexin expression. Moreover, new experiments further demonstrate that the hypothesized K+-recycling disruption is not a principal deafness mechanism for connexin deficiency induced hearing loss. Additionally, there is no clear relationship between specific changes in connexin (channel functions and the phenotypes of mutation-induced hearing loss. Cx30, Cx29, Cx31, and Cx43 mutations can also cause hearing loss with distinct pathological changes in the cochlea. These new studies provide invaluable information about deafness mechanisms underlying connexin mutation induced hearing loss and also provide important information for developing new protective and therapeutic strategies for this common deafness. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms underlying these pathological changes and pathogeneses of specific-mutation induced hearing loss remain unclear. Finally, little information is available for humans. Further studies to address these deficiencies are urgently required.

  11. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  12. RF Cavity Induced Sensitivity Limitations on Beam Loss Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastriotou, M.; Degiovanni, A.; Sousa, F. S. Domingues; Effinger, E.; Holzer, E. B.; Quirante, J. L. Navarro; del Busto, E. N.; Tecker, F.; Viganò, W.; Welsch, C. P.; Woolley, B. J.

    Due to the secondary showers generated when a particle hits the vacuum chamber, beam losses at an accelerator may be detected via radiation detectors located near the beam line. Several sources of background can limit the sensitivity and reduce the dynamic range of a Beam Loss Monitor (BLM). This document concentrates on potential sources of background generated near high gradient RF cavities due to dark current and voltage breakdowns. An optical fibre has been installed at an experiment of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility (CTF3), where a dedicated study of the performance of a loaded and unloaded CLIC accelerating structure is undergoing. An analysis of the collected data and a benchmarking simulation are presented to estimate BLM sensitivity limitations. Moreover, the feasibility for the use of BLMs optimised for the diagnostics of RF cavities is discussed.

  13. Controlling Mitochondrial Dynamics to Mitigate Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of reactive oxygen species. 2. KEYWORDS Hearing loss, loud sound, mitochondria, reactive oxygen species, dynamin- related protein-1...ear canal by an Etymotic 10B microphone. The microphone is coupled to signal input channel of the sound card. For data analysis, the amplitude of the...also significant. Data are presented as mean +SEM. Figure 2: Mdivi-1 outer ear application at 6 hours following loud sound exposure shows a trend

  14. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger;

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  15. Prevalence of tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss in dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Myers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate noise levels in dental offices and to estimate the risk and prevalence of tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in practicing dentists. Materials and Methods: First, measures were collected of sound pressure levels produced by dental handpieces and dental suction in the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC College of Dentistry. Second, a survey was distributed to members of the Oklahoma Dental Association (ODA. Results: Measurements made in the dental operatory revealed dangerous levels when high-volume suction was in use alone and in conjunction with a dental handpiece. Questionnaire results suggested that practicing dentists report sensorineural hearing loss at a rate broadly in line with national averages. However, dentists reported a higher prevalence of tinnitus symptoms than would be expected based on sample demographics. Conclusion: Results from sound level measurements and questionnaire responses indicate that dentists are a population that could be placing their hearing health at risk in a typical daily work environment.

  16. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  17. Evidence of noise-induced hearing loss in young people studying popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The number of students studying popular music, music technology, and sound engineering courses at both school and university to has increased rapidly in the last few years. These students are generally involved in music-making/recording and listening to a high level, usually in environments with amplified music. Recent studies have shown that these students are potentially exposed to a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL( and are not covered by the same regulatory framework as employees. This study examined the pure tone air conduction hearing thresholds of 50 undergraduate students, including recent school leavers, on a range of popular music courses, to assess if there was evidence of hearing loss. Forty-four percent of students showed evidence of audiometric notch at 4-6 kHz, and 16% were classified under the UK Occupational Health and Safety guidelines as exhibiting mild hearing loss. Instance of audiometric notch was considerably higher than reported from studies of the general population but was around the same level or lower than that reported from studies of "traditional" music courses and conservatoires, suggesting no higher risk for popular music students than for "classical" music students. No relationship with age was present, suggesting that younger students were as likely to exhibit audiometric notch as mature students. This indicates that these students may be damaging their hearing through leisure activities while still at school, suggesting a need for robust education measures to focus on noise exposure of young people.

  18. BEND-INDUCED LOSSES IN A SINGLE-MODE MICROSTRUCTURED FIBER WITH A LARGE CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Gatchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of bend-induced losses in a silica-based single-mode microstructured fiber with a core diameter ranging from 20 to 35 microns and increased relative air content in the holey cladding has been conducted. With the use of the equivalent step-index profile method in approximation of waveguide parameters of microstructured fiber (normalized frequency and normalized transverse attenuation constant the effect of bending on the spectral position of the fundamentalmode short-wavelength leakage boundary has been analyzed. Upon measurement of spectral characteristics of attenuation in the considered fibers good accordance of numerical and experimental data has been found out. It is shown that increase of the air content in the holey cladding leads to expansion of the mentioned boundary to lower wavelengths for the value from 150 to 800 nm depending on the core size and bending conditions. A single-transverse-mode propagation is achieved on fiber length of 5-10 meters due to a substantial difference in losses of fundamental and higher-order guided modes attained by bending. Optical losses in all studied samples are less than 10 dB/km at the wavelength λ = 1550 nm. The results of the study can be applied in the design of high-power laser systems having such basic requirements as a relatively large mode spot and high beam quality.

  19. Test and Simulation Results for Quenches Induced by Fast Losses on a LHC Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Ch; Bartmann, W; Bednarek, M; Lechner, A; Sapinski, M; Vittal Shetty, N; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Verweij, A

    2014-01-01

    A test program for beam induced quenches was started in the LHC in 2011 in order to reduce as much as possible BLM-triggered beam dumps, without jeopardising the safety of the superconducting magnets. A first measurement was performed to asses the quench level of a quadrupole located in the LHC injection region in case of fast (ns) losses. It consisted in dumping single bunches onto an injection protection collimator located right upstream of the quadrupole, varying the bunch intensity up to 3×1010 protons and ramping the quadrupole current up to 2200 A. No quench was recorded at that time. The test was repeated in 2013 with increased bunch intensity (6.5×1010 protons); a quench occurred when powering the magnet at 2500 A. The comparison between measurements during beam induced and quench heaters induced quenches is shown. Results of FLUKA simulations on energy deposition, calculations on quench behaviour using the QP3 code and the respective estimates of quench levels are also presented.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of zoledronic acid and amifostine on radiation induced bone loss in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sueum; Kang, Sohi; Moon, Cahng Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeungeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham control and three irradiated groups (3 Gy, gamma ray). The irradiated mice were treated for 12 weeks with vehicle, amifostine (intraperitoneal injection), or ZA (subcutaneous injection). Grip strength, uterus weight, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) levels were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of ZA (100 μg·kg{sup -1}·week{sup -1}) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, and cortical bone volume, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. The administration of ZA for 12 weeks lowered serum ALP and TRAP levels in irradiated mice, suggesting that ZA can reduce the bone turnover rate in mice. No differences were apparent between the amifostine-treated group and the irradiation control group. The results indicate that ZA can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.

  1. Novel method of evaluating miners at risk for noise-induced hearing loss

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) negatively affects the quality of life of mine employees and costs mining companies large amounts in compensation claims. The prevention of NIHL requires early identification and recent evidence about the ability...

  2. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  3. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  4. Visual Loss Induced by Adalimumab Used for Plaque Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Saffra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old Caucasian male with severe plaque psoriasis without joint involvement was initiated on adalimumab therapy. Shortly thereafter he presented to the emergency room with acute loss of vision in the right eye. A comprehensive systemic workup was instituted which included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with and without gadolinium of the brain and orbits. MRI revealed findings that were consistent with CNS demyelination and retrobulbar optic neuritis. Immediate cessation of adalimumab was instituted without any other systemic therapy. Complete return of vision occurred within 6 weeks. No additional psoriatic or neurologic treatment was instituted, and the patient has remained stable now for 14 months.

  5. Mechanism for Prenatal LPS-Induced DA Neuron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    D.H., Faselis , C.J., Notermann, J.K., Ling, Z.D., 1996. Loss of striatal DA innervation increases striatal trophic activity directed at DA neurons in...functional recovery in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Gene Ther. 9, 381–389. Yu, S.J., Lo, E.S., Cochran, E.J., Lin, D.H., Faselis , C.J., Klawans, H.L...19, 3248–3257 48. Nolan, M. F., Malleret, G., Lee, K. H., Gibbs , E., Dudman, J. T., Santoro, B., Yin, D., Thompson, R. F., Siegelbaum, S. A., Kandel

  6. Condensate losses and oscillations induced by Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Karpiuk, Tomasz; Rzążewski, Kazimierz; Gaj, Anita; Krupp, Alexander T; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    We numerically analyze the impact of a single Rydberg electron onto a Bose-Einstein condensate. Both $S-$ and $D-$ Rydberg states are studied. The radial size of $S-$ and $D-$states are comparable, hence the only difference is due to the angular dependence of the wavefunctions. We find the atom losses in the condensate after the excitation of a sequence of Rydberg atoms. Additionally, we investigate the mechanical effect in which the Rydberg atoms force the condensate to oscillate. Our numerical analysis is based on the classical fields approximation. Finally, we compare numerical results to experimental data.

  7. Condensate losses and oscillations induced by Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiuk, Tomasz; Brewczyk, Mirosław; Rzążewski, Kazimierz; Gaj, Anita; Krupp, Alexander T.; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman

    2017-03-01

    We numerically analyze the impact of a single Rydberg electron onto a Bose–Einstein condensate. Both S- and D-Rydberg states are studied. The radial size of S- and D-states are comparable, hence the only difference is due to the angular dependence of the wavefunctions. We find the atom losses in the condensate after the excitation of a sequence of Rydberg atoms. Additionally, we investigate the mechanical effect in which the Rydberg atoms force the condensate to oscillate. Our numerical analysis is based on the classical fields approximation. Finally, we compare numerical results to experimental data.

  8. Induced Compression of White Dwarfs by Angular Momentum Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Zhami, Bakytzhan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate isolated sub- and super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs which lose angular momentum through magnetic dipole braking. We construct constant rest mass sequences by fulfilling all stability criteria of rotating configurations and show how the main structure of white dwarfs such as the central density, mean radius and angular velocity change with time. We explicitly demonstrate that all isolated white dwarfs regardless of their masses, by angular momentum loss, shrink and increase their central density. We also analyze the effects of the structure parameters on the evolution timescale both in the case of constant magnetic field and constant magnetic flux.

  9. Loss of p120 catenin aggravates alveolar edema of ventilation induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chen-yang; DAI Guo-feng; SUN Yu; WANG Yue-lan

    2013-01-01

    Background p120 catenin (p120ctn) is an adheren junction protein that regulates barrier function,but its role has not been explored in alveolar edema induced by ventilation.We measured stretch-induced cell gap formation in MLE 12 cells due to the loss of p120.We hypothesized that alveolar permeability was increased by high lung inflation associated with alveolar epithelia cell tight junctions being destroyed,which resulted from the loss of p120.Methods Cultured MLE12 cells were subjected to being stretched or un-stretched (control) and some cells were pretreated with pp2 (c-src inhibitor).After the end of stretching for 0,1,2,and 4 hours,the cells were lysed,and p120 expression and c-src activation was determined by Western blotting analysis.In vivo,SD rats were taken to different tidal volumes (Vt 7 ml/kg or 40 ml/kg,PEEP=0,respiratory rate 30-40 betas/min) for 0,1,2,and 4 hour and some were pretreated with pp2,and alveolar edema was calculated.Rerults It was found that p120 expression was reduced and c-src activation increased in a time-dependent and strain-dependent manner due to cyclic-stretch of the alveolar epithelial cells.These changes could be reversed by inhibition of c-src.We obtained similar changes in rats when they were subjected to large tidal volumes and the alveolar edema increased more than in rats in the low Vt group.Pretreated the rats with inhibition of c-src had less pulmonary edema induced by the high tidal volume ventilation.Conclusions Cyclic stretch MLE 12 cells induced the loss of p120 and may be the same reason by high tidal volume ventilation in rats can aggravate alveolar edema.Maintenance of p120 expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of ventilation induced lung injury (VILI).

  10. Method of Measurement of Capacitance and Dielectric Loss Factor Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roj Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring has been described. It is based on a quasi-balanced method for the capacitance measurement. These AC circuits allow to measure only one component of the impedance. However, after analyzing a quasi-balanced circuit's processing equation, it is possible to derive a novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring. Dielectric loss factor can be calculated after detuning the circuit from its quasi-equilibrium state. There are two possible ways of measuring the dielectric loss factor. In the first, the quasi-balancing of the circuit is necessary. However, it is possible to measure capacitance of an object under test. In the second method, the capacitance cannot be measured. Use of an artificial neural network minimizes errors of the loss factor determining. Simulations showed that the appropriate choice of the range of the detuning can minimize errors as well.

  11. Nanoscale Electromechanics To Measure Thermal Conductivity, Expansion, and Interfacial Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, John P; Patel, Raj; Borah, Abhinandan; Maliakkal, Carina B; Abhilash, T S; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2015-11-11

    We study the effect of localized Joule heating on the mechanical properties of doubly clamped nanowires under tensile stress. Local heating results in systematic variation of the resonant frequency; these frequency changes result from thermal stresses that depend on temperature dependent thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient. The change in sign of the linear expansion coefficient of InAs is reflected in the resonant response of the system near a bath temperature of 20 K. Using finite element simulations to model the experimentally observed frequency shifts, we show that the thermal conductivity of a nanowire can be approximated in the 10-60 K temperature range by the empirical form κ = bT W/mK, where the value of b for a nanowire was found to be b = 0.035 W/mK(2), significantly lower than bulk values. Also, local heating allows us to independently vary the temperature of the nanowire relative to the clamping points pinned to the bath temperature. We suggest a loss mechanism (dissipation ~10(-4)-10(-5)) originating from the interfacial clamping losses between the metal and the semiconductor nanostructure.

  12. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss – behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hidehiko Okamoto; Munehisa Fukushima; Henning Teismann; Lothar Lagemann; Tadashi Kitahara; Hidenori Inohara; Ryusuke Kakigi; Christo Pantev

    2014-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of “constraint-induced sound therapy”, which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear (“constraint”) and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy ...

  13. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, P K; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M

    2010-07-01

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T(c) superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines.

  14. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Iran: (1997-2012: Systematic Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soltanzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss, which is one of the 10 leading occupational diseases, is a debilitating and irreversible disease. During the recent 15-years period (1997-2012, several studies have investigated the association between noise, hearing damage and other side effects of noise in Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the relevant literature related to noise-induced hearing loss, lead to developing noise exposure limits. In this systematic review, two researchers independently extracted the data from 31 past studies that had considered noise-induced hearing loss (including hearing loss, temporary and permanent hearing threshold shift and auditory trauma. The data were then recorded in a modified form and Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. In analyzed studies the weighted average equivalent sound pressure level [L Aeq ] was 90.29 dB(A and average hearing loss was 26.44 dB(A. The Highest degree of hearing loss in the right ear was associated at 4000 Hz, and the highest degree of hearing loss in the left ear was associated to 1000 and 4000 Hz. The majority of the reviewed studies have confirmed that exposure to a noise level above 85 dB (A can lead to an increased chance of hearing loss. Furthermore, the results of the present review indicated that as L Aeq increased up to 85 dB(A, so did the severity of the hearing loss.

  15. Near infrared reflectance measurement of nitrogen faecal losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, L; Caliari, S; Bonfante, F; Guidi, G C; Brentegani, M T; Castellani, G; Sembenini, C; Bardelli, E; Vantini, I

    1992-06-01

    Chemical methods of measuring nitrogen in stools are complex, unpleasant, and therefore rarely performed. Recently, near infrared reflectance (NIRA) has been suggested for stool analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of this method in routine faecal nitrogen measurement. Nitrogen concentration and daily output were measured in the stools of 83 patients using NIRA and, for comparison, the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen concentration and output ranged between 0.4-2.72 g% and 0.45-8.96 g/day respectively. Correlation coefficients (r), of 0.89 and 0.97 were found between the two methods for concentration and output respectively, and similar values were found in patients on enteral nutrition. Repeated measurements from the same stool collection, requiring only a few minutes, allowed homogenisation to be avoided. NIRA seems to be an easy, fast, and reliable alternative to chemical assays of nitrogen measurement in the management of patients with digestive disorders.

  16. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  17. Dynamic changes in hair cell ribbon synapse induced by loss of spiral ganglion neurons in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yasheng; Chi Fanglu

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that primary degeneration of hair cells causes secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs),but the effect of SGN degeneration on hair cells has not been studied.In the adult mouse inner ear ouabain can selectively and permanently induce the degeneration of type 1 SGNs while leaving type 2 SGNs,efferent fibers,and sensory hair cells relatively intact.This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in hair cell ribbon synapse induced by loss of SGNs using ouabain application to the round window niche of adult mice.Methods In the analysis,24 CBA/CAJ mice aged 8-10 weeks,were used,of which 6 normal mice were used as the control group.After ouabain application in the round window niche 6 times in an hour,ABR threshold shifts at least 30 dB in the three experimental groups which had six mice for 1-week group,six for 1-month group,and six for 3-month group.All 24 animals underwent function test at 1 week and then immunostaining at 1 week,1 month,and 3 months.Results The loss of neurons was followed by degeneration of postsynaptic specializations at the afferent synapse with hair cells.One week after ouabain treatment,the nerve endings of type 1 SGNs and postsynaptic densities,as measured by Na/K ATPase and PSD-95,were affected but not entirely missing,but their partial loss had consequences for synaptic ribbons that form the presynaptic specialization at the synapse between hair cells and primary afferent neurons.Ribbon numbers in inner hair cells decreased (some of them broken and the ribbon number much decreased),and the arrangement of the synaptic ribbons had undergone a dynamic reorganization:ribbons with or without associated postsynaptic densities moved from their normal location in the basal membrane of the cell to a more apical location and the neural endings alone were also found at more apical locations without associated ribbons.After 1 month,when the neural postsynaptic densities had completed their

  18. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss causes remission of food addiction in extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Stein, Richard I; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypotheses that bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: induces remission of food addiction (FA), and normalizes other eating behaviors associated with FA. Forty-four obese subjects (BMI= 48 ± 8 kg/m(2) ) were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by bariatric surgery (25 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 11 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and eight sleeve gastrectomy). We assessed: FA (Yale Food Addiction Scale), food cravings (Food Craving Inventory), and restrictive, emotional and external eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire). FA was identified in 32% of subjects before surgery. Compared with non-FA subjects, those with FA craved foods more frequently, and had higher scores for emotional and external eating behaviors (all P-values 0.8). Surgery-induced weight loss resulted in remission of FA in 93% of FA subjects; no new cases of FA developed after surgery. Surgery-induced weight loss decreased food cravings, and emotional and external eating behaviors in both groups (all P-values 1.1). Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss induces remission of FA and improves several eating behaviors that are associated with FA. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Determination of noise induced hearing loss in mining: an application of hierarchical loglinear modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Mutlu, Atakan

    2012-04-01

    The levels of noise arise from mining industry seem to be higher when compared to other industries. For this reason, noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are prevalent in mining. Assessment of noise emission levels that arise from various mining operations is required to prevent and minimize the NIHL. Because the studies for preventing occupational hearing loss among miners are inadequate, a quarry and stone crushing-screening plant was selected to generate site-specific data. The noise levels of the environments in which workers work were measured and also a hearing test centre applied hearing tests to the workers. According to the hearing test results, it was determined that the part of workers have hearing loss. The main factors affecting the NIHL were assumed as experience, noise level, miners' age and occupation, and by taking into account the sub factors of the main factors, multi way contingency tables were prepared. Then hierarchical loglinear analysis method was implemented to categorized data; thus, the probabilities might effect NIHL was investigated. At the end of this study, it was found that the most risky occupation group was the drivers, and additionally, these workers were mostly exposed to 70-79 dB(A) noise level. When the important interactions are evaluated, it is determined that 4-11 years experienced crusher workers have high probability of NIHL because of high exposure to 90-99 dB(A) noise level. Moreover, the most important interactions which may affect the NIHL were identified and the precautions to reduce hearing loss were presented.

  20. High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchter, Thomas; Thirstrup, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    A high precision measurement technique for characterizing the propagation loss in silica low-loss optical waveguides, based on measuring the contrast of a Fabry-Perot cavity, is demonstrated. The cavity consists of the waveguide coupled to two polarization-maintaining fibers, each end facet coated...

  1. Ac loss measurements on a superconducting transformer for a 25 kA superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mulders, J.M.; de Reuver, J.L.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ac loss measurements have been performed on a superconducting transformer. The transformer is a part of a 25 kA thermally switched superconducting rectifier operating at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The loss measurements have been automatized by means of a microcomputer sampling four relevant signals and

  2. Measurement of AC losses in a racetrack superconducting coil made from YBCO coated conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Eugen; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Kovac, Jan

    2012-01-01

    to reinforce it. The AC loss is measured versus the transport current Ia with the coil immersed in liquid nitrogen. Measurements at frequencies 21 Hz, 36 Hz and 72 Hz are compared. The AC losses follow I2 a dependence at low current amplitudes and I3 a at high amplitudes. After cutting the inner steel frame...

  3. Treatment with Piribedil and Memantine Reduces Noise-Induced Loss of Inner Hair Cell Synaptic Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Richard A.; Wys, Noel; Prieskorn, Diane; Martin, Cathy; DeRemer, Susan; Bledsoe, Sanford; Miller, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    Noise overstimulation can induce loss of synaptic ribbons associated with loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. This study examined if systemic administration of Piribedil, a dopamine agonist that reduces the sound evoked auditory nerve compound action potential and/or Memantine, an NMDA receptor open channel blocker, would reduce noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell ribbons. Rats received systemic Memantine and/or Piribedil for 3 days before and 3 days after a 3 hour 4 kHz octave band noise at 117 dB (SPL). At 21 days following the noise there was a 26% and 38% loss of synaptic ribbons in regions 5.5 and 6.5 mm from apex, respectively, elevations in 4-, 8- and 20 kHz tonal ABR thresholds and reduced dynamic output at higher intensities of stimulation. Combined treatment with Piribedil and Memantine produced a significant reduction in the noise-induced loss of ribbons in both regions and changes in ABR sensitivity and dynamic responsiveness. Piribedil alone gave significant reduction in only the 5.5 mm region and Memantine alone did not reach significance in either region. Results identify treatments that could prevent the hearing loss and hearing disorders that result from noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. PMID:27686418

  4. Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel Exacerbated Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    hearing loss . Noise alone induces hearing loss due to loss of hair cells in the cochlea, associated with oxidative stress. Jet fuel toxicity in association with noise may be at least partially explained by increased free radical production and oxidative stress at the cellular level, resulting in hair cell dysfunction and loss. This project combines a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe jet fuel component concentrations in the cochlea with pharmacodynamic (PD) models of free radical formation in the cochlea by both noise and

  5. Impaired Compensation for Salt-Induced Urinary Calcium Loss in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Meena; Harper, J. S.; Evans, J.; Fung, P.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The loss of urinary calcium (UCa) induced by high sodium (HiNa) diets is compensated for by an increase in net intestinal Ca absorption (abs.). To determine the capacity of the intestine to absorb Ca in a space flight model in which the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) is suppressed, we induced Ca loss with HiNa diets (8%) and restricted dietary Ca (0.2%). In 200 g rats with hind limbs unloaded by tail suspension (S), we examined intestinal Ca abs. by direct measurement in the duodenum (everted gut sac or S/M), vitamin D receptors (VDR) and Ca balance. We also measured serum ionized calcium (ICa), pH, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25D. PTH was related to ICa (r = -0.44, p is less than 0.02), pH (r = -0.47, p is less than 0.02) and %Ca abs. (r = -0.40, p is less than 0.05). 1,25-D was related to %Ca abs. (r = 0.60, p is less than 0.001) but not VDR or S/M. Effects of the model were lower serum 1,25-D (110 +/- 59 vs. 199 +/- 80 pg/ml, p is less than 0.005), %Ca abs. (83 +/- 6.9 vs. 93 +/- 3.2, p is less than 0.03) and Ca balance (27 +/- 0.2 vs. 30 +/- 0.3 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in S than controls (C). The HiNa diet increased UCa excretion from 2 to 13% of dietary Ca. Responses to HiNa diets, compared to normal Na, revealed no differences in 1,25-D, Ca abs. or VDR. Ca balances were lower in HiNa (27 +/- 0.3 vs. 30 +/- 0.4 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in spite of higher Ca intakes. The failure of S rats fed HiNa diets to increase Ca abs. in response to Na-induced Ca loss appears to be related to suppressed 1,25-D in the space flight model, the cause of which remains obscure.

  6. Measurement of Beam Loss at the Australian Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Kastriotou, M; Boland, MJ; Jackson, PD; Rasool, RP; Schmidt, J; Welsch, CP

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented requirements that new machines are setting on their diagnostic systems is leading to the development of new generation of devices with large dynamic range, sensitivity and time resolution. Beam loss detection is particularly challenging due to the large extension of new facilities that need to be covered with localized detector. Candidates to mitigate this problem consist of systems in which the sensitive part of the radiation detectors can be extended over long distance of beam lines. In this document we study the feasibility of a BLM system based on optical fiber as an active detector for an electron storage ring. The Australian Synchrotron (AS) comprises a 216m ring that stores electrons up to 3GeV. The Accelerator has recently claimed the world record ultra low transverse emittance (below pm rad) and its surroundings are rich in synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the AS provides beam conditions very similar to those expected in the CLIC/ILC damping rings. A qualitative benchmark of beam l...

  7. Prestin regulation and function in residual outer hair cells after noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Anping; Song, Yohan; Wang, Rosalie; Gao, Simon S; Clifton, Will; Raphael, Patrick; Chao, Sung-il; Pereira, Fred A; Groves, Andrew K; Oghalai, John S

    2013-01-01

    The outer hair cell (OHC) motor protein prestin is necessary for electromotility, which drives cochlear amplification and produces exquisitely sharp frequency tuning. Tecta(C1509G) transgenic mice have hearing loss, and surprisingly have increased OHC prestin levels. We hypothesized, therefore, that prestin up-regulation may represent a generalized response to compensate for a state of hearing loss. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on prestin expression. After noise exposure, we performed cytocochleograms and observed OHC loss only in the basal region of the cochlea. Next, we patch clamped OHCs from the apical turn (9-12 kHz region), where no OHCs were lost, in noise-exposed and age-matched control mice. The non-linear capacitance was significantly higher in noise-exposed mice, consistent with higher functional prestin levels. We then measured prestin protein and mRNA levels in whole-cochlea specimens. Both Western blot and qPCR studies demonstrated increased prestin expression after noise exposure. Finally, we examined the effect of the prestin increase in vivo following noise damage. Immediately after noise exposure, ABR and DPOAE thresholds were elevated by 30-40 dB. While most of the temporary threshold shifts recovered within 3 days, there were additional improvements over the next month. However, DPOAE magnitudes, basilar membrane vibration, and CAP tuning curve measurements from the 9-12 kHz cochlear region demonstrated no differences between noise-exposed mice and control mice. Taken together, these data indicate that prestin is up-regulated by 32-58% in residual OHCs after noise exposure and that the prestin is functional. These findings are consistent with the notion that prestin increases in an attempt to partially compensate for reduced force production because of missing OHCs. However, in regions where there is no OHC loss, the cochlea is able to compensate for the excess prestin in order to

  8. Prestin regulation and function in residual outer hair cells after noise-induced hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Xia

    Full Text Available The outer hair cell (OHC motor protein prestin is necessary for electromotility, which drives cochlear amplification and produces exquisitely sharp frequency tuning. Tecta(C1509G transgenic mice have hearing loss, and surprisingly have increased OHC prestin levels. We hypothesized, therefore, that prestin up-regulation may represent a generalized response to compensate for a state of hearing loss. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on prestin expression. After noise exposure, we performed cytocochleograms and observed OHC loss only in the basal region of the cochlea. Next, we patch clamped OHCs from the apical turn (9-12 kHz region, where no OHCs were lost, in noise-exposed and age-matched control mice. The non-linear capacitance was significantly higher in noise-exposed mice, consistent with higher functional prestin levels. We then measured prestin protein and mRNA levels in whole-cochlea specimens. Both Western blot and qPCR studies demonstrated increased prestin expression after noise exposure. Finally, we examined the effect of the prestin increase in vivo following noise damage. Immediately after noise exposure, ABR and DPOAE thresholds were elevated by 30-40 dB. While most of the temporary threshold shifts recovered within 3 days, there were additional improvements over the next month. However, DPOAE magnitudes, basilar membrane vibration, and CAP tuning curve measurements from the 9-12 kHz cochlear region demonstrated no differences between noise-exposed mice and control mice. Taken together, these data indicate that prestin is up-regulated by 32-58% in residual OHCs after noise exposure and that the prestin is functional. These findings are consistent with the notion that prestin increases in an attempt to partially compensate for reduced force production because of missing OHCs. However, in regions where there is no OHC loss, the cochlea is able to compensate for the excess prestin in

  9. A New Technique for Measuring the Heat Loss Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rose, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    To measure the effect of linear cold bridges in building envelope constructions the guarded hot box technique is used. A new method based on a guarded hot plate technique has been proposed and investigated with respect to errors. The results are promising and further development of the method is ...

  10. Disruption of PTH receptor 1 in T cells protects against PTH-induced bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Tawfeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperparathyroidism in humans and continuous parathyroid hormone (cPTH treatment in mice cause bone loss by regulating the production of RANKL and OPG by stromal cells (SCs and osteoblasts (OBs. Recently, it has been reported that T cells are required for cPTH to induce bone loss as the binding of the T cell costimulatory molecule CD40L to SC receptor CD40 augments SC sensitivity to cPTH. However it is unknown whether direct PTH stimulation of T cells is required for cPTH to induce bone loss, and whether T cells contribute to the bone catabolic activity of PTH with mechanisms other than induction of CD40 signaling in SCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that silencing of PTH receptor 1 (PPR in T cells blocks the bone loss and the osteoclastic expansion induced by cPTH, thus demonstrating that PPR signaling in T cells is central for PTH-induced reduction of bone mass. Mechanistic studies revealed that PTH activation of the T cell PPR stimulates T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF. Attesting to the relevance of this effect, disruption of T cell TNF production prevents PTH-induced bone loss. We also show that a novel mechanism by which TNF mediates PTH induced osteoclast formation is upregulation of CD40 expression in SCs, which increases their RANKL/OPG production ratio. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that PPR signaling in T cells plays an essential role in PTH induced bone loss by promoting T cell production of TNF. A previously unknown effect of TNF is to increase SC expression of CD40, which in turn increases SC osteoclastogenic activity by upregulating their RANKL/OPG production ratio. PPR-dependent stimulation of TNF production by T cells and the resulting TNF regulation of CD40 signaling in SCs are potential new therapeutic targets for the bone loss of hyperparathyroidism.

  11. Disruption of PTH Receptor 1 in T Cells Protects against PTH-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham; Bedi, Brahmchetna; Li, Jau-Yi; Adams, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Pacifici, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperparathyroidism in humans and continuous parathyroid hormone (cPTH) treatment in mice cause bone loss by regulating the production of RANKL and OPG by stromal cells (SCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). Recently, it has been reported that T cells are required for cPTH to induce bone loss as the binding of the T cell costimulatory molecule CD40L to SC receptor CD40 augments SC sensitivity to cPTH. However it is unknown whether direct PTH stimulation of T cells is required for cPTH to induce bone loss, and whether T cells contribute to the bone catabolic activity of PTH with mechanisms other than induction of CD40 signaling in SCs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that silencing of PTH receptor 1 (PPR) in T cells blocks the bone loss and the osteoclastic expansion induced by cPTH, thus demonstrating that PPR signaling in T cells is central for PTH-induced reduction of bone mass. Mechanistic studies revealed that PTH activation of the T cell PPR stimulates T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF). Attesting to the relevance of this effect, disruption of T cell TNF production prevents PTH-induced bone loss. We also show that a novel mechanism by which TNF mediates PTH induced osteoclast formation is upregulation of CD40 expression in SCs, which increases their RANKL/OPG production ratio. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate that PPR signaling in T cells plays an essential role in PTH induced bone loss by promoting T cell production of TNF. A previously unknown effect of TNF is to increase SC expression of CD40, which in turn increases SC osteoclastogenic activity by upregulating their RANKL/OPG production ratio. PPR-dependent stimulation of TNF production by T cells and the resulting TNF regulation of CD40 signaling in SCs are potential new therapeutic targets for the bone loss of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:20808842

  12. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss – behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kitahara, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of “constraint-induced sound therapy”, which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear (“constraint”) and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy in addition to the standard corticosteroid therapy showed significantly better recovery of hearing function compared to those who had only received corticosteroid treatments. Additionally, the brain activity obtained in a subgroup of patients suggested that the constraint-induced sound therapy could have prevented maladaptive auditory cortex reorganization. Constraint-induced sound therapy thus appears to be an effective, practical, and safe treatment option for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:24473277

  13. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss--behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kitahara, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-29

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of "constraint-induced sound therapy", which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear ("constraint") and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy in addition to the standard corticosteroid therapy showed significantly better recovery of hearing function compared to those who had only received corticosteroid treatments. Additionally, the brain activity obtained in a subgroup of patients suggested that the constraint-induced sound therapy could have prevented maladaptive auditory cortex reorganization. Constraint-induced sound therapy thus appears to be an effective, practical, and safe treatment option for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  14. Modelling measurement microphones using BEM with visco-thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, models that can explain the behaviour of measurement condenser microphones have been proposed in the literature. These devices have an apparently simple working principle, a charged capacitor whose charge varies when one of its electrodes, the diaphragm, moves as a result of sound...... waves. However, measurement microphones must be manufactured very carefully due to their sensitivity to small changes of their physical parameters. There are different elements in a microphone, the diaphragm, the gap behind it, a back cavity, a vent for pressure equalization and an external medium. All...... these subsystems form a strongly coupled device that cannot be modelled properly as a superposition of submodels, but rather as a whole. For this reason, the challenge of microphone modelling is still an ongoing area of research. In this work, a newly developed Boundary Element Method implementation that includes...

  15. Unified entropic measures of quantum correlations induced by local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Bellomo, G.; Zozor, S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce quantum correlation measures based on the minimal change in unified entropies induced by local rank-one projective measurements, divided by a factor that depends on the generalized purity of the system in the case of nonadditive entropies. In this way, we overcome the issue of the artificial increasing of the value of quantum correlation measures based on nonadditive entropies when an uncorrelated ancilla is appended to the system, without changing the computability of our entropic correlation measures with respect to the previous ones. Moreover, we recover as limiting cases the quantum correlation measures based on von Neumann and Rényi entropies (i.e., additive entropies), for which the adjustment factor becomes trivial. In addition, we distinguish between total and semiquantum correlations and obtain some inequalities between them. Finally, we obtain analytical expressions of the entropic correlation measures for typical quantum bipartite systems.

  16. Anxiety measures during induced experimental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, P; Rood, J P

    1993-01-01

    Results of analgesic studies obtained using experimental pain are often not comparable with those obtained from clinical studies. This may be because anxiety, which plays an important role in the pain experience, may not be evoked by experimentally induced pain. The aim of this study is to measure the level of anxiety induced by the submaximum effort tourniquet technique, which produces pain similar in quality to clinical pain. The mean time that subjects tolerated the pain from the tourniquet was 14.94 minutes. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased. Visual analogue scale measures of anxiety showed an overall increase during the experiment but were highly erratic individually. This study suggests that the submaximum effort tourniquet technique is incapable of inducing the same type of anxiety experienced with clinical pain.

  17. Measurement and characterization of the path loss for ear-to-ear wireless communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    loss increases as the frequency increases. We measured the path loss ∣PL∣ at 1 GHz to approximately 33 dB for the tangential magnetic dipole and 45 dB for the normal magnetic dipole. These measurements show the importance of the orientation with respect to the surface of the head. We were able to gain...... 12 dB for the same antenna just by choosing different orientation. The significance of the feeding cables was demonstrated in the measurements with bow-tie dipoles (ant. 4 and 5), where the measurements show smaller path loss than for the low frequency cases. By using numerical simulations we were...

  18. Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peng, E-mail: songp10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qu, Timing, E-mail: tmqu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Xiaoyu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xiaohang [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping [Beijing Zhong Ke San Huan Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Duxing [Department Fis, University Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A novel prototype HTS generator with HTS armature windings was developed. •No-load loss and the iron loss at low temperature were measured. •The total loss at low temperature is much larger than the room temperature case. •The reason for no-load loss increment at low temperature is discussed. -- Abstract: A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

  19. Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Signaling in the Brain Is Imperative in Acute Inflammation-Induced Anorexia and Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Kon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal inflammation and diet-induced obesity. However, the role of HVEM in the brain is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether HVEM signaling in the brain is involved in inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.MethodsFood intake and body weight were measured at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant mouse LIGHT (also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14, TNFSF14, an HVEM ligand, into 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking HVEM expression (HVEM-/-. We also assessed LPS-induced change in hypothalamic expression of HVEM using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAdministration of LPS significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and moreover, increased expression of HVEM in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, LPS induced only minor decreases in food intake and body weight in HVEM-/- mice. Administration of LIGHT into the brain was very effective at decreasing food intake and body weight in wild-type mice, but was less effective in HVEM-/- mice.ConclusionActivation of brain HVEM signaling is responsible for inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.

  20. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Linqing; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aizhen; Wen, Zongzhuang; Zhou, Yichen; Xia, Ming

    2016-01-01

    MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice) and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice. PMID:28101381

  1. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

  2. TLR2 signaling and Th2 responses drive Tannerella forsythia-induced periodontal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R; Settem, Rajendra P; Connell, Terry D; Keegan, Achsah D; Gaffen, Sarah L; Sharma, Ashu

    2011-07-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic inflammation of the tooth-supporting soft tissue and alveolar bone due to infection by a select group of gram-negative microbes, which leads to tooth loss if untreated. Because mice deficient in CD4(+) cells are resistant to infection-induced alveolar bone loss, Th cells have been implicated in bone-destructive processes during PD. However, the extent to which different Th cell subtypes play roles in pathogenesis or host protection remains to be defined and is likely to vary depending on the dominant microorganism involved. By far, Porphyromonas gingivalis is the best-studied periodontal microbe in PD. Although the gram-negative anaerobe Tannerella forsythia is also a vital contributor to periodontal bone loss, almost nothing is known about immune responses to this organism. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed that T. forsythia induces periodontal bone loss in mice and that this bone loss depends on the bacterially expressed BspA protein. In this study, we showed that T. forsythia activates murine APCs primarily through TLR2-dependent signaling via BspA. Furthermore, T. forsythia infection causes a pronounced Th2 bias, evidenced by T cell expression of IL-5, but not IFN-γ or IL-17, in draining lymph nodes. Consistently, deficiencies in TLR2 or STAT6 result in resistance to T. forsythia-induced alveolar bone loss. Thus, TLR2 signaling and Th2 cells play pathogenic roles in T. forsythia-induced alveolar bone destruction.

  3. The noise-induced hearing loss milestones: past and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available 2 192 371R 870 179R 751 174R 2 815 290R 2002 32 147 036R 31 449 581R 1 388 294R 2 806 369R 941 572R 606 407R 4 118 758R 2003 29 548 065R 26 183 423R 961 432R 1 056 322R... of the better known indicators are known to be measures such as: The percentage of exposed workers with threshold shifts per year; A 15 dB shift from baseline in at least one frequency 1-6 kilo Hertz (kHz); The number of work areas with excessive noise...

  4. Protective effect of Pycnogenol® on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster and has potent antioxidant activities. The protective effect of PYC on bone loss was studied in multiparous ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pycnogenol® (30 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to 8-month-old OVX rats for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, bone strength was measured by a three-point bending test and bone mineral density was estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Ovariectomy significantly decreased femur bone strength and bone density. Supplementation with PYC suppressed the bone loss induced by OVX. The OVX treatment significantly increased serum osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Supplementation with PYC reduced the serum OC and CTx in OVX rats to a level similar to that of the sham-operated group. The results indicated that orally administered PYC can decrease the bone turnover rate in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on the biomechanical strength of bone and bone mineral density. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Experimental measurement and calculation of losses in planar radial magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, M. E. F.; Allaire, P. E.; Hope, R. W.; Humphris, R. R.

    1994-05-01

    The loss mechanisms associated with magnetic bearings have yet to be adequately characterized or modeled analytically and thus pose a problem for the designer of magnetic bearings. This problem is particularly important for aerospace applications where low power consumption of components is critical. Also, losses are expected to be large for high speed operation. The iron losses in magnetic bearings can be divided into eddy current losses and hysteresis losses. While theoretical models for these losses exist for transformer and electric motor applications, they have not been verified for magnetic bearings. This paper presents the results from a low speed experimental test rig and compares them to calculated values from existing theory. Experimental data was taken over a range of 90 to 2,800 rpm for several bias currents and two different pole configurations. With certain assumptions agreement between measured and calculated power losses was within 16 percent for a number of test configurations.

  6. Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.; Hughes, S.; Schulz, S.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; O'Faolain, L.; Krauss, T. F.

    2009-11-01

    Through a combined theoretical and experimental study of disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in slow-light photonic crystal slab waveguides, we show the importance of Bloch mode reshaping and multiple scattering. We describe a convenient and fully three-dimensional theoretical treatment of disorder-induced extrinsic scattering, including the calculation of backscatter and out-of-plane losses per unit cell, and the extrapolation of the unit-cell loss to the loss for an entire disordered waveguide. The theoretical predictions, which are also compared with recent measurements on dispersion engineered silicon waveguides, demonstrate the failure of the Beer-Lambert law due to multiple scattering. We also explain why the previously assumed group velocity scalings of disorder-induced loss break down in general.

  7. Magnetic Configuration Effects on Fast Ion Losses Induced by Fast Ion Driven Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K. [Nagoya University, Japan; Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Watanabe, F. [Kyoto University, Japan; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Shimizu, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Sakakibara, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan

    2012-01-01

    Beam-ion losses induced by fast-ion-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) were measured with a scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) in the large helical device (LHD). The SLIP gave simultaneously the energy E and the pitch angle chi = arccos(v(parallel to)/v) distribution of the lost fast ions. The loss fluxes were investigated for three typical magnetic configurations of R{sub ax{_}vac} = 3.60 m, 3.75 m, and 3.90 m, where R{sub ax{_}vac} is the magnetic axis position of the vacuum field. Dominant losses induced by TAEs in these three configurations were observed in the E/chi regions of 50 similar to 190 keV/40 degrees, 40 similar to 170 keV/25 degrees, and 30 similar to 190 keV/30 degrees, respectively. Lost-ion fluxes induced by TAEs depend clearly on the amplitude of TAE magnetic fluctuations, R{sub ax{_}vac} and the toroidal field strength B{sub t}. The increment of the loss fluxes has the dependence of (b{sub TAE}/B{sub t}){sup s}. The power s increases from s = 1 to 3 with the increase of the magnetic axis position in finite beta plasmas.

  8. The gap junction blocker carbenoxolone enhances propofol and sevoflurane-induced loss of consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Liu; Yongfang Liu; Bo Zhao; Li Du; Zhongyuan Xia; Xiangdong Chen; Tao Luo

    2012-01-01

    General anesthetics induce loss of consciousness by inhibiting ascending arousal pathways, and they interfere with gap junction electrical coupling.The present study aimed to determine whether inhibition of gap junction-mediated signaling could influence general anesthetic-induced loss of consciousness.The general anesthetics sevoflurane and propofol were used.Intracerebroventricular administration of carbenoxolone, a gap junction blocker, significantly decreased the time to loss of the righting reflex (P < 0.05), but prolonged the time to recovery of the reflex (P < 0.05).Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of carbenoxolone increased the sensitivity to sevoflurane, with a leftward shift of the loss of righting reflex dose-response curve, and decreased the 50% effective concentration of sevoflurane.These results suggest that the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone enhances propofol and sevoflurane-mediated general anesthesia.

  9. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  10. Loss-induced enhanced transmission in anisotropic density-near-zero acoustic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this letter and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  11. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-11-25

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  12. Weight loss induced by chronic dapagliflozin treatment is attenuated by compensatory hyperphagia in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, James J; Godonis, Helen E; Harvey, Susan J; Rooney, Suzanne; Cullen, Mary J; Pelleymounter, Mary Ann

    2012-08-01

    Dapagliflozin is a potent and selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor which promotes urinary glucose excretion and induces weight loss. Since metabolic compensation can offset a negative energy balance, we explored the potential for a compensatory physiological response to the weight loss induced by dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin was administered (0.5-5 mpk; p.o.) to diet-induced obese (DIO) rats with or without ad libitum access to food for 38 days. Along with inducing urinary glucose excretion, chronic administration of dapagliflozin dose-dependently increased food and water intake relative to vehicle-treated controls. Despite this, it reduced body weight by 4% (relative to controls) at the highest dose. The degree of weight loss was increased by an additional 9% if hyperphagia was prevented by restricting food intake to that of vehicle controls. Neither oxygen consumption (vO2) or the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were altered by dapagliflozin treatment alone. Animals treated with dapagliflozin and pair-fed to vehicle controls (5 mpk PF-V) showed a reduction in RER and an elevation in nonfasting β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) relative to ad libitum-fed 5 mpk counterparts. Fasting BHBA was elevated in the 1 mpk, 5 mpk, and 5 mpk PF-V groups. Serum glucose was reduced in the fasted, but not the unfasted state. Insulin was reduced in the non-fasted state. These data suggest that in rodents, the persistent urinary glucose excretion induced by dapagliflozin was accompanied by compensatory hyperphagia, which attenuated the weight loss induced by SGLT2 inhibition. Therefore, it is possible that dapagliflozin-induced weight loss could be enhanced with dietary intervention.

  13. High-frequency audiometry: A means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H Mehrparvar; Seyyed J Mirmohammadi; Abbas Ghoreyshi; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Ziba Loukzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence...

  14. Various Approaches for Determining and Implementing Age Correction for Monetary Compensation for Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    8217. The question of whether or not there should be an age correction for presbycusis when determining compensation for a noise induced hearing loss is...is not clear why hearing loss should be treated differently."l Thus an old person whose hearing might be above the "low fence" from presbycusis alone...different presbycusis bases from four different studies were used. Table 1 contains the UPCs that could be expected after 10 years of daily exposure to a

  15. Cellular and Deafness Mechanisms Underlying Connexin Mutation-Induced Hearing Loss - A Common Hereditary Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Jeffrey C; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss due to mutations in the connexin gene family, which encodes gap junctional proteins, is a common form of hereditary deafness. In particular, connexin 26 (Cx26, GJB2) mutations are responsible for ~50% of non-syndromic hearing loss, which is the highest incidence of genetic disease. In the clinic, Cx26 mutations cause various auditory phenotypes ranging from profound congenital deafness at birth to mild, progressive hearing loss in late childhood. Recent experiments demonstrate that congenital deafness mainly results from cochlear developmental disorders rather than hair cell degeneration and endocochlear potential reduction, while late-onset hearing loss results from reduction of active cochlear amplification, even though cochlear hair cells have no connexin expression. However, there is no apparent, demonstrable relationship between specific changes in connexin (channel) functions and the phenotypes of mutation-induced hearing loss. Moreover, new experiments further demonstrate that the hypothesized K(+)-recycling disruption is not a principal deafness mechanism for connexin deficiency induced hearing loss. Cx30 (GJB6), Cx29 (GJC3), Cx31 (GJB3), and Cx43 (GJA1) mutations can also cause hearing loss with distinct pathological changes in the cochlea. These new studies provide invaluable information about deafness mechanisms underlying connexin mutation-induced hearing loss and also provide important information for developing new protective and therapeutic strategies for this common deafness. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms underlying these pathological changes remain unclear. Also, little is known about specific mutation-induced pathological changes in vivo and little information is available for humans. Such further studies are urgently required.

  16. Measuring the utility of losses by means of the tradeoff method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennema, H; Van Assen, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the shape of the utility function for losses. From a rational point of view it can be argued that utility should be concave. Empirically measurements of the utility for losses show mixed results but most evidence supports convex rather than concave utilities. However, these m

  17. Low-level laser therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Mizutari, Kunio; Niwa, Katsuki; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Shunichi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2015-05-19

    Noninvasive low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is neuroprotective, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. In this study, the use of LLLT as a novel treatment for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense noise and their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser at an output power density of 110 or 165mW/cm(2) for a 30min period for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with LLLT compared with the non-treatment group at days 2, 4, 7 and 14 after noise exposure. Morphological observations also revealed a significantly higher outer hair cell survival rate in the LLLT groups. Immunohistochemical analyses for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved caspase-3 were used to examine oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strong immunoreactivities were observed in the inner ear tissues of the non-treatment group, whereas these signals were decreased in the LLLT group at 165mW/cm(2) power density. Our findings suggest that LLLT has cytoprotective effects against NIHL via the inhibition of iNOS expression and apoptosis.

  18. Resveratrol attenuates ovariectomy-induced hypertension and bone loss in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, K; Ikeda, K; Kawai, Y; Yamori, Y

    2000-04-01

    We examined the effect of resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phenolic compound found in the skins of most grapes, on blood pressure and bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX), stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Nineteen-week-old female SHRSP were divided into a sham-ovariectomized (sham) group fed a control diet and two OVX groups fed either a control diet (OVX-Cont) or a diet supplemented with resveratrol (5 mg/kg per d; OVX-Resv). Ovariectomy induced significant increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Resveratrol lowered the SBP by 15%) by the third week of administration, and this effect was maintained throughout the study. Resveratrol treatment also significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) in OVX rats. Finally, femur breaking energies measured for the resveratrol-treated (OVX-Resv) group were significantly higher than those of the resveratrol-untreated (OVX-Cont) group. While no significant differences in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus content were found between the femurs of OVX-Cont and OVX-Resv rats, the femur hydroxyproline content in the OVX-Resv group was significantly higher than of the OVX-Cont group. We conclude that, in OVX-SHRSP, resveratrol acts by a similar mechanism to mammalian estrogens, lowering blood pressure by increasing dilatory responses to ACh. The present study also demonstrated that resveratrol was able to prevent ovariectomy-induced decreases in femoral bone strength.

  19. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver′s task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05. Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz. The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up

  20. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Nasiri, Saleh; Kazerooni, Farshid Khodaparast; Oliaei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver's task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC) in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS) was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05). Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB) in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz). The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up some interventions

  1. Correction of measured charged-particle spectra for energy losses in the target - A comparison of three methods

    CERN Document Server

    Soederberg, J; Alm-Carlsson, G; Olsson, N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental facility, MEDLEY, at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, has been constructed to measure neutron-induced charged-particle production cross-sections for (n, xp), (n, xd), (n, xt), (n, x sup 3 He) and (n, x alpha) reactions at neutron energies up to 100 MeV. Corrections for the energy loss of the charged particles in the target are needed in these measurements, as well as for loss of particles. Different approaches have been used in the literature to solve this problem. In this work, a stripping method is developed, which is compared with other methods developed by Rezentes et al. and Slypen et al. The results obtained using the three codes are similar and they could all be used for correction of experimental charged-particle spectra. Statistical fluctuations in the measured spectra cause problems independent of the applied technique, but the way to handle it differs in the three codes.

  2. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckl Heidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial

  3. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia induce synergistic alveolar bone loss in a mouse periodontitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settem, Rajendra P; El-Hassan, Ahmed Taher; Honma, Kiyonobu; Stafford, Graham P; Sharma, Ashu

    2012-07-01

    Tannerella forsythia is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to tooth loss. Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic pathogen, is thought to promote dental plaque formation by serving as a bridge bacterium between early- and late-colonizing species of the oral cavity. Previous studies have shown that F. nucleatum species synergize with T. forsythia during biofilm formation and pathogenesis. In the present study, we showed that coinfection of F. nucleatum and T. forsythia is more potent than infection with either species alone in inducing NF-κB activity and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in monocytic cells and primary murine macrophages. Moreover, in a murine model of periodontitis, mixed infection with the two species induces synergistic alveolar bone loss, characterized by bone loss which is greater than the additive alveolar bone losses induced by each species alone. Further, in comparison to the single-species infection, mixed infection caused significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingivae and osteoclastic activity in the jaw bones. These data show that F. nucleatum subspecies and T. forsythia synergistically stimulate the host immune response and induce alveolar bone loss in a murine experimental periodontitis model.

  4. Sleep Loss as a Factor to Induce Cellular and Molecular Inflammatory Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Castillo-García, Stephanie Ariadne; Hernández, María Eugenia; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Gómez-González, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis). Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013) on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss. PMID:24367384

  5. Enriched Environment-induced Maternal Weight Loss Reprograms Metabolic Gene Expression in Mouse Offspring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of weight loss is increasing, especially in young women. However, the extent and mechanisms by which maternal weight loss affects the offspring is still poorly understood. Here, using an enriched environment (EE)-induced weight loss model, we show that maternal weight loss improves general health and reprograms metabolic gene expression in mouse offspring, and the epigenetic alterations can be inherited for at least two generations. EE in mothers induced weight loss and its associated physiological and metabolic changes such as decreased adiposity and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Relative to controls, their offspring exhibited improved general health such as reduced fat accumulation, decreased plasma and hepatic lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Maternal weight loss altered gene expression patterns in the liver of offspring with coherent down-regulation of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Epigenomic profiling of offspring livers revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on maternal weight loss, including reproducible changes in promoter methylation over several key lipid biosynthesis genes, correlated with their expression patterns. Embryo transfer studies indicated that oocyte alteration in response to maternal metabolic conditions is a strong factor in determining metabolic and epigenetic changes in offspring. Several important lipid metabolism-related genes have been identified to partially inherit methylated alleles from oocytes. Our study reveals a molecular and mechanistic basis of how maternal lifestyle modification affects metabolic changes in the offspring. PMID:25555918

  6. Sleep Loss as a Factor to Induce Cellular and Molecular Inflammatory Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013 on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss.

  7. Excitatory Hindbrain-Forebrain Communication Is Required for Cisplatin-Induced Anorexia and Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Zheng, Huiyuan; Rinaman, Linda; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2017-01-11

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation. To test whether lPBN→CeA projection neurons are required for cisplatin-induced anorexia and weight loss, we inhibited these neurons chemogenetically using a retrograde Cre-recombinase-expressing canine adenovirus-2 in combination with Cre-dependent inhibitory Designer Receptors Exclusive Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) before cisplatin treatment. Inhibition of lPBN→CeA neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Using a similar approach, we additionally demonstrated that inhibition of NTS→lPBN neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Together, our data support the view that excitatory hindbrain-forebrain projections are necessary for cisplatin's untoward effects on energy intake, elucidating a key neuroanatomical circuit driving pathological anorexia and weight loss that accompanies chemotherapy treatment. Chemotherapy treatments are commonly used to treat cancers despite accompanying anorexia and weight loss that may limit treatment adherence and reduce patient quality of life. Strikingly, we lack a neural understanding of, and effective treatments for, chemotherapy-induced anorexia and weight loss. The current data

  8. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holis Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

  9. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pechac

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

  10. Study of a Modified AC Bridge Technique for Loss Angle Measurement of a Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Wheatstone’s bridge network like Schering Bridge, DeSauty Bridge etc measures the loss angle or tangent of loss angle (tanδ of a dielectric material. In high voltage application this loss angle is generally measured by high voltage Schering Bridge. But continuous measurement of tan δ is not possible by these techniques. In the present paper a modified operational amplifiers based Schering Bridge network has been proposed for continuous measurement of tanδ in the form of a bridge network output voltage. Mathematical analysis of the proposed bridge network has been discussed in the paper and experimental work has been performed assuming the lossy dielectric material as a series combination of loss less capacitor and a resistor. Experimental results are reported in the paper. From the mathematical analysis and experimental results it is found that the output of the proposed bridge network is almost linearly related with tanδ.

  11. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone

  12. Particle Shower Simulations and Loss Measurements in the LHC Magnet Interconnection Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Kurfuerst, C; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M

    2010-01-01

    Particle losses in the LHC arcs are mainly expected in the interconnection region between a dipole and quadrupole magnet. The maximal beam size, the maximal orbit excursion and aperture changes cause the enhancement of losses at this location. Extensive Geant4 simulations have been performed to characterise this particular region to establish beam abort settings for the beam loss monitors in these areas. Data from first LHC beam loss measurements have been used to check and determine the most likely proton impact locations. This input has been used to optimise the simulations used for the definition of thresholds settings. The accuracy of these settings is investigated by comparing the simulations with actual loss measurements.

  13. Measurement of the mechanical loss of a dielectric multilayer reflective coating at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Ishitsuka, H; Ito, K; Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Numata, K; Ohashi, M; Sato, N; Shintomi, T; Suzuki, T; Tomaru, T; Uchiyama, T; Waseda, K; Watanabe, K; Yamamoto, A; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Ito, Kazuhiko; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Miyoki, Shinji; Numata, Kenji; Ohashi, Masatake; Sato, Nobuaki; Shintomi, Takakazu; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Tomaru, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Waseda, Koichi; Watanabe, Koji; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the mechanical loss of a dielectric multilayer reflective coating (ion-beam sputtered SiO$_2$ and Ta$_2$O$_5$) in cooled mirrors. The loss was nearly independent of the temperature (4 K $\\sim$ 300 K), frequency, optical loss, and stress caused by the coating, and the details of the manufacturing processes. The loss angle was $(4 \\sim 6) \\times 10^{-4}$. The temperature independence of this loss implies that the amplitude of the coating thermal noise, which is a severe limit in any precise measurement, is proportional to the square root of the temperature. Sapphire mirrors at 20 K satisfy the requirement concerning the thermal noise of even future interferometric gravitational wave detector projects on the ground, for example, LCGT.

  14. Correlation of AC Loss Data from Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements with YBCO Film Quality (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0100 CORRELATION OF AC LOSS DATA FROM MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS WITH YBCO FILM QUALITY (POSTPRINT) Paul N...CORRELATION OF AC LOSS DATA FROM MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS WITH YBCO FILM QUALITY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT...spreading of the temperature-dependent ac susceptibility curves with increasing applied magnetic field, the quality of the YBCO film generally

  15. Nondestructive relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements using a split-cylinder resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janezic, Michael Daniel

    To keep pace with the expanding wireless and electronics industries, manufacturers are developing innovative materials for improving system performance, and there is a critical need to accurately characterize the electrical properties of these new materials at microwave frequencies. To address this need, this thesis develops a nondestructive method for measuring the relative permittivity and loss tangent of dielectric substrates using a split-cylinder resonator. Three theoretical models for the split-cylinder resonator are derived using mode-matching, least-squares boundary residual, and Hankel-transform methods, from which one can calculate the relative permittivity and loss tangent of a dielectric substrate from measurements of the split-cylinder resonator's TE0np resonant frequency and quality factor. Each of these models has several advantages over previously published models. First, the accuracy of the relative permittivity measurement is increased because each model accurately models the fringing fields that extend beyond the cylindrical-cavity sections. Second, to increase the accuracy of the loss tangent measurement, each model accurately separates the conductive metal losses of the split-cylinder resonator from the dielectric losses of the substrate. Finally, in contrast to previous models for the split-cylinder resonator that use only the TE011 resonant mode, each of the new models include the higher-order TE0np resonant modes, thereby broadening the frequency range over which one can make relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements. In a comparison of the three models, the mode-matching method was found to be superior on the basis of measurement accuracy and computational speed. Relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements for several dielectric materials are performed using a split-cylinder resonator and are in good agreement with measurements made using a circular-cylindrical cavity, split-post resonator, and dielectric post resonator

  16. Calorimetric Measuring Systems for Characterizing High Frequency Power Losses in Power Electronic Components and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen

    2002-01-01

    two different calorimetric measuring systems, one for power losses up to 50 W and one for power losses up to 1500 W. These differ in size and also the systems which can be analysed. The basic concept of calorimetry is discussed and the overall performance of the two systems is specified. Methods...... to calibrate such systems are proposed and different applications of the system are given. Two practical examples end the description of the research. It is concluded that such systems have a relative long time-constant but they are accurate and useful for precise power loss measurement....

  17. Detecting loss mechanisms of c-Si PV modules in-situ I-V measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siyu; Schneller, Eric; Walters, Joe; Davis, Kristopher O.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-09-01

    PV module reliability is alsways an important issue for PV industry. In an outdoor PV system, PV modules suffer from degradation due to different factors. It is then very important to determine the loss mechanisms of a PV module and making improvement based on this. It is found in this work that due to mismatch effect, using fitting method to extract I-V characteristics might not be well applied on a PV module, especially when it has non-uniform degradation problem. This work proposes a method to accurately quantify the power loss of PV modules due to different degradation mechanisms, including series resistance (Rs) loss, non-uniform shunting loss and number of shunted cells, uniform shunting loss, uniform current loss, non-uniform current (mismatch) loss, recombination current (J01 and J02) losses of a PV module. All required input information are the measured current-voltage (I-V) curves and short circuit current- open circuit voltage (Isc-Voc) of PV module initial state and final state. The method is first applied to a simulated PV module with various degradation problems. Power loss due to each loss mechanism for the simulated PV module is then extracted using the proposed method and a pie chart can be generated. Comparing with the actual power loss on each loss mechanism, the method proposed in this work is proved to be very accurate. The method is then further applied to a degradated PV module istalled in an outdoor PV system. The power loss on series resistance, shunting and current mismatch are effectively identified and the number of shunted cells is accurately calculated. In the real application, this method can be used in both indoor and outdoor characterization, which can be very beneficial for PV degradation analysis of PV modules and systems.

  18. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  19. Network Analysis Implicates Alpha-Synuclein (Snca) in the Regulation of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Gina; Mesner, Larry D.; Foley, Patricia L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The postmenopausal period in women is associated with decreased circulating estrogen levels, which accelerate bone loss and increase the risk of fracture. Here, we gained novel insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a model of human menopause, using co-expression network analysis. Specifically, we generated a co-expression network consisting of 53 gene modules using expression profiles from intact and OVX mice from a panel of inbred strains. The expression of four modules was altered by OVX, including module 23 whose expression was decreased by OVX across all strains. Module 23 was enriched for genes involved in the response to oxidative stress, a process known to be involved in OVX-induced bone loss. Additionally, module 23 homologs were co-expressed in human bone marrow. Alpha synuclein (Snca) was one of the most highly connected “hub” genes in module 23. We characterized mice deficient in Snca and observed a 40% reduction in OVX-induced bone loss. Furthermore, protection was associated with the altered expression of specific network modules, including module 23. In summary, the results of this study suggest that Snca regulates bone network homeostasis and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. PMID:27378017

  20. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP+-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B.

    2013-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which mimics Parkinson’s disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival. PMID:22750587

  1. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP⁺-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2012-08-21

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) which mimics Parkinson's disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival.

  2. PD-Detection vs. Loss Measurements at High Voltages with variable frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Edin, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Partial discharge-activity (PD) in internal voids in epoxy plastic was measured at AC voltages from below inception to 3 times inception with variable frequencies in the range 0.1 to 100Hz.The results from phase/height analyses were compared to dielec-tric loss measurements and related to the app......Partial discharge-activity (PD) in internal voids in epoxy plastic was measured at AC voltages from below inception to 3 times inception with variable frequencies in the range 0.1 to 100Hz.The results from phase/height analyses were compared to dielec-tric loss measurements and related...

  3. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  4. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception, which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Subjects were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 17) or LAGB (n = 10). The following have been evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli, sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences, sweetness palatability, eating behavior, and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (-12 ± 10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (-7 ± 5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (-22 ± 5%), influence of emotions (-27 ± 5%), and external food cues (-30 ± 4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P = 0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds nor MSG preferences. LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Noise induced hearing loss: Screening with pure-tone audiometry and speech-in-noise testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a highly prevalent public health problem, caused by exposure to loud noises both during leisure time, e.g. by listening to loud music, and during work. In the past years NIHL was the most commonly reported occupational disease in the Netherlands. Hearing damage

  6. Intrafamilial variable hearing loss in TRPV4 induced spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, A.M.M.; Ekker, M.S.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Kremer, H.; Schelhaas, J.J.; Pennings, R.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene (TRPV4) can induce a great diversity of neuropathies. Together with these neuropathies, hearing loss can occur. This study is focused on providing an audiometric phenotype description of a Dutch family with spinal muscular

  7. Prevention of adolescents' music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, van der C.P.B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular

  8. Radiation induced cell loss in rat submandibular gland and its relation to gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP

    Purpose: To understand early and late radiation-induced loss of function of the submandibular gland, changes in cell number were documented and correlated with data on gland function. Modulation of the radiation effect by sialogogues was used to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Materials

  9. School Nurses' Role in Identifying and Referring Children at Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Candace; Pakulski, Lori A.; Thompson, Amy; Dowling, Jamie; Price, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Young people are likely to experience noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as the use of personal listening devices and other damaging factors (e.g., video games) increases. Little research has examined the role of school health personnel in the prevention and early identification of hearing impairment. A 32-item, valid and reliable survey was…

  10. Intrafamilial variable hearing loss in TRPV4 induced spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, A.M.M.; Ekker, M.S.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Kremer, H.; Schelhaas, J.J.; Pennings, R.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene (TRPV4) can induce a great diversity of neuropathies. Together with these neuropathies, hearing loss can occur. This study is focused on providing an audiometric phenotype description of a Dutch family with spinal muscular atr

  11. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  12. Carbon-induced extreme ultraviolet reflectance loss characterized using visible-light ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; Wormeester, H.; Harmsen, R.; van de Kruijs, R.; Lee, C. J.; van Schaik, W.; F. Bijkerk,

    2011-01-01

    Carbon deposition on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics was observed due to photon-induced dissociation of hydrocarbons in a EUV lithography environment. The reflectance loss of the multilayer mirror is determined by the carbon layer thickness and density. To study the influence of various forms of ca

  13. Convective and Diffusive Energetic Particle Losses Induced by Shear Alfven Waves in the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Hicks, N.; van Voornveld, R.; Classen, I.G.J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Bruedgam, M.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Igochine, V.; Jaemsae, S.; Maraschek, M.; Sassenberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the first phase-space characterization of convective and diffusive energetic particle losses induced by shear Alfven waves in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. While single toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and Alfven cascades (AC) eject resonant fast ions in a convective process

  14. Radiation induced cell loss in rat submandibular gland and its relation to gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To understand early and late radiation-induced loss of function of the submandibular gland, changes in cell number were documented and correlated with data on gland function. Modulation of the radiation effect by sialogogues was used to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Materials a

  15. Tetrabromobisphenol-A induces apoptotic death of auditory cells and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Channy; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Won Kyo; Moon, Sung Kyun; Kwak, SeongAe; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2016-09-30

    Phenolic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and its derivatives are commonly used flame-retardants, in spite of reported toxic effects including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. However, the effects of TBBPA on ototoxicity have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of TBBPA on hearing function in vivo and in vitro. Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) threshold was markedly increased in mice after oral administration of TBBPA, indicating that TBBPA causes hearing loss. In addition, TBBPA induced the loss of both zebrafish neuromasts and hair cells in the rat cochlea in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, hearing loss is largely attributed to apoptotic cell death, as TBBPA increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes but decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic genes. We also found that TBBPA induced oxidative stress, and importantly, pretreatment with NAC, an anti-oxidant reagent, reduced TBBPA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and partially prevented cell death. Our results show that TBBPA-mediated ROS generation induces ototoxicity and hearing loss. These findings implicate TBBPA as a potential environmental ototoxin by exerting its hazardous effects on the auditory system.

  16. Prevention of Adolescents' Music-Induced Hearing Loss due to Discotheque Attendance: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Van der Ploeg, C. P. B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular leisure activities of young people. Only a few…

  17. Noise induced hearing loss: Screening with pure-tone audiometry and speech-in-noise testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a highly prevalent public health problem, caused by exposure to loud noises both during leisure time, e.g. by listening to loud music, and during work. In the past years NIHL was the most commonly reported occupational disease in the Netherlands. Hearing damage c

  18. Recovery of Olfactory Function Induces Neuroplasticity Effects in Patients with Smell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kollndorfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of brain function, especially reorganization after stroke or sensory loss, has been investigated extensively. Based upon its special characteristics, the olfactory system allows the investigation of functional networks in patients with smell loss, as it holds the unique ability to be activated by the sensorimotor act of sniffing, without the presentation of an odor. In the present study, subjects with chronic peripheral smell loss and healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare functional networks in one of the major olfactory areas before and after an olfactory training program. Data analysis revealed that olfactory training induced alterations in functional connectivity networks. Thus, olfactory training is capable of inducing neural reorganization processes. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the underlying neural mechanisms of olfactory training.

  19. Recovery of olfactory function induces neuroplasticity effects in patients with smell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Kowalczyk, Ksenia; Hoche, Elisabeth; Mueller, Christian A; Pollak, Michael; Trattnig, Siegfried; Schöpf, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The plasticity of brain function, especially reorganization after stroke or sensory loss, has been investigated extensively. Based upon its special characteristics, the olfactory system allows the investigation of functional networks in patients with smell loss, as it holds the unique ability to be activated by the sensorimotor act of sniffing, without the presentation of an odor. In the present study, subjects with chronic peripheral smell loss and healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare functional networks in one of the major olfactory areas before and after an olfactory training program. Data analysis revealed that olfactory training induced alterations in functional connectivity networks. Thus, olfactory training is capable of inducing neural reorganization processes. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the underlying neural mechanisms of olfactory training.

  20. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided.

  1. Measurement of Sorption-Induced Strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

    2005-05-01

    Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. and high-volatile bituminous coal from east-central Utah, U.S.A. using an apparatus developed jointly at the Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.) and Colorado School of Mines (Golden, Colorado, U.S.A.). The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain instead of the more common usage of strain gauges, which require larger samples and longer equilibration times. With this apparatus, we showed that the swelling and shrinkage processes were reversible and that accurate strain data could be obtained in a shortened amount of time. A suite of strain curves was generated for these coals using gases that included carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and various mixtures of these gases. A Langmuir-type equation was applied to satisfactorily model the strain data obtained for pure gases. The sorption-induced strain measured in the subbituminous coal was larger than the high-volatile bituminous coal for all gases tested over the range of pressures used in the experimentation, with the CO2-induced strain for the subbituminous coal over twice as great at the bituminous coal.

  2. Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eSanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (violet noises to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 inhibitors P17 and P144 on noise-induced hearing loss. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by violet swept-sine noise depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of noise-induced hearing loss, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

  3. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Wei, E-mail: weiming@xiyi.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Lu, Gan, E-mail: leonming99@163.com [Department of Gynecology of Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an, 710068 (China); Xin, Sha, E-mail: 248967979@qq.com [Institute of Orthopedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Huanyu, Lu, E-mail: 2366927258@qq.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Yinghao, Jiang, E-mail: jiangyh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Xiaoying, Lei, E-mail: leixiaoy@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Chengming, Xu, E-mail: chengmingxu@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Banjun, Ruan, E-mail: running@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wang, E-mail: wanglifw@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); and others

    2016-08-05

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  4. Apoptosis of Corneal Epithelial Cells Caused by Ultraviolet B-induced Loss of K(+) is Inhibited by Ba(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glupker, Courtney D; Boersma, Peter M; Schotanus, Mark P; Haarsma, Loren D; Ubels, John L

    2016-07-01

    UVB exposure at ambient outdoor levels triggers rapid K(+) loss and apoptosis in human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells cultured in medium containing 5.5 mM K(+), but considerably less apoptosis occurs when the medium contains the high K(+) concentration that is present in tears (25 mM). Since Ba(2+) blocks several K(+) channels, we tested whether Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels are responsible for some or all of the UVB-activated K(+) loss and subsequent activation of the caspase cascade and apoptosis. Corneal epithelial cells in culture were exposed to UVB at 80 or 150 mJ/cm(2). Patch-clamp recording was used to measure UVB-induced K(+) currents. Caspase-activity and TUNEL assays were performed on HCLE cells exposed to UVB followed by incubation in the presence or absence of Ba(2+). K(+) currents were activated in HCLE cells following UVB-exposure. These currents were reversibly blocked by 5 mM Ba(2+). When HCLE cells were incubated with 5 mM Ba(2+) after exposure to UVB, activation of caspases-9, -8, and -3 and DNA fragmentation were significantly decreased. The data confirm that UVB-induced K(+) current activation and loss of intracellular K(+) leads to activation of the caspase cascade and apoptosis. Extracellular Ba(2+) inhibits UVB-induced apoptosis by preventing loss of intracellular K(+) when K(+) channels are activated. Ba(2+) therefore has effects similar to elevated extracellular K(+) in protecting HCLE cells from UVB-induced apoptosis. This supports our overall hypothesis that elevated K(+) in tears contributes to protection of the corneal epithelium from adverse effects of ambient outdoor UVB.

  5. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength was measured in 20 healthy people at four knee joint angles (90°, 70°, 50°, 30°) before and after stretching. One leg received SS, the contralateral received CRS. Both stretching techniques resulted in significant strength loss, which was most apparent at short muscle lengths [SS: P = 0.025; stretching × angle P stretching × angle P stretch-induced strength loss was greater (P = 0.015) after CRS (11.7%) vs SS (3.7%). The muscle length effect on strength loss was not different between CRS and SS (stretching × angle × stretching technique P = 0.43). Contrary to the hypothesis, CRS did not result in a greater shift in the length-tension relationship, and in fact, resulted in greater overall strength loss compared with SS. These results support the use of SS for stretching the hamstrings.

  6. Comparison between measured and simulated beam loss patterns in the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Assmann, R W; Robert-Démolaize, G

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of an LHC collimator has been tested with proton beams at the CERN SPS. The interaction of the circulating proton beam with the carbon collimator jaws generated secondary proton beams that were lost in the downstream SPS aperture. The measured beam loss patterns are compared with the results of dedicated loss simulations. The simulation package includes (1) a 6D particle tracking through the SPS lattice; (2) the scattering interaction of protons with the collimator jaw material; (3) the timedependent displacement of the collimator jaws with respect to the beam orbit; (4) a detailed aperture model of the full SPS ring. It is shown that the simulation tools can reliably predict the measured location of losses. This provides an important assessment of the simulation tools in view of the beam loss studies for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  7. Use and abuse of the medical loss ratio to measure health plan performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the use and abuse of the medical loss ratio in the contemporary health care system and health policy debate. It begins with a survey of the ways in which the medical loss ratio has been interpreted to be something it is not, such as a measure of quality or efficiency. It then analyzes key organizational features of the emerging health care system that complicate measures of financial performance, including integration between payers and providers, diversification of payers across multiple products and distribution channels, and geographic expansion across metropolitan and state lines. These issues are illustrated using medical loss ratios from a range of nonprofit and for-profit health plans. The paper then sketches a strategy for improving the public's understanding of health plan performance as an alternative to continued reliance on the flawed medical loss ratio. This strategy incorporates data on structure and process, service quality, and financial performance.

  8. Correction for the diffraction loss in the ultrasonic attenuation measurement in VHF range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tingcun

    2002-01-01

    Two silicate glasses which have different acoustic properties and different thickness,were taken as the specimens, their frequency dependences of the longitudinal attenuation coef-ficients were measured in the frequency range of 50 to 300 MHz by the pulse reflection method,and the diffraction loss included in the measurement was corrected by theoretical calculationusing A. O. Williams' expression. It has been shown that the measurement error of attenuationcoefficient due to diffraction loss could be corrected very well by this method, regardless of thethickness of specimens.

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements on very low loss cross-linked polyethylene power cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Fothergill, John; Dodd, Steve; Nilsson, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    The principles of dielectric spectroscopy are reviewed and the techniques in both time and frequency domains are explored in search of appropriate methods for measurement on low loss XLPE cables. By combining the techniques of frequency response analyzer, transformer ratio bridge and discharging current measurements, some preliminary tests results on homopolymer XLPE model cables have been presented and analyzed, in a wide frequency range of 10-4Hz~2×104Hz. Dielectric loss mechanisms of XLPE cables are discussed based on the measurement results.

  10. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements on very low loss cross-linked polyethylene power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tong; Fothergill, John; Dodd, Steve [University of Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Nilsson, Ulf, E-mail: tl57@leicester.ac.u [Borealis AB, SE-444 86 Stenungsund (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    The principles of dielectric spectroscopy are reviewed and the techniques in both time and frequency domains are explored in search of appropriate methods for measurement on low loss XLPE cables. By combining the techniques of frequency response analyzer, transformer ratio bridge and discharging current measurements, some preliminary tests results on homopolymer XLPE model cables have been presented and analyzed, in a wide frequency range of 10{sup -4}Hz{approx}2x10{sup 4}Hz. Dielectric loss mechanisms of XLPE cables are discussed based on the measurement results.

  11. Precise Measurement of Losses in Piezoelectric Transducer and Its Application to Evaluation of Piezoelectric Transformer Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endow, Tsutomu; Hirose, Seiji; Kanno, Tomoyuki

    2004-05-01

    Mechanical and dielectric losses were measured by the measurement method proposed in this paper in a piezoelectric transducer with input and output terminals. These losses must be considered in designing piezoelectric transformers used as power sources. In the method proposed here, the losses can be obtained using the experimental results of resonance angular frequency, quality factor and the resistive component of input impedance when the output terminals are short-circuited and opened, and using the measured phase angle difference between current and voltage when the output terminals are opened. In the method, a resonance frequency tracking circuit is utilized. Hence, there is an advantage that the measurement can be performed easily and in a short time. The results obtained by this method have also been used in the evaluation of the efficiency of piezoelectric transformers.

  12. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Colorado U.

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  13. Measurement of gain and losses of a midinfrared quantum cascade laser by wavelength chirping spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, E.; Laurent, S.; Vasanelli, A.; Manquest, C.; Sirtori, C.; Teulon, F.; Carras, M.; Marcadet, X.

    2009-02-01

    We present an optimized technique for the measurement of gain and losses of semiconductor lasers. We optically inject the beam of a distributed feedback laser (DFB) inside the cavity of the lasers under study. The DFB laser operates in a pulsed mode and shifts its emission wavelength as a function of time. This frequency chirp creates the Fabry-Pérot fringes of the transmitted intensity that contains all the information on the cavity losses. The setup has been validated by a quantitative study of the losses as a function of the injected current, for a quantum cascade laser emitting at 7.6 μm.

  14. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  15. The bony Bankart lesion : how to measure the glenoid bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Summary An osseous Bankart lesion is commonly seen in patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation. It is defined as a detachment of the anteroinferior labrum associated with a glenoid rim fracture. Radiological studies are crucial not only for detecting glenoid bone defects but also for measuring the amount of bone loss. The precise quantification of the bony defect is crucial for the therapeutic desicion-making and clinical outcomes. Although we know that major glenoid bone loss requires ...

  16. Astaxanthin rescues neuron loss and attenuates oxidative stress induced by amygdala kindling in adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Xie, Tao; He, Xue-Xin; Mao, Zhuo-Feng; Jia, Li-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping; Zhen, Jun-Li; Liu, Liang-Min

    2015-06-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the neuronal damage induced by epilepsy. The present study assessed the possible neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin (ATX) on neuronal damage, in hippocampal CA3 neurons following amygdala kindling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically kindled in the amygdala and ATX or equal volume of vehicle was given by intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours after the last stimulation, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation. Histopathological changes and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured, cytosolic cytochrome c (CytC) and caspase-3 activities in the hippocampus were also recorded. We found extensive neuronal damage in the CA3 region in the kindling group, which was preceded by increases of ROS level and MDA concentration and was followed by caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic CytC. Treatment with ATX markedly attenuated the neuronal damage. In addition, ATX significantly decreased ROS and MDA concentrations and increased GSH levels. Moreover, ATX suppressed the translation of CytC release and caspase-3 activation in hippocampus. Together, these results suggest that ATX protects against neuronal loss due to epilepsy in the rat hippocampus by attenuating oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the mitochondrion-related apoptotic pathway.

  17. New, Coupling Loss Induced, Quench Protection System for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Giloux, C; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    Email Print Request Permissions Save to Project A new and promising method for the protection of superconducting high-field magnets is developed and tested on the so-called MQXC quadrupole magnet at the CERN magnet test facility. The method relies on a capacitive discharge system inducing, during a few periods, an oscillation of the transport current in the superconducting cable of the coil. The corresponding fast change of the local magnetic field introduces a high coupling-current loss, which, in turn, causes a fast quench of a large fraction of the coil due to enhanced temperature. Results of measured discharges at various levels of transport current are presented and compared to discharges by quenching the coils using conventional quench heaters and an energy extraction system. The hot-spot temperature in the quenching coil is deduced from the coil voltage and current. The results are compared to simulations carried out using a lumped-element dynamic electro-thermal model of the so-called MQX...

  18. Cadmium-induced bone loss: Increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sacco-Gibson, N.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone {sup 45}Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/L Cd in drinking water. The {sup 45}Ca response was greater in ovariecotomized (OV) animals than in sham-operated (SO) controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood Cd concentrations were 3--8 {mu}g/L during the earliest bone resorption response and 13--15 {mu}g/L at the end of the study. During 7 mo of Cd exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the OV animals exposed to Cd: {minus}15.4 {plus minus} 4.3% for the tibia distal end and {minus}7.2 {plus minus} 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean {plus minus} SE, n=4). Results indicate that Cd may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to Cd in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of Cd-induced bone loss. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ashwani; Leitzel, Kim; Ali, Suhail; Lipton, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Cancer treatment-induced bone loss treatment has an important role to prevent bone loss-related events like fracture, significant morbidity, mortality, disfigurement and loss of self-esteem, and health-care expenditure. Numerous factors, including treatment regimens and bone metastasis, increase the risk of osteoporosis or local bone destruction in most breast and prostate cancer patients. Cytotoxic chemotherapies, radiation, and hormonal therapies can lead to premature menopause and decrease bone mineral density. Over 60 % of breast cancer patients within 1 year of beginning postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy experience ovarian failure. Also, ovarian ablation and aromatase inhibitors used to treat breast cancer and orchiectomy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; to treat prostate cancer) cause substantial bone loss. In this article, we will focus mainly on antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). An understanding of CTIBL is critical for determining how to assess the risk and identify which patients may benefit from preventive therapy.

  20. Pharmacological agents used for treatment and prevention in noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Bercin, Sami

    2016-12-01

    Noise is a stress factor that causes auditory, psychological and physiological effects. The realization that sudden loud noises or chronic exposure to noise in social and working environments can cause hearing loss has led to increased interest in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The best means of preventing primary damage is protection against noise. Since this protection is not always possible for various reasons, the use of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat NIHL should also be considered. The purpose of this study is to discuss current pharmacological protection and treatment options in the light of the literature, since no such extensive reviews have been performed to date, including agents used for protection against and treatment of NIHL. We reviewed both animal and clinical studies, and these are discussed separately for ease of comprehension. For each agent, first animal studies, then clinical studies, if available, are discussed. We also performed a two-step search of the literature. In the first step, we searched the terms "noise induced hearing loss", "treatment" and "protection" in Pubmed. Based on the results obtained, we identified the agents used for the treatment of and protection against NIHL. In the second step, we searched the names of the agents identified in the first step, together with the term "noise induced hearing loss," and reviewed the results.

  1. The effects of luteolin on osteoclast differentiation, function in vitro and ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Jung, Ji Won; Ha, Byung Geun; Hong, Jung Min; Park, Eui Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of polyphenolic compounds abundant in plants, are known to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) animal models. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is considered as an effective therapeutic approach in the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss. Luteolin, a plant flavonoid, has potent anti-inflammatory properties both in vivo and vitro. In this study, we found that luteolin markedly decreased the differentiation of both bone marrow mononuclear cells and Raw264.7 cells into osteoclasts. Luteolin also inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. We further investigated the effects of luteolin on ovariectomy-induced bone loss using micro-computed tomography, biomechanical tests and serum markers assay for bone remodeling. Oral administration of luteolin (5 and 20 mg/kg per day) to OVX mice caused significant increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content of trabecular and cortical bones in the femur as compared to those of OVX controls, and prevented decreases of bone strength indexes induced by OVX surgery. Serum biochemical markers assays revealed that luteolin prevents OVX-induced increases in bone turnover. These data strongly suggest that luteolin has the potential for prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis by reducing both osteoclast differentiation and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss of TRF2 by radiation-induced apoptosis in HL60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ito, Megumi; Hara, Takamitsu; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    A telomere consists of the short tandem DNA repeats of (T2AG3)n localized to the distal ends of chromosomes. Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) has been implicated in the protection of chromosome ends. Recently, it has been reported that the loss of TRF2 induces apoptosis by various stimuli or genetic technique, however, the effects of radiation are not known. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction between TRF2 and radiation. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and a DNA fragmentation assay for the detection of apoptosis were performed. The interaction between elastase and TRF2 was also investigated in vitro. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry showed that {gamma}-rays induce the temporary accumulation and subsequent loss of TRF2 protein in the nuclei of irradiated HL60 cells. Following DNA fragmentation, the loss of TRF2 could be detected. TRF2 was broken down by elastase, which was translocated into the nucleus before the loss of TRF2. The results of the study showed that irradiation first induces activation of TRF2, consequently protecting the end of the chromosome. Subsequently, translocation of elastase into the nucleus results in the breakdown of TRF2 after DNA fragmentation has occurred. (author)

  3. Loss of Bace1 in mice does not alter the severity of caerulein induced pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Heindl

    Full Text Available Beta-site alpha-amyloid protein cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Additional to its moderate expression in the brain, high levels of BACE1 mRNA were found in the pancreas. Murine Bace1 has been immunohistochemicaly detected at the apical pole of acinar cells within the exocrine pancreas of mice and Bace1 activity was observed in pancreatic juice. In vitro experiments revealed enteropeptidase as a putative substrate for Bace1 suggesting a role in acute pancreatitis.The aim of this study was to address a protective mechanism of Bace1 in acute experimental pancreatitis in mice.Acute experimental pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein in homozygote Bace1-/- mice and wild type mice. Serum and tissue analyses were carried out after 4 h, 8 h and 24 h. Measurement of plasma amylase and lipase was performed to confirm pancreatitis induction. In order to assess the severity of pancreatitis H&E stained pancreatic sections were examined regarding edema, inflammation and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical detection of myeloperoxidase (MPO positive cells was carried out to further quantify the extent of inflammation. Expression of Bace2 within the pancreas was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR.We demonstrate that total loss of Bace1 in mice leads to no alterations in the course of acute experimental caerulein-pancreatitis. Bace1-/- mice develop a moderate pancreatitis that is comparable in histomorphological and serological features with those seen in wild type mice.We discuss the results in the context of the applied caerulein induced edematous pancreatitis model and possible compensatory mechanisms via Bace2 that might be responsible for the observed results.

  4. The influence of applied tensile stress on power loss in Co-rich amorphous Co-Fe-Si-B ribbons with induced magnetic anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Nielsen, K; Nielsen, Otto V

    1982-01-01

    The influence on power loss PTof applied tensile stress σ in amorphous (Co0.89Fe0.11)72Mo3Si15B10(lambda_{s} > 0) and Co73Mo2Si15B10(lambda_{s} <0) ribbons with different induced magnetic anisotropy Kuis reported. The losses are measured under sinusoidal flux conditions atf = 50Hz,J_{max} = 0.57T...

  5. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  6. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepponen Raimo E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA. Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel resonant circuit to produce a time-varying magnetic field. The Q of the resonator changes when the sample is placed in its coil. This is caused by induced eddy currents in the sample. The new idea in the BELA method is the altered spatial distribution of the electrical losses generated by these currents. The distribution of losses is varied using different excitation frequencies. The feasibility of the method was tested using simplified phantoms. Two of these phantoms were rough estimations of human torso. One had fat in the middle of its volume and saline solution in the outer shell volume. The other had reversed conductivity distributions. The phantoms were placed in the resonator and the change in the losses was measured. Five different excitation frequencies from 100 kHz to 200 kHz were used. Results The rate of loss as a function of frequency was observed to be approximately three times larger for a phantom with fat in the middle of its volume than for one with fat in its outer shell volume. Conclusions At higher frequencies the major signal contribution can be shifted toward outer shell volume. This enables probing the conductivity distribution of the subject by weighting outer structural components. The authors expect that the loss changing rate over frequency can be a potential index for body composition analysis.

  7. Tissue factor in antiphospholipid antibody-induced pregnancy loss:a pro-inflammatory molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, G.; MACKMAN, N.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal loss in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been ascribed to thrombosis of placental vessels. However, we have shown that inflammation, specifically complement activation with generation of the anaphylotoxin C5a, is an essential mediator of fetal injury. We have analysed the role of tissue factor (TF) in a mouse model of aPL-induced pregnancy loss. TF is the major cellular activator of the coagulation cascade but also has cell signaling activity. Mice that received aPL-I...

  8. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibition protects from noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMurillo-Cuesta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-ß as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss, we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-ß1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-ß1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-ß1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

  9. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Filippi, Veronique; Watts, Charlotte; Mbwambo, Jessie K K

    2012-03-05

    Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60) times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89) times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. © 2012 Stöckl et al

  10. Hippocampal adaptive response following extensive neuronal loss in an inducible transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Myczek

    Full Text Available Neuronal loss is a common component of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease and brain traumas (stroke, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. One brain region that commonly exhibits neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative disorders is the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for the formation and retrieval of memories. Long-lasting and sometimes unrecoverable deficits caused by neuronal loss present a unique challenge for clinicians and for researchers who attempt to model these traumas in animals. Can these deficits be recovered, and if so, is the brain capable of regeneration following neuronal loss? To address this significant question, we utilized the innovative CaM/Tet-DT(A mouse model that selectively induces neuronal ablation. We found that we are able to inflict a consistent and significant lesion to the hippocampus, resulting in hippocampally-dependent behavioral deficits and a long-lasting upregulation in neurogenesis, suggesting that this process might be a critical part of hippocampal recovery. In addition, we provide novel evidence of angiogenic and vasculature changes following hippocampal neuronal loss in CaM/Tet-DTA mice. We posit that angiogenesis may be an important factor that promotes neurogenic upregulation following hippocampal neuronal loss, and both factors, angiogenesis and neurogenesis, can contribute to the adaptive response of the brain for behavioral recovery.

  11. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  12. AC loss measurements in HTS coil assemblies with hybrid coil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Long, Nicholas J.; Staines, Mike; Badcock, Rodney A.; Bumby, Chris W.; Buckley, Robert G.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Both AC loss and wire cost in coil windings are critical factors for high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC machinery applications. We present AC loss measurement results in three HTS coil assemblies at 77 K and 65 K which have a hybrid coil structure comprising one central winding (CW) and two end windings (EWs) wound with ReBCO and BSCCO wires with different self-field I c values at 77 K. All AC loss results in the coil assemblies are hysteretic and the normalized AC losses in the coil assemblies at different temperatures can be scaled with the I c value of the coil assemblies. The normalised results show that AC loss in a coil assembly with BSCCO CW can be reduced by using EWs wound with high I c ReBCO wires, whilst further AC loss reduction can be achieved by replacing the BSCCO CW with ReBCO CW. The results imply that a flexible hybrid coil structure is possible which considers both AC loss and wire cost in coil assemblies.

  13. Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C.; Usanova, Maria E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Agapitov, Oleksiy V.; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.; Raita, Tero J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes. PMID:27678050

  14. Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri Y; Drozdov, Alexander Y; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C; Usanova, Maria E; Engebretson, Mark J; Agapitov, Oleksiy V; Zhelavskaya, Irina S; Raita, Tero J; Spence, Harlan E; Baker, Daniel N; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A

    2016-09-28

    The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes.

  15. Structure of the runaway electron loss during induced disruptions in TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrach, K.; Finken, K. H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Willi, O.; Zeng, L.; Xu, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The loss of runaway electrons during an induced disruption is recorded by a synchrotron imaging technique using a fast infrared CCD camera. The loss is predominantly diffuse. During the "spiky-loss phase", when the runaway beam moves close to the wall, a narrow channel between the runaway column and a scintillator probe is formed and lasts until the runaway beam is terminated. In some cases, the processed images show a stripe pattern at the plasma edge. A comparison between the MHD dominated disruptions and the MHD-free disruption is performed. A new mechanism of plasma disruptions with the runaway electron generation and a novel model which reproduces many characteristic features of the plasma beam evolution during a disruption is briefly described.

  16. Structure of the runaway electron loss during induced disruptions in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongrach, K.; Finken, K. H.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser- und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany); Abdullaev, S. S. [Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich 52428 (Germany); Zeng, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The loss of runaway electrons during an induced disruption is recorded by a synchrotron imaging technique using a fast infrared CCD camera. The loss is predominantly diffuse. During the “spiky-loss phase”, when the runaway beam moves close to the wall, a narrow channel between the runaway column and a scintillator probe is formed and lasts until the runaway beam is terminated. In some cases, the processed images show a stripe pattern at the plasma edge. A comparison between the MHD dominated disruptions and the MHD-free disruption is performed. A new mechanism of plasma disruptions with the runaway electron generation and a novel model which reproduces many characteristic features of the plasma beam evolution during a disruption is briefly described.

  17. Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C.; Usanova, Maria E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Agapitov, Oleksiy V.; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.; Raita, Tero J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A.

    2016-09-01

    The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes.

  18. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  19. Measurement and Calculation of Frictional Loss in Large Two-Stroke Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The total frictional loss in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is rather well determined. However, the contribution (size and distribution) from the different machine elements are not well known. The aim of this study is to establish methods to measure and calculate friction in the piston...... assembly and guide shoe system for a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. These components are the two major contributors to the total friction in a two-stroke marine diesel engine. The piston pack represents approximately 60% of the total mechanical loss at full load and the guide shoe system 23......%. The rest of the mechanical loss is situated in the piston rod 2%, piston skirt 3% and main bearings and connecting rod bearing 12%. Information about the friction distribution can be used in future design of these machine elements. Theoretical models for determination of frictional losses for both...

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss and symphony orchestra musicians: risk factors, effects, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teie, P U

    1998-01-01

    Although industrial and recreational noise have been recognized as potential causes of noise-induced hearing loss for quite some time, it is only recently that the sound levels within a symphony orchestra have been implicated as possible sources of harmful noise levels. Many studies have concluded that not only are dangerous levels of noise present within the symphony orchestra, but there is evidence of noise-induced hearing loss among symphony orchestra musicians. Although hearing protection designed for industrial use may not be appropriate for the special listening needs of professional musicians, recent advances in hearing protection design have made hearing protection practical for this population. Suggestions are made for monitoring and protecting the professional ear.

  1. Impact of Orlistat-Induced Weight Loss on Diastolic Function and Heart Rate Variability in Severely Obese Subjects with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the impact of Orlistat-induced weight loss on metabolic profile and cardiovascular function in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Twenty-nine patients were randomized either to a nonplacebo control group or to a treatment group with Orlistat thrice a day. Metabolic profile, anthropometric parameters, heart rate variability indices, and echocardiographic variables were measured before and after a 12-week treatment period. Results. Treatment with Orlistat induced a modest but significant weight loss compared to controls (3.7 ± 3.0 versus 0.5 ± 2.2 kg, resp.; P=.003. There was significant decrease in fasting glycemia (7.9 ± 3.0 versus 6.7 ± 2.2 mmol/L; P=.03 and significant improvements in left ventricular diastolic function (P=.03 and in the sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio (P=.04 in the Orlistat group. Conclusion. These results suggest that a modest weight loss improves fasting glycemia, left ventricular diastolic function, and sympathovagal balance in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. The electrical losses induced by silver paste in n-type silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takayuki; Aoki, Mari; Sumita, Isao; Yoshino, Yasushi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Ogura, Atsushi

    2017-10-01

    Aluminum-added silver paste (Ag/Al paste) has been used for p+ emitter of n-type solar cells. The electrical losses due to shunting and recombination caused by the paste in the cells have been reported to originate from huge metallic spikes due to the aluminum. However, whether the aluminum actually induces the losses has not been clarified yet. In this study, the “floating contact method” is applied to aluminum-free silver (Al-free Ag) paste to investigate the effects of aluminum extraction from the Ag/Al paste and to understand how the aluminum principally induces the losses for the p+ emitter. Furthermore, the interfacial morphology between the Al-free Ag paste and p-type silicon is investigated. The Ag paste itself creates tiny crystallites for the p+ emitter, resulting in shunting and recombination. The result indicates that the aluminum addition to Ag paste is not the main reason for the electrical losses in the n-type solar cells.

  3. Dexamethasone base conserves hearing from electrode trauma-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Richard J; Joseph, Debbie E; Angeli, Simon; He, Jiao; Chen, Shibing; Eshraghi, Adrien A; Balkany, Thomas J; Van de Water, Thomas R

    2008-11-01

    Local treatment of the cochlea after electrode insertion trauma with dexamethasone base conserves hearing against trauma-induced loss. Laboratory animal study. A guinea pig model of electron insertion trauma (EIT)-induced hearing loss (HL) used 44 guinea pigs sub-divided into four groups: 1) unoperated, controls (Controls, n = 44); 2) EIT, untreated (EIT, n = 15); 3) EIT plus artificial perilymph (EIT + AP, n = 15); and 4) EIT plus dexamethasone base (EIT + DXMb, n = 14). Cochleae that received EIT were randomly selected with contralateral, unoperated cochleae as internal controls. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in response to 0.5 to 16 kHz pure tones were obtained before surgery, immediately after surgery (0 day), and on post-EIT days 3, 7, 14, and 30. Hair cell counts were obtained from stained organ of Corti specimens from all four groups (n = 3/group). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference post hoc test with significance alpha set at hair cells). There were significant differences (0.05) in ABR thresholds in the EIT + DXMb versus control groups for 0.5 to 4 kHz tones. DXMb treatment protected hair cells from EIT-induced damage and loss while AP treatment did not. The absence of significant differences in hearing thresholds between the EIT + DXMb group and control ears in response to 0.5 to 4 kHz tones demonstrates that DXMb is as effective as the aqueous form of dexamethasone in conserving hearing against EIT-induced loss.

  4. Loss of Bmx Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Prevents Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Bmx non-receptor tyrosine kinase has an established role in endothelial and lymphocyte signaling, however its role in the heart is unknown. To determine whether Bmx participates in cardiac growth, we subjected mice deficient in the molecule (Bmx KO mice) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In comparison to WT mice, which progressively developed massive hypertrophy following TAC, Bmx KO mice were resistant to TAC-induced cardiac growth at the organ and cell level. Loss of Bmx preserved ca...

  5. Bone loss in adult offspring induced by low-dose exposure to teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchinsky, Arkady; Mizrahi, Limor; Savion, Shoshana; Shahar, Ron; Toder, Vladimir; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2012-05-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy was shown by numerous studies to result in the birth of offspring exhibiting altered bone characteristics, which are indicative of bone loss. We hypothesized that not only maternal malnutrition but also some developmental toxicants (teratogens) given at a dose inducing neither structural anomalies nor growth retardation can detrimentally affect skeletal health in adult offspring. To check this hypothesis, pregnant mice were exposed to a single injection of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) (a teratogen capable of inducing phocomelia of the hind limbs) at a sub-threshold teratogenic dose. Micro-computed tomography scanning revealed that femora of 5-month-old male offspring exposed in uterus to 5-AZA had trabecular microarchitecture indicative of bone loss. Furthermore, exposure to 5-AZA increased the susceptibility of offspring to postnatal chronic mild stress, which has been shown to induce bone loss in mice. While exploring possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we observed that the expression of some microRNAs, which have been demonstrated as regulators of key osteoblastogenic genes, was altered in hind limb buds of embryos exposed to 5-AZA. Furthermore, the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in femoral stromal/osteoblastic cells of 5-month-old offspring of 5-AZA-treated females was found to be increased. Collectively, this study implies for the first time that single low-dose exposure to a teratogen can induce bone loss in adult offspring, possibly via alteration of embryonic microRNAs and RANKL expression.

  6. Ozone loss derived from balloon-borne tracer measurements in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne measurements of CFC11 (from the DIRAC in situ gas chromatograph and the DESCARTES grab sampler, ClO and O3 were made during the 1999/2000 Arctic winter as part of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 campaign, based in Kiruna (Sweden. Here we present the CFC11 data from nine flights and compare them first with data from other instruments which flew during the campaign and then with the vertical distributions calculated by the SLIMCAT 3D CTM. We calculate ozone loss inside the Arctic vortex between late January and early March using the relation between CFC11 and O3 measured on the flights. The peak ozone loss (~1200ppbv occurs in the 440-470K region in early March in reasonable agreement with other published empirical estimates. There is also a good agreement between ozone losses derived from three balloon tracer data sets used here. The magnitude and vertical distribution of the loss derived from the measurements is in good agreement with the loss calculated from SLIMCAT over Kiruna for the same days.

  7. Ozone loss derived from balloon-borne tracer measurements and the SLIMCAT CTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Robinson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne measurements of CFC-11 (on flights of the DIRAC in situ gas chromatograph and the DESCARTES grab sampler, ClO and O3 were made during the 1999/2000 winter as part of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 campaign. Here we present the CFC-11 data from nine flights and compare them first with data from other instruments which flew during the campaign and then with the vertical distributions calculated by the SLIMCAT 3-D CTM. We calculate ozone loss inside the Arctic vortex between late January and early March using the relation between CFC-11 and O3 measured on the flights, the peak ozone loss (1200 ppbv occurs in the 440–470 K region in early March in reasonable agreement with other published empirical estimates. There is also a good agreement between ozone losses derived from three independent balloon tracer data sets used here. The magnitude and vertical distribution of the loss derived from the measurements is in good agreement with the loss calculated from SLIMCAT over Kiruna for the same days.

  8. Photobiomodulation rescues the cochlea from noise-induced hearing loss via upregulating nuclear factor κB expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Tamura, Risa; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a noninvasive treatment that can be neuroprotective, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the mechanism of PBM as a novel treatment for noise-induced hearing loss, focusing on the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1-octave band noise centered at 4kHz for 5h (121dB). After noise exposure, their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser beam at an output power density of 165mW/cm(2) for 30min a day for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with PBM compared with the non-treatment group at 4, 7, and 14 days after noise exposure. Immunofluorescent image analysis for inducible nitric oxide synthase and cleaved caspase-3 showed lesser immunoreactivities in outer hair cells in the PBM group compared with the non-treatment group. However, immunofluorescent image analysis for NF-κB, an upstream protein of inducible nitric oxide synthase, revealed greater activation in the PBM group compared with the naïve and non-treatment groups. Western blot analysis for NF-κB also showed stronger activation in the cochlear tissues in the PBM group compared with the naïve and non-treatment groups (p<0.01, each). These data suggest that PBM activates NF-κB to induce protection against inducible nitric oxide synthase-triggered oxidative stress and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis that occur following noise-induced hearing loss.

  9. Path loss modelling and comparison based on the radio propagation measurement at 3.5GHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Li Yingzhe; Chang Ruoting; Sun Kun; Xu Hui

    2009-01-01

    Wideband IMT-Advanced mobile communication systems tend to operate in the high frequency bands due to a relatively large capacity available. Thus, Measurement and modelling methods of radio propagation characteristics are proposed for the field test of Chinese 4th generation (4G) trial system. The measurement system is established for 3.5GHz based on the sophisticated measurement instruments and the virtual instrument technology. The characteristic parameters of radio propagation such as path loss (PL) exponent and shadow fading standard deviation are extracted from measurement data, which result in the path loss model finally. The comparisons with other existing international models results validate our measurement in terms of path loss model. Based on the analysis of the existing extension model assumed for the microwave frequency at 3.5GHz, we find that the Stanford University Interim (SUI) model fits very well with the measurement result in the hotspot scenario, while the COST 231 model is closer to the measurement result in the suburban scenario. This result provides a measurement-based channel reference for the development of the future IMT-Advanced systems in China.

  10. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  11. Measured and calculated transmission losses of sound waves through a helium layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment was performed to measure the transmission losses of sound waves traversing an impedance layer. The sound emanated from a point source and the impedance layer was created by a low-speed helium jet. The transmission losses measured were of the order of 12 db for frequencies of the source between 4 and 12 kHz. These losses are greater than those predicted from analysis when the observer angle is less than about 35 deg, but less than those predicted for larger observer angles. The experimental results indicate that appreciable noise reductions can be realized for an observer shielded by an impedance layer, irrespective of his position relative to the source of sound.

  12. Irritancy of low concentrations of soap and synthetic detergents as measured by skin water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, J H; Nater, J P; Bleumink, E

    1982-05-01

    The irritancy of low concentrations of commercially available soaps and detergents (surfactants) in bar form was determined by means of measurements of water loss of the skin. The percentage of increase of vapor (water) loss after application of the soap solutions was taken as a measure of skin irritancy. The tests were performed in 19 human volunteers with 1% solutions of Sporex, Devela, Lux, Lactacyd and Aveenoderm. Devela and Lactacyd were found to provoke marked effects, Lux was less harmful whereas Sporex and Aveenoderm did not lead to a considerable increase of skin vapor loss. Longitudinal studies showed that the irritant properties of soap solutions are additive. The results suggest that the influences of the pH of a soap solution on the skin-damaging effort is less important than assumed thus far.

  13. High-frequency audiometry: a means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Amir H; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed J; Ghoreyshi, Abbas; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Loukzadeh, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence of hearing loss in conventional and high frequencies of audiometry among textile workers divided into two groups: With and without exposure to noise more than 85 dB. The highest hearing threshold was observed at 4000 Hz, 6000 Hz and 16000 Hz in conventional right ear audiometry, conventional left ear audiometry and HFA in each ear, respectively. The hearing threshold was significantly higher at 16000 Hz compared to 4000. Hearing loss was more common in HFA than conventional audiometry. HFA is more sensitive to detect NIHL than conventional audiometry. It can be useful for early diagnosis of hearing sensitivity to noise, and thus preventing hearing loss in lower frequencies especially speech frequencies.

  14. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  15. Word-Induced Measures on Compact Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Gene S

    2011-01-01

    Consider a group word w in n letters. For a compact group G, w induces a map G^n \\rightarrow G$ and thus a pushforward measure {\\mu}_w on G from the Haar measure on G^n. We associate to each word w a 2-dimensional cell complex X(w) and prove in Theorem 2.5 that {\\mu}_w is determined by the topology of X(w). The proof makes use of non-abelian cohomology and Nielsen's classification of automorphisms of free groups [Nie24]. Focusing on the case when X(w) is a surface, we rediscover representation-theoretic formulas for {\\mu}_w that were derived by Witten in the context of quantum gauge theory [Wit91]. These formulas generalize a result of Erd\\H{o}s and Tur\\'an on the probability that two random elements of a finite group commute [ET68]. As another corollary, we give an elementary proof that the dimension of an irreducible complex representation of a finite group divides the order of the group; the only ingredients are Schur's lemma, basic counting, and a divisibility argument.

  16. Intracochlear perfusion of leupeptin and z-VAD-FMK: influence of antiapoptotic agents on gunshot-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaamrane, Loubna; Raffin, Florent; Schmerber, Sébastien; Sendowski, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of cochlear infusion of two anti-apoptotic substances: a potent calpain inhibitor, leupeptin and a caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK was evaluated in guinea pigs after a gunshot noise-induced trauma (170 dB SPL). A preliminary study showed that hair cell apoptosis appeared within 7 days of the noise trauma. For each animal, one of the cochleae was perfused directly starting 1 h after the trauma with leupeptin or z-VAD-FMK for 7 days via a mini-osmotic pump whereas the other cochlea was untreated. ABR threshold shifts were measured over a 14-day recovery period. The functional hearing study was supplemented by histological analysis. Two days after the trauma significant differences were observed between threshold shifts in the z-VAD-FMK-treated and the non-treated ears. Cochleograms showed that hair cell losses were significantly lower in z-VAD-FMK-treated ears. Regarding the leupeptin treatment, no significant difference between treated and non-treated ears was observed. This work indicates that early direct infusion of z-VAD-FMK into the cochlea accelerates hearing recovery and reduces hair cell loss after gunshot noise-induced trauma. These results suggest that the gunshot noise-induced trauma may involve the caspase pathway rather than the calpain pathway in the apoptotic process.

  17. Magnetic configuration effects on TAE-induced losses and a comparison with the orbit-following model in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K. [Nagoya University, Japan; Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Toi, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan

    2012-01-01

    Fast-ion losses from Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas due to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) were measured by a scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) to understand the loss processes. TAE-induced losses measured by the SLIP appeared in energy E ranges of around 50-180 keV with pitch angles. between 35 degrees-45 degrees, and increased with the increase in TAE amplitudes. Position shifts of the magnetic axis due to a finite plasma pressure led not only to an increase in TAE-induced losses but also to a stronger scaling of fast-ion losses on TAE amplitudes. Characteristics of the observed fast-ion losses were compared with a numerical simulation based on orbit-following models in which the TAE fluctuations are taken into account. The calculation indicated that the number of lost fast ions reaching the SLIP increased with the increase in the TAE amplitude at the TAE gap. Moreover, the calculated dependence of fast-ion loss fluxes on the fluctuation amplitude became stronger in the case of large magnetic axis shifts, compared with the case of smaller shifts, as was observed in the experiments. The simulation results agreed qualitatively with the experimental observations in the LHD.

  18. Measuring Migratory Grief and Loss Associated with the Experience of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Harrington, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Migratory Grief and Loss Questionnaire (MGLQ) was designed to measure the grief experience associated with immigration. This article reports the development and psychometric properties of a Chinese-version of MGLQ. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with varimax rotation was conducted…

  19. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  20. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  1. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M; Rees, J.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called "cavity radiation". The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  2. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M.; Rees, John R.; /SLAC

    2005-08-08

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called ''cavity radiation''. The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  3. Measured Mass Loss Rates of Solar-like Stars as a Function of Age and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, B E; Zank, G P; Linsky, J L; Wood, Brian E.; Mueller, Hans-Reinhard; Zank, Gary P.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Collisions between the winds of solar-like stars and the local ISM result in a population of hot hydrogen gas surrounding these stars. Absorption from this hot H I can be detected in high resolution Lyman-alpha spectra of these stars from the Hubble Space Telescope. The amount of absorption can be used as a diagnostic for the stellar mass loss rate. We present new mass loss rate measurements derived in this fashion for four stars (Epsilon Eri, 61 Cyg A, 36 Oph AB, and 40 Eri A). Combining these measurements with others, we study how mass loss varies with stellar activity. We find that for the solar-like GK dwarfs, the mass loss per unit surface area is correlated with X-ray surface flux. Fitting a power law to this relation yields Mdot ~ Fx^(1.15+/-0.20). The active M dwarf Proxima Cen and the very active RS CVn system Lambda And appear to be inconsistent with this relation. Since activity is known to decrease with age, the above power law relation for solar-like stars suggests that mass loss decreases with t...

  4. Measurements of the transverse resistance and eddy current losses in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Il'in, A. A.; Naumov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shutov, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of plasma current interruption in tokamaks, the conductor of toroidial field (TF) coils experiences the action of a pulsed decreasing magnetic field (PDMF) parallel to the conductor's axis. To estimate the stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor against the PDMF, a new experimental method to study different types of losses is applied. This method exploits a high sensitivity of temperature and gas pressure to input energy in a closed volume. It allows one to measure hysteresis losses with a rather high accuracy (provided that the rate of change of the PDMF is low) and a sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses (when the rate of change of the PDMF is high). An experimental setup to measure the transverse (circumferential) resistance and losses has been developed at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. A Russianmade Nb3Sn conductor intended for the TF coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is subjected to a PDMF with different amplitudes and characteristic times. The electromagnetic time constant and the transverse resistivity of the conductor are experimentally determined. The maximum temperature of strands under the action of the PDMF is calculated.

  5. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  6. Sex differences in severity of inflammation-induced anorexia and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennie, Terry A

    2004-04-01

    Food intake and body weight changes in response to induction of acute inflammation were examined in intact cycling females, ovariectomized females, and sham-operated male rats. In intact females, body weight and feeding responses were compared between rats in which inflammation was induced on day of estrus with rats in which inflammation was induced on day of diestrus. Anorexia and weight loss were more severe in the female rats with inflammation induced on estrus day, which coincides with peak serum estrogen levels. In ovariectomized females, inflammation was induced the day after rats received injections of estrogen, progesterone, or sesame oil (vehicle). Males received vehicle injections. Among female rats, the group that received estradiol injections the previous day displayed the most severe anorexia. The least severe anorexia was observed in female rats that received progesterone the previous day. Food intake of female rats that received vehicle injections prior to induction of inflammation was greater than the rats receiving estrogen but less than the rats receiving progesterone. Male rats displayed the most severe anorexia and greatest weight loss. These data suggest that, although females exposed to estradiol prior to induction of acute inflammation display more severe anorexia than those exposed to progesterone, it may be that progesterone attenuates severity of anorexia rather than estrogen solely potentiating severity. Male rats, however, appear to experience the most severe anorexia in response to this form of inflammation.

  7. Genome-wide screening for genetic loci associated with noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cory H; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Sheth, Sonal; Zebboudj, Amina F; McHugh, Richard K; Hoffman, Larry F; Lusis, Aldons J; Davis, Richard C; Friedman, Rick A

    2009-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the more common sources of environmentally induced hearing loss in adults. In a mouse model, Castaneous (CAST/Ei) is an inbred strain that is resistant to NIHL, while the C57BL/6J strain is susceptible. We have used the genome-tagged mice (GTM) library of congenic strains, carrying defined segments of the CAST/Ei genome introgressed onto the C57BL/6J background, to search for loci modifying the noise-induced damage seen in the C57BL/6J strain. NIHL was induced by exposing 6-8-week old mice to 108 dB SPL intensity noise. We tested the hearing of each mouse strain up to 23 days after noise exposure using auditory brainstem response (ABR). This study identifies a number of genetic loci that modify the initial response to damaging noise, as well as long-term recovery. The data suggest that multiple alleles within the CAST/Ei genome modify the pathogenesis of NIHL and that screening congenic libraries for loci that underlie traits of interest can be easily carried out in a high-throughput fashion.

  8. Relationship between internalization and calcitonin-induced receptor loss in T 47D cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, D.M.; Martin, T.J.

    1984-07-01

    Exposure of T 47D human breast cancer cells to salmon calcitonin (sCT) resulted in a reduction of binding capacity for (/sup 125/I)iodo-sCT in washed cells. The reduction was both time and concentration dependent. Recovery of binding capacity in CT-pretreated T 47D cells occurred in the absence of CT, but was prevented by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Studies were carried out to determine the mechanism of CT-induced reduction of binding capacity. It was found that at 37/sup 0/ C sCT induced a time-dependent loss of cell surface receptors, so that initially the lost binding capacity was largely reclaimable by acid treatment, whereas after longer exposure to sCT, acid treatment was much less effective in regenerating binding capacity. The CT-induced reduction in binding capacity was not observed when cells were pretreated with sCT at 4 C or in the presence of inhibitors of cellular metabolic energy. These results are consistent with the view that initially CT-induced loss of CT receptors in T 47D cells is primarily due to occupancy of cell-surface receptors and later to a reduction in the concentration of cell-surface receptors mediated by an energy requiring internalization process involving the CT-receptor complex; reappearance of receptors requires new protein synthesis.

  9. Measurements of Building Transmission Loss and Delay Spread at 2.5 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Gonsioroski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of signal transmission loss at 2.5 GHz through 10 urban buildings. This allows the characterization of different types of buildings by effective attenuation constants and consideration of the contribution of the transmitted signal in microcell coverage predictions. Power delay profiles (PDPs of the received signal were also measured and used to determine the time dispersion parameters of the channel, including the mean excess delay and the rms delay spread.

  10. Evolution of color vision loss induced by occupational exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Cavalleri, A

    2000-10-01

    The evolution of occupationally induced color vision loss was studied in workers exposed to various chemicals. Exposure was evaluated by biological monitoring or personal air samplers, and color vision using the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15 d). The effect of short-term interruption of exposure was studied in 39 Styrene (St) exposed workers: at a first examination a dose-related color vision loss was disclosed; a re-test performed after one month's interruption of exposure did not show any improvement of the effect. The evolution during longer periods was studied in another group of 30 St workers. Exposure and color vision were evaluated, then a follow-up was done 12 months later: the exposure was unmodified or slightly decreased in 20 subjects, and D-15 d outcomes remained unchanged, while St levels had increased and color vision loss progressed in the other 10. Similar results were obtained in 33 PCE exposed dry-cleaners: no change in color perception was observed in 14 workers whose exposure decreased, while in the other 19 a rise in PCE levels was followed by a significant color vision worsening. In 21 Hg exposed workers whose mean urinary excretion of Hg was threefold the BEI proposed by ACGIH, a dose-related impairment in color perception was observed. 12 months after a marked reduction of exposure, an almost complete recovery of the impairment was observed. Our data show that an increase in exposure can induce a worsening in color vision loss. A short interruption in exposure did not reduce the effect. A more prolonged reduction of dose reversed color vision loss in Hg exposed workers, while in solvent-exposed individuals the progression deserves further evaluation. D-15 d proved a useful test for studies on the evolution of color perception in workers exposed to eye-toxic chemicals.

  11. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Mila F M; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Werneck, Silvia M C; Corrêa, Jôice D; Soriani, Frederico M; Garlet, Gustavo P; Souza, Daniele G; Teixeira, Mauro M; Silva, Tarcilia A; Perretti, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a result of an aggressive form of periodontal disease (PD) associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) infection. PD is often observed with other systemic inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. Melanocortin peptides activate specific receptors to exert antiarthritic properties, avoiding excessing inflammation and modulating macrophage function. Recent work has indicated that melanocortin can control osteoclast development and function, but whether such protection takes place in infection-induced alveolar bone loss has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of melanocortin in Aa-induced PD. Mice were orally infected with Aa and treated with the melanocortin analog DTrp(8)-γMSH or vehicle daily for 30 d. Then, periodontal tissue was collected and analyzed. Aa-infected mice treated with DTrp(8)-γMSH presented decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower degree of neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium than vehicle-treated animals; these actions were associated with reduced periodontal levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A. In vitro experiments with cells differentiated into osteoclasts showed that osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were attenuated after treatment with DTrp(8)-γMSH. Thus, melanocortin agonism could represent an innovative way to tame overexuberant inflammation and, at the same time, preserve bone physiology, as seen after Aa infection.-Madeira, M. F. M., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Montero-Melendez, T., Werneck, S. M. C., Corrêa, J. D., Soriani, F. M., Garlet, G. P., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Silva, T. A., Perretti, M. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection. © FASEB.

  12. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.5±3.7years) and 9 old (76.1±5.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40° joint excursion (40°PF-0°PF) at angular velocities of 15°/s and 120°/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15°/s and 120°/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15°/s and 120°/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD

  13. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) in saw mill and printing press workers in Akluj Town of Solapur district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Amar M; Pawar, Chandrasekhar B; Patil, Dhanraj A; Pawar, Janardan A

    2009-07-01

    Noise pollution and allied health problems are seen at all ages worldwide. This is due to increase in mechanization in industries, transportation as well as home appliances produce high level of noise. Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is common health complaint found in industrial workers. The present research work reveals the NIHL problem in workers related to saw mill and printing press in Akluj town, Solapur district of Maharashatra state. For the present study measurement of noise levels are done in saw mills and printing presses. The standard noise level value is calculated in respective locations. Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) among the workers is measured by an Audiometer. 420 workers, viz. 250 from ten saw mills and 170 from ten printing presses respectively were investigated to find out NIHL. The average noise levels in printing press and saw mill are 90.2 dB and 79.3 dB respectively. Whereas standard noise level (Leq) in above locations are 101.4 dB and 98.7 dB respectively. The average NIHL are found in 28% saw mill workers and 13% in printing press workers. It is reported that medicine treatments are not very useful for curing NIHL. Today's available tool which prevents NIHL is ear plugs and ear muffs, which are suitable for preventing NIHL problems in industrial workers.

  14. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from Ground-based total column measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuttippurath

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The passive ozone method is used to estimate ozone loss from ground-based measurements in the Antarctic. A sensitivity study shows that the O3 loss can be estimated within an accuracy of ~4%. The method is then applied to the observations from Amundsen-Scott/South Pole, Arrival Heights, Belgrano, Concordia, Dumont d'Urville, Faraday, Halley, Marambio, Neumayer, Rothera, Syowa and Zhongshan for the diagnosis of ozone loss in the Antarctic. On average, the five-day running mean of the vortex averaged ozone column loss deduced from the ground-based stations shows about 53% in 2009, 59% in 2008, 55% in 2007, 56% in 2006 and 61% in 2005. The observed O3 loss and loss rates are in very good agreement with the satellite observations (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Sciamachy and are well reproduced by the model (Reprobus and SLIMCAT calculations.

    The historical ground-based total ozone measurements show that the depletion started in the late 1970s, reached a maximum in the early 1990s, stabilising afterwards at this level until present, with the exception of 2002, the year of an early vortex break-up. There is no indication of significant recovery yet.

    At southern mid-latitudes, a total ozone reduction of 40–50% is observed at the newly installed station Rio Gallegos and 25–35% at Kerguelen in October–November of 2008–2009 and 2005–2009 (except 2008 respectively, and of 10–20% at Macquarie Island in July–August of 2006–2009. This illustrates the significance of measurements at the edges of Antarctica.

  15. Electromagnetic losses in a three-phase high temperature superconducting cable determined by calorimetric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeholt, C.; Veje, E.; Tønnesen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A 10 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable conductor was placed in a plane three-phase arrangement. The test-bed enabled us to study the conductor losses for different separations between the phases. The superconductor was fixed symmetrically in the centre, whilst the two outer conv...... a calorimetric technique where the temperature increase in the flowing LN2 was measured with a set of thermo-couples. Results indicate that the total AC loss increases significantly when the separation between the conductors is reduced....

  16. Electromagnetic losses in a three-phase high temperature superconducting cable determined by calorimetric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeholt, C.; Veje, E.; Tønnesen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A 10 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable conductor was placed in a plane three-phase arrangement. The test-bed enabled us to study the conductor losses for different separations between the phases. The superconductor was fixed symmetrically in the centre, whilst the two outer conv...... a calorimetric technique where the temperature increase in the flowing LN2 was measured with a set of thermo-couples. Results indicate that the total AC loss increases significantly when the separation between the conductors is reduced....

  17. Simulation and Measurements of Beam Losses on LHC Collimators During Beam Abort Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bruce, R; Goddard, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Faus-Golfe, A

    2013-01-01

    One of the main purposes of tracking simulations for collimation studies is to produce loss maps along the LHC ring, in order to identify the level of local beam losses during nominal and abnormal operation scenarios. The SixTrack program is the standard tracking tool used at CERN to perform these studies. Recently, it was expanded in order to evaluate the proton load on different collimators in case of fast beam failures. Simulations are compared with beam measurements at 4 TeV. Combined failures are assumed which provide worst-case scenarios of the load on tungsten tertiary collimators.

  18. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Esmaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configurationof bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis,treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosiscan be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedureswill be possible.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirectdigital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topographyof interproximal bony defects.Patients and Methods: Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibularand maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique.The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement”software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD, alveolar crest(AC and cementoenamel junction (CEJ were determined using a software. Subsequentto radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulouslyduring flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontalprobe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlationbetween these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.Results: The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depthdetermination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect widthwere 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively.Conclusions: Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseousdefects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects.

  19. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeli, Farzad; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzie, Masoumeh; Abolfazli, Nader; Rasouli, Hossein; Fallahi, Saied

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configuration of bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis, treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosis can be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedures will be possible. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topography of interproximal bony defects. Patients and Methods Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibular and maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique. The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement” software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD), alveolar crest (AC) and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were determined using a software. Subsequent to radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulously during flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontal probe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlation between these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depth determination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect width were 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseous defects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects. PMID:23329969

  20. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2017-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated mRNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in the liver, caused liver steatosis, affected liver function markers, increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared to controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  1. Evidence of regional subsidence and associated interior wetland loss induced by hydrocarbon production, Gulf Coast region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Barras, John A.

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of remote images, elevation surveys, stratigraphic cross-sections, and hydrocarbon production data demonstrates that extensive areas of wetland loss in the northern Gulf Coast region of the United States were associated with large-volume fluid production from mature petroleum fields. Interior wetland losses at many sites in coastal Louisiana and Texas are attributed largely to accelerated land subsidence and fault reactivation induced by decreased reservoir pressures as a result of rapid or prolonged extraction of gas, oil, and associated brines. Evidence that moderately-deep hydrocarbon production has induced land-surface subsidence and reactivated faults that intersect the surface include: (1) close temporal and spatial correlation of fluid production with surficial changes including rapid subsidence of wetland sediments near producing fields, (2) measurable offsets of shallow strata across the zones of wetland loss, (3) large reductions in subsurface pressures where subsidence rates are high, (4) coincidence of orientation and direction of displacement between surface fault traces and faults that bound the reservoirs, and (5) accelerated subsidence rates near producing fields compared to subsidence rates in surrounding areas or compared to geological rates of subsidence. Based on historical trends, subsidence rates in the Gulf Coast region near producing fields most likely will decrease in the future because most petroleum fields are nearly depleted. Alternatively, continued extraction of conventional energy resources as well as potential production of alternative energy resources (geopressured-geothermal fluids) in the Gulf Coast region could increase subsidence and land losses and also contribute to inundation of areas of higher elevation.

  2. Increased osteoblastogenesis and decreased bone resorption protect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in thrombospondin-2-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, K D; James, I E; Apone, S; Stroup, G B; Blake, S M; Liang, X; Lark, M W; Bornstein, P

    2005-08-01

    Although bone is composed primarily of extracellular matrix (ECM), the dynamic role that the ECM plays in regulating bone remodeling secondary to estrogen loss is relatively unexplored. Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in the matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2-null) form excess endocortical bone; thus, we postulated that enhanced bone formation in TSP2-null mice could protect against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Wild-type (WT) OVX mice showed a significant loss of both midfemoral endocortical and proximal tibial trabecular bone, but OVX did not significantly alter TSP2-null bone. TSP2-null mice showed an increase in bone formation, as indicated by a 70% increase in serum osteocalcin two weeks post OVX and a two-fold increase in bone formation rate (BFR) five weeks post OVX as measured by dynamic histomorphometry. WT animals showed only a 20% increase in serum osteocalcin at two weeks and no change in BFR at five weeks. This increase in bone formation in TSP2-null OVX mice was accompanied by a three-fold increase in osteoprogenitor number. Although these results provide a partial explanation for the maintenance of bone geometry post-OVX, TSP2-null mice five weeks post-OVX also showed a significantly lower level of bone resorption than OVX WT mice, as determined by serum levels of the amino-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx). We conclude that the absence of TSP2 protects against OVX-induced bone loss by two complementary processes: increased formation and decreased resorption.

  3. S-Ketoprofen Inhibits Tenotomy-Induced Bone Loss and Dynamics in Weanling Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q. Q.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Wechter, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine whether S-ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can prevent immobilization (tenotomy)-induced bone loss in weanling rats. Forty five 4 week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were either sham-operated or subjected to knee tenotomy and treated simultaneously with 0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg of S-ketoprofen/kg per day for 21 days. We then studied double-fluorescent labeled proximal tibial longitudinal sections and tibial shaft cross sections using static and dynamic histomorphometry. Less cancellous bone mass in proximal tibial metaphyses was found in tenotomized controls than in basal (36%) and sham-operated (54%) controls. This was due to the inhibition of age-related bone gain and induced bone loss due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. S-ketoprofen prevented both the inhibition of age-related bone gain and the stimulation of bone loss at the 2.5 mg/kg per day dose level, while it only prevented bone loss at the 0.5 mg/kg dose levels. In cancellous bone, dynamic histomorphometry showed that S-ketoprofen prevented the tenotomy induced decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption. In the tibial shaft, tenotomy inhibited the enlargement of total tissue area by depressing periosteal bone formation, and thus inhibited age-related cortical bone gain. S-ketoprofen treatment did not prevent this change at all dose levels, but reduced marrow cavity area to increase cortical bone area at the 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg per dose levels compared to tenotomy controls. However, the cortical bone area in the 0.1 and 0.5 mg dose-treated treated tenotomy rats was still lower than in the age-related controls. S-ketoprofen also prevented the increase in endocortical eroded perimeter induced by tenotomy. In summary, tenotomy inhibited age-related bone gain and stimulated bone loss in cancellous bone sites, and only inhibited age-related bone gain in cortical bone sites. S

  4. Rho1-Wnd signaling regulates loss-of-cell polarity-induced cell invasion in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Chen, Y; Zhang, S; Xu, W; Shao, Y; Yang, Y; Li, W; Li, M; Xue, L

    2016-02-18

    Both cell polarity and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity are essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and disruption of either is commonly seen in cancer progression. Despite the established connection between loss-of-cell polarity and JNK activation, much less is known about the molecular mechanism by which aberrant cell polarity induces JNK-mediated cell migration and tumor invasion. Here we show results from a genetic screen using an in vivo invasion model via knocking down cell polarity gene in Drosophila wing discs, and identify Rho1-Wnd signaling as an important molecular link that mediates loss-of-cell polarity-triggered JNK activation and cell invasion. We show that Wallenda (Wnd), a protein kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, by forming a complex with the GTPase Rho1, is both necessary and sufficient for Rho1-induced JNK-dependent cell invasion, MMP1 activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, Wnd promotes cell proliferation and tissue growth through wingless production when apoptosis is inhibited by p35. Finally, Wnd shows oncogenic cooperation with Ras(V12) to trigger tumor growth in eye discs and causes invasion into the ventral nerve cord. Together, our data not only provides a novel mechanistic insight on how cell polarity loss contributes to cell invasion, but also highlights the value of the Drosophila model system to explore human cancer biology.

  5. Combination therapy using antioxidants and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on noise induced hearing loss (NIHL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku

    2016-02-01

    One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is noise trauma. Noise is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous noise levels in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud noises from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure levels[4].

  6. Cortical regulation of dopamine depletion-induced dendritic spine loss in striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, M D; Schmidt, D E; Deutch, A Y

    2007-10-26

    The proximate cause of Parkinson's disease is striatal dopamine depletion. Although no overt toxicity to striatal neurons has been reported in Parkinson's disease, one of the consequences of striatal dopamine loss is a decrease in the number of dendritic spines on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Dendrites of these neurons receive cortical glutamatergic inputs onto the dendritic spine head and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra onto the spine neck. This synaptic arrangement suggests that dopamine gates corticostriatal glutamatergic drive onto spines. Using triple organotypic slice cultures composed of ventral mesencephalon, striatum, and cortex of the neonatal rat, we examined the role of the cortex in dopamine depletion-induced dendritic spine loss in MSNs. The striatal dopamine innervation was lesioned by treatment of the cultures with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) or by removing the mesencephalon. Both MPP+ and mesencephalic ablation decreased MSN dendritic spine density. Analysis of spine morphology revealed that thin spines were preferentially lost after dopamine depletion. Removal of the cortex completely prevented dopamine depletion-induced spine loss. These data indicate that the dendritic remodeling of MSNs seen in parkinsonism occurs secondary to increases in corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, and suggest that modulation of cortical activity may be a useful therapeutic strategy in Parkinson's disease.

  7. Treatment of losses of ultrafine aerosol particles in long sampling tubes during ambient measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Fennell, Paul; Symonds, Jonathan; Britter, Rex

    Long sampling tubes are often required for particle measurements in street canyons. This may lead to significant losses of the number of ultrafine (those below 100 nm) particles within the sampling tubes. Inappropriate treatment of these losses may significantly change the measured particle number distributions (PND), because most of the ambient particles, by number, exist in the ultrafine size range. Based on the Reynolds number (Re) in the sampling tubes, most studies treat the particle losses using the Gormley and Kennedy laminar flow model (Gormley, P.G., Kennedy, M., 1949. Diffusion from a stream following through a cylinderical tube. Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy 52, 163-169.) or the Wells and Chamberlain turbulent flow model (Wells, A.C., Chamberlain, A.C., 1967. Transport of small particles to vertical surfaces. British Journal of Applied Physics 18, 1793-1799.). Our experiments used a particle spectrometer with various lengths (1.00, 5.47, 5.55, 8.90 and 13.40 m) of sampling tube to measure the PNDs in the 5-2738 nm range. Experiments were performed under different operating conditions to measure the particle losses through silicone rubber tubes of circular cross-section (7.85 mm internal diameter). Sources of particles included emissions from an idling diesel engine car in a street canyon, emissions from a burning candle and those from the generation of salt aerosols using a nebuliser in the laboratory. Results showed that losses for particles below ≈20 nm were important and were largest for the smallest size range (5-10 nm), but were modest for particles above ≈20 nm. In our experiments the laminar flow model did not reflect the observations for small Re. This may be due to the sampling tubes not being kept straight or other complications. In situ calibration or comparison appears to be required.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cancellous Bone Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Mei; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2, (PGE2) can prevent ovariectomy induced cancellous bone loss. Thirty-five 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the first group were ovariectomized (OVX) while the others received sham operation (sham-OVX). The OVX group was further divided into three treatment groups. The daily doses for the three groups were 0,1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg for 90 days. Bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). We confirmed that OVX induces massive cancellous bone loss (-80%) and a higher bone turnover (+143%). The new findings from the present study demonstrate that bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency can be prevented by a low-dose (1 mg) daily administration of PGE2. Furthermore, a higher-dose (6 mg) daily administration of PGE2 not only prevents bone loss but also adds extra bone to the proximal tibial metaphyses. PGE, at the 1-mg dose level significantly increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, ratio of node to free end, and thus significantly decreased trabecular separation from OVX controls. At this dose level, these same parameters did not differ significantly from sham-OVX controls. However, at the 6-mg dose level PGE2, there were significant increases in trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, and ratio of node to free end, while there was significant decrease in trabecular separation from both OVX and sham-operated controls. The changes in indices of trabecular bone microanatomical structure indicated that PGE2 prevented bone loss as well as the disconnection of existing trabeculae. In summary, PGE2, administration to OVX rats decreased bone turnover and increased bone formation parameters resulting in a positive bone balance that prevented bone loss (in both lower and higher

  9. AC loss characterization of single pancake BSCCO coils by measured different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Serap; Souc, Jano; Gömöry, Fedor

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic measurements for AC losses of single pancake BSCCO coils and tapes have been performed experimentally as a function of reinforcement material, number of turns and AC current. Two coils have been prepared with using isolated Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10/Ag (BSCCO) tape produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. For the experimental tests, the pancake coil is immersed in liquid nitrogen bath. The critical current Icp is determined. The transport AC loss has been measured by electromagnetic and calorimetric method using a lock-in amplifier. In electromagnetic method, the signal from 1) whole coil voltage, 2) the pair of taps placed in the 1/3 outer turn and 3) 3 cm long contactless loop placed in the 1/3 outer turn making a C shaped loop, are measured. Increasing the number of turns in the pancake increases the dissipation per unit length of the tape.

  10. A distributed optical fiber sensing system for synchronous vibration and loss measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-ping; Qiao, Wei-yan; Sun, Zhen-hong; Shan, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-09-01

    We propose a fully distributed fusion system combining phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) and OTDR for synchronous vibration and loss measurement by setting an ingenious frequency sweep rate ( FSR) of the optical source. The relationships between FSR, probe pulse width and repeat period are given to balance the amplitude fluctuation of OTDR traces, the dead zone probability and the measurable frequency range of vibration events. In the experiment, we achieve synchronous vibration and loss measurement with FSR of 40 MHz/s, the proble pulse width of 100 ns and repeat rate of 0.4 ms. The fluctuation of OTDR trace is less than 0.45 dB when the signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR) is over 12 dB for a captured vibration event located at 9.1 km. The proposed method can be used for not only detection but also early warning of damage events in optical communication networks.

  11. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    to ACMV in the "warm countries" contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for energy renovation, it is important to have measures of the heat losses on a building façade, for optimizing the energy renovation. This paper will present...... penetration through facades with the aim to reduce the costs to AC. The paper will introduce a common project between NUS (National University of Singapore), AAU (Aalborg University) and HT-Meter, the latter as the U-value Meter developer company. In the project we will measure the heat transfer in the unit W...... of the project. Furthermore this paper present results from already conducted heat loss measurements in the temperate regions....

  12. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using 2 years of continuous in situ ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use a high-quality data set of in situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We intercompare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics, such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and M7 (mean 7-hour ozone mixing ratio from 09:00 to 15:59), for the two major crop growing seasons of kharif (June-October) and rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for southern Asian wheat, maize and rice cultivars. These are a factor of 2 more sensitive to ozone-induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27 to 41 % for wheat, 21 to 26 % for rice, 3 to 5 % for maize and 47 to 58 % for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 ± 10.4 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 10.3 ± 4.7 million t in the fiscal year of 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 ± 1.2 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 3.2 ± 0.8 million t in the year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice or wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. The mitigation of ozone-related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide > 50 % of the wheat and ~ 10 % of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 ± 2.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 ± 1.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on

  13. Osteoimmunology: Major and Costimulatory Pathway Expression Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania N. Crotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of osteoimmunology has emerged in response to the range of evidences demonstrating the close interrelationship between the immune system and bone metabolism. This is pertinent to immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease, where there are chronic inflammation and local bone erosion. Periprosthetic osteolysis is another example of chronic inflammation with associated osteolysis. This may also involve immune mediation when occurring in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Similarities in the regulation and mechanisms of bone loss are likely to be related to the inflammatory cytokines expressed in these diseases. This review highlights the role of immune-related factors influencing bone loss particularly in diseases of chronic inflammation where there is associated localized bone loss. The importance of the balance of the RANKL-RANK-OPG axis is discussed as well as the more recently appreciated role that receptors and adaptor proteins involved in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM signaling pathway play. Although animal models are briefly discussed, the focus of this review is on the expression of ITAM associated molecules in relation to inflammation induced localized bone loss in RA, chronic periodontitis, and periprosthetic osteolysis, with an emphasis on the soluble and membrane bound factor osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR.

  14. Weight loss reversed obesity-induced HGF/c-Met pathway and basal-like breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha eSundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an aggressive subtype of breast cancer called basal-like breast cancer (BBC. Using the C3(1-TAg murine model of BBC, we previously demonstrated that mice displayed an early onset of tumors when fed obesogenic diets in the adult window of susceptibility. Obesity was also shown to elevate mammary gland expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/c-Met compared to lean controls, a pro-tumorigenic pathway associated with BBC in patients. Epidemiologic studies estimate that weight loss could prevent a large proportion of BBC. We sought to investigate whether weight loss in adulthood prior to tumor onset would protect mice from accelerated tumorigenesis observed in obese mice. Using a life-long model of obesity, C3(1-TAg mice were weaned onto and maintained on an obesogenic high fat diet. Obese mice displayed significant elevations in tumor progression, but not latency or burden. Tumor progression was significantly reversed when obese mice were induced to lose weight by switching to a control low fat diet prior to tumor onset compared to mice maintained on obesogenic diet. It is likely that other factors regulated tumor progression, hence we investigated the HGF/c-Met pathway known to regulate tumorigenesis. Importantly, HGF/c-Met expression in normal mammary glands and c-Met in tumors was elevated with obesity and was significantly reversed with weight loss. Changes in tumor growth could not be explained by measures of HGF action including phospho-AKT or phospho-S6. Other mediators associated with oncogenesis such as hyperinsulinemia and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio were elevated by obesity and reduced with weight loss. In sum, weight loss significantly blunted the obesity-responsive pro-tumorigenic HGF/c-Met pathway and improved several metabolic risk factors associated with BBC, which together may have contributed to the dramatic reversal of obesity-driven tumor

  15. An empirical study to measure the effects of various factors on operating loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeid Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the effects of various factors on operating loss in one of major Iranian banks called Bank Mellat. The proposed study of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among 57 people who are mainly in top management levels. The questions are categorized into five groups including events related to the processes and methods, events outside the organization, related events within the organization and business disruptions and system failure. The results of our survey confirm that the loss associated with events related to the processes and methods increases operating risk meaningfully, the loss associated with business disruptions and system failure increases operating risk meaningfully and the loss associated with related events within the organization increases operating risk meaningfully. However, our survey do not confirm that the loss associated with events outside the organization increase operating, risk meaningfully. Finally, the preliminary survey of our analysis shows that there is not enough evidence to believe that the effects of business disruption and internal affairs are significantly different from the other event.

  16. The Protective Effect of Conditioning on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Is Frequency-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the extent of temporary threshold shift (TTS and hair cell loss following high level 4 kHz noise exposure with those preconditioned with moderate level 1 and 4 kHz octave band noise. Fifteen Male albino guinea pigs (300- 350 g in weight were randomly allocated into three groups: those exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL (group 1, n=5; those conditioned with 1 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5; those conditioned with 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, then exposed to noise (group 3, n=5. An hour and one week after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated by auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR and then animals were euthanized for histological evaluation. We found that TTS and cochlear damage caused by noise exposure were significantly reduced by 1 kHz and 4 kHz conditioning (P<0.001. We also showed that 4 kHz protocol attenuates noise- induced TTS but no significant TTS reduction occurred by 1 kHz conditioning. Both protocol protected noise-induced cochlear damage. We concluded that lower tone conditioning could not protect against higher tone temporary noise-induced hearing loss, thus conditioning is a local acting and frequency-dependent phenomenon.

  17. Vacuolar processing enzyme activates programmed cell death in the apical meristem inducing loss of apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Buskila, Yossi; Belausov, Eduard; Wolf, Dalia; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2017-10-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber is a swollen underground stem that can sprout in an apical dominance (AD) pattern. Bromoethane (BE) induces loss of AD and the accumulation of vegetative vacuolar processing enzyme (S. tuberosum vacuolar processing enzyme [StVPE]) in the tuber apical meristem (TAM). Vacuolar processing enzyme activity, induced by BE, is followed by programmed cell death in the TAM. In this study, we found that the mature StVPE1 (mVPE) protein exhibits specific activity for caspase 1, but not caspase 3 substrates. Optimal activity of mVPE was achieved at acidic pH, consistent with localization of StVPE1 to the vacuole, at the edge of the TAM. Downregulation of StVPE1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced stem branching and retained AD in tubers treated with BE. Overexpression of StVPE1 fused to green fluorescent protein showed enhanced stem branching after BE treatment. Our data suggest that, following stress, induction of StVPE1 in the TAM induces AD loss and stem branching. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Wave-induced precipitation as a loss process for radiation belt particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Chang, H. C.; Helliwell, R. A.; Katsufrakis, J. P.; Imhof, W. L.

    Precipitation of radiation belt electrons by VLF waves injected from ground based transmitters was achieved during the Stimulated Emission of Energetic Particles (SEEP) experiments (Imhof et al., 1983), the first direct satellite based observation of modulated precipitation of electrons in the bounce loss cone. This paper considers the temporal and spectral shape as well as the absolute flux level of the observed precipitation pulses. In order to model these results, both the pitch angle dependence of the particle distribution near the edge of the loss cone and atmospheric backscatter which leads to multiple interactions of the particles with the wave are considered. Based on a comparison of theory with observations, the leverage of the precipitation process is estimated. Crude estimates of the percentage depletion of the radiation belt population due to the observed transmitter induced precipitation are also made.

  19. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  20. NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS IN CHINA:A POTENTIALLY COSTLY PUB-LIC HEALTH LSSUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yongbing; William Hal Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss and tinnitus are among the most common consequences of long term noise exposure and re-main an under-addressed heath issue in most developing nations including China. The rapid industrializa-tion and life style changes in China increase the concern over noise exposure and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Research on NIHL in China is limited. The current paper reviews studies published in English and Chinese language literatures regarding noise exposure and NIHL in China. Their implication on the Chi-nese population is discussed. The possible utility of a research model such as the Dangerous Decibels® as a means to increase understanding of the scope of NIHL among the Chinese population, to educate the gener-al public in China (especially the young) about NIHL and its prevention, and to study effects of language and cultural factors on international information dissemination and behavioral interventions is proposed.

  1. Innovative procedure for measurement of losses of transformers supplying nonsinusoidal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Yildirim, D. [Kupluce Yolu, Istanbul (Turkey); Batan, T. [Tercuman Yanus Sok, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-11-01

    The measurement of iron-core and copper losses of single-phase transformers is important in particular for transformers feeding nonlinear loads. A new digital data-acquisition method is devised for the separate measurement of iron-core and copper losses of transformers under any full or partial-load condition. The accuracy requirements of the instruments (voltage, current sensors, volt and current meters) employed are addressed. A 25 kVA, 7200/240 V single-phase transformer has been loaded with either three diode-bridge rectifiers and/or a thyristor-bridge rectifier at varying total harmonic voltage and current distortions, such that at the maximum permissible apparent power, losses are identical to the rated losses. The maximum errors of losses are acceptably low if voltage (dividers) and current (shunts) sensors with 2% and digital instruments with 0.1% errors are used. The derating under nonlinear loads is measured as a function of dominant 3rd and 5th current harmonics. The influence of voltage distortion is studied. The total harmonic distortion of the current (THD{sub i}) was varied greatly from 0 to 90%, and the resulting voltage THD{sub v} values were below 6% for the given power system impedance. At large THD{sub i} values (e.g. 90%), the reduction in apparent power rating (RAPR) is not very large ({approx} 100%). However, the real power capability (RPC) of the transformer is severely restricted: for example, at THD{sub i} = 90% the RPC is about 0.5pu. For this reason it might be advisable to define derating in terms of the reduction in real power capability and not in terms of RAPR. (author)

  2. Measuring The Mass Loss Evolution at The Tip of The Asymptotic Giant Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, C; Schönberner, D

    2009-01-01

    In the final stages of stellar evolution low- to intermediate-mass stars lose their envelope in increasingly massive stellar winds. Such winds affect the interstellar medium as well as the circumstellar envelope where planetary nebulae form subsequently. Characteristics of this mass loss depends on both stellar properties and properties of gas and dust in the wind formation region. In a recent study we measure the mass loss evolution, and other properties, using four planetary nebulae in the galactic disk. Specifically we use the method of integral field spectroscopy on faint halos, which are found outside the much brighter central parts of the planetary nebula. Here we present the outcome of our approach. We also make a brief comparison with other existing methods, which, so far, are used to measure previous stages of mass loss on the asymptotic giant branch. We then discuss the occurrence and observables of halos of planetary nebulae. We finish with a discussion on how our observations of the mass loss evol...

  3. The Bony Bankart Lesion: How to Measure the Glenoid Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupiński, Jarosław; Piechota, Małgorzata Zofia; Wawrzynek, Wojciech; Maczuch, Jarosław; Babińska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    An osseous Bankart lesion is commonly seen in patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation. It is defined as a detachment of the anteroinferior labrum associated with a glenoid rim fracture. Radiological studies are crucial not only for detecting glenoid bone defects but also for measuring the amount of bone loss. The precise quantification of the bony defect is crucial for the therapeutic desicion-making and clinical outcomes. Although we know that major glenoid bone loss requires surgical intervention, none of the studies performed so far answered the question what size of the defect should be an indication for open surgery procedures. Moreover, there is still no consensus on the exact percentage of glenoid loss that results in a higher risk of re-dislocations. In our opinion, there is a strong need for a consensus on universally accepted measuring techniques of the glenoid defect as well as on algorithms with validated glenoid bone loss threshold values for therapeutic decision-making. In this study, we review the techniques described so far in the literature and try to assess if any of these techniques should be treated as a leading method of detecting and quantifying osseous glenoid lesions.

  4. Micromolar sodium fluoride mediates anti-osteoclastogenesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ujjal K Bhawal; Nobushiro Hamada; Ikuo Nasu; Hirohisa Arakawa; Koh Shibutani; Hye-Jin Lee; Kazumune Arikawa; Michiharu Shimosaka; Masatoshi Suzuki; Toshizo Toyama; Takenori Sato; Ryota Kawamata; Chieko Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated by the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of bone-lytic diseases. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on osteoclastogenesis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity that has been implicated in periodontitis. NaF strongly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of cathepsin K, interleukin (IL)-1b, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, which were up-regulated during P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis. Consistent with the in vivo anti-osteoclastogenic effect, NaF inhibited osteoclast formation caused by the differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The RANKL-stimulated induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 was also abrogated by NaF. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NaF inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by reducing the induction of NFATc1, ultimately leading to the suppressed expression of cathepsin K and MMP9. The in vivo effect of NaF on the inhibition of P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis strengthens the potential usefulness of NaF for treating periodontal diseases.

  5. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan G; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0-45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food.

  6. α₂-Antiplasmin is involved in bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Akihito; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Akagi, Masao; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis is not fully understood. α2-Antiplasmin (α2-AP) is the primary inhibitor of plasmin in the fibrinolytic system, but is known to have activities beyond fibrinolysis. However, its role in bone metabolism and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis remains unknown. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of α2-AP deficiency on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss by using wild-type and α2-AP-deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis revealed that α2-AP deficiency blunted OVX-induced trabecular bone loss in mice. Moreover, α2-AP deficiency significantly blunted serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and interleukin (IL)-1β elevated by OVX. α2-AP treatment elevated the levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA in RAW 264.7 cells, although it suppressed osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. α2-AP treatment activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways in RAW 264.7 cells, and these MAP kinase inhibitors antagonized the levels of IL-1β mRNA elevated by α2-AP. The data demonstrate that α2-AP is linked to bone loss due to OVX, through a mechanism that depends in part on the production of IL-1β and TNF-α in monocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A complement-microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasek, Michael J; Garber, Charise; Dorsey, Denise; Durrant, Douglas M; Bollman, Bryan; Soung, Allison; Yu, Jinsheng; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Frouin, Arnaud; Wilton, Daniel K; Funk, Kristen; DeMasters, Bette K; Jiang, Xiaoping; Bowen, James R; Mennerick, Steven; Robinson, John K; Garbow, Joel R; Tyler, Kenneth L; Suthar, Mehul S; Schmidt, Robert E; Stevens, Beth; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-06-22

    Over 50% of patients who survive neuroinvasive infection with West Nile virus (WNV) exhibit chronic cognitive sequelae. Although thousands of cases of WNV-mediated memory dysfunction accrue annually, the mechanisms responsible for these impairments are unknown. The classical complement cascade, a key component of innate immune pathogen defence, mediates synaptic pruning by microglia during early postnatal development. Here we show that viral infection of adult hippocampal neurons induces complement-mediated elimination of presynaptic terminals in a murine WNV neuroinvasive disease model. Inoculation of WNV-NS5-E218A, a WNV with a mutant NS5(E218A) protein leads to survival rates and cognitive dysfunction that mirror human WNV neuroinvasive disease. WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice (recovery defined as survival after acute infection) display impaired spatial learning and persistence of phagocytic microglia without loss of hippocampal neurons or volume. Hippocampi from WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice with poor spatial learning show increased expression of genes that drive synaptic remodelling by microglia via complement. C1QA was upregulated and localized to microglia, infected neurons and presynaptic terminals during WNV neuroinvasive disease. Murine and human WNV neuroinvasive disease post-mortem samples exhibit loss of hippocampal CA3 presynaptic terminals, and murine studies revealed microglial engulfment of presynaptic terminals during acute infection and after recovery. Mice with fewer microglia (Il34(-/-) mice with a deficiency in IL-34 production) or deficiency in complement C3 or C3a receptor were protected from WNV-induced synaptic terminal loss. Our study provides a new murine model of WNV-induced spatial memory impairment, and identifies a potential mechanism underlying neurocognitive impairment in patients recovering from WNV neuroinvasive disease.

  8. Validity of arthroscopic measurement of glenoid bone loss using the bare spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Takeda, Koji Fujii, Tomoya Takasago, Toshiyuki Iwame Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima Red Cross Hospital, Komatsushima, Tokushima, Japan Purpose: Our aim was to test the validity of using the bare spot method to quantify glenoid bone loss arthroscopically in patients with shoulder instability. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with no evidence of instability (18 males, nine females; mean age 59.1 years were evaluated arthroscopically to assess whether the bare spot is consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid. Another 40 patients with glenohumeral anterior instability who underwent shoulder arthroscopy (30 males, ten females; mean age 25.9 years were evaluated for glenoid bone loss with preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT and arthroscopic examination. In patients without instability, the distances from the bare spot of the inferior glenoid to the anterior (Da and posterior (Dp glenoid rim were measured arthroscopically. In patients with instability, we compared the percentage glenoid bone loss calculated using CT versus arthroscopic measurements. Results: Among patients without instability, the bare spot could not be identified in three of 27 patients. Da (9.5±1.2 mm was smaller than Dp (10.1±1.5 mm, but it was not significantly different. However, only 55% of glenoids showed less than 1 mm of difference between Da and Dp, and 18% showed more than 2 mm difference in length. The bare spot could not be identified in five of 40 patients with instability. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed significant (P<0.001 and strong (R2=0.63 correlation in percentage glenoid bone loss between the 3D-CT and arthroscopy method measurements. However, in ten shoulders (29%, the difference in percentage glenoid bone loss between 3D-CT and arthroscopic measurements was greater than 5%. Conclusion: The bare spot was not consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid

  9. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weigh...

  10. Thalamocortical model for a propofol-induced α-rhythm associated with loss of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, ShiNung; Cimenser, Aylin; Purdon, Patrick L.; Brown, Emery N.; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data reveal that the general anesthetic propofol gives rise to a frontal α-rhythm at dose levels sufficient to induce loss of consciousness. In this work, a computational model is developed that suggests the network mechanisms responsible for such a rhythm. It is shown that propofol can alter the dynamics in thalamocortical loops, leading to persistent and synchronous α-activity. The synchrony that forms in the cortex by virtue of the involvement of the thalamus may impede responsiveness to external stimuli, thus providing a correlate for the unconscious state. PMID:21149695

  11. Thalamocortical model for a propofol-induced alpha-rhythm associated with loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Shinung; Cimenser, Aylin; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Kopell, Nancy J

    2010-12-28

    Recent data reveal that the general anesthetic propofol gives rise to a frontal α-rhythm at dose levels sufficient to induce loss of consciousness. In this work, a computational model is developed that suggests the network mechanisms responsible for such a rhythm. It is shown that propofol can alter the dynamics in thalamocortical loops, leading to persistent and synchronous α-activity. The synchrony that forms in the cortex by virtue of the involvement of the thalamus may impede responsiveness to external stimuli, thus providing a correlate for the unconscious state.

  12. A self-consistent theory of collective alpha particle losses induced by Alfvenic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglari, H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Diamond, P.H. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of kinetic Alfven waves, resonantly excited by energetic ions/alpha particles, is investigated. It is shown that {alpha}-particles govern both linear instability and nonlinear saturation dynamics, while the background MHD turbulence results only in a nonlinear real frequency shift. The most efficient saturation mechanism is found to be self-induced profile modification. Expressions for the fluctuation amplitudes and the {alpha}-particle radial flux are self-consistently derived. The work represents the first self-consistent, turbulent treatment of collective {alpha}-particle losses by Alfvenic fluctuations.

  13. Simplified risk assessment of noise induced hearing loss by means of 2 spreadsheet models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-11-18

    The objective of this study has been to test 2 spreadsheet models to compare the observed with the expected hearing loss for a Norwegian reference population. The prevalence rates of the Norwegian and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) definitions of hearing outcomes were calculated in terms of sex and age, 20-64 years old, for a screened (with no occupational noise exposure) (N = 18 858) and unscreened (N = 38 333) Norwegian reference population from the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study (NTHLS). Based on the prevalence rates, 2 different spreadsheet models were constructed in order to compare the prevalence rates of various groups of workers with the expected rates. The spreadsheets were then tested on 10 different occupational groups with varying degrees of hearing loss as compared to a reference population. Hearing of office workers, train drivers, conductors and teachers differed little from the screened reference values based on the Norwegian and the NIOSH criterion. The construction workers, miners, farmers and military had an impaired hearing and railway maintenance workers and bus drivers had a mildly impaired hearing. The spreadsheet models give a valid assessment of the hearing loss. The use of spreadsheet models to compare hearing in occupational groups with that of a reference population is a simple and quick method. The results are in line with comparable hearing thresholds, and allow for significance testing. The method is believed to be useful for occupational health services in the assessment of risk of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) and the preventive potential in groups of noise-exposed workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):991-999.

  14. A Losing Battle: Weight Regain Does Not Restore Weight Loss-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Karen L.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2. They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (−1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (−0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (−0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: −3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  15. [Transcultural adaptation of an instrument to evaluate hearing handicap in workers with noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves; de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2011-01-01

    The noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a chronic and irreversible disease resulting of the exposure to noise in high levels at work. Even in the beginning, this hearing loss can damage in many degrees the worker's quality of life. Before this study, there wasn't an instrument, in Portuguese, to evaluate the psychosocial disadvantages of workers with NIHL. The aim of this research was to make a transcultural adaptation of an especific instrument to evaluate the hearing handicap from the original language to Portuguese, and check the reliability and legitimacy. The selected instrument passed by a process of semantic equivalence that was conducted in five stages: translation, back translation, critical appraisal of the versions, pre-test and a final review by a multi-professional group to develop a consensual version of the instrument for current use in Brazil. The instrument called "Inabilities Scale and Hearing Handicap" had, in general, acceptable psychometric measures, considering the little size of the sample and the fact that workers' hearing loss weren't too significant. Therefore, the Portuguese version of this instrument needs to be further tested in a representative sample of Brazilian workers with NIHL to ratify its utility in order to evaluate hearing handicap in this population.

  16. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M V; Laaksonen, D E; Karhu, T; Karhunen, L; Laitinen, T; Kainulainen, S; Rissanen, A; Niskanen, L; Herzig, K H

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes signaling molecules involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake and inflammation. Apelin is a peptide secreted by adipose tissue that has been shown to modulate cardiovascular tone in animals. The aim of this study was to measure abdominal fat, blood pressure and circulating apelin, adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome after a diet-induced weight loss. 35 obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome underwent an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) and a 6-month weight maintenance period (WM) with 120mg orlistat or placebo administered 3 times daily. VLCD and WM (-15.1+/-1.0kg) decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), insulin, leptin, triglycerides and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Moreover, adiponectin increased in response to the weight loss. However, the overall changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were non-significant. A correlation between plasma apelin and TNF-alpha was observed at baseline (0.41, pmetabolism and adiponectin in response to weight loss, no significant changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed. However, apelin significantly correlated with TNF-alpha and MAP. These results suggest that apelin may not be that strongly correlated with the fat mass as an adipokine like the more abundant adipokines adiponectin or leptin and it might be involved in the regulation of inflammation and cardiovascular tone.

  17. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  18. A Gigabit Ethernet link for an FPGA based Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Dehning, B; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2013-01-01

    A new Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) within the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. The multi-channel system will have the ability to measure beam losses from various types of detectors with high precision and wide dynamic range. Several modes of data acquisition are supported. The data rate in the singlechannel mode is 16 Mbps and in the multi-channel mode 128 Mbps. The Gigabit Ethernet link is implemented in an FPGA, which allows both a high throughput and a quick validation of the digital data processing algorithms using standard PCs in the initial stages of the development. Both TCP and UDP protocols were explored. The implementation of the Ethernet link is flexible and proved to be highly reliable, leading to its planned use in other measurement systems developed at CERN. The implementation details of the Ethernet link and the results achieved will be described in this paper.

  19. Protective effect of steroidal saponins from rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua MAN; Lu-ping QIN; Wan-sheng CHEN; Qiao-yan ZHANG; Han-chen ZHENG; Yin WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides (ATS) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and OVX groups. The OVX rats were treated with vehicle, nylestriol or steroidal saponins extract for 12 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphorus, estradiol (E2), osteocalcin concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. Bone density was assayed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The undecalcified longitudinal proximal tibial metaphysical (PTM) sections were cut and stained for histomorphometric analysis of the bone. Results: In OVX rats, alkaline phosphatase activities in serum were markedly increased and concentrations of osteocalcin were decreased by ATS treatment, which had no influence on the body weight. Meanwhile, atrophy of the uterus and descent of bone mineral density (BMD) was suppressed by treatment with ATS. In addition, ATS completely corrected the decreased the concentration of calcium and E2 in serum observed in OVX rats. Histological results showed ATS prevented decreases in trabecular thickness and increases in trabecular separation of proximal tibia metaphysis (PTM) in OVX rats. However, it did not alter osteoclast number in OVX rats. Moreover, ATS (300 mg/kg) had a remarkable effect on promoting bone formation action in OVX rats. Nylestriol treatment decreased the bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate. Conclusion: An adequate supply of steroidal saponins of Anemarrhena asphodeloides prevented OVX-induced bone loss in rats through the promotion of bone formation but not the inhibition of bone resorption.

  20. Gastric Bypass Promotes More Lipid Mobilization Than a Similar Weight Loss Induced by Low-Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Kullberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, we found large reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat one month after gastric bypass (GBP, without any change in liver fat content. Purpose. Firstly to characterize weight loss-induced lipid mobilization after one month with preoperative low-calorie diet (LCD and a subsequent month following GBP, and secondly, to discuss the observations with reference to our previous published findings after GBP intervention alone. Methods. 15 morbidly obese women were studied prior to LCD, at GBP, and one month after GBP. Effects on metabolism were measured by magnetic resonance techniques and blood tests. Results. Body weight was similarly reduced after both months (mean: −8.0 kg, n=13. Relative body fat changes were smaller after LCD than after GBP (−7.1±3.6% versus −10±3.2%, P=.029, n=13. Liver fat fell during the LCD month (−41%, P=.001, n=13 but was unaltered one month after GBP (+12%. Conclusion. Gastric bypass seems to cause a greater lipid mobilization than a comparable LCD-induced weight loss. One may speculate that GBP-altered gastrointestinal signalling sensitizes adipose tissue to lipolysis, promoting the changes observed.

  1. Loss-tolerant Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for arbitrary-dimensional states:Joint measurability and unbounded violations under losses

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Cavalcanti, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We show how to construct loss-tolerant linear steering inequalities using a generic set of von Neumann measurements that are violated by $d$-dimensional states, and that rely only upon a simple property of the set of measurements used (the maximal overlap between measurement directions). Using these inequalities we show that the critical detection efficiency above which $n$ von Neumann measurements can demonstrate steering is $1/n$. We show furthermore that using our construction and high dim...

  2. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth w

  3. Palmitate diet-induced loss of cardiac caveolin-3: a novel mechanism for lipid-induced contractile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Knowles

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate, and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate. We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release.

  4. NF1 loss induces senescence during human melanocyte differentiation in an iPSC-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larribere, Lionel; Wu, Huizi; Novak, Daniel; Galach, Marta; Bernhardt, Mathias; Orouji, Elias; Weina, Kasia; Knappe, Nathalie; Sachpekidis, Christos; Umansky, Ludmila; Beckhove, Philipp; Umansky, Viktor; De Schepper, Sofie; Kaufmann, Dieter; Ballotti, Robert; Bertolotto, Corine; Utikal, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a frequent genetic disease leading to the development of Schwann cell-derived neurofibromas or melanocytic lesions called café-au-lait macules (CALMs). The molecular mechanisms involved in CALMs formation remain largely unknown. In this report, we show for the first time pathophysiological mechanisms of abnormal melanocyte differentiation in a human NF1(+/-) -induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based model. We demonstrate that NF1 patient-derived fibroblasts can be successfully reprogrammed in NF1(+/-) iPSCs with active RAS signaling and that NF1 loss induces senescence during melanocyte differentiation as well as in patient's-derived CALMs, revealing a new role for NF1 in the melanocyte lineage.

  5. Loss of Bmx nonreceptor tyrosine kinase prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Jordan, Scherise A; Holopainen, Tanja; Ren, Shuxun; Wang, Sujing; Warburton, Sarah; Zhang, Michael J; Alitalo, Kari; Wang, Yibin; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2008-12-05

    Bmx nonreceptor tyrosine kinase has an established role in endothelial and lymphocyte signaling; however, its role in the heart is unknown. To determine whether Bmx participates in cardiac growth, we subjected mice deficient in the molecule (Bmx knockout mice) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In comparison with wild-type mice, which progressively developed massive hypertrophy following TAC, Bmx knockout mice were resistant to TAC-induced cardiac growth at the organ and cell level. Loss of Bmx preserved cardiac ejection fraction and decreased mortality following TAC. These findings are the first to demonstrate a necessary role for the Tec family of tyrosine kinases in the heart and reveal a novel regulator (Bmx) of pressure overload-induced hypertrophic growth.

  6. A measurement of the energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Dawson, J; Fuess, T A; Guarino, V; Hill, N; Magill, S; May, E; Nodulman, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R; Underwood, D G; Wagner, R; Wicklund, B; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Casado, M P; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Juste, A; Miralles, L; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Ronceux, B; Teubert, F; Anderson, K J; Blucher, E; Evans, H; Merritt, F S; Pilcher, J E; Sanders, H; Shochet, M J; Tang, F; Turcot, A S; Wagner, D; Arsenescu, R; Constantinescu, S; Blaj, C; Boldea, V; Dita, S; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Brossard, M; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; Dugne, J J; Michel, B; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Pallin, D; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poirot, S; Reinmuth, G; Says, L P; Vazeille, F; Cobal, M; Gildemeister, O; Nessi, Marzio; Henriques, A; Poggioli, Luc; Sonderegger, P; Karapetian, G V; Astvatsaturov, A R; Borisov, O N; Budagov, Yu A; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Glagolev, V V; Kakurin, S; Kolomoets, V; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Lebedev, A; Liba, I; Lomakina, O V; Lomakin, Yu F; Malyukov, S N; Minashvili, I A; Pantea, D; Pukhov, O; Romanov, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Senchyshyn, V G; Semenov, V; Sissakian, A N; Shchelchkov, V; Shevtsov, A; Studenov, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Yarygin, G; Cogswell, F; Downing, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Haney, M; Simaitis, V J; Thaler, J J; Amaral, P; Amorim, A; Carvalho, J; David, M; Gómez, A; Maio, A; Martins, J P; Onofre, A; Wolters, H; Bromberg, C; Huston, J; Miller, R; Richards, R; Yosef, C; Alifanov, A; Bogush, A A; Golubev, V B; Rumyantsev, V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Angelini, C; Autiero, D; Cavasinni, V; Costanzo, D; De Santo, A; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Lami, S; Lazzeroni, C; Mazzoni, E; Renzoni, G; Davidek, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Leitner, R; Soustruznik, K; Suk, M; Tas, P; Trka, Z; Valkár, S; Zdrazil, M; Lokajícek, M; Némécek, S; Karyukhin, A N; Klioukhine, V I; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kulagin, M; Lapin, V; Protopopov, Yu; Sidorov, V; Solodkov, A A; Starchenko, E A; Surkov, A; Zaitsev, A; Calôba, L P; Gaspar, M; Marroquin, F; Pereira, A; Seixas, J M; Berglund, S R; Bohm, C; Johansson, E K; Hellman, S; Holmgren, S O; Jon-And, K; Selldén, B; Tardell, S; Yamdagni, N; Ferrer, A; Honoré, P F; Albiol, F; De, K; Gallas, E J; Li, J; Sawyer, L; Stephens, R; Turcotte, M; White, A; Hakopian, H H; Grabskii, V; Mnatzakanian, E A; Vartapetian, A H

    1997-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons has been measured with a prototype of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter in the H8 beam of the CERN SPS.\\\\ The differential probability $dP/dv$ per radiation length of a fractional energy loss $v = \\Delta E_{\\mu} / E_{\\mu}$ has been measured in the range $v = 0.01 \\div 0.95 $; it is then compared with the theoretical predictions for energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and production of electron-positron pairs or of energetic knock-on electrons.\\\\ The integrated probability $\\int_{0.01}^{0.95} (dP/dv) dv$ is $(1.610\\pm0.015_{stat.}\\pm0.105_{syst.})\\cdot10^{-3}$ in agreement with the theoretical predictions of $1.556\\cdot10^{-3}$ and $1.619\\cdot10^{-3}$. %7.8.96 - start Agreement with theory is also found in two intervals of $v$ where production of electron-positron pairs and knock-on electrons dominates. In the region of bremsstrahlung dominance ($v = 0.12\\div0.95$) the measured integrated probability $(1.160\\pm0.040_{stat}\\pm0.075_{syst})\\cdot 10^{-4}$ is in agreement with ...

  7. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, P; Anderson, K; Artikov, A; Benetta, R; Berglund, S R; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Bravo, S; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Carvalho, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Cowan, Brian; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delfino, M C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Downing, R; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fassi, F; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Flix, J; Garabik, R; Gil, I; Gildemeister, O; Glagoley, V; Gómez, A; González de la Hoz, S; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hébrard, C; Higón, E; Holik, P; Holmgren, S O; Hruska, I; Huston, J; Jon-And, K; Kakurin, S; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J I; Kopikov, S V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; López-Amengual, J M; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Marroquin, F; Mataix, L; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Onofre, A; Ostankov, A P; Pacheco, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Ruiz, H; Rusakovitch, N A; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santo, J; Says, L P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Shcelchkov, A; Shochet, M J; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, O P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Thaler, J J; Thome-Filho, Z D; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Valklar, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A

    2001-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 180 GeV muons has been measured with the 5.6 m long finely segmented Module 0 of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter at the CERN SPS. The differential probability dP/d nu per radiation length of a fractional energy loss nu = Delta E/sub mu //E /sub mu / has been measured in the range 0.025losses due to bremsstrahlung, production of electron-positron pairs, and energetic knock-on electrons. The iron elastic form factor correction Delta /sub Fe//sup el/=1.63+or-0.17/sub stat/+or-023/sub syst$/ -/sub 0.14 //sup +0.20//sub theor/ to muon bremsstrahlung in the region of no screening of the nucleus by atomic electrons has been measured for the first time, and is compared with different theoretical predictions. (31 refs).

  8. Real-ear measurements in conductive hearing loss: discrepancies between probe-tube microphone measurements and sound field test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, V C

    1998-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate earlier observations that probe-tube microphone measurements of insertion gain overestimates the functional gain received from hearing aids by users with significant conductive hearing losses. This was originally thought to be due to artefacts in the probe-tube measurement caused by middle ear pathology, but is now believed to be the result of the bone conduction stimulation of the ear exposed to high intensities of airborne sound during sound field threshold measurements. Since the functional gain must relate to the true aided benefit in such cases, these findings suggest that probe-tube microphone measurements in ears with significant air-bone gaps should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  10. 超低损耗角磁心高频损耗测量方法%High Frequency Core Loss Measurement of Low Loss Angle Magnetic Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晶慧; 陈为

    2012-01-01

    针对传统交流功率计法测量阻抗角接近90。的磁件磁心损耗时有很大的测量误差,提出了一种新型的直流测量法,基本思想是通过一个DC.AC逆变电路将直流电压转变为矩形波电压,施加到被测磁件上,测量直流输入的有功功率得到磁心损耗。其中,为了有效扣除磁心损耗外的其他损耗,提出了用空心电感定标的方法。实验结果表明:直流测量法可用来测量小损耗角磁件磁心损耗,且不受阻抗角的影响,具有很高的精度。%The measurement error of core loss by AC meter will be very large especially when the impedance angle of magnetic component is closed to 90°. So a new DC meter method is proposed in this paper. The basic idea is to transform the input DC voltage into a square waveform on the magnetic component by a DC-AC inverter, and obtained the core loss by measuring the input active power. The method could avoid the influence of impedance angle to the measurement accuracy. However, with this method, the losses excepting for core loss should be excluded someway. A method of calibration with air core inductor is proposed to effectively calculate and take out the losses except core loss. The experimental results verify that the DC meter method is accurate to measure the core loss of low loss angle magnetic component.

  11. Techniques and Apparatus for Measuring Rotational Core Losses of Soft Magnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In many situations such as the cores of a rotating electrical machine and the T joints of a multiphase transformer, the local flux density varies with time in terms of both magnitude and direction, i.e. the flux density vector is rotating. Therefore, the magnetic properties of the core materials under the rotating flux density vector excitation should be properly measured, modeled and applied in the design and analysis of these electromagnetic devices. This paper presents an extensive review on the development of techniques and apparatus for measuring the rotational core losses of soft magnetic materials based on the experiences of various researchers in the last hundred years.

  12. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  13. MEASUREMENT OF RF LOSSES DUE TO TRAPPED FLUX IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Alex Gurevich

    2008-01-23

    Trapped magnetic field in superconducting niobium is a well known cause of radio-frequency (RF) residual losses. In this contribution, we present the results of RF tests on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large grain niobium before and after allowing a fraction of the Earth magnetic field to be trapped in the cavity during the cooldown below the critical temperature Tc. This experiment has been done on the cavity before and after a low temperature baking. Temperature mapping allowed us to determine the location of hot-spots with high losses and to measure their field dependence. The results show not only an increase of the low-field residual resistance, but also a larger increase of the surface resistance for intermediate RF field (higher “medium field Q-slope”), which depends on the amount of the trapped flux. These additional field-dependent losses can be described as losses of pinned vortices oscillating under the applied RF magnetic field.

  14. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  15. Low-loss planar metamaterials electromagnetically induced transparency for sensitive refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Hu, Sen; Huang, Xiaojun; Yu, Zetai; Lin, Hai; Yang, Helin

    2017-10-01

    A low-loss and high transmission electromagnetically induced transparency like (EIT- like) structure is experimentally and numerically demonstrated in this paper. The proposed planar structure based on EIT-like metamaterial consists of two separate split-ring resonators, and its resulting transmission level can maximally reach 0.89 with significant suppression of radiation loss. According to the effective medium theory, the imaginary parts of the effective permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial are used as the evidence of low-loss. In the analysis, the simulated surface current, magnetic field distribution and coupled oscillator model reveal the principle of high transmittance EIT-effect. Furthermore, the peak of transparency frequency is highly sensitive to the variation of refractive index in the background medium. The sensor based on the proposed EIT structure can achieve a sensitivity of 1.69 GHz/RIU (refractive index unit) and a figure of merit of 11.66. Such metamaterials have potential perspectives in sensing and chiral slow light devices.

  16. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL and complex velocity level (CVL, which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  17. Evaluation of source term induced by beam loss in the superconducting linear accelerator at RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Su Na; Nam, Shin Woo; Chung, Yon Sei [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    As a new world-class heavy ion accelerator, RAON is able to accelerate heavy ions from proton to uranium with the energy up to -400 MeV/u and produce rare isotopes. These high purity, high intensity, and high energy beams generate the various secondary radiation which will impact on the shielding aspects of the main linear accelerator tunnels. In the main tunnel the secondary neutrons are produced by uniform beam-loss or accident criteria. In this paper evaluations of several source terms induced by beam-loss will be discussed along with the physics model of the Monte Carlo simulation codes. The beam-loss criteria were tested for the evaluation of source term for the main beam line tunnel of the RAON accelerator. It was found that the amount of the secondary neutrons depends on the incident angle of projectile on the beam pipe and the mass and energy of projectile. The influence of selected physics models and libraries of MCNPX and PHITS has been examined. The secondary neutrons were produced most in the CEM and LAQGSM model.

  18. The adaptive metabolic response to exercise-induced weight loss influences both energy expenditure and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; King, N A; Finlayson, G; Blundell, J E

    2014-05-01

    A decline in resting energy expenditure (REE) beyond that predicted from changes in body composition has been noted following dietary-induced weight loss. However, it is unknown whether a compensatory downregulation in REE also accompanies exercise (EX)-induced weight loss, or whether this adaptive metabolic response influences energy intake (EI). Thirty overweight and obese women (body mass index (BMI)=30.6±3.6 kg/m(2)) completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic EX. Body composition, metabolism, EI and metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week 6 and post intervention. The metabolic adaptation (MA), that is, difference between predicted and measured REE was also calculated post intervention (MApost), with REE predicted using a regression equation generated in an independent sample of 66 overweight and obese women (BMI=31.0±3.9 kg/m(2)). Although mean predicted and measured REE did not differ post intervention, 43% of participants experienced a greater-than-expected decline in REE (-102.9±77.5 kcal per day). MApost was associated with the change in leptin (r=0.47; P=0.04), and the change in resting fat (r=0.52; P=0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (r=-0.44; P=0.02). Furthermore, MApost was also associated with the change in EI following EX (r=-0.44; P=0.01). Marked variability existed in the adaptive metabolic response to EX. Importantly, those who experienced a downregulation in REE also experienced an upregulation in EI, indicating that the adaptive metabolic response to EX influences both physiological and behavioural components of energy balance.

  19. Protective effect of apigenin on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong A; Ha, Sang Keun; Kang, Tong Ho; Oh, Myung Sook; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2008-06-20

    Recent studies have shown that apigenin not only inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts but also induces osteoclast apoptosis. However, the influence of apigenin on osteoporosis in animals is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the bone-protective effects of apigenin in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham-operated or ovariectomized and fed AIN-93G diet for 7 weeks to induce bone loss. To confirm bone loss, we used a newly developed non-invasive technique involving zoom-in micro-computed tomography. Apigenin was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg three times a week for 15 weeks. Our results indicate that apigenin not only increased the mineral content and density of the trabecular bone at the neck of the left femur, but also decreased body weight and dietary consumption. Moreover, our biochemical results indicate that apigenin has a positive effect on bone turnover. The present data suggest that apigenin should be considered for use in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. Thermal Stress-Induced Depolarization Loss in Conventional and Panda-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Laleh; Sabaeian, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We report on the modeling of the depolarization loss in the conventional and panda-shaped photonic crystal fiber lasers (PCFLs) due to the self-heating of the fiber, which we call it thermal stress-induced depolarization loss (TSIDL). We first calculated the temperature distribution over the fiber cross sections and then calculated the thermal stresses/strains as a function of heat load per meter. Thermal stress-induced birefringence (TSIB), which is defined as | n x - n y |, in the core and cladding regions was calculated. Finally, TSIDL was calculated for the conventional and panda-shaped PCFLs as a function of fiber length and, respectively, saturated values of 22 and 25 % were obtained which were independent of heat load per meter. For panda-shaped PCFLs, prior to being saturated, an oscillating and damping behavior against the fiber length was seen where in some lengths reached 35 %. The results are close to an experimental value of 30 % reported for a pulsed PCFL (Limpert et al., Opt Express 12:1313-1319, 2004) where the authors reported a degree of polarization of 70 % (i.e., a depolarization of 30 %). The most important result of this work is a saturation behavior of TSIDL at long-enough lengths of the fiber laser which is independent of heat load per meter. To our knowledge, this the first report of TSIBL for PCFLs.

  1. Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory responses to fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-09-06

    Inflammatory responses are involved in mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanisms whereby inflammatory responses contribute to loss of dopaminergic neurons in fipronil (FPN)-treated rats. After stereotaxic injection of FPN in the substantia nigra (SN), the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and the levels of TH expression in the SN decreased at 7days, and a significant decrease was observed at 14days with a subsequent reduction in striatal TH expression. Decreases in dopamine (DA) levels, however, began at 3days post-injection, preceding the changes in TH expression. In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly increased at 3days and persisted for up to 14days post-lesion; these changes in GFAP expression appeared to be inversely correlated with TH expression. Furthermore, we found that FPN administration induced an inflammatory response characterized by increased levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which was mediated by activated microglia following infusion of FPN unilaterally into the SN. Intranigral injection of FPN underwent an inflammatory response with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, indicating that pesticides may have important implication for the study of PD. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rainfall-induced nutrient losses from manure-fertilized farmland in an alluvial plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiyao; Li, Huaizheng; Xu, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport and loss in farmlands are affected by factors such as land cover, fertilization, soil type, rainfall, and management practices. We investigated the temporal and spatial changes in macronutrient transport and loss after fertilization and precipitation in manure-fertilized eggplant farmland in an alluvial plain. Upon adding topical fertilizer, concentrations of most nutrients in runoff and groundwater increased, and nitrogen runoff increased from 22.11 to 35.81 kg/ha, although eggplant yield did not increase correspondingly. Incorporation of fertilizer by plowing reduced nutrient losses (nitrogen runoff/fertilizer decreased from 18.40 to 12.29 %). Measurements taken along the nutrient transport route (runoff, drainage ditch, groundwater, river water, and finally rainfall) revealed that concentrations of most nutrients declined at each stage. Nutrient characteristics varied by transport, and the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus differed greatly between runoff and groundwater (nitrate/nitrogen in runoff was ~43.49 %, while in groundwater ~5.41 %). Most nutrient concentrations in runoff decreased greatly during the planting season (total nitrogen decreased from 62.25 to 4.17 mg/L), correlated positively with temperature and stage of plant growth, but little temporal change was observed in groundwater. This field investigation during one planting season exemplifies the basic principles of nutrient loss and transport from manure-fertilized farmland in an alluvial plain.

  3. Loss of Sodium/Hydrogen Exchanger NHA2 Exacerbates Obesity- and Aging-Induced Glucose Intolerance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisl, Christine; Anderegg, Manuel; Albano, Giuseppe; Lüscher, Benjamin P.; Cerny, David; Soria, Rodrigo; Bouillet, Elisa; Rimoldi, Stefano; Scherrer, Urs

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHA2, also known as NHEDC2 or SLC9B2, is critical for insulin secretion by β–cells. To gain more insights into the role of NHA2 on systemic glucose homeostasis, we studied the impact of loss of NHA2 during the physiological aging process and in the setting of diet-induced obesity. While glucose tolerance was normal at 2 months of age, NHA2 KO mice displayed a significant glucose intolerance at 5 and 12 months of age, respectively. An obesogenic high fat diet further exacerbated the glucose intolerance of NHA2 KO mice. Insulin levels remained similar in NHA2 KO and WT mice during aging and high fat diet, but fasting insulin/glucose ratios were significantly lower in NHA2 KO mice. Peripheral insulin sensitivity, measured by insulin tolerance tests and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, was unaffected by loss of NHA2 during aging and high fat diet. High fat diet diminished insulin secretion capacity in both WT and NHA2 KO islets and reduced expression of NHA2 in WT islets. In contrast, aging was characterized by a gradual increase of NHA2 expression in islets, paralleled by an increasing difference in insulin secretion between WT and NHA2 KO islets. In summary, our results demonstrate that loss of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHA2 exacerbates obesity- and aging-induced glucose intolerance in mice. Furthermore, our data reveal a close link between NHA2 expression and insulin secretion capacity in islets. PMID:27685945

  4. Power loss measurement of implantable wireless power transfer components using a Peltier device balance calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Yan; Budgett, David M.; Taberner, Andrew; Hu, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Determining heat losses in power transfer components operating at high frequencies for implantable inductive power transfer systems is important for assessing whether the heat dissipated by the component is acceptable for implantation and medical use. However, this is a challenge at high frequencies and voltages due to limitations in electronic instrumentation. Calorimetric methods of power measurement are immune to the effects of high frequencies and voltages; hence, the measurement is independent of the electrical characteristics of the system. Calorimeters have been widely used to measure the losses of high power electrical components (>50 W), however it is more difficult to perform on low power components. This paper presents a novel power measurement method for components dissipating anywhere between 0.2 W and 1 W of power based on a heat balance calorimeter that uses a Peltier device as a balance sensor. The proposed balance calorimeter has a single test accuracy of ±0.042 W. The experimental results revealed that there was up to 35% difference between the power measurements obtained with electrical methods and the proposed calorimeter.

  5. Individual responsiveness to exercise-induced fat loss is associated with change in resting substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwell, Nicholas D; Malkova, Dalia; Leggate, Melanie; Gill, Jason M R

    2009-09-01

    Fat loss in response to exercise training varies between individuals, even when differences in compliance to the exercise program are accounted for. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual variation in change in fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) after exercise training contributes to this interindividual variability. Fifty-five premenopausal women participated in a 7-week endurance-type exercise training program; and fitness, body composition, and resting substrate utilization and metabolic rate in the fasted state were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Total net energy expenditure of the exercise intervention (exEE) was determined from heart rate obtained in all exercise sessions and individualized calibration of the heart rate vs oxygen uptake relationship. Dietary intake and physical activity (by constant heart rate monitoring) were assessed at baseline and during the final week of the intervention. Mean change in fat mass for the group was -0.97 kg (range, +2.1 to -5.3 kg). The strongest correlate of change in fat mass was exEE (r = 0.60, P Change in fasting RQ correlated significantly (r = -0.26, P = .05) with the residual for change in fat mass after adjusting for the effects of both exEE and change in energy intake, explaining 7% of the variance. In multiple regression analysis, exEE (P change in fasting RQ (P = .02) were the only statistically significant independent predictors of change in fat mass, together explaining 40.2% of the variance. Thus, fat loss in response to exercise training depends not only on exercise energy expenditure but also on exercise training-induced changes in RQ at rest. This suggests that development of strategies to maximize the change in resting fat oxidation in response to an exercise training program may help individuals to maximize exercise-induced fat loss.

  6. Climate-induced glacier and snow loss imperils alpine stream insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, J. Joseph; Hotaling, Scott; Kovach, Ryan; Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming is causing rapid loss of glaciers and snowpack in mountainous regions worldwide. These changes are predicted to negatively impact the habitats of many range-restricted species, particularly endemic, mountaintop species dependent on the unique thermal and hydrologic conditions found only in glacier-fed and snowmelt-driven alpine streams. Though progress has been made, existing understanding of the status, distribution, and ecology of alpine aquatic species, particularly in North America, is lacking, thereby hindering conservation and management programs. Two aquatic insects – the meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana and the glacier stonefly Zapada glacier – were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to climate-change-induced habitat loss. Using a large dataset (272 streams, 482 total sites) with high-resolution climate and habitat information, we describe the distribution, status, and key environmental features that limit L. tumana and Z. glacier across the northern Rocky Mountains. Lednia tumana was detected in 113 streams (175 sites) within Glacier National Park (GNP) and surrounding areas. The probability of L. tumana occurrence increased with cold stream temperatures and close proximity to glaciers and permanent snowfields. Similarly, densities of L. tumana declined with increasing distance from stream source. Zapada glacier was only detected in 10 streams (20 sites), six in GNP and four in mountain ranges up to ~600 km southwest. Our results show that both L. tumana and Z. glacier inhabit an extremely narrow distribution, restricted to short sections of cold, alpine streams often below glaciers predicted to disappear over the next two decades. Climate warming-induced glacier and snow loss clearly imperils the persistence of L. tumana and Z. glacier throughout their ranges, highlighting the role of mountaintop aquatic invertebrates as sentinels of climate change in mid-latitude regions.

  7. Puerarin decreases bone loss and collagen destruction in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin, the most abundant isoflavonoid in kudzu root, shows various bioactivities, including bone-sparing, anti-inflammatory and antiproteinase properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of puerarin in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Rat models of periodontitis were developed by bilaterally placing ligatures around the first mandibular molars. Puerarin was administrated daily by gavage at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, starting a day before the placement of ligatures. Rats were humanely killed 7 d after the induction of periodontitis. Micro-computed tomography and sirius red staining were used to evaluate alveolar bone loss and collagen destruction, respectively. Histomorphometrical analysis was used to assess the inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were used to detect receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin expressions, and osteoclast activity in the gingiva and alveolar bone. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the gingiva were assessed by Western blot. Puerarin at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss compared with the vehicle group. Collagen destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly less in the puerarin-treated group (200 mg/kg) compared with that of the vehicle group. Puerarin (200 mg/kg) also reduced the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin and osteoclast activity. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin (200 mg/kg) inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65, which is associated with lower IL-1β and TNF-α production, and reduced the glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, which is associated with lower

  8. Measurements of energy loss in the scrape-off layer of C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; the TAE Team Team

    2016-10-01

    We report on measurements of energy transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma that surrounds the advanced beam-driven field reversed configuration (FRC) of the C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy. The SOL plasma is trapped on mirror-like open field lines outside of the FRC separatrix that connect to material surfaces at both ends of the vacuum vessel. Heat transport in this region is expected to be convective, like in mirror machines, and can be characterized by the amount of energy lost per electron-ion pair. We measured this value with an end loss analyzer system that consists of gridded ion energy analyzers that measure ion current density and pyroelectric crystal bolometers that measure total particle power flux.

  9. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  10. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Loss and Tune Measurements (3/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  11. Loss of glycogen synthase kinase 3 isoforms during murine oocyte growth induces offspring cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro da Rocha, André; Ding, Jun; Slawny, Nicole; Wolf, Amber M; Smith, Gary D

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a constitutively active serine threonine kinase with 1) two isoforms (GSK3A and GSK3B) that have unique and overlapping functions, 2) multiple molecular intracellular mechanisms that involve phosphorylation of diverse substrates, and 3) implications in pathogenesis of many diseases. Insulin causes phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3 and mammalian oocytes have a functional insulin-signaling pathway whereby prolonged elevated insulin during follicle/oocyte development causes GSK3 hyperphosphorylation, reduced GSK3 activity, and altered oocyte chromatin remodeling. Periconceptional diabetes and chronic hyperinsulinemia are associated with congenital malformations and onset of adult diseases of cardiovascular origin. Objectives were to produce transgenic mice with individual or concomitant loss of GSK3A and/or GSK3B and investigate the in vivo role of oocyte GSK3 on fertility, fetal development, and offspring health. Wild-type males bred to females with individual or concomitant loss of oocyte GSK3 isoforms did not have reduced fertility. However, concomitant loss of GSK3A and GSK3B in the oocyte significantly increased neonatal death rate due to congestive heart failure secondary to ventricular hyperplasia. Individual loss of oocyte GSK3A or GSK3B did not induce this lethal phenotype. In conclusion, absence of oocyte GSK3 in the periconceptional period does not alter fertility yet causes offspring cardiac hyperplasia, cardiovascular defects, and significant neonatal death. These results support a developmental mechanism by which periconceptional hyperinsulinemia associated with maternal metabolic syndrome, obesity, and/or diabetes can act on the oocyte and affect offspring cardiovascular development, function, and congenital heart malformation.

  12. Loss of EBP50 stimulates EGFR activity to induce EMT phenotypic features in biliary cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapéron, A; Guedj, N; Mergey, M; Vignjevic, D; Desbois-Mouthon, C; Boissan, M; Saubaméa, B; Paradis, V; Housset, C; Fouassier, L

    2012-03-15

    Scaffold proteins form multiprotein complexes that are central to the regulation of intracellular signaling. The scaffold protein ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is highly expressed at the plasma membrane of normal biliary epithelial cells and binds epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase receptor with oncogenic properties. This study investigated EBP50-EGFR interplay in biliary cancer. We report that in a collection of 106 cholangiocarcinomas, EBP50 was delocalized to the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 66% of the cases. Ectopic expression of EBP50 was correlated with the presence of satellite nodules and with the expression of EGFR, which was at the plasma membrane, implying a loss of interaction with EBP50 in these cases. In vitro, loss of interaction between EBP50 and EGFR was mimicked by EBP50 depletion using a small interfering RNA approach in human biliary carcinoma cells co-expressing the two proteins at their plasma membrane, and in which interaction between EBP50 and EGFR was validated. EBP50 depletion caused an increase in EGFR expression at their surface, and a sustained activation of the receptor and of its downstream effectors (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in both basal and EGF-stimulated conditions. Cells lacking EBP50 showed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-associated features, including reduction in E-cadherin and cytokeratin-19 expression, induction of S100A4 and of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor, Slug, and loss of cell polarity. Accordingly, depletion of EBP50 induced the disruption of adherens junctional complexes, the development of lamellipodia structures and the subsequent acquisition of motility properties. All these phenotypic changes were prevented upon inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase by gefitinib. These findings indicate that loss of EBP50 at the plasma membrane in tumor cells may contribute to biliary carcinogenesis

  13. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area induced from extreme events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok Chul; Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Byung Soon; Jang, Dong Ju; Lee, Seung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    USNRC announced several regulatory requirements and guidance documents regarding the event of loss of large area including 10CFR 50.54(hh), Regulatory Guide 1.214 and SRP 19.4. In Korea, consideration of loss of large area has been limitedly taken into account for newly constructing NPPs as voluntary based. In general, it is hardly possible to find available information on methodology and key assumptions for the assessment of LOLA due to 'need to know based approach'. Urgent needs exists for developing country specific regulatory requirements, guidance and evaluation methodology by themselves with the consideration of their own geographical and nuclear safety and security environments. Currently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has developed an Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline (EDMG) for APR1400 under contract with foreign consulting company. The submittal guidance NEI 06-12 related to B.5.b Phase 2 and 3 focused on unit-wise mitigation strategy instead of site level mitigation or response strategy. Phase 1 mitigating strategy and guideline for LOLA (Loss of Large Area) provides emphasis on site level arrangement including cooperative networking outside organizations and agile command and control system. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a pilot in-house research project to develop the methodology and guideline for evaluation of LOLA since 2014. This paper introduces the summary of major results and outcomes of the aforementioned research project. After Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, the awareness on countering the event of loss of large area induced from extreme man-made hazards or extreme beyond design basis external event. Urgent need exists to develop regulatory guidance for coping with this undesirable situation, which has been out of consideration at existing nuclear safety regulatory framework due to the expectation of rare possibility of occurrence.

  14. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  15. Induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyczkowski, Karol [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw, Poland and Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Crakow (Poland)). E-mail: karol@cft.edu.pl; Sommers, Hans-Juergen [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Essen, Essen (Germany)). E-mail: sommers@next30.theo-phys.uni-essen.de

    2001-09-07

    We analyse several product measures in the space of mixed quantum states. In particular, we study measures induced by the operation of partial tracing. The natural, rotationally invariant measure on the set of all pure states of a NxK composite system, induces a unique measure in the space of NxN mixed states (or in the space of KxK mixed states, if the reduction takes place with respect to the first subsystem). For K=N the induced measure is equal to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, which is shown to coincide with the measure induced by singular values of non-Hermitian random Gaussian matrices pertaining to the Ginibre ensemble. We compute several averages with respect to this measure and show that the mean entanglement of NxN pure states behaves as lnN-1/2. (author)

  16. Induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    2001-01-01

    We analyze several product measures in the space of mixed quantum states. In particular we study measures induced by the operation of partial tracing. The natural, rotationally invariant measure on the set of all pure states of a N x K composite system, induces a unique measure in the space of N x N mixed states (or in the space of K x K mixed states, if the reduction takes place with respect to the first subsystem). For K=N the induced measure is equal to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, which is shown to coincide with the measure induced by singular values of non-Hermitian random Gaussian matrices pertaining to the Ginibre ensemble. We compute several averages with respect to this measure and show that the mean entanglement of $N \\times N$ pure states behaves as lnN-1/2.

  17. Modeling and Measurement of 39Ar Recoil Loss From Biotite as a Function of Grain Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, J. H.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The call for age measurements with less than 1 per mil error puts a demand upon geochronologists to be aware of and quantify a number of problems which were previously negligible. One such factor is 39Ar recoil loss during sample irradiation, a phenomenon which is widely assumed to affect only unusually small crystals having exceptionally high surface/volume ratios. This phenomenon has important implications for thermochronologic studies seeking to exploit a range of closure temperatures arising from variable diffusion radii. Our study focuses on biotite, in which spatial isotope distributions cannot be reliably recovered by stepwise heating and which therefore lack recoil-diagnostic age spectrum behavior. Previous work by Renne et al. [Application of a deuteron-deuteron (D-D) neutron generator to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, in press] used the SRIM code to calculate a ˜20% 39Ar recoil loss from the outermost 0.25 μ m of an infinite slab of phyllosillicate. This result is applied to measured grains of the biotite standard GA1550, a hypabyssal granite from the Mount Dromedary Complex, Australia. We measure the thickness and surface area of 166 grains and approximate the shape of each grain as a cylinder. Grain thickness ranges from 3 to 210 μ m, with an average grain radius of 350 μ m. We predict the amount of 39Ar recoil loss from each grain, finding an expected age error >0.1 % for grains thinner than 150 μ m, a >1% error for grain less than 10 μ m thick, and up to a 3% error for grains less than 3 μ m thick. These modeling results will be tested by analysis of the measured grains after irradiation in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. It is important to either account for 39Ar loss in thin biotite grains, or use sufficiently thick ones so that recoil loss is negligible. Our results indicate that only biotite grains thicker than 150 μ m should be used for neutron fluence monitoring in order to avoid bias greater than the

  18. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010-2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5-4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  19. Renexin as a rescue regimen for noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renexin, a compound of cilostazol and ginkgo biloba extract, has been reported to produce neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of renexin on hearing, the organ of Corti (OC, and medial olivocochlear efferents against noise-induced damage. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 110 dB SPL white noise for 60 min and then randomly divided into three groups: high- and low-dose renexin-treated groups and noise only group. Renexin were administered for 7 days: 90 mg/kg to the low-dose, and 180 mg/kg to the high-dose groups. All mice, including the controls underwent hearing tests on postnoise day 8 and were killed for cochlear harvest. We compared the hearing thresholds and morphology of the OC and cochlear efferents across the groups. The renexin-treated groups recovered from the immediate threshold shifts in a dose-dependent manner, while the noise group showed a permanent hearing loss. The renexin-treated ears demonstrated less degeneration of the OC. The diameters of the efferent terminals labeled with α-synuclein were preserved in the high-dose renexin-treated group. In the western blot assay of the cochlear homogenates, the treated groups displayed stronger expressions of α-synuclein than the noise and control groups, which may indicate that noise-induced enhanced activity of the cochlear efferent system was protected by renexin. Our results suggest that pharmacologic treatment with renexin is hopeful to reduce or prevent noise-induced hearing loss as a rescue regimen after noise exposure.

  20. Ebola virus glycoproteins induce global surface protein down-modulation and loss of cell adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Graham; Wool-Lewis, Rouven J; Baribaud, Frédéric; Netter, Robert C; Bates, Paul

    2002-03-01

    The Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP) derived from the pathogenic Zaire subtype mediates cell rounding and detachment from the extracellular matrix in 293T cells. In this study we provide evidence that GPs from the other pathogenic subtypes, Sudan and Côte d'Ivoire, as well as from Reston, a strain thought to be nonpathogenic in humans, also induced cell rounding, albeit at lower levels than Zaire GP. Sequential removal of regions of potential O-linked glycosylation at the C terminus of GP1 led to a step-wise reduction in cell detachment without obviously affecting GP function, suggesting that such modifications are involved in inducing the detachment phenotype. While causing cell rounding and detachment in 293T cells, Ebola virus GP did not cause an increase in cell death. Indeed, following transient expression of GP, cells were able to readhere and continue to divide. Also, the rounding effect was not limited to 293T cells. Replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing Ebola virus GP induced the loss of cell adhesion in a range of cell lines and primary cell types, including those with proposed relevance to Ebola virus infection in vivo, such as endothelial cells and macrophages. In both transfected 293T and adenovirus-infected Vero cells, a reduction in cell surface expression of adhesion molecules such as integrin beta1 concurrent with the loss of cell adhesion was observed. A number of other cell surface molecules, however, including major histocompatibility complex class I and the epidermal growth factor receptor, were also down-modulated, suggesting a global mechanism for surface molecule down-regulation.

  1. Inflammation-induced loss of Pdcd4 is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Bajer, Magdalena M; Blees, Johanna S; Eifler, Lisa K; Milke, Larissa; Rübsamen, Daniela; Schulz, Kathrin; Weigert, Andreas; Baker, Alyson R; Colburn, Nancy H; Brüne, Bernhard

    2011-10-01

    The tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is lost in various tumor tissues. Loss of Pdcd4 has been associated with increased tumorigenic potential and tumor progression. While various mechanisms of Pdcd4 regulation have been described, the effect of an inflammatory tumor microenvironment on Pdcd4 protein expression has not been characterized so far. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of Pdcd4 protein regulation in tumor cells under inflammatory conditions. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced differentiation of human U937 monocytes increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Exposure to conditioned medium (CM) of these activated macrophages markedly decreased Pdcd4 protein expression in various tumor cells. Similarly, indirect coculture with such activated U937 monocyte-derived macrophages resulted in the loss of Pdcd4 protein in tumor cells. Decreased Pdcd4 protein levels were attributable to enhanced proteasomal degradation, diminishing Pdcd4 protein half-life. Proteasomal degradation required activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Since macrophage-CM sufficed to induce Pdcd4 degradation, Pdcd4 downregulation was determined to be an indirect unidirectional effect of the macrophages on the tumor cells. Pdcd4 protein expression was also attenuated in vivo in mouse colon tissue in response to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. In summary, we characterized PI3K-mTOR-dependent proteasome-mediated Pdcd4 degradation in tumor cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Consequently, stabilization of Pdcd4 protein could provide a promising novel avenue for therapeutics targeting inflammation-associated tumors.

  2. Hwangryun-Haedok-Tang Fermented with Lactobacillus casei Suppresses Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Shuk Shim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT is the common recipe in traditional Asian medicine, and microbial fermentation is used for the conventional methods for processing traditional medicine. We investigated the inhibitory effect of the n-butanol fraction of HRT (HRT-BU and fHRT (fHRT-BU on the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. mRNA expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes were evaluated by real-time QPCR. The activation of signaling pathways was determined by western blot analysis. The marker compounds of HRT-BU and fHRT-BU were analyzed by HPLC. The inhibitory effect of HRT or fHRT on ovariectomy-induced bone loss were evaluated using OVX rats with orally administered HRT, fHRT (300, 1000 mg/kg, or its vehicle for 12 weeks. fHRT-BU significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, and phosphorylation of p38, IKKα/β, and NF-κBp65 compared to HRT-BU. In addition, fHRT-BU also significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Nfκb2, TNF-α, NFATc1, TRAP, ATPv0d2, and cathepsin K. Furthermore, administration of fHRT had a greater effect on the increase of BMD, and greater improved bone microstructure of the femora than that of HRT in ovariectomy rats. This study demonstrated that bacterial fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial effects on bone disease by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  3. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  4. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    be recorded using, for example, a digital oscilloscope. The amplitude decay of the periodic voltage or current accurately reflects the power loss in the system. It consists of two components-an ohmic purely exponential one (from leads, contacts, etc.), and a nonexponential component originating from......A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... with a certain voltage, or letting a de flow in the superconductor. When the oscillations are started-either by opening a switch in case a de is flowing or by closing a switch to connect the charged capacitors with the superconductor-the current (via a Rogowski coil) or the voltage on the capacitor can...

  5. Design and Development of a Diagnostics Client for a Beam Loss Measurement System at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Angelogiannopoulos, Emmanouil; Jackson, Stephen

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is one of the biggest research centers in the field of particle physics. Its main function is to provide particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high energy physics research. Particles are accelerated through a complex of accelerators and are brought into collision, in order to study the fundamental elements of matter and the forces acting between them. Of course, such complex and expensive machines need control and protection. For that purpose, a variety of different systems -hardware and/or software- is needed. One such system is the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of an accelerator. This kind of system is designed for measuring beam losses around an accelerator. An appropriate design of the BLM system and an appropriate location of the monitors enable a wide field of very useful beam diagnostics and machine protection possibilities. This thesis focuses on the design and development of a client application, which is realized ...

  6. Turbulence measurements in shock induced flow using hot wire anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Lin C.; Duffy, Robert E.; Trolier, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Heat transfer measurements over various geometric shapes have been made by immersing models in shock-induced flows. The heat transfer to a body is strongly dependent on the turbulence level of the stream. The interpretation of such heat transfer measurements requires a knowledge of the turbulence intensity. Turbulence intensity measurements, using hot-wire anemometry, have been successfully carried out in shock-induced flows. The experimental procedures for making such measurements and the techniques required are discussed.

  7. Measurement and modeling of low-wavelength losses in silica fibers and their impact at communication Wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Using the cutback technique, the attenuation of four different silica step-index fibers is measured in the very wide wavelength range of 190-1700 nm. The measured spectra are deconvolved into components describing Rayleigh scattering, infrared losses, Urbach edge, anomalous loss, and different...... wavelengths for two of the four fibers investigated....

  8. A two-photon laser induced fluorescence diagnostic with improved sensitivity, localization, and measurement rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Drew; Scime, Earl; Short, Zachary

    2016-10-01

    A two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic has been developed for measuring neutrals in fusion plasmas. Implementation of this diagnostic on the HIT-SI3 spheromak has demonstrated the sensitivity of the diagnostic and shown that measurements taken over several plasma pulses are possible. These measurements yielded an unexpected loss of signal when complex collection optics were utilized. Simulations show that this loss of signal can be explained by chromatic aberrations caused by the disparate Kr and D emission. This loss of signal has been addressed with the development of a new calibration scheme involving xenon gas. The Xe calibration scheme emission occurs at 656.00 nm while the deuterium emission is 656.09 nm. This nearly identical emission allows for advanced optical techniques such as confocal collection/injection and spatial filtering to be employed without loss of signal. Spatial filtering has been demonstrated to decrease noise while improving measurement localization, while confocal collection/injection allows for probing and measuring to occur through one viewport. The Xe scheme also allows for a Doppler-free hydrogen measurement. Doppler-free measurements eliminate the need to scan the laser spectrally thus greatly increasing the rate of measurement.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of sawmill workers towards noise-induced hearing loss in kota bharu, kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Razman Mohd; Daud, Aziah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naing, Lin

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the socio-demography, knowledge, attitude and practice level in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The weak areas identified in the knowledge section were treatment aspects (15.5%), signs and symptoms of NIHL (20.2%) and risk factors (31%). As for attitude; the prevention aspects were the lowest (25.3%), followed by risk taking attitude (26.2%), and causes of hearing loss (42.1%). Overall, the practice was not encouraging at all. It is important to have an education program to raise workers' awareness and to improve their attitude and practices towards noise-induced hearing loss.

  10. Measurement of the energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch-Maas, Renate

    2009-11-25

    The interaction of ions with plasma is not yet fully understood today, although it is important for inertial fusion technology. During recent years, the energy loss of heavy ions in plasma has therefore been a subject of research in the Laser and Plasma Physics group of Darmstadt University of Technology. Several experiments were carried out at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt using laser-created plasma, thereby taking advantage of the unique combination of GSI's accelerator facility and the laser system nhelix, which is also described in this work. The experiments focus on the measurement of the energy loss of medium heavy ions in a plasma created by directly heating a thin carbon foil with the nhelix laser, at an energy of about 50 J. In order to measure the energy loss using a time-of-flight method, a stop detector is used to register the arrival of the ion pulses after passing the plasma and a 12 m drift space. At the beginning of the work on this thesis, the ion detector types formerly used were found to be inadequately suited to the difficult task; this was changed during this thesis. The ion detector has to be able to temporarily resolve ion pulses with a frequency of 108 MHz and a width (FWHM) of 3 ns at a very low current. It also has to withstand the X-ray burst from the plasma with a dead time shorter than the difference between the X-ray and the ion time of flight between the plasma and the detector. In order to satisfy these and other demands, a new diamond detector was designed and has now been used for several measurements. In addition to the new detector, other improvements were made concerning the diagnostics and the laser. The laser-created plasma now reaches a maximum temperature exceeding 200 eV and a free electron density of up to 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. With this greatly improved setup, energy loss data could be obtained with a temporal resolution several times better than before, using an ion beam with a

  11. Abnormal tau induces cognitive impairment through two different mechanisms: synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J; Cohen, L S; Corbo, C P; Phillips, G R; El Idrissi, A; Alonso, A D

    2016-02-18

    The hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau is present in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the causal relationship remains elusive. Few mouse models used to study Alzheimer-like dementia target tau phosphorylation. We created an inducible pseudophosphorylated tau (Pathological Human Tau, PH-Tau) mouse model to study the effect of conformationally modified tau in vivo. Leaky expression resulted in two levels of PH-Tau: low basal level and higher upon induction (4% and 14% of the endogenous tau, respectively). Unexpectedly, low PH-Tau resulted in significant cognitive deficits, decrease in the number of synapses (seen by EM in the CA1 region), reduction of synaptic proteins, and localization to the nucleus. Induction of PH-Tau triggered neuronal death (60% in CA3), astrocytosis, and loss of the processes in CA1. These findings suggest, that phosphorylated tau is sufficient to induce neurodegeneration and that two different mechanisms can induce cognitive impairment depending on the levels of PH-Tau expression.

  12. Growth factors have a protective effect on neomycin-induced hair cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiangxin; Yuan, Huihua; Xie, Jing; Wang, Xianliu; Yang, Liangliang; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that selected growth factors are involved in regulating survival and proliferation of progenitor cells derived from the neonatal rat organ of Corti (OC). The protective and regenerative effects of these defined growth factors on the injured organ of Corti were therefore investigated. The organ of Corti dissected from the Wistar rat pups (P3-P5) was split into apical, middle, and basal parts, explanted and cultured with or without neomycin and growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) protected the inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) from neomycin ototoxicity. Using EGF, IGF-1, and FGF-2 alone induced no protective effect on the survival of auditory hair cells. Combining 2 growth factors (EGF + IGF-1, EGF + FGF-2, or IGF-1 + FGF-2) gave statistically protective effects. Similarly, combining all three growth factors effectively protected auditory hair cells from the ototoxic insult. None of the growth factors induced regeneration of hair cells in the explants injured with neomycin. Thus various combinations of the three defined factors (IGF-1, FGF-2, and EGF) can protect the auditory hair cells from the neomycin-induced ototoxic damage, but no regeneration was seen. This offers a possible novel approach to the treatment of hearing loss.

  13. On the Pressure-Induced Loss of Crystallinity in Zinc- and Calcium-Phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhvorostov, D.; Mosey, N; Munoz-Paniagua, D; Pereira, G; Song, Y; Kasrai, M; Norton, P; Müser, M

    2008-01-01

    A recently suggested mechanism for the stress memory of various metal phosphates is investigated experimentally. Based on first-principles simulations [N. J. Mosey et al., Science 307, 1612 (2005)], it had been argued that atoms with flexible coordination, such as zinc or heavy-metal cations, act as network-forming agents, undergoing irreversible pressure-induced changes in bonding that lead to increased connectivity between phosphate anions. In the present study, orthophosphates of zinc and calcium were exposed to high pressures on surfaces and in diamond anvil cells. An additional set of first-principles simulations was accomplished on ?-orthophosphate of zinc, which suggested that this material was already cross-linked before compression but that it nevertheless underwent a reversible coordination change under pressure in agreement with the experimental results presented here. Raman spectra indicate an irreversible, pressure-induced loss of long-range crystallinity. The pressures required to induce these changes are around 7 GPa for the zinc phosphates, while they are close to 21 GPa for the calcium phosphates. Hydrogenation of the metal phosphate lowers the threshold pressure by approximately 2-3 GPa in both cases. Moreover, ?-orthophosphate of zinc could be partially amorphisized under nonisotropic pressure on copper foils.

  14. Weight Loss Decreases Inherent and Allergic Methacholine Hyperresponsiveness in Mouse Models of Diet-Induced Obese Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ather, Jennifer L; Chung, Michael; Hoyt, Laura R; Randall, Matthew J; Georgsdottir, Anna; Daphtary, Nirav A; Aliyeva, Minara I; Suratt, Benjamin T; Bates, Jason H T; Irvin, Charles G; Russell, Sheila R; Forgione, Patrick M; Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    Obese asthma presents with inherent hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or augmented allergen-driven allergic asthma, with an even greater magnitude of methacholine hyperresponsiveness. These physiologic parameters and accompanying obese asthma symptoms can be reduced by successful weight loss, yet the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We implemented mouse models of diet-induced obesity, dietary and surgical weight loss, and environmental allergen exposure to examine the mechanisms and mediators of inherent and allergic obese asthma. We report that the methacholine hyperresponsiveness in these models of inherent obese asthma and obese allergic asthma manifests in distinct anatomical compartments but that both are amenable to interventions that induce substantial weight loss. The inherent obese asthma phenotype, with characteristic increases in distal airspace tissue resistance and tissue elastance, is associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines that are reduced with dietary weight loss. Surprisingly, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss further elevates these cytokines while reducing methacholine responsiveness to levels similar to those in lean mice or in formerly obese mice rendered lean through dietary intervention. In contrast, the obese allergic asthma phenotype, with characteristic increases in central airway resistance, is not associated with increased adaptive immune responses, yet diet-induced weight loss reduces methacholine hyperresponsiveness without altering immunological variables. Diet-induced weight loss is effective in models of both inherent and allergic obese asthma, and our examination of the fecal microbiome revealed that the obesogenic Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was normalized after diet-induced weight loss. Our results suggest that structural, immunological, and microbiological factors contribute to the manifold presentations of obese asthma.

  15. Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. I. Relation to ambient humidity and site of measurement and estimation of total transepidermal water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarl-nd, K; Nilsson, G E; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1977-09-01

    Insensible water loss (IWL) is an important factor in the thermoregulation and water balance of the newborn infant. A method for direct measurement of the rate of evaporation from the skin surface has been developed. The method, which is based on determination of the vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface, allows free evaporation. From measurements performed on 19 newborns placed in incubators, a linear relation was found between the evaporation rate (ER) and the humidity of the environment at a constant ambient temperature. A 40% lower ER was recorded at a high relative humidity (60%) than at a low one (20%) in the incubator. At measurements on different sites of the body, a high ER was observed on the face and peripheral parts of the extremities, while ER at other sites was relatively low. By determining ER from different parts of the body and calculating the areas of the corresponding surfaces, the total cutaneous insensible water loss for the infant in question could be obtained. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for the whole body surface area was calculated to be 8.1 g/m2h. On the basis of measurements performed it was found that the total cutaneous insensible water loss can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy by recording ER from only three easily accessible measurement points.

  16. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  17. Rotordynamic and Friction Loss Measurements on a High Speed Laval Rotor Supported by Floating Ring Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Eling

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Floating ring bearings are the commonly used type of bearing for automotive turbochargers. The automotive industry continuously investigates how to reduce the bearing friction losses and how to create silent turbochargers. Many of these studies involve creating a numerical model of the rotor-bearing system and performing validation on a test bench on which a turbocharger is driven by hot gases. This approach, however, involves many uncertainties which diminish the validity of the measurement results. In this study, we present a test setup in which these uncertainties are minimized. The measurement results show the behavior of the floating ring bearing as a function of oil feed pressure, oil feed temperature, rotor unbalance and bearing clearances. Next to an increased validity, the test setup provides measurement data with good repeatability and can therefore represent a case study which can be used for validation of rotor-bearing models.

  18. 10 Orders of Magnitude Current Measurement Digitisers for the CERN Beam Loss Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vigano, W; Dehning, B; Kwiatkowski, M; Venturini, G G; Zamantzas, C

    2014-01-01

    A wide range current digitizer card is needed for the acquisition module of the beam loss monitoring systems in the CERN Injector Complex. The fully differential frequency converter allows measuring positive and negative input currents with a resolution of 31nA in an integration window of 2μs. Increasing the integration window, the dynamic range covers 2•1010 were the upper part of the range is converted by measuring directly the voltage drop on a resistor. The key elements of this design are the fully differential integrator and the switches operated by an FPGA. The circuit is designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and reliability and failsafe operational considerations are main design goals. The circuit will be discussed in detail and lab and field measurements will be shown.

  19. 10 orders of magnitude current measurement digitisers for the CERN beam loss systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, W.; Alsdorf, M.; Dehning, B.; Kwiatkowski, M.; Venturini, G. G.; Zamantzas, C.

    2014-02-01

    A wide range current digitizer card is needed for the acquisition module of the beam loss monitoring systems in the CERN Injector Complex. The fully differential frequency converter allows measuring positive and negative input currents with a resolution of 31 nA in an integration window of 2 μs. Increasing the integration window, the dynamic range covers 21010 were the upper part of the range is converted by measuring directly the voltage drop on a resistor. The key elements of this design are the fully differential integrator and the switches operated by an FPGA. The circuit is designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and reliability and failsafe operational considerations are main design goals. The circuit will be discussed in detail and lab and field measurements will be shown.

  20. Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2015-12-01

    Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) output genuine random numbers based upon the uncertainty principle. A QRNG contains two parts in general—a randomness source and a readout detector. How to remove detector imperfections has been one of the most important questions in practical randomness generation. We propose a simple solution, measurement-device-independent QRNG, which not only removes all detector side channels but is robust against losses. In contrast to previous fully device-independent QRNGs, our scheme does not require high detector efficiency or nonlocality tests. Simulations show that our protocol can be implemented efficiently with a practical coherent state laser and other standard optical components. The security analysis of our QRNG consists mainly of two parts: measurement tomography and randomness quantification, where several new techniques are developed to characterize the randomness associated with a positive-operator valued measure.

  1. Controlled Transverse Blow-up of Highenergy Proton Beams for Aperture Measurements and Loss Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hӧfle, W; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, R; Valuch, D; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    A technique was developed to blow-up transversely in a controlled way high energy proton beams in the LHC. The technique is based on band limited white noise excitation that is injected into the transverse damper feedback loop. The injected signal can be gated to selectively blow-up individual trains of bunches. The speed of transverse blow-up can be precisely controlled. This opens the possibility to perform safely and efficiently aperture measurements and loss maps with high intensity bunch trains well above stored beam energies that are considered to be safe. In particular, lengthy procedures for measurements at top energy, otherwise requiring multiple fills of individual bunches, can be avoided. In this paper, the method is presented and results from beam measurements are discussed and compared with alternative blowup methods.

  2. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion.

  3. System Architecture for measuring and monitoring Beam Losses in the Injector Complex at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The strategy for beam setup and machine protection of the accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on its Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) systems. For their upgrade to higher beam energies and intensities, a new BLM system is under development with the aim of providing faster measurement updates with higher dynamic range and the ability to accept more types of detectors as input compared to its predecessors. In this paper, the architecture of the complete system is explored giving an insight to the design choices made to provide a highly reconfigurable system that is able to fulfil the different requirements of each accelerator using reprogrammable devices.

  4. High winds induce nitrogen loss from US Pacific Northwest agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, B. S.; Graves, L.; Pressley, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    High winds common to the Pacific Northwest region of the USA have resulted in massive loss of topsoil from agricultural fields that are primarily managed in a winter wheat / summer fallow rotation. This topsoil contains nitrogen (N), an essential nutrient required for growth and development of plants. Loss of N from soils can cause degradation of air and water quality and also is an economic concern to farmers because depletion of nutrients from soils results in lower crop yield. Flux of windblown sediment moving across eroding fields was measured during high wind events between 1999 and 2006 in eastern Washington. Samplers were deployed to trap sediment that was creeping along or in saltation/suspension at various heights above fields that were in the summer fallow phase of the rotation. Windblown sediment was weighed and analyzed for N content by combustion and a thermal conductivity analyzer. Enrichment, or the ratio of N in the windblown sediment to soil of greater than one, was observed in about half of the years. For nearly all high wind events, N content of sediment transported by creep was greater than sediment transported by saltation or suspension. This study suggests that wind erosion can result in loss of N from agricultural soils.

  5. The effect of electronic energy loss on irradiation-induced grain growth in nanocrystalline oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N; Weber, William J

    2014-05-07

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  6. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL.

  7. Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase......-sensitive amplifiers. We show that the model agrees with earlier fully quantum approaches in the linear gain regime, whereas in the saturated gain regime, in which the classical equations are valid, we predict that the amplifier increases the signal-to-noise ratio by generating an amplitude-squeezed state of light....... Also, in the same process, we analyze the quantum noise properties of the pump, which is difficult using standard quantum approaches, and we discover that the pump displays complicated dynamics in both the linear and the nonlinear gain regimes....

  8. Induced pluripotent stem cells:Landscape for studying and treating hereditary hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Peng; Yunpeng Dong; Ganghua Zhu; Dinghua Xie

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most widespread sensory disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 500 newborns. Heritable diseases of the inner ear are the leading causes of prelingual HL. Treating of hereditary HL and understanding its underlying mechanisms remain difficult challenges to otolaryngologists. As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation, they are ideally suited both for disease modeling and regenerative medicine. Recently, description of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has allowed the field of disease modeling and personalized therapy to become far more accessible and physiologically relevant, as iPSCs can be generated from patients of any genetic background. This review briefly describes the advantages of iPSCs technology and discusses potential applications of this powerful biological tool in studying and treating hereditary HL.

  9. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  10. Oral administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan aggravated periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianxian; Wu, Xiangnan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Hao, Zhichao; Chen, Shenyuan; Fu, Taozi; Chen, Helin; Wang, Hang

    2015-05-01

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the precursor of serotonin and 5-HTP has been widely used as a dietary supplement to raise serotonin level. Serotonin has recently been discovered to be a novel and important player in bone metabolism. As peripheral serotonin negatively regulates bone, the regular take of 5-HTP may affect the alveolar bone metabolism and therefore influence the alveolar bone loss induced by periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-HTP on alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: (1) the control group (without ligature); (2) the 5-HTP group (5-HTP at 25 mg/kg/day without ligature); (3) the L group (ligature+saline placebo); and (4) the L+5-HTP group (ligature+5-HTP at 25 mg/kg/day). Serum serotonin levels were determined by ELISA. The alveolar bones were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and histology. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was used to assess osteoclastogenesis. The receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in the periodontium as well as the interleukin-6 positive osteocytes were analysed immunohistochemically. 5-HTP significantly increased serum serotonin levels. In rats with experimental periodontitis, 5-HTP increased alveolar bone resorption and worsened the micro-structural destruction of the alveolar bone. 5-HTP also stimulated osteoclastogenesis and increased RANKL/OPG ratio and the number of IL-6 positive osteocytes. However, 5-HTP treatment alone did not cause alveolar bone loss in healthy rats. The present study showed that 5-HTP aggravated alveolar bone loss, deteriorated alveolar bone micro-structure in the presence of periodontitis, which suggests 5-HTP administration may increase the severity of periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Notch1 Activation or Loss Promotes HPV-Induced Oral Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rong; Bao, Riyue; Faber, Pieter W; Bindokas, Vytautas P; Bechill, John; Lingen, Mark W; Spiotto, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Viral oncogene expression is insufficient for neoplastic transformation of human cells, so human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers will also rely upon mutations in cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressors. However, it has been difficult so far to distinguish incidental mutations without phenotypic impact from causal mutations that drive the development of HPV-associated cancers. In this study, we addressed this issue by conducting a functional screen for genes that facilitate the formation of HPV E6/E7-induced squamous cell cancers in mice using a transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis protocol. Overall, we identified 39 candidate driver genes, including Notch1, which unexpectedly was scored by gain- or loss-of-function mutations that were capable of promoting squamous cell carcinogenesis. Autochthonous HPV-positive oral tumors possessing an activated Notch1 allele exhibited high rates of cell proliferation and tumor growth. Conversely, Notch1 loss could accelerate the growth of invasive tumors in a manner associated with increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and other proinvasive genes. HPV oncogenes clearly cooperated with loss of Notch1, insofar as its haploinsufficiency accelerated tumor growth only in HPV-positive tumors. In clinical specimens of various human cancers, there was a consistent pattern of NOTCH1 expression that correlated with invasive character, in support of our observations in mice. Although Notch1 acts as a tumor suppressor in mouse skin, we found that oncogenes enabling any perturbation in Notch1 expression promoted tumor growth, albeit via distinct pathways. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the meaning of putative driver gene mutations in cancer, and therefore therapeutic efforts to target them, given the significant contextual differences in which such mutations may arise, including in virus-associated tumors.

  12. High-Density Lipoprotein-Associated miR-223 Is Altered after Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Tabet

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy. HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015, which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032. Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.

  13. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Maria; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Raverty, Stephen A.; Shadwick, Robert E.; André, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4 hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30 hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events.

  14. T-cell reconstitution after thymus xenotransplantation induces hair depigmentation and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanski, Anna L; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Saldana, Jose Ignacio; Blundell, Michael P; Thrasher, Adrian J; Sebire, Neil J; Davies, E Graham; Crompton, Tessa

    2013-05-01

    Here we present a mouse model for T-cell targeting of hair follicles, linking the pathogenesis of alopecia to that of depigmentation disorders. Clinically, thymus transplantation has been successfully used to treat T-cell immunodeficiency in congenital athymia, but is associated with autoimmunity. We established a mouse model of thymus transplantation by subcutaneously implanting human thymus tissue into athymic C57BL/6 nude mice. These xenografts supported mouse T-cell development. Surprisingly, we did not detect multiorgan autoimmune disease. However, in all transplanted mice, we noted a striking depigmentation and loss of hair follicles. Transfer of T cells from transplanted nudes to syngeneic black-coated RAG(-/-) recipients caused progressive, persistent coat-hair whitening, which preceded patchy hair loss in depigmented areas. Further transfer experiments revealed that these phenomena could be induced by CD4+ T cells alone. Immunofluorescent analysis suggested that Trp2+ melanocyte-lineage cells were decreased in depigmented hair follicles, and pathogenic T cells upregulated activation markers when exposed to C57BL/6 melanocytes in vitro, suggesting that these T cells are not tolerant to self-melanocyte antigens. Our data raise interesting questions about the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific tolerance to skin antigens.

  15. Falls risk and hospitalization among retired workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Serge André; Leroux, Tony; Verreault, René; Courteau, Marilène; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Baril, Julie

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to ascertain whether occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) increased the risk of falls requiring hospitalization among retired workers. The study population consisted of males (age ≥ 65) with an average occupational noise exposure of 30.6 years and whose mean bilateral hearing loss was 42.2 dB HL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Seventy-two retired workers admitted to hospitals after a fall were matched with 216 controls from the same industrial sectors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk (odds ratio; [OR]) of falls leading to hospitalization by NIHL categories. Results showed a relationship between severe NIHL (≥ 52.5 dB HL) and the occurrence of a fall (OR: 1.97, CI95%: 1.001-3.876). Reducing falls among seniors fosters the maintenance of their autonomy. There is a definite need to acquire knowledge about harmful effects of occupational noise to support the prevention of NIHL and ensure healthier workplaces.

  16. Loss of adipose triglyceride lipase is associated with human cancer and induces mouse pulmonary neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Pichler, Martin; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Haybaeck, Johannes; Jahn, Stephan W; Lackner, Carolin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Popper, Helmut; Schauer, Silvia; Nusshold, Elisa; Kindt, Alida S D; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Speicher, Michael R; Haemmerle, Guenther; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Vesely, Paul W; Hoefler, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Understanding cancer metabolism is instrumental to devise innovative therapeutic approaches. Anabolic metabolism, including the induction of lipogenic enzymes, is a key feature of proliferating cells. Here, we report a novel tumor suppressive function for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate limiting enzyme in the triglyceride hydrolysis cascade.In immunohistochemical analysis, non-small cell lung cancers, pancreatic adenocarcinoma as well as leiomyosarcoma showed significantly reduced levels of ATGL protein compared to corresponding normal tissues. The ATGL gene was frequently deleted in various forms of cancers. Low levels of ATGL mRNA correlated with significantly reduced survival in patients with ovarian, breast, gastric and non-small cell lung cancers. Remarkably, pulmonary neoplasia including invasive adenocarcinoma developed spontaneously in mice lacking ATGL pointing to an important role for this lipase in controlling tumor development.Loss of ATGL, as detected in several forms of human cancer, induces spontaneous development of pulmonary neoplasia in a mouse model. Our results, therefore, suggest a novel tumor suppressor function for ATGL and contribute to the understanding of cancer metabolism. We propose to evaluate loss of ATGL protein expression for the diagnosis of malignant tumors. Finally, modulation of the lipolytic pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of human cancer.

  17. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Maria; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Raverty, Stephen A.; Shadwick, Robert E.; André, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4 hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30 hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events. PMID:28165504

  18. Does medically induced weight loss improve obstructive sleep apnoea in the obese: review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, E

    2011-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by repeated periods of breathing cessation during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnoea is both common and underdiagnosed in the obese. A recent study found that as many as 86% of older obese type 2 diabetics had obstructive sleep apnoea. Obesity is independently associated with developing obstructive sleep apnoea, and the reverse may also occur. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is therefore expected to rise in the wake of the obesity epidemic. The number of partial (hypopnoea) or complete (apnoea) airway obstructions per hour (apnoea-hypopnoea index) is used to classify obstructive sleep apnoea as mild (5-14 events per hour), moderate (15-30) or severe (>30). Severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with a two to sixfold increase in all-cause mortality; the impact of mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnoea is less clear. Until recently, the evidence supporting a beneficial effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnoea has been limited by a lack of randomized trials. In 2009, at least three randomized controlled trials evaluated whether medically induced weight loss improves obstructive sleep apnoea. The treatment effect ranged from 42% to 62% improvement, although the highest estimate was seen in a very short duration study (9 weeks). Patients who either lost 10-15 kg or more, or had severe obstructive sleep apnoea at baseline, benefited most from treatment.

  19. Effects of Orlistat-induced Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明彤; 吴木潮; 黎锋; 周淑娴; 程桦; 傅祖植

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the influence of weight loss induced by orlistat onseveral cardiovascular diseases risk factors in obeseChinese subjects. Methods Sixty obese Chinesepatients participated in a 24 week clinical trial. Par-ticipants were prescribed a slightly hypocaloric diet andexercise, then they were randomly assigned double-blind treatment with either orlistat 120 mg three times aday or placebo. Their body weight, blood pressure,fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and serum lipid pro-file were performed before and after the weight lossintervention. Results After 24 weeks, orlistat-treated group lost more of their body weight thanplacebo group (6.66 ± 0.52 kg, 8.44 ± 4.08 % and1.98±0.44 kg, 2.44±1.74%, respectively, P <0.05) Moreover, after treatment, orlistat - treatedpatients showed significant decreases in serum levels oftotal cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesteroland high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( P <0.01), but in placebo group we found no change.Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pres-sure fell significantly in orlistat-treated group.Fasting glucose and HOMA- IR in orlistat- treatedgroup was distinctly reduced if compared with placebogroup. Conclusions Weight loss resulting fromorlistat treatment and slightly hypocaloric diet hasproduced favorable effects on several cardiovascularrisk factors in obese Chinese subjects.

  20. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL Prediction in Humans Using a Modified Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Rehman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL has become a major source of health problem in industrial workers due to continuous exposure to high frequency sounds emitting from the machines. In the past, several studies have been carried-out to identify NIHL industrial workers. Unfortunately, these studies neglected some important factors that directly affect hearing ability in human. Artificial Neural Network (ANN provides very effective way to predict hearing loss in humans. However, the training process for an ANN required the designers to arbitrarily select parameters such as network topology, initial weights and biases, learning rate value, the activation function, value for gain in activation function and momentum. An improper choice of any of these parameters can result in slow convergence or even network paralysis, where the training process comes to a standstill or get stuck at local minima. Therefore, this current study focuses on proposing a new framework on using Gradient Descent Back Propagation Neural Network model with an improvement on the momentum value to identify the important factors that directly affect the hearing ability of industrial workers. Results from the prediction will be used in determining the environmental health hazards which affect the workers health.

  1. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  2. PREVALENCE OF NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS POLICE PERSONNEL COMING FOR HEALTH CHECKUP AT GOVERNMENT THENI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Thirugnanam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Occupational settings and transport is the prominent sources of noise that affect health. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is sensory neural hearing loss due to exposure to intense impulse or continuous sound. Exposure to noise can be occupational or non-occupational. The audiologic profile of NIHL is the presence of sensorineural hearing loss that is most pronounced in the high-frequency region between 3,000 Hz and 6,000 Hz of the audiogram and the greatest amount of hearing loss is typically around the 4,000-Hz region (i.e. 4,000 Hz dip.1 The main causes of hearing loss resulting in deafness in adults in India are excessive noise, age and ear infection. Although, occupational hearing loss is a well-recognized occupational condition arising from industries or occupations with exposure to high noise levels (e.g., airline crew,2 it has not been fully evaluated in occupations where the risk is not so overt such as the police force. Police officers are potentially exposed to multiple sources of noise including vehicle horns, gunfire, barking from police dog and traffic noise.3 The aim of the study is to study the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss amongst traffic police personnel who came for master health checkup. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 812 constables were examined. All individuals underwent a complete general, systemic and ENT examination to detect any obvious pathology, which may result in hearing loss. A detailed history was taken regarding the number of years of service in traffic branch, place of duty, past history of ear disease or intake of ototoxic drugs. Subjects suffering from preexisting ear disease such as CSO, OME, otosclerosis and suffering from URI has been excluded. Policemen suffering from hypertension and diabetes were also excluded. Remaining 774 was included in the study. This study was approved by the institutional ethical committee, Government Theni Medical College. Written consent was obtained from

  3. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poisson Guylaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Results Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Conclusions Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this

  4. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaid, Mahdi; Bergeron, Anne; Poisson, Guylaine

    2011-10-05

    A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this problem.

  5. Mixture distribution measurement using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Toshio [Applied Energy System Group, Division of Energy and Environmental Systems, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ward, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Oba, Shuji [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Reduction in cooling loss due to the heat transfer from burning gas to the combustion chamber wall is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen engines. The previous research has shown that the direct injection stratified charge can be a technique to reduce the cooling loss and improve thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion. For effective reductions in cooling loss by the stratified charge, it is very important to know the relation between the fuel injection conditions and mixture distribution. The current research employs the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a method to measure the hydrogen concentration distribution in the direct injection stratified charge. Measurement of instantaneous local equivalence ratio by the method clears the characteristics of mixture formation in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge. This research also tries to actively control the mixture distribution using a split fuel injection. (author)

  6. Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss through reducing reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Niwa, Katsuki; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that form in the inner ear play an important role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Recent studies have revealed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has great potential for reducing ROS. In this study, we examined the potential of hydrogen gas to protect against NIHL. We tested this hypothesis in guinea pigs with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% H2 inhalation in air for 5h a day after noise exposure, for five consecutive days. All animals underwent measurements for auditory brainstem response after the noise exposure; the results revealed that there was a better improvement in the threshold shift for the 1.0% and 1.5% H2-treated groups than the non-treated group. Furthermore, outer hair cell (OHC) loss was examined 7 days after noise exposure. A significantly higher survival rate of OHCs was observed in the 1.0% and 1.5% H2-treated group as compared to that of the non-treated group in the basal turn. Immunohistochemical analyses for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were performed to examine the amount of oxidative DNA damage. While strong immunoreactivities against 8-OHdG were observed of the non-treated group, the H2-treated group showed decreased immunoreactivity for 8-OHdG. These findings strongly suggest that inhaled hydrogen gas protects against NIHL.

  7. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...... of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities....

  8. The More the Worse: the Grade of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associates with the Severity of Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka J. Szczepek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus disturbs lives and negatively affects the quality of life of about 2% of the adult world population. Research has shown that the main cause of tinnitus is hearing loss. To analyze a possible association of the degree of hearing loss with the severity of tinnitus, we have performed a retrospective study using admission data on 531 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We have found that 83% of our tinnitus patients had a high frequency hearing loss corresponding to a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. There was a significant correlation between the mean hearing loss and the tinnitus loudness (p < 0.0001. Interestingly, patients suffering from decompensated chronic tinnitus had a greater degree of hearing loss than the patients with compensated form of tinnitus. In addition, we demonstrate that the degree of hearing loss positively correlates with the two subscales (“intrusiveness” and “auditory perceptional difficulties” of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. Our retrospective study provides indirect evidence supporting the hypothesis that the degree of noise-induced hearing loss influences the severity of tinnitus.

  9. Measurement induced chaos with entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, T; Tóth, L D; Gábris, A; Jex, I; Alber, G

    2011-01-01

    Quantum control, in a broad sense, may include measurement of quantum systems and, as a feed back operation, selection from an ensemble conditioned on the measurements. The resulting dynamics can be nonlinear and, if applied iteratively, can lead to true chaos in a quantum system. We consider the dynamics of an ensemble of two qubit systems subjected to measurement and conditional selection. We prove that the iterative dynamics leads to true chaos in the entanglement of the qubits. A class of special initial states exhibits high sensitivity to the initial conditions. In the parameter space of the special initial states we identify two types of islands: one converging to a separable state, while the other being asymptotically completely entangled. The islands form a fractal like structure. Adding noise to the initial state introduces a further stable asymptotic cycle.

  10. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition.

  11. Development of a Beam Loss Measurement System with Gigabit Ethernet Readout at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Angelogiannopoulos, E; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the BLM Dual Polarity module under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is to measure and digitise with high precision the current produced by several types of beam loss detectors. In its default configuration, it is expected to provide data to the processing electronics through two point-to-point connections with bidirectional multi-gigabit optical links. For the development phases as well as later serving as a standalone measurement system, its reconfigurable FPGA device is exploited to provide a soft-core CPU with a custom made server. This server, running on the CPU, will expose through the Gigabit Ethernet connection and the TCP/IP protocol different types of data in the network. In this paper the development of the system and of the communication protocol is explored as well as the accompanying client ap- plication that is realised with the purpose of commanding, collecting storing and viewing the different types of data.

  12. Chromosome loss caused by DNA fragmentation induced in main nuclei and micronuclei of human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mika; Wakata, Akihiro; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Miyamae, Yoichi; Kodama, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    Aneuploidy, a change in the number of chromosomes, plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that a loss of a whole chromosome is induced in human lymphocytes by colcemid, a well-known aneugen. Here, to clarify the mechanism for colcemid-induced chromosome loss, we investigated the relationship between chromosome loss and DNA fragmentation in human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid (an aneugen) compared with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; a clastogen). We analyzed the number of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals targeted for a whole chromosome 2 in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated TK6 cells and WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid and MMS, and concurrently detected DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results revealed that DNA fragmentation occurred in 60% of all binucleated TK6 cells harboring colcemid-induced chromosome loss (30% of micronuclei and 30% of main nuclei). DNA fragmentation was observed in colcemid-induced micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not in MMS-induced micronuclei containing chromosome fragments. In contrast, colcemid-induced nondisjunction had no effect on induction of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that DNA fragmentation was triggered by micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not by micronuclei containing chromosome fragments or nondisjunction. In addition, the frequency of binucleated cells harboring chromosome loss with DNA fragmentation in micronuclei or main nuclei was higher in wild-type p53 TK6 cells than in mutated-p53 WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid. Taken together, these present and previous results suggest that colcemid-induced chromosome loss is caused by DNA fragmentation, which is triggered by a micronucleus with a whole chromosome and controlled by the p53-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylactic effect of Ca2+- deficient artificial perilymph perfusion on noise-induced hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴启; 于宁; 孙建和; 赵立东

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prophylactic effect of low calcium concentration perilymph on noise-induced hearing loss. Methods Forty guinea pigs with normal hearing weighing 250-350 g were assigned to five groups (8 in each group): (1) Ca2+-deficient perilymph perfusion (CDP) for 2 h; (2) white noise (120 dB SPL) exposure (WNE) only for 1 h, (3) combination of calcium-deficient perilymph perfusion and white noise (120 dB SPL) exposure (WNE+CDP); (4) normal artificial perilymph (NAP) perfusion for 2 h; and (5) white noise exposure + normal artificial perilymph perfusion (WNE+NAP) for 2 h. Compound action potentials (CAP) evoked by click was recorded from round window every 15 min. The cochleae from 5 animals in each group were examined with scanning electron microscope. Results The CAP for group 1 experienced a threshold shift (TS) of 15-26 dB, while group 2 yielded a 46-59 dB TS and group 3 a 37-45 dB TS; no threshold shift occurred in group 4. The CAP TS in group 5 was 33-64 dB. The CAP TS of group 3 was less than that of group 2. After one hour of noise exposure, the CAP TS of group 3 were 45.92±2.90 dB and 59.30±3.95dB in group 2. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between groups 3 and 2. The CAP TS of group 3 was less than that of group 5 at the points of 1, 1.5 and 2 h after noise exposure. There was a significant difference between groups 3 and 5 (P<0.01). Stereocilia of 89 OHC3 were in disarray in five cochleae after noise exposure in group 2. The cuticular plates of 8 OHC2,3 sank and the stereocilia became fused in only one animal cochlea after noise exposure in group 3 combined with low calcium perilymph perfusion. Conclusions Low calcium concentration appears to participate in preventing noise-induced hearing loss and the rising of calcium concentrations in inner hair cells after noise exposure, which may have been due to the opening of calcium channels in inner hair cells during noise exposure. The mechanism of the prophylactic effect might be

  14. Animal models of extinction-induced depression: loss of reward and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Joseph P; Silva, Maria A de Souza; Komorowski, Mara; Schulz, Daniela; Topic, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    The absence or loss of rewards or reinforcers holds a major role in the development of depression in humans. In spite of the prevalence of extinction-induced depression (EID) in humans, few attempts have been made to establish animal models thereof. Here we present the concept of extinction-related depression and summarize the results of two sets of studies in our attempt to create animal models of EID, one set based on extinction after positive reinforcement in the Skinner-box, the other on extinction after negative reinforcement - escape from water. We found various behaviors emitted during the extinction trials that responded to treatment with antidepressant drugs: Accordingly, the important behavioral marker for EID during extinction of escape from the water was immobility. During extinction after positive reinforcement the important indices for extinction-induced depression are the withdrawal from the former site of reward, biting behavior and rearing up on the hind legs. Avoidance behavior and biting may model aspects of human depressive behavior, which may include withdrawal or avoidance as well as aggressive-like behaviors.

  15. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  16. Aluminum chloride induces neuroinflammation, loss of neuronal dendritic spine and cognition impairment in developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Haoran; Huang, Wanyue; Xu, Feibo; Zhuang, Cuicui; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yanfei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) is present in the daily life of humans, and the incidence of Al contamination increased in recent years. Long-term excessive Al intake induces neuroinflammation and cognition impairment. Neuroinflammation alter density of dendritic spine, which, in turn, influence cognition function. However, it is unknown whether increased neuroinflammation is associated with altered density of dendritic spine in Al-treated rats. In the present study, AlCl3 was orally administrated to rat at 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg for 90d. We examined the effects of AlCl3 on the cognition function, density of dendritic spine in hippocampus of CA1 and DG region and the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MHC II, CX3CL1 and BNDF in developing rat. These results showed exposure to AlCl3 lead to increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCH II, decreased mRNA levels of CX3CL1 and BDNF, decreased density of dendritic spine and impaired learning and memory in developing rat. Our results suggest AlCl3 can induce neuroinflammation that may result in loss of spine, and thereby leads to learning and memory deficits.

  17. Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis Induced by Telomere Cleavage and TRF2 Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S. Multani

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities involving telomeric associations (TAs often precede replicative senescence and abnormal chromosome configurations. We report here that telomere cleavage following exposure to proapoptotic agents is an early event in apoptosis. Exposure of human and murine cancer cells to a variety of pro-apoptotic stimuli (staurosporine, thapsigargin, anti-Fas antibody, cancer chemotherapeutic agents resulted in telomere cleavage and aggregation, finally their extrusion from the nuclei. Telomere loss was associated with arrest of cells in G2/M phase and preceded DNA fragmentation. Telomere erosion and subsequent large-scale chromatin cleavage were inhibited by overexpression of the anti -apoptotic protein, bcl-2, two peptide caspase inhibitors (BACMK and zVADfmk, indicating that both events are regulated by caspase activation. The results demonstrate that telomere cleavage is an early chromatin alteration detected in various cancer cell lines leading to drug-induced apoptosis, suggest that this event contributes to mitotic catastrophe and induction of cell death. Results also suggest that the decrease of telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2 may be the earliest event in the ara-C-induced telomere shortening, induction of endoreduplication and chromosomal fragmentation leading to cell death.

  18. Shock-induced volatile loss from a carbonaceous chondrite Implications for planetary accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Frisch, Benjamin; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid recovery impact-induced volatile loss experiments on the Murchison C2M meteorite indicate that for an impact of a given velocity, H2O and total volatiles are driven from the sample in the same proportion as present initially. The primitive surface volatile budget of a planet growing by accretion would have the same bulk elemental composition as the volatiles in the incident planetesimals. Incipient devolatilization of Murchison occurs at an initial shock pressure of about 11 GPa and complete devolatilization occurs at a pressure of about 30 GPa. For the earth, incipient and complete devolatilization of accreting planetesimals would occur when the planet reached approximately 12 percent and 27 percent, respectively, of its present-day radius. Impact-induced devolatilization would profoundly affect the volatile distribution within the accreting planet. Prior to metallic core formation and internal differentiation the growing planet would have a very small core with the same volatile content as the incident material, a volatile depleted mantle, and an extremely volatile rich surface. In the case of the earth, 99.4 wt pct of the total incident volatile material would end up on or near the planetary surface.

  19. Shock-induced volatile loss from a carbonaceous chondrite: Implications for planetary accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, J. A.; Frisch, B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid recovery impact-induced volatile loss experiments on the Murchison C2M meteorite indicate that for an impact of a given velocity, H2O and total volatiles are driven from the sample in the same proportion as present initially. The primitive surface volatile budget of a planet growing by accretion would have the same bulk elemental composition as the volatiles in the incident planetesimals. Incipient devolatilization of Murchison occurs at an initial shock pressure of about 11 GPa and complete devolatilization occurs at a pressure of about 30 GPa. For the Earth, incipient and complete devolatilization of accreting planetesimals would occur when the planet reached approximately 12% and 27%, respectively, of its present-day radius. Impact-induced devolatilization would profoundly affect the volatile distribution within the accreting planet. Prior to metallic core formation and internal differentiation the growing planet would have a very small core with the same volatile content as the incident material, a volatile depleted mantle, and an extremely volatile rich surface. In the case of the Earth, 99.4 wt% of the total incident volatile material would end up on or near the planetary surface.

  20. Measuring mucosal damage induced by cytotoxic therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Land, B. van 't; Donnelly, J.P.; Rabet, L. M'; Pauw, B.E. de

    2004-01-01

    We scored oral mucositis and gut toxicity and measured sugar permeability testing among 56 recipients of a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) given myeloablative conditioning with idarubicin, cyclophosphamide and TBI, and a group of 18 patients given cytotoxic chemotherapy for newly diagnose